TRAINING GUIDE

Server+ Certification
Elton Jernigan, Server+ Certified Technician

SERVER+ CERTIFICATION TRAINING GUIDE
Copyright© 2002 by New Riders Publishing All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. International Standard Book Number: 0-7357-1087-2 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 00-110879 Printed in the United States of America 05 04 03 02 01 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Interpretation of the printing code: The rightmost double-digit number is the year of the book’s printing; the rightmost single-digit number is the number of the book’s printing. For example, the printing code 01-1 shows that the first printing of the book occurred in 2001. Composed in Garamond and MCPdigital by New Riders Publishing

PUBLISHER David Dwyer ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER Al Valvano EXECUTIVE EDITOR Stephanie Wall MANAGING EDITOR Gina Kanouse ACQUISITIONS EDITOR Jeff Riley DEVELOPMENT EDITOR Chris Zahn PRODUCT MARKETING MANAGER Stephanie Layton PUBLICITY MANAGER Susan Nixon SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT SPECIALIST Jay Payne TECHNICAL REVIEWERS Jim Cooper Ray Marky SENIOR EDITOR Kristy Knoop COPY EDITOR Keith Cline INDEXER Larry Sweazy MANUFACTURING COORDINATOR Jim Conway BOOK DESIGNER Louisa Klucznik COVER DESIGNER Aren Howell COMPOSITION Scan Communications, Inc.

Trademarks
All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. New Riders Publishing cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Server+ is a proprietary trademark of the Computing Technology Industry Association. Server+/CompTIA logo used by permission and approval of the Computing Technology Industry Association. CompTIA’s Advisory Committee manages the content quality and distribution of the Server+ Certification program.

Warning and Disclaimer
This book is designed to provide information about the Server+ Certification exam. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an as-is basis. The authors and New Riders Publishing shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it.

CONTENTS AT
Part I

A

GLANCE

Introduction ............................................................................................................1

Exam Preparation

1 0.0—Planning and Specifications ..........................................................................13 2 1.0—Installation..................................................................................................143 3 2.0—Cofiguration ..............................................................................................195 4 3.0—Upgrading ..................................................................................................239 5 4.0—Proactive Maintenance................................................................................283 6 5.0—Environment ..............................................................................................321 7 6.0—Troubleshooting and Problem Determination ............................................357 8 7.0—Disaster Recovery ......................................................................................449

Part II

Final Review

Fast Facts ............................................................................................................497 Study and Exam Prep Tips ..................................................................................519 Practice Exam ......................................................................................................525

Part III

Appendixes

A Glossary ..............................................................................................................549 B Overview of the Certification Process ..................................................................561 C What’s on the CD-ROM ....................................................................................563 D Using the ExamGear, Training Guide Edition Software ......................................565 Index ..................................................................................................................587

Contents
PART I: Exam Preparation 1 0.0—Planning and Specifications 13

Introduction ..........................................................................................................13 Network Types ....................................................................................................23 Peer-to-Peer Networks ....................................................................................23 Server-Centric Networks ..................................................................................24 Network Server Categories ..................................................................................24 Workgroup Server ............................................................................................25 Departmental Server ........................................................................................25 Enterprise Server ..............................................................................................26 Server Appliances ............................................................................................26 Network Server Roles ..........................................................................................26 Gateway Server ................................................................................................28 Router ............................................................................................................28 Bridge ..............................................................................................................29 Firewall ............................................................................................................30 Network Address Translation Server ................................................................30 Proxy Server ....................................................................................................31 Database Server ..............................................................................................32 Client/Server ..................................................................................................32 Application Server ..........................................................................................32 Mail Server ......................................................................................................33 FTP Server ......................................................................................................34 SNA Server ......................................................................................................34 Remote Access Server ......................................................................................35 File and Print Server ........................................................................................36 Terminal Server ..............................................................................................36 Fax Server ........................................................................................................37 Domain Name System Server ..........................................................................37 Windows Internet Naming Service Server ......................................................38 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server ................................................38 Web Server ......................................................................................................39

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Video Server ....................................................................................................40 CD-ROM Library Server ................................................................................40 Directory Services Server ................................................................................40 Intel Processors ....................................................................................................41 Intel Processors ................................................................................................42 Processor Cache ..............................................................................................44 Symmetric Multiprocessing ............................................................................46 Server Buses ..........................................................................................................46 Memory Bus ....................................................................................................47 System Bus ......................................................................................................47 Memory ..............................................................................................................52 Amount of Memory ........................................................................................53 Memory Interleaving ......................................................................................53 Memory Types ................................................................................................53 Disk Subsystems ..................................................................................................58 Integrated Drive Electronics ............................................................................58 Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics ............................................................59 Ultra ATA/Ultra DMA ....................................................................................59 Serial ATA ......................................................................................................60 Small Computer System Interface ....................................................................61 Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T.) ................64 Fibre Channel ..................................................................................................65 Serial Storage Architecture ..............................................................................65 Storage Area Network ......................................................................................66 Network-Attached Storage ..............................................................................66 Network Systems ..................................................................................................68 Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) ....................................................................................68 Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) ................................................................................73 Wireless Networks (IEEE 802.11) ..................................................................74 Network Interface Cards ..................................................................................74 Network Devices ............................................................................................76 Network Protocols ..........................................................................................77 Network Management ....................................................................................79 Backup Hardware ................................................................................................82 Tape Drives ....................................................................................................82 Tape Arrays ......................................................................................................88 Tape Autochangers ..........................................................................................88 Tape Libraries ..................................................................................................88 Disk Drives ......................................................................................................88

CONTENTS

vii

Other Backup Devices ....................................................................................89 Redundant Components ......................................................................................89 Redundant Power Supplies ..............................................................................90 Redundant Fans ..............................................................................................90 Hot Swap ........................................................................................................91 Hot Plug ..........................................................................................................91 Fail-Over ........................................................................................................91 Hot Spare ........................................................................................................91 NIC Fail-Over ................................................................................................92 Server Clustering ..................................................................................................92 Scalability ............................................................................................................93 High Availability ..................................................................................................94 Backup Strategies ..................................................................................................94 Fault Tolerance ....................................................................................................95 Uninterruptible Power Supply ........................................................................96 Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks ............................................................96 Disaster Recovery ..............................................................................................103 Miscellaneous Network Server Hardware ..............................................................................................104 Video Controller ..........................................................................................104 Video Monitor ..............................................................................................104 Universal Serial Bus ......................................................................................105 FireWire (IEEE 1394) ..................................................................................105 Keyboard ......................................................................................................105 Mouse ............................................................................................................106 CD-ROM Drive ............................................................................................106 DVD-ROM Drive ........................................................................................106 Floppy Disk Drive ........................................................................................106 Modem ..........................................................................................................106 Racking Servers ..................................................................................................107 EIA Rack Unit (1.75 Inches) ........................................................................107 Keyboard/Video/Monitor Switch ..................................................................108 Cable Management ......................................................................................108 Rack Layout ..................................................................................................108 Security ..........................................................................................................108 Cooling ........................................................................................................109 Rack-Mounted Keyboard/Trackball ..............................................................109 Rack-Mounted Monitor/LCD Panel ..............................................................109 Rack-Mounted UPS ......................................................................................109

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Network Operating Systems ..............................................................................110 Novell NetWare 4 ..........................................................................................111 Novell NetWare 5 ..........................................................................................111 Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 ..................................................................111 Microsoft Windows 2000 Server ..................................................................112 UNIX ............................................................................................................112 Linux ............................................................................................................113 IBM OS/2 Warp Server ................................................................................113 Network Server Management ............................................................................114 Vendor-Specific Installation and Configuration Software ..............................115 Vendor-Specific Management Software ..........................................................115 Vendor-Specific Management Hardware ........................................................116 Antivirus Software ........................................................................................117 Documentation ............................................................................................117 Creating an Installation Plan ..............................................................................118 Exercises ........................................................................................................133 Review Questions ..........................................................................................133 Exam Questions ............................................................................................134 Answers to Review Questions ........................................................................138 Answers to Exam Questions ..........................................................................140

2 1.0—Installation

143

Introduction ......................................................................................................147 Planning for Installation ....................................................................................147 The Installation Plan ....................................................................................147 Verifying the Installation Plan ......................................................................148 Verifying Hardware Compatibility with the Operating System ......................148 Verifying the Installation Site ........................................................................149 Verifying Hardware Components for the Network Server ..............................153 Installing Hardware ............................................................................................161 Electrostatic Discharge ..................................................................................161 Installing Processors ......................................................................................162 Buses ............................................................................................................163 Memory Installation ......................................................................................164 Disk Subsystem Installation ..........................................................................166 Network Subsystem Installation ....................................................................175 Backup System Hardware Installation ............................................................178 Uninterruptible Power-Supply Installation ....................................................178 Miscellaneous Server Components Installation ..............................................179 Redundant Component Installation ..............................................................181

CONTENTS

ix

Server-Rack Installation ................................................................................182 Power-On Test ..............................................................................................184 Document, Document, Document ................................................................185 Exercises ........................................................................................................188 Review Questions ..........................................................................................188 Exam Questions ............................................................................................189 Answers to Review Questions ........................................................................190 Answers to Exam Questions ..........................................................................191

3 2.0—Configuration

195

Introduction ......................................................................................................198 Network Server Configuration ............................................................................198 Checking the System BIOS ..........................................................................199 Checking the SCSI Controller BIOS ............................................................199 Checking the RAID Controller BIOS ..........................................................200 Configuring Hardware-Based RAID ..................................................................200 Hardware-Based RAID Configuration ..........................................................200 RAID 0 Configuration ..................................................................................203 RAID 1 Configuration (Mirroring) ..............................................................203 RAID 1 Configuration (Duplexing) ..............................................................204 RAID 5 Configuration ................................................................................204 RAID 0/1 Configuration ..............................................................................205 Installing the Network Operating System ..........................................................207 File Systems ..................................................................................................207 Installing the Network Operating System ......................................................213 Configuring the Network ..............................................................................215 Verifying Network Connectivity ....................................................................216 Configuring External Peripherals ........................................................................216 Configuring an External Disk Subsystem ......................................................217 Configuring an External CD-ROM System ..................................................218 Configuring an Uninterruptible Power Supply ..............................................................................................218 Installing Network Operating System Updates ..................................................220 Configuring Manufacturer-Specific Drivers ........................................................220 Installing Service Tools ......................................................................................221 Installing and Configuring SNMP ................................................................222 Installing Backup Software ............................................................................223 Installing Antivirus Software ..........................................................................223 Installing System Monitor Agents ..................................................................224

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Configuring Event Log(s) ..............................................................................225 Configuring Swap File(s) ..............................................................................225 Performing a Server Baseline ..............................................................................228 Documenting the Network Server Configuration ..............................................230 Exercises ........................................................................................................232 Review Questions ..........................................................................................232 Exam Questions ............................................................................................233 Answers to Review Questions ........................................................................235 Answers to Exam Questions ..........................................................................236

4 3.0—Upgrading

239

Introduction ......................................................................................................243 The Upgrade Checklist ......................................................................................243 Locating the Latest Software ..........................................................................244 Reviewing Instructions and FAQs ................................................................244 Testing the Upgrade ......................................................................................245 Scheduling Downtime ..................................................................................245 Performing a Full System Backup ..................................................................245 Implementing Electrostatic Discharge Best Practices ....................................246 Confirming the Upgrade ..............................................................................246 Reviewing the Upgrade and Establishing a New Baseline ..............................247 Documenting the Upgrade ............................................................................247 Performing a Full Backup ..................................................................................247 Adding Processors ..............................................................................................248 Replacing a Single Processor with a Faster Processor ......................................248 Installing Additional Processors ....................................................................249 Upgrading the Operating System for Multiple Processors ..............................253 Adding Hard Drives ..........................................................................................255 Upgrading ATA Hard Disk Drives ................................................................256 Upgrading IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 Disk Drives to SCSI Disk Drives ..........257 Upgrading SCSI Hard Disk Drives ................................................................258 Adding Drives to a RAID Array ....................................................................259 Adding Memory ................................................................................................260 Check Existing Memory ................................................................................260 Checking Memory Upgrade Feasibility ..........................................................261 Checking Memory Upgrade Compatibility ..................................................262 Installing Additional Memory ........................................................................262 Upgrading the BIOS/Firmware ..........................................................................263

CONTENTS

xi

Upgrading Adapters ............................................................................................265 Upgrading Adapter Memory ..........................................................................265 Upgrading Adapter BIOS or Firmware ..........................................................266 Replacing an Adapter ....................................................................................266 Upgrading Peripheral Devices ............................................................................268 Upgrading System Monitoring Agents ................................................................269 Upgrading Service Tools ....................................................................................270 Upgrading the Uninterruptible Power Supply ....................................................271 Exercises ........................................................................................................275 Review Questions ..........................................................................................276 Exam Questions ............................................................................................276 Answers to Review Questions ........................................................................279 Answers to Exam Questions ..........................................................................280

5 4.0—Proactive Maintenance

283

Introduction ......................................................................................................286 Understanding Backups ......................................................................................286 Defining “Regular” ........................................................................................287 Different Types of Backups ............................................................................288 Multiple Tape Sets ........................................................................................292 Backup Common Sense ................................................................................293 Operating System Notes ................................................................................294 Working with Baselines ......................................................................................297 Working with SNMP ........................................................................................300 SNMP Agents and Management ..................................................................301 Management Information Base ......................................................................303 SNMP Security Parameters ............................................................................305 SNMP Agent ................................................................................................305 What SNMP Is Really Doing ........................................................................306 The Physical Environment ................................................................................307 Verifying Hardware ............................................................................................308 Checking Values Outside the Operating System ............................................311 Establishing Remote Notification ......................................................................313 Exercises ........................................................................................................316 Review Questions ..........................................................................................316 Exam Questions ............................................................................................317 Answers to Review Questions ........................................................................318 Answers to Exam Questions ..........................................................................319

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SERVER+ CERTIFICATION TRAINING GUIDE

6 5.0—Environment

321

Introduction ......................................................................................................324 Open-Office Environment ............................................................................324 Server Room ..................................................................................................324 Computer Data Center ..................................................................................325 Environmental Issues ..........................................................................................325 Temperature ..................................................................................................328 Humidity ......................................................................................................331 Air Quality ....................................................................................................332 Power-Line Issues ..........................................................................................332 Fire Suppression ............................................................................................335 Flooding ........................................................................................................336 Electrostatic Discharge ..................................................................................337 Monitoring the Server State ..........................................................................338 Physical Security Issues ......................................................................................339 Physically Securing the Data Center/Computer Room ..................................340 Establish Anti-Theft Devices for Hardware ..................................................344 Limiting Access to Removable Media ............................................................346 Exercises ........................................................................................................350 Review Questions ..........................................................................................351 Exam Questions ............................................................................................351 Answers to Review Questions ........................................................................354 Answers to Exam Questions ..........................................................................355

7 6.0—Troubleshooting and Problem Determination

357

Introduction ......................................................................................................361 Performing Problem Determination ..................................................................361 Using Questioning Techniques ......................................................................362 Identifying Contacts ......................................................................................362 Using Your Senses ..........................................................................................363 Using Diagnostic Hardware and Software Tools and Utilities ............................364 Diagnostic Tools by Operating System ..........................................................365 System Shutdown ..........................................................................................409 Selecting the Appropriate Tool and Using It Effectively ................................414 Replacing Defective Hardware Components ................................................415 Identifying and Replacing Defective Field Replaceable Units ........................415 Interpreting Error logs, Operating System Errors, Health Logs, and Critical Events ......................................................................................416 Using Documentation ..................................................................................417

..................... and High Availability ..........................480 Exercises ........................488 Exam Questions ....................................................................................................................440 Review Questions ........................................................................431 Troubleshooting a SCSI Subsystem .......................445 8 7..................................420 Remote Troubleshooting for a Wake-On-LAN ............................................................................................................. or Virus Related ....................................................................................................................................................433 Troubleshooting an Ultra ATA Subsystem ................................. Software...................................421 Remote Troubleshooting for a Remote Alert ..................................................................................................................................................................................................438 Exercises ...................................................................................417 Gathering Resources .............493 .............................................................................................................................................453 Understanding Redundancy.........................................................................................................................452 Risk Analysis ......... Scalability.............................................434 Troubleshooting Boot Failure ............................. Clustering.....................................452 Creating a Disaster-Recovery Plan ...............470 Backing Up Your Data ......................................... and Hot Spares .............429 Network Subsystem Bottlenecks ..................430 Identifying and Correcting Misconfigurations and/or Upgrades ..............................................................................................................434 General Network Troubleshooting .............................................................................................................................444 Answers to Exam Questions ........488 Answers to Review Questions ...............434 Troubleshooting TCP/IP Network Problems .........................................................................................................................................................................431 Troubleshooting Disk Drives .........................421 Identifying Bottlenecks .............CONTENTS xiii Locating and Using Support Resources ........................0—Disaster Recovery 449 Introduction .................................................................................486 Review Questions ........................................468 Creating a Disaster-Recovery Plan Based on Fault Tolerance/Recovery ..................................477 Restoring Your Server ................422 Processor Bottlenecks ..........................................................................................428 Disk Subsystem Bottlenecks ......................................471 Testing the Plan ...........440 Exam Questions ...........................................................438 Determining Whether a Problem Is Hardware................427 Memory Bottlenecks ......432 Troubleshooting an ATA Subsystem .................455 Understanding Hot Swapping............................................................................................................................................................ Warm Swapping..................492 Answers to Exam Questions ....................................441 Answers to Review Questions ................................

....................................................521 Exam Prep Tips .....................................498 1...........514 5........................513 4............................515 6...517 Study and Exam Preparation Tips 519 Learning as a Process .............................................................0—Environment .........................................................0—Planning and Specifications .................561 ....................0—Upgrading ..............................................526 Answers and Explanations ........................................................................................................................................520 Study Strategies .........................................0—Proactive Maintenance .......................xiv SERVER+ CERTIFICATION TRAINING GUIDE PART II: Final Review Fast Facts 497 0..........................................522 Practice Exam 525 Exam Questions ...................................................................536 PART III: Appendixes A Glossary B Overview of the Certification Process 549 561 Description of the Path to Certification .........509 2..............................................................................................................0—Installation .......................................511 3.................................................................521 Putting It All Together ...............................................................................................................................................................0—Disaster Recovery ...............................................................................................0—Troubleshooting and Problem Determination ......519 Study Tips ...................................515 7............................................................0—Configuration ...............................................................................................520 Pre-Testing Yourself ...........................................................................................................................561 About the Server+ Certification Program ....................................................

................................................................574 Mark Question and Time Remaining ................................565 Question Quality ..........................566 How ExamGear.................565 Interface Design ............................................................576 Item Review ... Training Guide Edition .566 Database ............................................................................................ Training Guide Edition Works ..............581 Frequently Asked Questions ................................................................................... Training Guide Edition .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................574 Question Types and How to Answer Them ..............................................................567 Requirements ................................................................................. Training Guide Edition from Your Computer ..................................567 Installing ExamGear...567 Installing and Registering ExamGear............................................................................................563 Exclusive Electronic Version of Text ......................................................................................581 ....................................................................566 Automatic Progress Tracking ...........................................................570 Starting Practice Exams and Adaptive Exams ...............................................566 Interface .................................................................................................569 Menu Options ...................................................................................................572 What Is an Adaptive Exam? .........................................................................563 Copyright Information and Disclaimer ............573 Studying for Adaptive Exams .573 Why Do Vendors Use Adaptive Exams? ......573 ExamGear’s Adaptive Exam .................................................................................568 Removing ExamGear.........................580 Checking the Web Site ............................................569 General Description of How the Software Works .......................................................................CONTENTS xv C What's on the CD-ROM 563 ExamGear ................................................................568 Using ExamGear.................................... Training Guide Edition Software 565 Exam Simulation .........577 Examination Score Report Screen .. Training Guide Edition ............. Training Guide Edition ................................................565 Effective Learning Environment ...........................................................................................................565 Study Tools ..........................................................................567 Registering ExamGear........................................................................570 Starting a Study-Mode Session ........................................563 D Using the ExamGear.........

.......................................582 Product Updates ..........................................587 .................................................................................................xvi SERVER+ CERTIFICATION TRAINING GUIDE Obtaining Updates ..................................................................585 Index ..................................................583 License ...........................................................................................................583 Limited Warranty and Disclaimer ................583 Updates ...................................................................................................................581 The Catalog Web Site for Updates ...................................................................................................................... Government Restricted Rights ............583 License Term and Charges ............................................582 Product Suggestions and Comments .........................................................................................................583 Software and Documentation ......................................................................................................S..................................582 Customer Service ...........................................................................................................................................................................................584 Limitation of Liability ..............582 License Agreement .....................................................................................................................................581 Contacting New Riders Publishing .................................................................................................................................................584 Miscellaneous .......................................................................................583 Title .........................................585 U.582 Technical Support ............................

Elton believes that everyone should have a hobby and his is apparently taking certification exams. the University of Richmond.1 Certified Novell Engineer (CNE) NetWare 4 Certified Novell Engineer (CNE) IntraNetWare Certified Novell Engineer (CNE) NetWare 5 Master Certified Novell Engineer (MCNE) CompTIA: A+ Certified Technician Network+ Certified Technician i-Net+ Certified Technician Server+ Certified Technician Compaq: Accredited Systems Engineer (ASE) NetWare Accredited Systems Engineer (ASE) Microsoft Windows NT Certified Rack Installer Florida State University: Enterprise Network Professional (Windows NT) Enterprise Network Professional (Novell NetWare) Enterprise Network Professional (Windows 2000) CNX Consortium: Certified Network Expert (LAN Cabling) Certified Network Expert (Ethernet) Cisco: IBM: Certified Cisco Network Associate (CCNA) Certified AIX User (CAU) Certified AIX Administrator (CASA) . Elton has been in the IT field for more than 27 years. which consists of more than 500 desktop computers and 12 network servers. and as such. Elton holds the following certifications: Microsoft: Microsoft Certified Trainer (MCT) Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) Microsoft Certified Data Base Administrator (MCDBA) Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer + Internet (MCSE+I) Novell: Certified Novell Engineer (CNE) NetWare 2 Certified Novell Engineer (CNE) NetWare 3. helped to define the concepts and skills to be covered on the Server+ exam.ABOUT THE AUTHORS xvii About the Authors Elton Jernigan is the Director of Technology for the College of Business at The Florida State University in Tallahassee. Villanova University. He has spent considerable time designing training facilities over the past 10 years. Elton served as a Subject Matter Expert (SME) for the initial focus group for CompTIA's Server+ exam in June 2000. Elton also has taught telecommunications courses as an adjunct instructor for the Information and Management Sciences Department of the College of Business. Elton is a Microsoft Certified Trainer and is a senior trainer with the Beacon Institute for Learning where he teaches Microsoft Windows NT and Microsoft Windows 2000 certification courses. and Florida Gulf Coast University. Elton and his staff support the network in the College of Business. Elton has taught at the Beacon Institute for Learning partner sites at The Florida State University. They also support the audio/visual presentation systems in the 20 classrooms of the College of Business.

Dave lives in Cincinnati. Their feedback was critical to ensuring that Server+ Certification Training Guide fits our reader’s need for the highest quality technical information. sons (Marty and Nicholas). He can be reached at edulaney@TechnicalContent. and CTT has a bachelor of science and a master of science degree in Education from Florida State University. MCSE. MCT. Dave also has worked on a number of New Riders books as an author.com. ABOUT THE TECHNICAL REVIEWERS These reviewers contributed their considerable handson expertise to the entire development process for Server+ Certification Training Guide. MCT. Dave Bixler. the Study Guides Editor for Certification Magazine. VPNs. MCT. has worked in the IT field for more than 12 years and holds numerous certifications. and so on. Ohio. Windows 2000. . LPI. MCSE. of course. Dave’s industry certifications also include Novell’s MCNE and a number of others. technical editor. Dave has lately been focusing on Internet technologies. He is currently working as a Senior Systems Engineer deploying an Active Directory and Exchange 2000 Application Service Provider architecture. specifically computer security. He has been working in the computer industry since the mid-1980s. and two Keeshonds (Zeus and Arcus).Foundations Certified Technical Trainer (CTT) Professsional Memberships: Network Professional Association (NPA) Institute for Network Professionals (INP) NetWare Users International (NUI) Building Industry Consulting Service. working on anything from paper tape readers to Windows 2000 servers. Emmett Dulaney. He is currently the Director of Technology at the Center for Professional Development at Florida State University. Jim Cooper. He is the author of more than 30 books on various technologies and certifications. is the Technical Services Manager and Information Security Officer for a Fortune 500 systems integrator. MCSE. Florida State University Certified Webmaster. Ray Marky.xviii SERVER+ CERTIFICATION TRAINING GUIDE ICCP: Prosoft Training: Chauncy Group: Certified Computing Professional (CCP) Certified Internet Webmaster (CIW) . CCNA. and book reviewer. with his very patient wife (Sarah). As the book was being written. and. and a monthly contributor to UNIX Review. Ray has also co-authored a book on the Windows 2000 Server exam. these dedicated professionals reviewed all the material for technical content. CCNA. MCP. MCSE+I. is the Director of Training for Mercury Technical Solutions. MCP+I.com. organization. and flow. Master Oracle DBA. He has taught at the high school and college level. International (BICSI) IT Professional Member of the Computer Technology Industry Association (CompTIA) Elton can be reached at EltonJernigan@hotmail.

a square peg will indeed fit into a round hole.0—Proactive Maintenance. Thanks to my sons (Daniel and Robby) for giving me reason not to throw up my hands and quit when the going got rough. Thanks to my wife (Cheryl) for giving me time to work on this project.0—Disaster Recovery.DEDICATION xix Dedication Elton Jernigan I dedicate this book to my family.0—Environment. New Riders development editor. Not many people would be interested in this book if there were no Server+ exam. Thanks to Jay Payne. and my sons (Daniel and Robby). my wife (Cheryl). it’s out to the swingset! Acknowledgments Elton Jernigan I want to express my deepest appreciation to the following for their help in getting the Server+ Certification Training Guide completed. Thanks to Jeff Riley.” and the exam questions on the CD-ROM. After this is done guys. for putting up with my endless questions about the publishing process. the Server+ guru at CompTIA for his hard work getting the Server+ exam from a concept to a reality. under the correct conditions. “5. New Riders media developer for obtaining permissions for all the whitepapers and software utilities on the CD-ROM. .” and Chapter 8. “7. New Riders acquisitions editor. my mother (Elenora). Dave Bixler I want to dedicate this book to my patient wife (Sarah) and my sons (Marty and Nick). Thanks to Emmett Dulaney for his work on Chapter 5. (Not listed in order of importance!) Thanks to Jim Vanne. for his constant encouragement and to whom I enjoyed proving that.” Thanks to Chris Zahn. “4. Thanks to Dave Bixler for his work on Chapter 6.

for their suggestions that made this a much better book. and the technical gurus who did the technical editing for this project! My sisters (Susan. Marty. and Amy). Ray Marky and Jim Cooper. MSNBC. Laura. whose names have now graced five of my books. Thanks to Charles Brooks. The Discovery Channel. Nick at Nite. and CNN (not necessarily in that order). . You’re the best sisters I ever had. TV Land (especially Fandemonium Marathon Weekends). The History Channel. Finally. for providing an outline to follow for the Server+ Certification Training Guide. the author of New Riders A+ Certification Training Guide. The Learning Channel. Sarah. Chris Zahn. the Cartoon Network.xx SERVER+ CERTIFICATION TRAINING GUIDE Thanks to the following for providing me with entertainment while working late at night on this book. Thanks to the technical editors of this book. Dave Bixler No project of this type gets done without the help and support of a lot of people. and Nicholas thanks for putting up with yet another book! The summer is all yours. A big thanks to Jeff Riley. another huge thanks to my wife and sons. CNBC.

I will carefully review your comments and share them with the author and editors who worked on the book. you are the most important critic and commentator. IN 46290 USA . what we could do better. I might not be able to reply to every message.wall@newriders. and any other words of wisdom you’re willing to pass our way. When you write. Please note that I cannot help you with technical problems related to the topic of this book. You can fax.TELL US WHAT YOU THINK xxi Tell Us What You Think As the reader of this book. I welcome your comments. We value your opinion and want to know what we’re doing right. what areas you’d like to see us publish in. email. or write me directly to let me know what you did or didn’t like about this book—as well as what we can do to make our books stronger.com Stephanie Wall Executive Editor New Riders Publishing 201 West 103rd Street Indianapolis. please be sure to include this book’s title and author as well as your name and phone or fax number. As an Executive Editor at New Riders Publishing. and that due to the high volume of mail I receive. Fax: Email: Mail: 317-581-4663 stephanie.

processors. Here. OBJECTIVES This chapter covers the following CompTIA-specified objectives for the Installation section of the Server+: 1. drives.0—Installation . List of Objectives: Each chapter begins with a list of the objectives as stated by CompTIA.1 Conduct pre-installation planning activities. Examples of concepts and modules include the following: • Plan the installation • Verify the installation plan • Verify hardware compatibility with operating system Objective Explanations: Immediately following each objective is an explanation of it. the objective explanations are designed to clarify any vagueness by relying on the authors’ test-taking experience.How to Use This Book New Riders has made an effort in its Training Guide series to make the information as accessible as possible for the purposes of learning the certification material.) Examples of modules include the following: • Mount the rack installation • Cut and crimp network cabling • Install UPS • Verify SCSI ID configuration and termination C H A P T E R 2 1. Because the objectives list can sometimes be vague. Uninterruptible Power Supply and network availability • Verify that all of the correct components and cables for the network server have been delivered . memory.2 Install hardware using ESD best practices (boards. CHAPTER OPENER Each chapter begins with a set of features designed to allow you to maximize study time for that material. space. you have an opportunity to view the many instructional features that have been incorporated into the books to achieve that goal. providing context that defines it more meaningfully in relation to the exam. 1. internal cable. etc. Every server hardware specialist should prepare for the installation of a network server by checking the installation plan and verifying that all hardware components have been delivered. • Verify power sources.

. Review the objectives again. Use the ExamGear test engine on the CDROM that accompanies this book for additional exam questions concerning this material. You will also be able to use this for easy reference when looking for a particular topic. Make certain that you understand the information in the Test Tip. To give you a visual image of how the topics in a chapter fit together. Study Strategies: Each topic presents its own learning challenge. Study the information in this chapter. particularly as it is addressed on the exam.HOW TO USE THIS BOOK xxiii OUTLINE Introduction 147 Match Processor Cache Size Match Processor Stepping (Version) Buses Peer Buses Bridged Buses Memory Installation Match Memory Type Match Memory Speed Disk Subsystem Installation IDE/ATA Disks EIDE/ATA-2 Disks Ultra ATA/Ultra DMA SCSI Disks SCSI Disk Types SCSI-1 SCSI-2 SCSI-3 Installing SCSI Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop Network Subsystem Installation Ethernet Token Ring Network Interface Cards Network Cabling NIC to Hub Hub to Hub Backup System Hardware Installation Uninterruptible Power-Supply Installation Miscellaneous Server Components Installation Monitor Keyboard Mouse Video Adapter Server Management Adapter CD-ROM/DVD-ROM Drive Redundant Component Installation Power Supply Cooling Fan Redundant NIC 162 163 163 163 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 168 168 170 170 171 173 173 175 175 175 176 176 176 177 177 178 178 179 179 179 179 181 181 181 181 181 182 182 Planning for Installation The Installation Plan Verifying the Installation Plan Verifying Hardware Compatibility with the Operating System Verifying the Installation Site Verifying the Power Source Verifying Adequate Cooling Verifying the Uninterruptible PowerSupply Size Verifying the Network Connection Verifying Hardware Components for the Network Server Server Chassis Server Rack Processor(s) Memory Disk Drives Monitor Keyboard Mouse Uninterruptible Power Supply Backup System SCSI Cables SCSI Adapter(s) RAID Controller(s) Fibre Channel . review the information in the chapter related to this topic. . New Riders has included strategies for how to best approach studying in order to retain the material in the chapter.Arbitrated Loop Host Bus Adapter Network Interface Card(s) Miscellaneous Hardware 147 147 148 148 149 149 152 153 153 153 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 157 157 158 158 159 159 159 159 160 Chapter Outline: Learning always gets a boost when you can see both the forest and the trees. do the following: . . If you don’t fully understand the Test Tip. . . . Installing Hardware Electrostatic Discharge ESD Best Practices Installing Processors Match Processor Speed 161 161 162 162 162 S T U DY S T R AT E G I E S To prepare for the Installation objectives of the Server+ exam. Answer the Review and Exam Questions at the end of the chapter and check your results. Read the objectives at the beginning of this chapter. Review the Test Tips available in various places in this chapter. To support you through this. you will find a chapter outline at the beginning of each chapter.

Objective Coverage Text: In the text before an exam objective is specifically addressed. historical background on terms and technologies. EXAM TIP Know the ESD Best Practices You are likely to be asked about electrostatic discharge best practices on the exam. The many different elements are designed to help you identify information by its purpose and importance to the exam and also to provide you with varied ways to learn the material. You will be able to determine how much attention to devote to certain elements. á Verify that the power outlet for the network server is available and active.xxiv HOW TO USE THIS BOOK INSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES WITHIN THE CHAPTER These books include a large amount and different kinds of information. Verifying the Installation Plan The first step that the server hardware specialist should attempt is to verify that everything specified in the installation plan is ready and available before beginning the installation. Such tips may address what material is covered (or not covered) on the exam. how it is covered. or particular quirks of that exam. By becoming familiar with the different presentations of information. (Test with a volt/ohm meter. such as tips on the technology or administrative practices. Differential Danger Attaching a device using the differential (HVD) signaling method can seriously damage devices designed to use the single-ended or low-voltage differential signaling systems. there is always potential for mistakes or even catastrophes that can occur through improper application of the technology. you will notice the objective listed to help call your attention to that particular material. Note: Notes appear in the margins and contain various kinds of useful information. . Know them. depending on what your goals are. NOTE Wide-Tower to Rack-Mount Conversion Some wide-tower server chassises can be easily converted to a rack-mount configuration with the purchase of a special rack-mount adapter kit from the server manufacturer. Exam Tip: Exam Tips appear in the margins to provide specific examrelated advice. á Verify that all the hardware for the network server has arrived and that the hardware is as specified in the installation plan.) á Verify that the network connection is available and active. you will know what information will be important to you as a test-taker and which information will be important to you as a practitioner. Warnings appear in the margins to alert you to such potential problems. or side commentary on industry issues. WA R N I N G Warning: In using sophisticated information technology. mnemonic devices. Verification activities include the following: á Verify that the location where the server is to be installed is ready for the installation.

Connect IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 ribbon cable to IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 disk controller. but provides no fault tolerance. you should not use it in a production network server. Connect IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 ribbon cable to IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 disk drive. Because there is no fault tolerance in RAID 0. Because the disk drives were mirrored. but which is useful as reference material or in everyday practice. and I kept my job.) 4. During the useful life (about 4 years) of the first three file servers that I ever had. STEP BY STEP 2. R E V I E W B R E A K Which RAID level should you use? You must decide based on both performance requirements and economic considerations. In the Field may also provide useful background or contextual information necessary for understanding the larger topic under consideration. 5. one of the mirrored disk drives failed in each of the servers. Review Break: Crucial information is summarized at various points in the book in lists or tables. (Red line on ribbon cable connects to pin 1 on connector on disk controller. IN THE FIELD BIG FAN OF DISK MIRRORING I’m a big fan of disk mirroring. TIP . Connect power cable to each IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 disk drive. Document all settings.27 Rack-mounted keyboard. In the Field Sidebar: These more extensive discussions cover material that perhaps is not as directly relevant to the exam. none of the users knew that there was a disk drive failure. Step by Step: Step by Steps are hands-on tutorial instructions that walk you through a particular task or function relevant to the exam objectives. FIGURE 2.HOW TO USE THIS BOOK xxv EXAMTIP Drives Know the IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 Master/Slave/CSEL requirements. Figure: Detailed figures help clarify your understanding of the text. you might come across a Review Break that is there just to wrap up one long objective and reinforce the key points before you shift your focus to the next section.) 3. Set the Master/Slave/CSEL jumper on each disk drive. What Is RAID 0/1? Know that RAID 0/1 combines the fault tolerance of RAID 1 with the inp t/ M RAID 0 provides excellent read and write performance.1 Installing IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 Disk Drives 1. At the end of a particularly long section. 2. (Red line on ribbon cable connects to pin 1 on connector on disk drive.

Instead of asking you to choose from a list of options.2 Becoming Familiar with SCSI Disk Drives The objective of this exercise is the same as that of 2. or a 80-pin connector? 4. along with some summary elements. How do you convert watts to volt-amps? 4. In the next chapter. but as it applies to SCSI drives. you will configure the components and install the network operating system. cooling. These components include processors. these questions require you to state the correct answers in your own words. a 68-pin. to be a Master drive. When do you use a UTP cross-over cable? 7. The jumper settings and their names are not standardized and therefore differ from one manufacturer to another. and network connectivity. CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS • ANSI • ATA • ATA-2 • Bus • Cross-over cable • Differential • EIDE • Electrostatic discharge • Ethernet The chapter discussed verification of the installation plan and then focused on the actual installation of the hardware for a network server. Examine the disk drive. 2. You should notice a sticker on the back of the disk drive that gives you instructions on how to set the disk drive to be a single drive. What are the three different types of SCSI bus termination? 12. The discussion began with the verification of the installation plan. What is the maximum length of a low-voltage differential (LVD) SCSI cable? 13. Attach the cable to the disk drive. Review Questions 1. What is the rule on processor steppings when multiple processors are installed in a server? 5. Attach the cable to the disk drive. and network). it doesn’t hurt to refresh your memory. 188 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Exercises: These activities provide an opportunity for you to master specific hands-on tasks. this exercise runs you through some drive basics. After installation of the components. .1 Becoming Familiar with IDE Disk Drives 3. you will find a section called “Apply Your Knowledge” that gives you several different methods with which to test your understanding of the material and review what you have learned. What is electrostatic discharge? 6. Exercises 2. How many terminators are on a properly terminated SCSI bus? 8. or to be a Slave drive. Does the disk drive use a 50-pin. these questions will indeed test your level of comprehension of key concepts. You are probably already familiar with IDE drives and their installation in a desktop PC. Key Terms: A list of key terms appears at the end of each chapter. you will find a chapter summary that wraps up the chapter and reviews what you should have learned. shortanswer questions allow you to quickly assess your comprehension of what you just read in the chapter. Estimated Time: 10 minutes. And even if you are familiar with IDE drives. You might also see whether the disk drive supports CSEL. Although you will not experience these kinds of questions on the exam. You may not have the same level of familiarity with these drives because they are less often encountered in desktop machines. memory. How big is one rack unit? 3. adapter cards (such as SCSI. What is the purpose of having redundant power supplies in a network server? Review Questions: These open-ended. 3. you learned to run a preliminary test of the server by performing a power on. Estimated Time: 10 minutes. These are terms that you should be sure to know and are comfortable defining and understanding when you go in to take the exam. What is a KVM switch? 11. Get an IDE/ATA or EIDE/ATA-2 disk drive and cable. How many Wide SCSI-2 disk drives can be connected to one Wide SCSI-2 channel? 10. Chapter Summary: Before the “Apply Your Knowledge” section. FC-AL. The discussion then turned to the process of installing the components into the network server chassis. You must be able to conduct these tasks in order to pass the exam.1. What are the different types of server chassis? 2. 2. 1. RAID. You read about the need to check the installation site for power. You also learned to check the network server components that are available and compare them to the network server components as specified in the installation plan. Our goal is to increase your proficiency with the product or technology. Just in case you are not. How many ATA-2 disk drives can be connected to one ATA-2 channel? 9.xxvi HOW TO USE THIS BOOK EXTENSIVE REVIEW AND SELF-TEST OPTIONS At the end of each chapter.

SCSI FAQ www. 1998.faqs.” 4. For more information.paralan. 4 E.org/scsifaq. 1 B. Gary. 2 C. in the middle of the backup.0 to be able to receive remote notifications? 3 Answers to Review Questions 1. Third Edition. Fourth Edition.org/experts/SCSI_ExpertFAQ. the System Properties dialog box can be used to identify the processor from which tab? 6.scsifaq.com/ www. A full backup is the most complete backup that can be made on a system because it includes every file. 4. Basics of SCSI. For more information. Servers should be kept away from other devices that could generate EMI. and the like. No Starch Press. Charles J. 6 G. The General tab of the System application will show information about the processor and RAM in Windows 2000. What does the abbreviation EMI stand for? 5. Suggested Readings and Resources Suggested Readings and Resources Following the Key Terms is a list of helpful books and URLs you can check out.org/faqs/scsi-faq/part1/ www. see the section “Working with SNMP. see the section “Understanding Backups.” 3. ANCOT Corporation. A baseline is a gauge of present performance that can be compared against future performance. New Riders Publishing. He has the server do a full backup every Sunday and Wednesday night. Use them to become familiar with the exam question formats and to help you determine what you know and what you need to review or study more. see the section “Working with Baselines. Brooks. 2nd Edition. see the section “The Physical Environment. 7 5 Exam Questions: These questions reflect the kinds of multiple-choice questions that appear on the Microsoft exams. What service must be running in Windows NT Server 4. industrial air compressor motors. 1. How many tapes does he need to do a restore? A. 5 F.” 2. 3.” Answers and Explanations: For each Review and Exam question. you will find thorough explanations located at the end of the section. EMI is an abbreviation for electromagnetic interference. The Book of SCSI. and an incremental backup every other night of the week. and it is used to monitor performance on a TCP/IP network.HOW TO USE THIS BOOK xxvii 4.org/faqs/scsi-faq/part2/ http://scsifaq.html www. The server crashed on Wednesday night. 2. For more information.” 5. It can be caused by any device using electricity but is common with such things as fluorescent lights.scsita.faqs. In Windows 2000. see the section “Verifying Hardware. 2000. For more information. Field. 3 D. For more information. SNMP is the Simple Network Management Protocol. Martin is said to be making a baseline. 2001. A+ Certification Training Guide. Jeff is the network administrator for Mercury Technical Solutions. 4 Exam Questions 1.html .

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• Objectives are repeated within the text where the material most directly relevant to them is covered. tips. . data storage subsystems. installing. This book is your one-stop shop. this exam measures essential competencies for a server hardware specialist with 18 to 24 months in the server technology area of the computer industry. and I/O subsystems. According to CompTIA. Everything you need to know to pass the exams is in here. You also will find the features that make New Riders’ Training Guides so successful: clear organization. This training guide also attempts to make the information accessible in the following ways: • This introduction includes the full list of exam topics and objectives.” for more specifics on what CompTIA expects in the way of background and experience for test takers. You must demonstrate that you have an in-depth understanding of planning. CompTIA. You should know the interrelationships of all parts of the server system and understand the ramifications of their actions. See Appendix B. helpful hints. real-world examples. Specifically. however. It covers all the domains and objectives identified for the Server+ exam (SKO-001). and step-by-step exercises. • Each chapter begins with a list of the objectives to be covered. “Overview of the Certification Process. You do not have to take a class in addition to buying this book to pass the exam. á Instructional features. data recovery. you may benefit from buying this book and taking a class. This book covers every objective that you need to know for the Server+ exam. to make it as easy as possible for you to learn the information. Following are some of the helpful methods: HOW THIS BOOK HELPS YOU This book provides a self-guided tour of all the areas covered by the Server+ exam and identifies the specific skills you need to achieve your Server+ certification.Introduction Server+ Certification Training Guide is designed for those with the goal of acheiving certification as a Server+ hardware specialist. this book is set up to help you in the following ways: á Organization. This book is organized according to individual exam objectives. and maintaining servers. including knowledge of server-level hardware implementations. • Information on where the objectives are covered is also conveniently condensed on the tear card located on the CD. The objectives are covered in the same order as they are listed by the certifying organization. This book has been designed to provide you with multiple ways to learn and reinforce the exam material. configuring. Depending on your personal study habits or learning style. This book also can help advanced users and administrators who are not studying for the exam but are looking for a single-volume technical reference. • Each chapter also begins with an outline that provides an overview of the material and the page numbers of where you can find particular topics.

• Warnings. Crucial information is summarized at various points in the book in lists or tables. • Exam tips. the potential for mistakes or even catastrophes to occur is ever present. When using sophisticated technology improperly. Answers to the questions are provided later in the section. The practice options include the following: • Review Questions. providing you with more opportunities for hands-on learning and reinforcement of the concepts. how it is covered. Use them to practice for the exam and to help you determine what you know and what you need to review or study further. These more extensive discussions cover material that may not be directly related to the exam but which is useful as reference material or in everyday practice. In addition. In the Fields also provide useful background or contextual information necessary for understanding the larger topic under consideration. á Extensive practice test options. These are hands-on. A practice exam is included in the “Final Review” section for each exam (as discussed later). These open-ended questions appear in the “Apply Your Knowledge” section at the end of each chapter. These questions also appear in the “Apply your Knowledge” section. see Appendix D. Warnings appear in the margin to alert you to such potential problems. This book provides numerous opportunities for you to assess your knowledge and to practice for the exam. Exercises are provided at the ends of chapters. Training Guide Edition Software. • ExamGear. tutorial instructions that lead you through a particular task or function relevant to the exam objectives. • Practice exam. The ExamGear software included on the CD that accompanies this book provides even more practice questions. • Exercises. • Step by Steps. • Notes. As mentioned previously. • Exam Questions. They enable you to quickly assess your comprehension of what you just read in the chapter. • Key terms. each chapter begins with a list of the objectives covered in the chapter.2 SERVER+ CERTIFICATION TRAINING GUIDE • Objective explanations. Each chapter ends with a summary as well. mnemonic devices. Exam tips appear in the margin to provide specific exam-related advice. “Using the ExamGear. • Study strategies. They reflect the kinds of multiple-choice questions that appear on the Server+ exam. Answers and explanations for them are provided. Such tips may address what material is covered (or not covered) on the exam. or side commentary on industry issues. The beginning of each chapter also includes strategies for studying and retaining the material in the chapter. NOTE More About ExamGear For a complete description of the New Riders ExamGear test engine. These appear in the margin and contain various kinds of useful information such as tips on technology or administrative practices.” . particularly as it is addressed on the exam. immediately following each objective is an explanation in a context that defines it more meaningfully. A list of key terms appears at the end of each chapter. and particular quirks of that exam. • Review breaks and summaries. • In the Fields. historical background on terms and technologies.

These and all the other book features mentioned previously will enable you to thoroughly prepare for the exam. and example content. • Study and Exam Prep Tips. Questions are written in the styles used on the actual Server+ exam. Post-Beta Objectives The objectives detailed in this section cover the Server+ exam blueprint. a description of what is on the CD-ROM (Appendix C). an overview of the Server+ certification program (Appendix B). The skills and knowledge measured by the examination are derived from an industry-wide job-task analysis and validated through a worldwide survey of more than 400 professionals.INTRODUCTION 3 NOTE á Final Review. This condensed version of the information contained in the book will prove extremely useful for last-minute review. 2001. You can find the results of the job-task analysis and survey in the following report: á Server+ Job Task Analysis (JTA) (August 2000) This examination blueprint includes weighting. you must pass the SK0-001 examination. As noted previously. including a glossary (Appendix A). Read this section early on to help you develop study strategies. and an explanation of the ExamGear test engine (Appendix D). For information on how to register for the exam see Appendix B. 2001. test objectives. . SERVER+ EXAMINATION BLUEPRINT For Server+ certification. A full practice test is included. The results of the worldwide survey were used in weighting the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of that content to the job requirements of server hardware specialist with 18 to 24 months of experience. the examination measures essential competencies for a server hardware specialist with 18 to 24 months of experience. each of whom had a minimum of 18 months of experience with advanced PC hardware. do not construe these as a comprehensive list of the content of this examination. The following table lists the domains measured by this examination and the approximate extent to which they are represented. Use it to assess your readiness for the real thing. This document was produced after the final technical and psychometric review of the item pool following the beta-testing period. • Practice Exam. Example topics and concepts are included to clarify the test objectives. This document reflects the topics and technologies that appear as part of the Server+ exam. This book includes several valuable appendixes as well. This part of the book provides the following three valuable tools that can help you prepare for the exam: • Fast Facts. It also provides valuable exam-day tips and information. The objectives listed here represent CompTIA’s outline of February 21. This certification exam went live on February 14.

modem rack.2 Configure RAID 1. you need to configure it. the examinee selects.0 Installation This first job dimension requires knowledge of hardware installation planning and implementation.) • Mount the rack installation • Cut and crimp network cabling In terms of the exam itself. keyboards. drives.0 Upgrading 4. select only one letter that represents the most correct or best answer. The exam directions read as follows: Read the statement or question and.0 Configuration After you complete the hardware installation. from the response options. The sections that follow outline the objectives for the exam and provide representative (but not necessarily complete) content areas that reflect each objective. This job dimension addresses all aspects of system setup and configuration. from four response options.0 Disaster Recovery Total • Verify hardware compatibility with operating system • Verify power sources. etc. • Install UPS • Verify SCSI ID configuration and termination • Install external devices (e. internal cable. monitors.1 Check/upgrade BIOS/firmware levels (system board. Distracters or wrong answers are response options that examinees with incomplete knowledge or skill would likely choose. processors.0 Configuration 3. hard drive. but are generally plausible responses fitting into the content area.) 2. etc. etc. Uninterruptible Power Supply and network availability • Verify that all correct components and cables for the network server have been delivered 1. memory.0 Proactive Maintenance 5.4 SERVER+ CERTIFICATION TRAINING GUIDE TABLE 1 • Plan the installation • Verify the installation plan % of Examination (Approximately) 17% 18% 12% 9% 5% 27% 12% 100% D O M A I N R E P R E S E N TAT I O N Job Dimension 1. RAID.1 Conduct pre-installation planning activities 2.3 Install NOS • Configure network and verify network connectivity • Verify network connectivity . controller. space. subsystems.0 Installation 2.. 1. 2.) • Verify power-on via power-on sequence 2.0 Environment 6.0 Troubleshooting and Problem Determination 7.g. the one option that best completes the statement or answers the question.2 Install hardware using ESD best practices (boards.

including: locate and obtain latest test drivers. instructions. etc..4 Increase memory • Verify hardware and OS support for capacity increase • Verify memory is on hardware/vendor compatibility list • Verify memory compatibility (e. review and baseline. software. etc. master/slave and potential cross-brand compatibility • Upgrade mass storage • Add drives to array • Replace existing drives 3. test and pilot. backup software. event logs. review FAQs. OS updates. system monitoring agents. implement using ESD best practices. etc. OS updates.1 Perform full backup • Verify backup 3. speed. capacity. facts and issues. implement ESD best practices. verify compatibility • Verify N+1 stepping • Verify speed and cache matching • Perform BIOS upgrade • Perform OS upgrade to support multiprocessors • Perform upgrade checklist. confirm cabling.8 Perform server baseline 2. software. test and pilot.. implement using ESD best practices. document the upgrade 3. including: locate and obtain latest test drivers. brand.INTRODUCTION 5 2. confirm that the upgrade has been recognized.6 Update manufacturer specific drives 2. document upgrade • Integrate into storage solution and make it available to the operating system • Perform upgrade checklist. instructions. test and pilot. schedule downtime.2 Add Processors • On single processor upgrade. review and baseline.3 Add hard drives • Verify that drives are the appropriate type • Confirm termination and cabling • For ATA/IDE drives.5 Install NOS updates to design specifications 2. EDO. instruction.. OS updates.0 Upgrading This job dimension requires knowledge of all the factors involved in upgrading a system from backing up beforehand to hardware and software upgrades and updates. ECC/non-ECC.4 Configure external peripherals (UPS.) 2. etc. schedule downtime.7 Install service tools (SNMP. confirm that upgrade has been recognized. external drive subsystems. software. 3. review and baseline.) 2. schedule downtime.9 Document the configuration 3. etc. document the upgrade . Review FAQs. facts and issues. facts and issues.. SDRAM/RDRAM) • Perform upgrade checklist. confirm that the upgrade has been recognized. review FAQs. including: locate/obtain latest test drivers.g.

review and baseline. etc. test and pilot. review and baseline. facts and issues. EISA configuration. SCSI cards. schedule downtime. test and pilot. confirm that the upgrade has been recognized.. internal and external • Perform upgrade checklist. RAID.9 Upgrade service tools (for example. confirm that the upgrade has been recognized. instructions. etc.10 Upgrade UPS • Perform upgrade checklist. etc. implement using ESD best practices. confirm that the upgrade has been recognized. test and pilot. facts and issues..g. schedule downtime.5 Upgrade BIOS/firmware • Perform upgrade checklist. software.) • Perform upgrade checklist. instructions.) • Perform upgrade checklist.8 Upgrade system monitoring agents • Perform upgrade checklist. facts and issues. document the upgrade 3. OS updates. implement using ESD best practices. implement using ESD best practices.. including: locate and obtain latest test drivers. review FAQs. review and baseline. review and baseline. facts and issues. implement using ESD best practices. confirm that the upgrade has been recognized. software. software. including: locate and obtain latest test drivers. instructions. OS updates. including: locate and obtain latest test drivers. facts and issues. software.6 SERVER+ CERTIFICATION TRAINING GUIDE • Verify that server and OS recognize the added memory • Perform server optimization to make use of additional RAM 3. review FAQs. software. schedule downtime. review FAQs. including: locate and obtain latest test drivers. etc. etc. instructions. OS updates. confirm that the upgrade has been recognized. review and baseline. facts and issues. software. review FAQs. document the upgrade 3. document the upgrade 3. document the upgrade 3.. SSU. review FAQs. confirm that the upgrade has been recognized.. OS updates. review FAQs. etc. test and pilot. etc. document the upgrade 3. implement using ESD best practices. instructions. test and pilot. OS updates.. schedule downtime. document the upgrade . instructions. including: locate and obtain latest test drivers. including: locate and obtain latest test drivers. diagnostic partition. review and baseline. OS updates. test and pilot. diagnostic tools. implement using ESD best practices.6 Upgrade adapters (e. etc. schedule downtime.. schedule downtime. NICs.7 Upgrade peripheral devices.

It also addresses backing up the server in the event of serious system failure.2 Create baseline and compare performance 4. humidity/ESD/power surges.2 Recognize and report on server room environmental issues (temperature. when • Identify contact(s) responsible for problem resolution • Use senses to observe problem (for example.0 Proactive Maintenance This dimension represents the skills required to keep the server available and performing at a consistent level. Linux. Novell NetWare. IBM OS/2 • Select the appropriate tool • Use the selected tool effectively 5.1 Perform regular backup 4. how.5 Perform hardware verification 4. back-up generator/fire suppression/flood considerations) • Replace defective hardware components as appropriate • Identify defective FRUs and replace with correct part • Interpret error logs. 6. 4.0 Troubleshooting and Problem Determination A server specialist must be able to pinpoint and correct problems with the server. and critical events • Use documentation from previous technician successfully .1 Recognize and report on physical security issues • Limit access to server room and backup tapes • Ensure physical locks exist on doors • Establish anti-theft devices for hardware (lock server racks) 5.4 Perform physical housekeeping 4. operating system errors. availability.0 Environment The knowledge required by these objectives goes beyond understanding of the actual server itself to recognition and analysis of the environment in which the server exists and the effects it can have on server performance.3 Set SNMP thresholds 4. These objectives cover a range of troubleshooting skills. smell of smoke or observation of unhooked cable) 6. health logs.6 Establish remote notification 6. 5.INTRODUCTION 7 4. and security. UNIX.1 Perform problem determination • Use questioning techniques to determine what.2 Use diagnostic hardware and software tools and utilities • Identify common diagnostic tools across the following OS: Microsoft Windows NT/2000.

g. processors.0) á 100MB of free hard drive space á 32MB RAM for Windows 9x and Windows NT 4.. Your computer should meet the following criteria: á 32-bit operating system (Windows 9x/2000 or NT 4. CDs) • Gather resources to get problem solved: • Identify situations requiring call for assistance • Acquire appropriate documentation • Describe how to perform remote troubleshooting for a wake-on-LAN • Describe how to perform remote troubleshooting for a remote alert 6. OS updates. 7. bus transfer..g. power supplies.1 Plan for disaster recovery • Plan for redundancy (e.g. fans. software or virus related • Develop disaster recovery plan • Identify types of backup hardware • Identify types of backup and restoration schemes • Confirm and use off site storage for backup • Document and test disaster recovery plan regularly. web pages.3 Identify bottlenecks (e. and update as needed 7. disk I/O. you are in a much better position to keep the server up or bring the server back online quickly.01 or later á 800 × 600 video resolution with 256 colors or more á CD-ROM drive 7.2 Restoring • Identify hardware replacements • Identify hot and cold sites • Implement disaster recovery plan HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE YOU WILL NEED As a self-paced study guide.0 á 128MB RAM for Windows 2000 Professional or Server á IE 4. NICs.. UPS) • Use the technique of hot swap. E-support.5 Determine if problem is hardware. this book was designed with the expectation that you will use your server as you follow along through the exercises. warm swap and hot spare to ensure availability • Use the concepts of fault tolerance/fault recovery to create a disaster recovery plan . memory) 6.0 Disaster Recovery The ultimate server nightmare is loss of the server. By planning for such an eventuality. network I/O.4 Identify and correct misconfigurations and/or upgrades 6. The knowledge required by these objectives covers planning and implementation of disaster recovery procedures. I/O. processor. fixes.8 SERVER+ CERTIFICATION TRAINING GUIDE • Locate and effectively use hot tips (e. hard drives.

Do not just drop into the book and read around. Do not spend too much time on any one question. there are no guarantees. then mark it for review after you have finished the rest of the questions. Good luck! Exam-Taking Advice Although this book is designed to prepare you to take and pass the Server+ exam. passing the exam should be simple. This book and the CompTIA Server+ certification program are designed to ensure that you have that solid foundation.comptia. Develop your own questions and examples for each topic listed. and when you feel confident. This will provide you with another way of understanding the material. If you are unsure. make sure you answer all the questions before your time limit expires. Read this book. and then assess your knowledge again. Remember. use the questions to find out what you know and what you do not know. If you can develop and answer several questions for each topic. After you understand the material. When taking the actual certification exam. This should tell you whether you are ready for the real thing.org or www. . Knowledge is a pyramid. to build upward. or visit www. work through the questions and exercises. á Use the questions to assess your knowledge. you need a solid foundation. you should not find it difficult to pass the exam. take the practice exam and additional exams using the ExamGear test engine. For information on how to schedule an exam.com.INTRODUCTION 9 NOTE ADVICE ON TAKING THE EXAM More extensive tips are found in the “Final Review” section titled “Study and Exam Prep Tips. Make sure your exam preparation is thorough. Read through all the material. Study some more. answer it as best as you can. see Appendix B. Do not just read the chapter content. the primary object is not to pass the exam—it is to understand the material. review.” but keep this advice in mind as you study: á Read all the material. This book has included additional information not reflected in the objectives in an effort to give you the best possible preparation for the examination—and for the on-the-job experiences to come. á Review the exam objectives.comptia. á Do the Step by Steps and complete the exercises. as well as more information on how well you comprehend it.

.

0—Disaster Recovery .P A R T I EXAM PREPARATION 1 0.0—Upgrading 5 4.0—Configuration 4 3.0—Troubleshooting and Problem Determination 8 7.0—Environment 7 6.0—Proactive Maintenance 6 5.0—Planning and Specifications 2 1.0—Installation 3 2.

.

OBJECTIVES
This chapter covers topics that are a very important part of CompTIA’s Server+ Concepts and Skills document but that are not specifically mentioned in the CompTIA document. Both of these CompTIA documents are on the CD-ROM included with this book. The information in these topics is required knowledge not only for the successful completion of the CompTIA Server+ exam but also in the daily life of a server hardware specialist. A thorough understanding of these topics is absolutely necessary to be successful installing, configuring, upgrading, maintaining, and troubleshooting a network server. The topics covered in this chapter can be considered to be part of job dimension 0.0—Planning and Specifications, which is added here to the Server+ exam blueprint to make it complete. Although this dimension and its objectives covered in this chapter do not in fact actually exist in the Server+ exam blueprint, these are very important concepts to understand. The knowledge you gain from this chapter will provide you with the background you need to understand the remaining chapters that cover the actual job dimensions and objectives in the exam blueprint. There are Review and Exam Questions in the “Apply Your Knowledge” section at the end of this chapter to help you assess your learning of the material. However, there are no questions directly on this material on the Practice Exam in the “Final Review” section of this book or in the ExamGear test simulator on the CD-ROM. The Practice Exam and the ExamGear questions focus on the material presented in Chapters 2 through 8, the subject matter of which is the seven job dimensions and their respective objectives as outlined in the exam blueprint by CompTIA.

C H A P T E R

1

0.0—Planning and Specifications

OBJECTIVES
The learning objectives covered in this chapter include the following:
0.1 Identify the two types of networks

• Database server • Client/server • Application server • Mail server • FTP server • SNA server • Remote access server (RAS) • File and print server • Terminal server • Fax server • Domain Name Server (DNS) • Windows Internet Naming Server (WINS) • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server (DHCP) • Web server • Video server • CD-ROM library server • Directory services server . Every server hardware specialist should be aware of the different roles that a network server can play in a network. Each network server role has different hardware requirements that must be met for the network server to adequately meet the needs of the role. The four major network server hardware components—processor, memory, disk subsystem, and network subsystem—have different degrees of importance in each different role. The network server hardware must match the network server role for the network server to meet the requirements of the role it will have in the network.

• Peer-to-peer network • Server-centric network . The network hardware specialist needs to know that there are two different types of networks and under what conditions each should be implemented.
0.2 Identify major categories of network servers. The major categories of network servers are

• Workgroup server • Departmental server • Enterprise server • Server appliances . To make sure that the network server will support the number of users and/or applications required to meet the demands anticipated by the customer, the server hardware specialist must understand the industry terms used to describe network servers with varying capabilities.
0.3 Identify various roles that can be assigned to network servers. Examples of roles include the following:

• Gateway • Router • Bridge • Firewall • Network Address Translation (NAT) • Proxy server

OBJECTIVES
0.4 Identify the major Intel processors and the importance of clock speed, processor cache speed and size, and symmetric multiprocessing (SMP):

. The server hardware specialist should be able to determine which memory configuration will best allow the network server to meet the needs of its assigned role in the network.
0.7 Identify the strengths and weaknesses of the various types of disk subsystems. Content may include the following:

• Intel processors • Processor cache • Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) . The server hardware specialist must determine the appropriate Intel processor(s) to select based on the category of the network server and the role of the network server in the network. The selection of the proper processor(s) will dictate the processor clock speed, the processor cache speed and size, and whether symmetric multiprocessing can be supported by the network server.
0.5 Identify the various buses that are part of the network server. The major buses include:

• Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE/ATA) • Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE/ATA2) • Ultra ATA / Ultra DMA • Serial ATA • Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) • Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T.) • Fibre Channel • Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) • Serial Storage Architecture (SSA) • Storage area network (SAN) • storage (NAS) . The server hardware specialist must be able to select the best disk subsystem that will meet the role that the network server will perform on the network.
0.8 Identify different network subsystems. Successfully attach various devices to and remove various devices from the network subsystem. Content may include the following:

• Memory bus • System bus . The speed of the memory bus determines how fast data can be moved from the processor to memory and from the memory to the processor. The type, speed, width, and number of the system buses determines how quickly data can move from outside the network server to inside the network server.
0.6 Identify the characteristics of different types of memory. Identify how the amount of memory affects network server performance. Identify how interleaving of memory affects network server performance. Major memory topics include:

• Amount of memory • Memory interleaving • Type of memory

• Ethernet • Token Ring • Network interface cards (NICs)

OBJECTIVES
• Network devices • Network protocols • Network management . The server hardware specialist should be able to attach a network server and other network devices to a network. The server hardware specialist should be able to troubleshoot a network server that is not communicating over the network.
0.9 Identify various types of hardware used for backup systems. Backup hardware types include: 0.11 Define server clustering. Describe the hardware components required to cluster servers.

. Server hardware specialists should determine when clustering of servers is necessary and should be able to identify the equipment necessary to cluster multiple servers.
0.12 Identify hardware components that give a network server the capability to scale up to meet the demands of a larger workload.

• Tape drives • Disk drives • Other backup devices . The server hardware specialist should be able to determine which backup system hardware best meets the need of the network server based on the amount of data to be backed up and the amount of time available to perform the backup.
0.10 Identify hardware components that might fail and plan on redundancy of those components. Content may include the following:

. Server hardware specialists should be able to identify when a given network server has been overburdened and whether the network server can be easily scaled up to meet the increasing demands placed on it.
0.13 Identify hardware components that give a network server the capability to be up a very high percentage of the time, up to and including a 24 hour per day, 7 day per week operating environment.

. Server hardware specialists should be able to recognize an environment when a network server will need to be up a very high percentage of the time. A server hardware specialist should be able to identify the various methods that can be employed to guarantee high availability of the network server.
0.14 Identify various strategies to perform backup of the data on the network server and plan for the recovery of the data in the event of a hardware failure. Backup and recovery strategies include:

• Power supplies • Fans • Hot swap • Hot plug • Fail-over • Hot spare • NIC fail-over . Server hardware specialists should determine the degree of redundancy required by the network server and which hardware components need redundancy.

• Full backup • Incremental backup • Differential backup . Server hardware specialists should be able to describe and facilitate the implementation of backup and recovery strategies that meet the needs of the role of the network server.

OBJECTIVES
0.15 Identify various methods to provide the network server with fault tolerance. Fault-tolerance methods include: 0.18 Identify situations when network servers should be installed in a server rack and the proper installation of the network server into a server rack. Identify specialized components and installation requirements for rack-mounted network servers. Content may include the following:

• Uninterruptible power supplies • Redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID) . Server hardware specialists should understand the requirement of providing an uninterruptible power supply for a network server. The redundancy, clustering, scalability, and high availability sections cover other fault-tolerant topics.
0.16 Identify techniques and plan for recovery from a disaster (total failure of the network server).

• EIA rack unit (1.75 inches) • Keyboard/video/monitor (KVM) switch • Cable management • Rack layout • Security • Cooling • Rack-mounted keyboard/trackball • Rack-mounted monitor/LCD panel • Rack-mounted uninterruptible power supply (UPS) . Server hardware specialists should be able to identify when a network server should be mounted into a server rack. A server hardware specialist should be able to select and install the specialized equipment associated with rack-mounted network servers.
0.19 Identify network operating systems. A server hardware specialist should be able to recognize the characteristics of various network operating systems. Content may include the following network operating systems:

. Server hardware specialists should be able to plan for recovery from a disaster (total failure or loss of the network server). The final product from this planning effort is a disaster-recovery plan.
0.17 Identify miscellaneous hardware components that are part of a network server. Content may include the following:

• Video controller • Video monitor • Universal Serial Bus • FireWire • Keyboard • Mouse • CD-ROM drive • DVD-ROM drive • Floppy disk drive • Modem . Server hardware specialists should be able to select the proper miscellaneous hardware that is part of a functioning network server.

• Novell NetWare 4 • Novell NetWare 5 • Microsoft Windows NT Server • Microsoft Windows 2000 Server • UNIX

OBJECTIVES
• Linux • IBM OS/2 Warp Server . Server hardware specialists should be able to identify various network operating systems. A server hardware specialist should be able to install, start up, shut down, and perform simple troubleshooting on the major network operating systems.
0.20 Identify hardware and software available to manage network servers. Content may include the following:

OUTLINE
Introduction 23

Network Types
Peer-to-Peer Networks Server-Centric Networks

23
23 24

Network Server Categories
Workgroup Server Departmental Server Enterprise Server Server Appliances

24
25 25 26 26

• Vendor-specific installation and configuration software • Vendor-specific management software • Vendor-specific management hardware • Antivirus software • Documentation . Server hardware specialists should be able to identify and use various hardware and software tools to manage a network server.
0.21 Creating an installation plan

Network Server Roles
Gateway Server Router Bridge Firewall Network Address Translation Server Proxy Server Database Server Client/Server Application Server Mail Server FTP Server SNA Server Remote Access Server Remote Control Remote Access Technique Remote Node Remote Access Technique

26
28 28 29 30 30 31 32 32 32 33 34 34 35 35 35

. Server hardware specialists should understand the process of creating an installation plan. The first step in installing a new network server is to verify the installation plan. After verification, the installation plan is used as a guide for the network server installation.

OUTLINE
File and Print Server Terminal Server Fax Server Domain Name System Server Windows Internet Naming Service Server Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server Web Server Video Server CD-ROM Library Server Directory Services Server 36 36 37 37 38 38 39 40 40 40 Accelerated Graphics Port Intelligent Input/Output InfiniBand Architecture 51 51 52

Memory
Amount of Memory Memory Interleaving Memory Types Memory Form Factors Memory Technologies Extended Data Out DRAM Synchronous DRAM Double Data Rate Synchronous DRAM Direct Rambus Memory Error Checking Buffered Memory and Registered Memory

52
53 53 53 54 55 55 55 56 56 56 56

Intel Processors
Intel Processors Pentium Pro Pentium II Pentium II Xeon Pentium III Pentium III Xeon Pentium 4 Itanium Processor Cache Write Thru Cache Write Back Cache Symmetric Multiprocessing

41
42 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 46

Disk Subsystems
Integrated Drive Electronics Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE/ATA-2) Ultra ATA/Ultra DMA Serial ATA Small Computer System Interface SCSI-1 SCSI-2 SCSI-3 Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T.) Fibre Channel Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop Serial Storage Architecture Storage Area Network Network-Attached Storage

58
58 59 59 60 61 61 61 62 64 65 65 65 66 66

Server Buses
Memory Bus System Bus Industry Standard Architecture Micro Channel Architecture Extended Industry Standard Architecture VESA Local Bus Peripheral Component Interconnect PCI-X

46
47 47 48 48 49 49 50 50

OUTLINE
Network Systems
Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) Standard Ethernet 10BASE-5 10BASE-2 10BASE-T 10BASE-F Fast Ethernet 100BASE-T 100BASE-F Gigabit Ethernet 1000BASE-T 1000BASE-SX 1000BASE-LX 10 Gig Ethernet Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) Wireless Networks (IEEE 802.11) Network Interface Cards Adapter Teaming Wake-On-LAN Network Devices Repeater Hub Bridge Switch Router Network Protocols TCP/IP IPX/SPX NetBEUI AppleTalk DLC Network Management Simple Network Management Protocol Desktop Management Interface SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosures SCSI Enclosure Services

68
68 69 69 69 69 70 71 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 75 76 76 76 76 76 77 77 77 77 78 78 79 79 79 80 80 81

Backup Hardware
Tape Drives Quarter Inch Cartridge Travan Cartridge Tape 8mm Tape Advanced Intelligent Tape Digital Audio Tape Digital Linear Tape Linear Tape-Open Tape Arrays Tape Auto Changers Tape Libraries Disk Drives Other Backup Devices

82
82 82 83 85 85 86 87 87 88 88 88 88 89

Redundant Components
Redundant Power Supplies Redundant Fans Hot Swap Hot Plug Fail-Over Hot Spare NIC Fail-Over

89
90 90 91 91 91 91 92

Server Clustering

92

Scalability

93

High Availability

94

Backup Strategies

94

OUTLINE
Fault Tolerance
Uninterruptible Power Supply Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks RAID 0 RAID 1 RAID 2 RAID 3 RAID 4 RAID 5 RAID 0/1 RAID Controller Hardware RAID Versus Software RAID

95
96 96 97 98 99 99 99 100 100 100 102

Cable Management Rack Layout Security Cooling Rack-Mounted Keyboard/Trackball Rack-Mounted Monitor/LCD Panel Rack-Mounted UPS

108 108 108 109 109 109 109

Network Operating Systems
Novell NetWare 4 Novell NetWare 5 Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 Microsoft Windows 2000 Server UNIX

110
111 111 111 112 112 113 113

Disaster Recovery

103

Miscellaneous Network Server Hardware 104
Video Controller Video Monitor Universal Serial Bus FireWire (IEEE 1394) Keyboard Mouse CD-ROM Drive DVD-ROM Drive Floppy Disk Drive Modem 104 104 105 105 105 106 106 106 106 106

Linux IBM OS/2 Warp Server

Network Server Management
Vendor-Specific Installation and Configuration Software Vendor-Specific Management Software Vendor-Specific Management Hardware Antivirus Software Documentation

114
115 115 116 117 117

Creating an Installation Plan Racking Servers
EIA Rack Unit (1.75 inches) Keyboard/Video/Monitor Switch

118

107
107 108

Chapter Summary

129

Apply Your Knowledge

133

S T U DY S T R AT E G I E S
To successfully learn the material outlined in the objectives listed in this chapter, do the following:

. Read the objectives at the beginning of this chapter. . Study the information in this chapter. . Review the objectives again. . Answer the Review and Exam Questions at the end of the chapter and check your results.

. Review the Exam Tips available in various places in this chapter. Make certain that you understand the information in the Exam Tip. If you don’t fully understand the Exam Tip, review the information in the chapter related to this topic. . Due to the length of this chapter, it contains several Review Breaks, which summarize the information contained in the immediately preceding section of the chapter. In most cases, the Review Breaks contain recommendations and suggestions on network server technology.

Chapter 1

0.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS

23

INTRODUCTION
The goal of this chapter is to introduce all the concepts related to network servers. The components that can be used to configure a network server so that it can effectively perform its designated role in the network are discussed in detail. The information in this chapter should help the network engineer select the appropriate components for the network server. The end goal is the creation of an installation plan that can be used by a server hardware specialist to install the network server to the specifications created by the network engineer.

NETWORK TYPES
. 0.1 Identify the two types of networks • Peer-to-peer network • Server-centric network Networks are of two types: peer-to-peer and server-centric (serverbased), which also is sometimes called a client/server network.

NOTE

Peer-to-Peer Networks
A peer-to-peer network allows each computer to access the resources of all the other computers on the network, while at the same time allowing all the computers on the network to access its resources. In the technical sense, all computers on a peer-to-peer network act as both clients (accessing resources from other computers) and servers (allowing other computers to access their resources). However, peerto-peer networks function well only when the networks are relatively small (fewer than 20 computers). With more than a small number of computers, a peer-to-peer network can become an administrative and management nightmare. Peer-to-peer networks can be built with computers running standard desktop computer operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows 95, Microsoft Windows 98, and Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (ME). Because these are desktop computer operating systems, however, they offer, by design, very little security in a network environment. There are no user IDs on these operating systems; the

Peer-to-Peer Networks with Security Peer-to-peer networks can also be built with Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4 and Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional. These two desktop computer operating systems do provide network resource security, user identification, and file system security. However, building a large peer-to-peer network using these operating systems is still a difficult job, because you must create and manage all the user IDs and permissions on each of the computers in the network rather than create them once on a network server.

24

Par t I

EXAM PREPARATION

username you enter when starting up Windows 95/98/ME is used only to identify which profile (desktop settings) to load. Security is based solely on passwords (usually one for reading and a different one for writing) assigned to shared folders or printers.

NOTE

Network Infrastructure The network cabling used to create a peer-to-peer network does not differ from the network cabling used to create a servercentric network. The difference between the two network types is purely in the software running on the computers that comprise the network.

Server-Centric Networks
Server-centric or server-based networks are much more common than peer-to-peer networks and they are what usually comes to mind when someone hears or uses the term “network.” The CompTIA Server+ exam concentrates on server-centric networks. In a servercentric network, one or more specialized computers are designed as “network servers.” They provide either a resource or a service to the other computers on the network. The other computers on the network are called clients. Client computers, by definition, access resources or services from other computers (the network servers). A network server is not just an overgrown microcomputer. A network server contains specialized hardware and software that allows it to provide resources and services to other computers on the network. Although a desktop computer can have a network operating system installed and configured to perform the functions of a network server, it is unlikely that anyone will be satisfied with the performance, reliability, and manageability of the network server. This chapter describes the major types of network servers, the various network server roles, and gives in depth descriptions of the various components found in a network server. It is hoped that not only will these descriptions help those who are preparing to take the CompTIA Server+ exam, but also that it will help those who need to acquire a network server to perform a particular function in a network.

NETWORK SERVER CATEGORIES
. 0.2 Identify major categories of network servers. The major categories of network servers are • Workgroup server • Departmental server

Workgroup Server A workgroup server is a network server that can support a limited number of client computers (generally fewer than 20) or a network service that doesn’t require many resources. and limited disk storage capacity.) A workgroup network server is sometimes called a Small Office Home Office (SOHO) server. visit www.Chapter 1 0. They range from the smallest “glorified desktop” computer to the enterprise-sized mainframe. A workgroup server generally has a single processor. A departmental server can have multiple processors. a relatively small amount of memory. (It cannot add multiple processors. and additional disk storage. . the maximum amount of memory is relatively small. For more information on the Unisys ES7000. which can have up to 32 processors. 64GB of memory. and 96 PCI bus slots. A departmental server might also provide a network service that requires considerable resources. A workgroup network server has limited scalability. Departmental Server A departmental server is a network server that can support up to approximately 300 client computers. A departmental server is generally scalable to a large network server with more processors. a great deal of additional memory. such as a web server. The Unisys ES7000 is in the one million dollar price range. The term “workgroup” is very fitting for this category of network server. Most network servers are configured and priced somewhere in between these two extremes. and the space for internal disk drives is very limited. a considerable amount of memory.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 25 • Enterprise server • Server appliances Network servers come in various sizes or categories. and a large amount of disk storage.unisys. such as the Unisys ES7000.com/hw/servers/es7000/. such as a DHCP or DNS server.

Server Appliances A server appliance is a relatively new category of network server. Examples of roles include the following: • Gateway • Router • Bridge • Firewall • Network Address Translation (NAT) • Proxy server • Database server • Client/server . Enterprise servers nearly always have multiple processors.26 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Enterprise Server An enterprise server is an extremely large server designed to support thousands of clients. and terabytes of disk storage. 0.75 inches (1 rack unit) of vertical space. A server appliance is a network server designed to provide a single service to the network and to take a minimum amount of space in the server room. Other good examples of a server appliance would be a physically small network server configured to function as a DNS server or a firewall. as much as 64GB of memory.3 Identify various roles that can be assigned to network servers. A good example of a server appliance would be the use of one of these physically small servers configured to function as a web server. It might also provide a network service. They could have as many as 32 processors. NETWORK SERVER ROLES . and a gigantic amount of disk storage. a tremendous amount of memory. such as a database server. to a very large number of users. Many times these server appliances are designed to be mounted in a server rack and take no more than 1. Enterprise network servers are extremely scalable.

It is also common for a single network server to perform multiple roles simultaneously (such as DNS. Network Server Roles Know the basics of the different roles that a network server can perform in a network. depending on who is referring to it or what is the current topic of discussion. such as a database server. installing the DHCP service on a network server gives it the DHCP server role. For example. some network server roles practically require that the network server perform a single role. defines the network server as a database server. The fact that a single network server is actually performing all three roles simultaneously isn’t necessarily important to the conversation. and WINS). however. This server will often be referred to as the DHCP server. might be called the DHCP server. EXAM TIP . and WINS. DHCP. Installing a database application.Chapter 1 0. Because of the resources required.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 27 • Application server • Mail server • FTP server • SNA server • Remote access server (RAS) • File and print server • Terminal server • Fax server • Domain Name Server (DNS) • Windows Internet Naming Server (WINS) • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server (DHCP) • Web server • Video server • CD-ROM library server • Directory services server A network server can assume different jobs or roles in the network. such as DHCP. the DNS server. Installing a service or application defines the role that a network server will perform. DNS. or the WINS server. A network server running multiple services. such as Oracle or Microsoft SQL Server.

. such as a microcomputer network and a mainframe. with each NIC attached to a different network. The classic example of a gateway server is supplying communications between a local area network (LAN) and an IBM mainframe.28 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION The major roles that a network server might perform are discussed in the following sections. Router A router is a network device that moves data packets from one network (as defined by the data packet’s source network address) to another network (as defined by the data packet’s destination network address). Most network operating systems can function as a router by enabling packet forwarding between multiple NICs. Configuration of packet forwarding is specific to each different network operating system. whereas the IBM mainframe communicates could be using IBM’s System Network Architecture (SNA) protocol. The gateway server is connected to both the LAN and the SNA communications system and translates the protocols and data between the two systems. The LAN could be using Ethernet and the TCP/IP protocol. It is a simple operation to configure the network operating system to send data between the NICs in the network server. A network server can perform the role of a router just by having multiple network interface cards (NICs). Gateway Server A gateway is a network device that connects two totally dissimilar communications systems. The following software products allow a network server to function as a gateway server: á Microsoft SNA Server á Microsoft Host Integration Server á Novell NetWare for SAA The most important component of a network server that is going to serve in the gateway server role is the network subsystem.

0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 29 The Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) add-on for Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 and the standard RRAS service for Microsoft Windows 2000 Server provide even more sophisticated network routing than just simple packet forwarding. The most important component of a network server that is going to function as a bridge is the network subsystem. the bridge must forward the packet to the backbone segment for it to reach its destination. which includes both TCP/IP and IPX/SPX. This is useful in the case where you want to isolate data packets on one segment of the network from another segment of the network. there is no need for it to be forwarded to the backbone. Bridge A bridge is a device that “filters” frames based on the hardware address of the device that sent the frame and the hardware address of the device that is to receive the frame. If the network packet is being sent to a computer in another building. The network server will need to have two NICs installed and be configured to forward data packets based on the hardware address of the sending and receiving computers. to create larger networks. . you could use a bridge to connect a network in a building to a backbone network that connects multiple buildings together. A network server can be configured to perform the function of a bridge.Chapter 1 0. For example. If the network packet being sent is destined to a computer within the building. so the bridge does not forward the packet to the backbone. The most important component of a network server that is going to function as a router is the network subsystem. however. Some protocols are not routable. such as NetBEUI. Unroutable protocols can be bridged however. These additional functions include SNMP management and the use of routing protocols to share routing information with other routers on the network. Routers can only route protocols that are routable.

Generally. The unique characteristic of a NAT server is that it translates the network address used by the clients on the corporate network to different addresses seen on the Internet. The NAT server is configured with a limited number of .30 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Firewall A firewall is a network device that forwards data packets from one network to another network based on rules defined by the network administrator. The firewall can also restrict access from the corporate LAN to the Internet. Examples of firewall software are as follows: á PGP Security’s Gauntlet á Check Point’s Firewall-1 á CyberGuard’s Firewall á Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration (ISA) Server The most important components of a network server that is going to function as a firewall are the network subsystem and the processor. These rules can reject or accept data packets based on many different criteria. Because of a shortage of IP addresses. For client computers on these private internets to be able to access the Internet. including: á Destination address á Source address á Network service based on TCP/IP port address A firewall examines each and every data packet and decides whether the packet will be forwarded to another network based on the rules defined by the administrator who configured the firewall. firewalls connect a corporate LAN to the Internet. The firewall is configured to prevent access from the Internet to the corporate LAN. many corporations use IP addresses on their private internets that cannot be used on the Internet. an IP address that is valid on the Internet must be used. The NAT server’s function is to provide the valid IP address. Network Address Translation Server A Network Address Translation (NAT) server allows a corporate network to access the Internet.

When a reply to the data packet that was sent is received.” the reserved addresses to be used for private networks are allocated in three ranges: • 1 Class A address from 10.0. All other client computers connect to web sites on the Internet using the proxy server.0 to 10.255.168. a proxy server’s capabilities are rather limited.0.31. the amount of disk drive storage space is also very important.0 to 172. That address is assigned to the proxy server.255.255.255 • 16 Class B addresses from 172.255 . Examples of proxy servers include the following: á Microsoft Proxy Server á Microsoft Internet Security and Access Server á Ositis Software’s WinProxy á Netscape’s Proxy Server The most important component of a network server that is going to function in the proxy server role is the network subsystem.16. Using a proxy server requires only that there be one valid IP address assigned to the corporation. NOTE Private IP Addresses As defined by RFC 1918. Having web pages cached locally reduces the frequency of access to the Internet by the proxy server. The NAT server actually changes the private IP address to a valid IP address as the client’s data packet goes from the private network to the Internet. The big advantage that a proxy server has is its capability to cache frequently accessed web pages on its own hard disk drives. The most important components of a network server that is going to function as a NAT server are the network subsystem and the processor. “Address Allocation for Private Internets. Microsoft Windows 2000 Server includes NAT capability as part of the Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS).255 • 255 Class C addresses from 192.Chapter 1 0.0. but as a firewall.168. The proxy server is considered by some people to be a firewall.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 31 valid IP addresses that are used by client data packets destined for the Internet. the NAT server changes the valid IP address back to the private IP address of the client on the private network.0. Proxy Server A proxy server allows a client computer’s web browser access to the World Wide Web through a single access point. If you expect to cache a large number of web pages locally.0 to 192. Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration (ISA) server extends Windows 2000 NAT capability by providing SecureNAT to increase NAT security.255.

The application server runs a network application. A server computer is a computer that shares its resources with other computers on the network. update. Application Server An application server is a network server that runs a network application. The database management software allows clients to create. There are three models for applications servers: á Dedicated application model. and the disk subsystem. A database server runs a database management software package. such as a database. and retrieve data. All processing of the data occurs on the database server. that can be accessed by clients on the network. The resources can be physical. or the resources can be services provided by the server. such as files on disk drives or a printer. The dedicated application server does not provide any other service to the network. A client computer is a computer that requests the use of resources on other computers on the network. input. . All the data resides on the disk drives attached to the database server. The database server processes the data in the database(s) on its disk drives and returns the results to the client. This is the most common application server model. Examples of database software include the following: á Microsoft SQL Server 2000 á Oracle á Sybase Client/Server “Client/server” is a generic term that describes the relationship between computers on the network. A client issues a request or query for data.32 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Database Server A database server is the classic example of a client/server system. memory. The three most important components of a network server that is going to function as a database server are processors.

The email server usually uses the TCP/IP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to deliver email messages between servers either on a LAN or the Internet. The client does not have to be aware that the data does not reside on a single network server. . A distributed database is a good example of a distributed application. In a peer-to-peer application. In the distributed application model. The DNS server for the Internet is a great example of a distributed application. provides messaging services to a network. Client computers often use email client protocols. a relatively large amount of disk storage is also important. Mail Server A mail server. If email messages are going to be kept on the email server. the actual applications run on many different servers on the network. to retrieve email messages from SMTP email servers. Portions of the DNS database reside on thousands of DNS servers around the world. Some of the data can reside on different servers on the network. or more accurately an email server.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 33 á Distributed application model. The recently popular Napster software is a good example of a peer-to-peer network application. data can be exchanged between clients on the network. such as POP (Post Office Protocol) or IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol). Examples of software that allows a network server to function as an email server include the following: á Microsoft Exchange Server á Novell GroupWise á Sendmail for UNIX/Linux The most important component of a network server that is going to serve as an email server is the network subsystem.Chapter 1 0. á Peer-to-peer application model.

which are much easier to use than the command-line version. The most important component of a network server that is going to serve as an FTP server is the network subsystem. SNA Server An SNA server is a specific example of a gateway server. The following products allow a network server to function as an SNA server: á Novell NetWare for SAA á Microsoft SNA Server á Microsoft Host Integration Server á IBM Communications Server . FTP service for UNIX systems is provided by the FTP daemon.34 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FTP Server An FTP server uses the TCP/IP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) to allow access to files over the network. the amount of disk storage is also important. Graphical versions of the FTP client software. For Microsoft Windows NT Server and Microsoft Windows 2000 Server. in which case an SNA gateway device will not be necessary for a microcomputer network that is using TCP/IP to communicate with an IBM mainframe. If a large number of files are going to be on the FTP server. the FTP service software is part of Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS). NOTE SNA or TCP/IP? Many IBM mainframes support TCP/IP in addition to or instead of SNA. Most client computer operating systems have a simple command-line-driven FTP client available as a standard part of the operating system. An SNA server provides protocol translation between a microcomputer network and an IBM mainframe using IBM’s SNA (System Network Architecture) protocol. To access files on an FTP server. which is a standard part of the operating system. FTP servers provided access to files over the Internet. Before the advent of web servers. the client computer must use an FTP client or a web browser that understands the FTP protocol. The SNA server also handles character translation between the ASCII characters used on microcomputer networks and the EBCDIC characters used on IBM mainframes. are available from third parties.

The difference is that the network is running at modem speeds (up to 56000 bits per second) rather than network speeds (10 million bits per second or more). the remote client becomes a computer on the network. or 64 serial ports need to be installed into the RAS server to support attachment of the modems that will be used for dial in. keystrokes. the remote client just becomes a remote video display. Only screen updates.Chapter 1 0. The most important components of a network server that is going to function as the remote access server are the network subsystem and the processor. An SNA server requires a NIC for connection to the LAN and a high-speed serial interface to attach to the SNA network. and mouse movements are sent over the modem link. Special adapter boards with 16. and mouse to that computer. All operations occur just as if the remote computer is attached directly to the network. usually through a modem. Remote-Control Remote Access Technique In the remote-control technique. 32. All operations are performed on the computer on the network.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 35 The most important component of a network server that is going to function as an SNA server is the network subsystem. . Remote-Node Remote Access Technique In the remote-node technique of remote access. Microsoft Remote Access Service (RAS) for Windows NT Server 4 and Routing and Remote Access Server (RRAS) for Windows 2000 Server both use the remote-node technique for remote access. the remote client takes control of an existing computer on the network. Remote Access Server A remote access server (RAS) is a device that allows access to a network and its resources from a remote location. This remote-control capability is very similar to the popular PC Anywhere and other “remote-control” software. Two different techniques can be used by remote clients to access a network: remote control and remote node. keyboard.

36 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION File and Print Server This is the classic role for a server on a network. It then sends these files (in an orderly fashion) to printers that are shared on the network. it needs a tremendous amount of resources. For the terminal server to perform its function. A print server accepts files to be printed from client computers on the network. In fact. Terminal Server A terminal server supports clients by running applications that the clients cannot run themselves because of lack of resources. or Microsoft Windows 2000 Terminal Services. which is a standard part of Windows 2000 Server. Windows 2000 Advanced Server.citrix. . on the terminal server itself.com/. visit their web site at www. This file and print server functionality is a standard part of all network operating systems currently available. The important components for a file and print server are the disk subsystem and the network subsystem. the sharing of disk space (files) and expensive printers was the primary motivation for creating microcomputer networks in the 1980s when Novell practically started and owned the microcomputer network business. These clients are often referred to as “thin” clients. A great amount of memory is also required because each client can use 10 to 20MB of memory on the terminal server to run applications. For more information about Citrix Metaframe. Multiple fast processors are required. The original versions of Novell NetWare performed both functions. and Windows 2000 Datacenter Server. A terminal server can be created using Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 Terminal Services Edition. such as a word processor or an electronic spreadsheet. Another popular solution used to implement a terminal server is Citrix Metaframe. such as processor speed or amount of memory. A file server allows client computers to access files (programs and data) stored on the network server’s disk drives. A client establishes a session with the terminal server and runs standard desktop applications. hence the name file and print server.

however.4.168. Microsoft Windows 2000 Server requires the availability of a Dynamic DNS server (DDNS) on the network for it to function correctly. IP names were created. The DNS server contains mappings between TCP/IP names.) A mechanism must exist to translate or resolve the IP names to IP addresses. such as 192. including BIND version 8 and above. TCP/IP applications require the IP address in order to communicate over the TCP/IP network. Domain Name System Server A Domain Name System (DNS) server is designed to resolve TCP/IP names to IP address. That mechanism is a DNS server. A fax server can also route incoming faxes directly to users’ computers. and TCP/IP addresses. The original UNIX-based DNS servers (including versions of BIND below version 8) maintained the IP name to IP address mappings in files that were updated manually. and Microsoft Windows 2000 Server. . A DDNS server is a standard part of the Windows 2000 Server operating system. (They are easier to remember. share fax lines for outgoing faxes.com. Because it is difficult to remember series of numbers. DNS servers can also be implemented on other operating systems. such as www.Chapter 1 0. Recent DNS servers can be updated dynamically.12. Microsoft Windows NT Server. such as Novell NetWare. The most common DNS servers run on UNIX operating systems and the software used to implement the DNS server is usually BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain).fakewebsite.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 37 Fax Server A fax server adds the capability to send facsimiles to and receive facsimiles from the network. and even send faxes by way of the Internet. One or more fax modems are required for a fax server. Example software products that allow a network server to function as a fax server include the following: á Castelle FaxPress á Cheyenne FaxServe The most important component of a network server that is going to function as a fax server is the network subsystem.

the TCP/IP address of the network router . NetBIOS names are resolved by using broadcasts on the network. WINS servers are the solution to the problems created when the Microsoft network has one or more routers in it. If there is no WINS server in a Microsoft network. Generally. Broadcasts do not go through routers. is a TCP/IP address and its associated subnet mask. Therefore implementing a WINS server will improve network efficiency because some network broadcasts will be eliminated. When registered with the NetBIOS Name Server. Having all the computers in the routed network register with a WINS server eliminates this problem. The Microsoft Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) provides the services of a NBNS for a network that has computers running any version of Microsoft Windows. A NetBIOS Name Server (NBNS) provides a way for Windows computers to register their NetBIOS names and their TCP/IP addresses during power up. Windows Internet Naming Service Server Computers running Microsoft Windows operating systems use the computer’s NetBIOS name (the computer name entered when the operating system was installed) to identify the computer and the resources the computer may be sharing on the network. at a minimum. The information supplied. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server provides client computers with configuration information for the TCP/IP protocol at the time the client computer starts up. the computer will also use it to find other computers and their resources on the network. so broadcasting to resolve NetBIOS names is limited to the local cable segment. The most important component of a network server that is going to function as a WINS server is the network subsystem.38 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION The most important component of a network server that is going to function as a DNS server is the network subsystem.

Examples of software that allow a network server to function as a Web server include the following: á Microsoft Internet Information Service (IIS) á Apache Web Server á Netscape Enterprise Web Server The most important components for a network server functioning as a web server are the network subsystem and processors. The DHCP service will need to be configured.Chapter 1 0. A DHCP server service does not consume many resources on the network server or the network itself. can be entered if desired. Novell NetWare. the DHCP server service (or process or daemon) must be installed on the network server operating system. The information content is created on the web server using the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). and many “flavors” of UNIX. DHCP is a standard part of the TCP/IP protocol suite. including Microsoft Windows NT Server 4. such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator by using TCP/IP Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). such as the TCP/IP address of the DNS server(s). other TCP/IP configuration information.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 39 (default gateway in TCP/IP terminology) is also supplied to the client computer. such as the IP addresses of the network router and/or the network DNS server. To create a DHCP server. can also be provided to the client. Optionally. The appropriate subnet mask to be used in conjunction with the TCP/IP addresses is also required. you need a pool (or scope) of TCP/IP addresses that the DHCP can “lease” to client computers. Web Server A web server provides information content over the network to client computers using a web browser. Other network services can be operational on the same computer as the DHCP server service without negatively impacting performance. For configuration. Optional configuration information. Microsoft Windows 2000 Server. Most network server operating systems. the amount of disk . can function as a DHCP server. If there is going to be a large amount of web content.

Multiple CD-ROM drives are available in tower configurations that can be attached to a SCSI controller. An example of software that can be used to create a video server is Microsoft Windows Media Technologies. A video capture card is also required to convert analog video from a VCR or video camera into digital video to be stored on the video server’s disk drives. Multiple processors might be necessary if the web server is going to be processing a large number of CGI (Common Gateway Interface) or ASP (Active Server Pages) scripts. CD-ROM Library Server A CD-ROM library server provides access to the data on multiple CD-ROMs to computers on the network. client access to the network is usually lost. If directory services fail or become unavailable. CD-ROM towers can contain from 7 to 49 or more CD-ROM drives. A video server can be used to create on-demand training. The important components for a network server that is going to function as a video server are the disk subsystem and the network subsystem. Directory Services Server Many network server operating systems use directory services. computers. Given the importance of directory services to the network. The important components for a network server that is going to function as a CD-ROM library server are the network subsystem and the SCSI controller. printers. there should be more . and so forth) that can be searched by users on the network.40 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION storage space is important. web broadcasts using streaming media. Video Server A video server stores digitized video on its disk drives for replay through the network. and product demonstrations over the web. The speed of the CD-ROM drives in the library is also important for the best network access. Directory services store information about all the objects on the network (users.

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than one network server providing directory services to the network. Examples of directory services include the following: á Novell Directory Service (NDS) á Microsoft Active Directory (AD) Most network operating systems have specific requirements for network servers that will be providing directory services to the network. Consult the network operating system documentation for these specifications.

This section described the various roles that a network server can perform in a network. A network server role is defined by the services or applications that it provides to the network. The four major network server components—processor, memory, disk subsystem, and network subsystem—are of different importance depending on the network server role. When making the decision on the configuration of a new network server, the role that the network server will play in the network as well as the number of clients that the network server will service are of paramount importance. Undersizing the network server will lead to many unsatisfied clients. Oversizing the server is a waste of valuable resources.

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INTEL PROCESSORS
. 0.4 Identify the major Intel processors and the importance of clock speed, processor cache speed and size, and symmetric multiprocessing (SMP): • Intel processors • Processor cache • Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) The CompTIA Server+ exam deals only with network servers that are based on processors built by Intel Corporation. This section discusses the various Intel processors that you might encounter in a network server and their characteristics.

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Future Processor Technology In the very near future, the capability to hot swap processors on a network server should be available.

Intel Processors
The list of microprocessor made by the Intel Corporation is very long. Only the Intel processors that are likely to be found in a network server are described in this chapter. You can find full descriptions of all Intel processors at Intel’s web site at www.intel.com.

Pentium Pro
The Pentium Pro processor was built specifically for network servers. It had a Level 2 cache that operated at the same speed as the processor itself. It was also designed for multiprocessing. Many network servers were built with two or four Pentium Pro processors inside. Specifications for the Pentium Pro include the following: á Date of service (November 1995) á Speeds 150, 166, 180, 200MHz á Level 2 cache 256KB, 512KB, 1024KB full core speed

Pentium II
The Pentium II processor had a faster processor clock than the Pentium Pro, but the Level 2 cache ran at one-half the speed of the processor. Multiprocessing with Pentium II processors was limited to a maximum of two processors. Specifications for the Pentium II include the following: á Date of service (May 1997) á Speeds 233, 266, 300, 333, 350, 400, 450MHz á Level 2 cache 256KB, 512KB running at one-half core speed

Pentium II Xeon
The Pentium II Xeon processor was designed for network servers. It had a faster processor speed than the Pentium Pro, its Level 2 cache ran at full processor speed, it had larger Level 2 caches available, and multiprocessing network servers could be configured with up to four processors. Specifications for the Pentium II Xeon include the following: á Date of Service (June 1998)

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á Speeds 400, 450MHz á Level 2 cache 512KB, 1024KB, 2048KB full core speed

Pentium III
The Pentium III processor offered faster processor speeds than previous processors and in some cases the Level 2 cache ran at the speed of the processor. However, multiprocessing was limited to two processors. Specifications for the Pentium III include the following: á Date of service (February 1999) á Speeds 450, 500, 533, 550, 600, 650, 667, 700, 733, 750, 800, 850, 866, 933, 1000, 1130MHz á Level 2 cache 256KB, 512KB one-half or full core speed

Pentium III Xeon
The Pentium III Xeon processor is designed for network servers. Higher processor speeds, coupled with large Level 2 caches that run at the speed of the processors, and the capability to have up to four processors installed in a single network server, make the Pentium III Xeon processor an excellent choice for network servers. Specifications for the Pentium III Xeon include the following: á Date of service (March 1999) á Speeds 500, 550, 600, 667, 733, 800, 866, 900, 933, 1000MHz á Level 2 cache 512KB, 1024KB, 2048KB full core speed

Pentium 4
The Pentium 4 processor is not well suited for network servers. Although it has fast processor speeds, its Level 2 cache is rather small, and there is no multiprocessing option available. The Pentium 4 processor is designed for advanced workstations, not network servers. Specifications for the Pentium 4 include the following: á Date of service (November 2000)

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á Speeds 1.3, 1.4, 1.5GHz á Level 2 cache 256 KB full core speed

Itanium
All the Pentium processors are 32-bit processors. The Intel Itanium is Intel’s first 64-bit processor. The Itanium is backward compatible with existing Intel 32-bit processors without software emulation, meaning that an existing 32-bit program will run without modification on the Itanium processor. Initially, up to 4 Itanium processors can be installed in a network server to support SMP environments. Specifications for the Itanium include the following: á Date of service (not released at the time of this writing) á Speeds 733MHz, 800MHz á Level 2 cache 96KB á Level 3 cache 2MB or 4MB A good white paper that details the benefits of the Itanium processor can be found at ftp://download.intel.com/design/ IA-64/Downloads/ia64rev2.pdf. The major network operating system vendors are going to have versions of their operating system that will run on an Itanium-based network server, including the following: á Linux (Caldera, Red Hat, SuSE, VA Linux) á Modesto (Novell) á Windows XP (Microsoft) á UNIX (Hewlett-Packard HP-UX, SCO Monterey)

Processor Cache
Processor cache is high-speed static random access memory (SRAM) rather than the slower and cheaper dynamic random access memory (DRAM) used for system memory. Processor caching is used because most programs access the same data and instructions multiple times.

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By keeping as much of this information as possible in the processor cache, the network server avoids accessing the slower system memory. The processor cache is used for both read and write operations. Processor cache comes in two levels. Level 1 cache is cache memory that is internal to the processor itself. These caches are usually small, 8KB or 16KB. There are actually two Level 1 caches, one for data and one for instructions. Processors can also have a Level 2 cache. Originally, for pre-Pentium processors, the Level 2 cache was actually external to the processor itself. It was still composed of fast static RAM (SRAM). For Pentium processors, however, the Level 2 cache is on the same chip as the processor. Level 2 caches are always larger than Level 1 caches and are placed between the Level 1 cache and main memory. Common Level 2 cache sizes are 256KB, 512KB, 1024KB, and 2048KB. Generally, the larger the Level 2 cache, the faster the processor can perform. Level 2 caches run at either one-half of the processor speed or at the same speed as the processor. Processors that have a Level 2 cache that runs at the same speed as the processor are desirable for network servers. Some newer processors, such as the Itanium, also have a large Level 3 cache on the chip with the processor. When writing to cache, two different methods are utilized: write thru and write back.

Write Thru Cache
When using the write thru method, data is written back to cache and main memory at the same time. This method is also called write through. The processor must wait for the data to be written to the slower DRAM before continuing.

Write Back Cache
When using the write back method, data is written only to cache, and then the cache is written to main memory at a later time. The processor does not wait for the data to be written to slower DRAM and continues processing as soon as the data is written to cache. This frees up the processor to perform other tasks sooner than it would if the processor were using a write thru cache.

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Asymmetric Multiprocessing? Yes, there is such a thing as asymmetric multiprocessing! In asymmetric multiprocessing, one processor supports the network operating system, and directs other processes running on the network server to the other available processors. Asymmetric multiprocessing does not use the available processors as efficiently as symmetric multiprocessing.

Symmetric Multiprocessing
Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) is a system architecture that can be used by network servers to make multiple processors available to individual processes simultaneously. Many network operating systems are designed to take advantage of SMP. Some network applications, such as Microsoft Exchange and SQL Server, are multithreaded and can take advantage of multiple processors in a single network server. In SMP, any idle processor can be assigned any task, and additional processors can be added to the network server to improve performance. Having a network server that is capable of having processors added easily is an advantage when the workload on the network server increases. This is one major component of scalability for the network server.

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This section has general information about several different Intel processors. When selecting the processor for a network server, and considering the role that the network server will perform in the network, pick the fastest processor with the most Level 2 cache that fits the budget of the network server. To provide for future scalability of the network server, select a network server that can support SMP.

SERVER BUSES
. 0.5 Identify the various buses that are part of the network server. The major buses include: • Memory bus • System bus There are many buses in a network server. Buses are a mechanism for moving data, addresses, and control information between components in the network server. Of particular importance are the memory bus and the system bus. Bus speeds are measured in megahertz (millions of cycles per second). The faster the bus speed, the more work that can be done in a given amount of time. Buses cannot be upgraded without replacing the entire system board in the network server. Therefore, get the fastest bus that is available and that fits the budget for the network server.

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NOTE

Memory Bus
The memory bus connects the main memory with the processor of the network server. This is often referred to as a frontside bus. There is also a backside bus that connects the processor with its Level 2 cache. The faster the frontside bus, the faster the processor can access memory. Currently, frontside buses are available that operate at 66MHz, 100MHz, and 133MHz. Local buses are an extension of the frontside bus.

System Bus
There have been many system buses through the history of the microcomputer. Table 1.1 is a comparison of the various systems buses. Following the table are brief descriptions of the different buses.

Bus Transfer Rates The speed of buses is measured in megahertz (MHz). Because the buses transfer multiple bits in parallel for each cycle (hertz), the transfer rates are specified in megabytes per second. A byte is generally 8 bits, and bus widths are designed in multiples of 8 bits. An 8-bit bus transfers 1 byte per cycle. A 16-bit bus transfers 2 bytes per cycle. A 32-bit bus transfers 4 bytes per cycle. A 64-bit bus transfers 8 bytes per cycle.

TABLE 1.1

S Y S T E M B U S C O M PA R I S O N
Bus, Year Introduced ISA (8-bit), 1981 ISA (16-bit), 1984 EISA, 1988 Micro Channel, 1987 Micro Channel, 1987 VESA Local Bus, 1992 PCI, 1992 PCI, 1992 PCI 2.1, 1995 PCI-X 1.0, 1999 AGP, 1996 AGP (x2), 1996 AGP (x4), 1998 Bus Width (Bits) 8 16 32 16 32 32 32 64 64 64 32 32 32 Bus Speed (MHz) 4.77 8 8 8 8 33 33 33 66 132 66 132 264 Transfer Speed Megabytes/Sec. 4.77 16 32 16 32 132 132 264 528 1056 264 528 1056

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Because it is a local bus and it has a very high available bandwidth, the system bus most likely to be found in a network server is some version of the PCI bus.

Industry Standard Architecture
The 16-bit bus that was introduced in 1984 by IBM in its IBM PC/AT is now referred to as the Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus. On occasion, the 8-bit bus used in the original IBM PC from 1981 is included in the ISA description. The speed of the ISA bus matched the speed of the processors and the width of the processor data bus in the computers. The 8-bit bus of the IBM PC ran at 4.77MHz, the same speed that the 8088 processor used. The IBM PC/AT ran at either 6MHz or 8MHz, the speed of the 80286 processors used in those systems. ISA buses in modern computer systems run at 8MHz to provide compatibility for older ISA expansion adapters. ISA buses can still be found in new computer systems. They are utilized for slow devices, such as modems. Generally, ISA bus slots in new computers are bridged to a faster system bus, such as a PCI bus.

Micro Channel Architecture
NOTE
NCR Did Micro Channel NCR was one of the few companies that licensed the Micro Channel Architecture from IBM. NCR actually built microcomputers with Micro Channel buses.

In 1987, IBM introduced the Micro Channel Architecture (sometimes called the MCA bus) bus with the IBM PS/2 microcomputer and its Intel 80386 processor. The 80386 processor used a 32-bit data bus and instead of extending the old ISA bus from 16 to 32 bits, IBM decided to create a completely new bus for the PS/2. The new 32-bit bus ran at the same speed as the old ISA bus, 8MHz. However, the Micro Channel bus was not compatible with the ISA bus. Expansion cards from older ISA bus systems would not work or even fit into the Micro Channel’s expansion slots. This meant that new expansion cards had to be purchased for new systems. Also, IBM decided to “license” the Micro Channel to other microcomputer manufacturers. Few manufacturers wanted to pay IBM for using the Micro Channel, so most opted to either use the old ISA bus, or the new EISA bus that was designed to challenge the Micro Channel bus. The Micro Channel Architecture bus is no longer used in new microcomputers.

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Extended Industry Standard Architecture
With the introduction of the Micro Channel bus in 1987, the makers of “IBM-compatible” microcomputers faced a dilemma. They could either license the use of the Micro Channel from IBM or they could continue to build microcomputers based on the ISA bus. They decided to do neither. They decided to build their own bus.
NOTE

In late 1987, the “gang of nine” (companies that build IBM-compatible microcomputers) released specifications for the Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) bus. The biggest advantage that the EISA bus had over the Micro Channel bus is that legacy ISA expansion cards could be installed into an EISA bus. This feature alone was enough to sway some people away from Micro Channel–equipped computers, because the Micro Channel bus did not allow ISA expansion cards to be installed. In the late 1980s, you had a choice to make when you wanted to purchase a new microcomputer. You could get a microcomputer with an EISA bus (made by anybody but IBM) and use any legacy ISA bus expansion cards you had on hand from older systems, or you could buy a new microcomputer from IBM with its Micro Channel Architecture bus and buy all new expansion boards to fit into it. The EISA bus is nearly extinct. The most common bus in Pentiumbased microcomputers is the PCI bus.

Gang of Nine The nine companies that build IBM-compatible microcomputers which together designed the EISA bus were AST Research, Compaq Computer, Epson, Hewlett-Packard, NEC, Olivetti, Tandy, WYSE, and Zenith Data Systems. Note that only two of these companies, Compaq Computer and Hewlett-Packard, are big names in the microcomputer industry today.

VESA Local Bus
When you understand that VESA stands for Video Electronics Standards Association, you’ve got a good idea about the purpose of the VESA Local Bus (VL-Bus). A local bus is an extension of the memory bus that connects main memory to the processor. This bus is generally much faster than the system bus that connects to adapter cards. The video performance of microcomputers in 1992 was so inadequate that VESA designed a local bus just to improve video performance on microcomputers. The VL-Bus usually only had one adapter slot, and it was designed to accept a high-performance video adapter. The design of the VL-Bus was closely tied to the most popular microprocessor of the time, the Intel 80486. In fact, it was so

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tightly tied to the 80486 that there was difficulty getting the VL-Bus to work with the new Pentium processors. By that time, Intel had designed its own local bus, the Peripheral Component Interconnection (PCI) bus. The VL-Bus is practically nonexistent in new network servers. However, you will find two other local buses: the PCI bus and the AGP bus.

Peripheral Component Interconnect
The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus is a local bus developed by Intel Corporation. The PCI bus uses the principals developed by the VESA local bus. However, the PCI bus allows for more than 1 expansion slot (usually 3 or 4) on the bus. The PCI bus maintains the 33MHz bus speed and the 32-bit bus width introduced by the VL-Bus. This gives the PCI bus a throughput of 132MBps (32 bits = 4 bytes; 4 bytes transferred 33 million times per second is 132 million bytes). The PCI bus is the standard bus in nearly all computers with Pentium and higher processors. Most network servers have one or more PCI buses. They might also have one or two ISA or EISA slots bridged off the PCI bus for slow-speed legacy devices such as modems. In 1995, the PCI 2.1 specification was released. It specified a PCI bus running at 66MHz, twice the speed of the original PCI specification of 33MHz.
TIP
PCI Hot Swap Know the benefits of the PCI hot swap feature.

Some PCI buses have another unique characteristic, called PCI hot swap. This technology allows PCI adapters to be installed, removed, or upgraded without having to shut down the network server. This is a very nice feature because it means that failed PCI adapters can be replaced without having to shut down the network server.

EXAM

PCI-X
The PCI-X specification resulted from a PCI workgroup that was led by Compaq Computer. The specification was accepted by the PCI Special Interest Group (SIG) in 1999. The PCI-X specification is an enhancement to the original PCI specification and it defines a 64-bit PCI bus that operates at 133MHz. This gives a bus data transfer rate in excess of 1GB per second.

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The PCI-X technology is backward compatible with exiting PCI systems. Conventional PCI adapters will operate in PCI-X systems and PCI-X adapters will operate in conventional PCI systems (although they will operate at the slower PCI bus speed). The highest speed of PCI-X (133MHz) is available only if there is one PCI-X slot on the PCI bus. Two PCI-X slots reduce the speed of the PCI-X bus to 100MHz. Four PCI-X slots reduce the speed of the PCI-X bus even further to 66MHz.

Accelerated Graphics Port
The Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP), designed by Intel Corporation, is another local bus that supports high-speed video graphics on microcomputers. The AGP bus is 32 bits wide and operates at 66MHz. The APG also has two faster modes: 2x mode which operates at 2 × 66 (or 132) MHz and 4x mode which operates at 4 × 66 (or 264) megahertz. There is little reason to have a high-speed video display on a network server. However, an AGP bus would be a great asset on a workstation used for animation or high-speed graphic simulations.

Intelligent Input/Output
Intelligent Input/Output (I2O) is a technology designed to remove the load created by input/output operations from the processor by using specialized input/output processors (IOPs). The IOPs will handle basic I/O operations, such as handling I/O interrupts, buffering of data between system memory and the I/O device, and the actual data transfer. These I/O operations are currently handled by the network server’s processor. The I2O driver consists of two components: the OS-specific module (OSM), which interfaces to the network operating system; and the hardware device module (HDM), which handles communications with the I/O device. This is done in an attempt to make the I/O device driver independent of the network server operating system. The first implementation of I2O will most likely be associated with the PCI bus. The I2O specifications, developer resources, and other materials that were developed by the I2O Special Interest Group (I2O SIG) can be found at www.intelligent-io.com/.

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InfiniBand Architecture
InfiniBand Architecture (IBA) is a proposed future high-speed input/output system for network servers designed to replace current bus-based input/output systems (such as PCI). IBA can use fiberoptic cable or copper wire as a transmission medium. Transmission speeds from 500MB per second to 6GB per second can be achieved. IBA is being developed by the InfiniBand Trade Association, whose membership includes Compaq, Dell, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, and Sun Microsystems. For more information about IBA, visit the InfiniBand Trade Association web site at www.infinibandta.org. There is a good white paper from Dell on InfiniBand Architecture at
www.dell.com/downloads/global/vectors/infiniband.pdf.

R E V I E W

B R E A K

This section discussed the various system buses that a server hardware specialist might expect to find in a network server. When selecting the network server, and considering the role that the network server will perform in the network, select the network server with the fastest bus (or multiple peer buses) that fits the budget of the network server. The system bus cannot be upgraded without replacing the entire system board, which is an expensive proposition.

NOTE

RAM, Is There SAM? Random access means that the bytes of data in main memory can be accessed in any order (at random). This implies that there is, or was, such a thing as sequential access memory (SAM), which is not the case.

MEMORY
. 0.6 Identify the characteristics of different types of memory. Identify how the amount of memory affects network server performance. Identify how interleaving of memory affects network server performance. Major memory topics include: • Amount of memory • Memory interleaving • Type of memory Main or system memory for network servers is random access memory (RAM).

however. thus avoiding having to wait for memory to finishing processing one request before processing another (known as a wait state). the less likely that paging will have to occur. A two-way interleave means that main memory has been divided into two sections. Static RAM will maintain data stored in it without a refresh. Unfortunately. However. which is close to 1000 (102). megabytes. Memory is categorized by several different characteristics. Memory Types Several types of memory are common in network servers. Everything in computers is measured and addressed as a power of 2. If paging in a virtual memory operating system can be avoided. NOTE NOTE Future Memory Technology In the very near future. static RAM is faster than dynamic RAM. This leads to a great deal of confusion.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 53 There are two basic types of RAM: dynamic RAM (DRAM). RAM is used not only to hold programs to be executed. there is no such thing as too much memory in a network server. and caching frequently accessed web pages (in the web server environment). The process of writing to a disk drive is very slow when compared to memory access speeds. The more RAM in a network server that uses virtual memory technology (also known as paging). A four-way interleave means that main memory has been divided into four sections. The disk storage area used by virtual memory systems is usually called a paging file or a swap file. The term “kilo” historically indicates 1000. Two raised to the 10th power (210) is 1024. the overall performance of the network server will be improved. Amount of Memory As a general rule. Memory Interleaving One way to speed up access to main memory is to divide it into sections so that the processor can access alternate sections at the same time. Dynamic RAM needs to be refreshed many times per second to maintain data.Chapter 1 0. kilo means 1000. but also for caching frequently accessed files (in the file and print server environment). and static RAM (SRAM). Paging refers to the process of writing unused portions of program to disk to free up memory. In general usage outside of the computer field. Because there is no refresh cycle. you should expect to see new memory technology in network servers. Memory Measurements Memory is measured in kilobytes. computers use base 2 (or binary) arithmetic rather than base 10 (or decimal) arithmetic. In network servers. or gigabytes. Mirroring of memory for fault tolerance and memory hot swap technologies should be available very shortly. . Dynamic RAM is utilized as main memory. and kilobyte is the term that is used to indicate 1024 bytes. static RAM is rather expensive and therefore it is not used except in special cases such as Level 2 processor cache.

54 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Memory Form Factors NOTE What is Virtual Memory? Virtual memory is a technique used by sophisticated network server operating systems to make the network server appear to have more main memory than it has actually installed. NOTE Smaller SIMMs There was also a 30-pin SIMM that was only 3 1/2” wide. Pages of memory (usually 2K or 4K in size) that aren’t currently required by program that are in main memory are written to disk and removed from main memory. dual in-line memory modules (DIMMs). This form factor is not often seen in modern network servers. FIGURE 1. DIMMs have 168 pins on the bottom edge and can transfer data 64 bits at a time. The process of reading and writing the disk is very much slower than reading and writing main memory. A DIMM actually has 84 pins on each side of the connector edge.1 shows a diagram of a 72-pin SIMM. A SIMM is a small printed circuit board with memory chips attached. SIMMs can transfer 32 bits of data at a time. SIMMs must be installed in pairs. Because memory data buses are usually 64 bits wide. There are 72 pins on each side of a SIMM. and direct Rambus RIMMs. .1 Single in-line memory module. Figure 1. When the page that was written to disk is needed. DIMMs have two notches in the bottom edge of the DIMM to prevent the insertion of a DIMM with the incorrect type of memory into a memory slot. but they are connected together electrically. The freed-up main memory page can then be utilized by a program that currently needs the memory. Memory form factors include single in-line memory modules (SIMMs). One way to categorize memory is its physical form factor. It is approximately 4 1/4” wide and has 72 contacts or pins on the bottom edge.2 shows a diagram of a DIMM. some programs would not be able to run. it is copied back from the disk drive into main memory. but without virtual memory. A DIMM is slightly larger than a SIMM. or fewer programs could be run simultaneously. Figure 1. The technique involves using disk space as a substitute for main memory. usually 5 1/4” wide.

RIMMs are available in sizes of 64MB. SDRAM synchronizes itself with the memory bus. and RDRAM memory. RIMMs transfer data in 16-bit chunks. and direct Rambus (RDRAM) Extended Data Out DRAM EDO DRAM is faster than conventional DRAM because it can start accessing the next chunk of memory while it is sending a chunk of memory to the processor. A RIMM (RIMM is a trademark of Rambus. Inc. Synchronous DRAM Instead of having its access speeds measured in nanoseconds. 128MB. The memory chips on RIMMs are Rambus direct random access memory (RDRAM). Figure 1. and 133MHz. Important memory technologies include extended data out (EDO) DRAM. EDO DRAM access speeds are measured in nanoseconds with 60ns and 70ns being common speeds. 100MHz.2 A dual in-line memory module. and 256MB.3 Direct Rambus memory module (RIMM).3 shows a diagram of a RIMM. SDRAM. they are covered with aluminum heat spreaders. FIGURE 1. double data rate synchronous DRAM (DDR SDRAM).Chapter 1 0. RDRAM Memory Know the characteristics of EDO. To help dissipate the heat generated by the RDRAM chips.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 55 FIGURE 1. SDRAM. but it has 184 pins rather than 168 pins. EDO. thus eliminating waits between memory accesses. Memory Technologies Memory can also be categorized by the memory technology utilized.) is a direct Rambus memory module and is the same physical size as a DIMM. Common speeds are 66MHz. synchronous DRAM (SDRAM). EXAM TIP .

ECC memory should be selected. This high speed comes at a high cost. However. 100MHz. the technique is called registering. For SDRAM. Some memory has no error checking at all. Unbuffered.56 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Double Data Rate Synchronous DRAM Double Data Rate (DDR) DRAM supports data transfers at the beginning and at the end of each clock cycle (data transfers are usually only done once per clock cycle). Registered Memory Know the meaning and purpose of buffered. However. effectively doubling the memory chip’s data throughput. Buffered Memory and Registered Memory Buffers and registers are techniques used to increase the amount of memory that can be installed in a network server by amplifying control signals in the memory chips. however. and registered memory. When selecting network server hardware and there is a choice between ECC memory and non-ECC memory. There are a couple techniques available to handle memory errors and ensure data integrity. Error Correction Code (ECC) is a more sophisticated method of data protection in that it cannot only detect single bit errors but can correct them as well. pick the ECC memory even though it will raise the cost of the system. In network servers. Memory Error Checking It is possible for errors to occur in memory modules. . and it is usually referred to as nonparity memory. parity can detect only single bit errors and cannot correct the error that it detects. and 133MHz. unbuffered. Parity memory is rarely utilized in network servers. TIP EXAM EXAM TIP Buffered. Memory parity is an historical way to detect memory errors. Direct Rambus Direct Rambus (RDRAM) is a radically different memory architecture developed by Rambus Incorporated. For EDO memory. Speeds up to 800MHz can be achieved. Common speeds are 66MHz. ECC and Non-ECC Memory Know the difference between Error Correcting Code and nonECC memory. where data integrity is critical. Many desktop computer systems use neither parity nor ECC data integrity techniques to keep the cost of the system low. the technique is called buffering. this is the fastest memory technology currently available for network servers. It does provide very fast data transfers compared to the more traditional SDRAM.

in the case of the eight 64MB memory modules.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 57 Buffering and registering allow more memory modules to be supported in the network server. R E V I E W B R E A K This section discussed the various types of system memory that the server hardware specialist might encounter in a network server. the fewer memory expansion slots that will be available for the addition of memory in the future. Consider scalability when purchasing a new network server. For a complete description of computer memory. In fact the memory modules are keyed to prevent the accidental insertion of the wrong type of memory module into the memory slot. Again. In fact. it might be the case that they have to be removed and replaced entirely to upgrade the network server to 1024MB of memory.com/tools/umg/default. purchase as much memory as the budget for the network server will allow.kingston. . more registered SDRAM memory modules can be installed in a network server than unregistered SDRAM memory modules. For SDRAM. see the Kingston Ultimate Memory Guide (all 110 pages of it) at www. For network servers. due to its capability to detect and correct single bit errors in the memory itself. the SDRAM modules are keyed to prevent the accidental insertion of the wrong type of memory module into the memory slot. and considering the role that the network server will perform in the network.asp. NOTE Putting It All Together Putting all the memory characteristics together. when using EDO memory. are there four 128MB memory modules installed or are there two 256MB memory modules installed? Or is the 512MB of memory composed of eight 64MB memory modules? The more memory modules installed. such as the following: • Unbuffered SDRAM • Buffered ECC ECO DIMM • Unbuffered EDO DIMM • EDO SIMM • ECC registered DIMM • ECC unbuffered SDRAM Check the documentation that came with the network server for the type of memory required for upgrading memory in the network server. How many memory slots are available? How many memory slots will be available after the memory specified in the original memory configuration is installed? If the new network server will have 512MB of memory installed. more buffered EDO memory modules can be installed in a network server than unbuffered EDO memory modules. Registered and unregistered SDRAM modules cannot be mixed in the same system. it is highly recommended that ECC memory be obtained. Buffered and unbuffered EDO memory modules cannot be mixed in the same system. Therefore. you will see memory modules descriptions that combine various descriptors.Chapter 1 0. When selecting the memory for a network server.

T. Ultra ATA disk drives can have rotational speeds up to 10.7 Identify the strengths and weaknesses of the various types of disk subsystems. the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved the IDE specification as the AT Attachment (ATA) standard. such as hard disk drives and CD-ROM drives in a network server. IDE and ATA refer to the same thing.A. NOTE Integrated Drive Electronics Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE/ATA) is a specification for an interface to access mass storage devices. . the faster that the disk drives can theoretically transfer data. The top speed for SCSI disk drives is 15. the transfer rates for disk subsystems are measured in megabytes (MB). and the data transfer rate of the disk subsystem is of great importance in ensuring top performance of the network server. 0. Analysis and Reporting Technology (S. The disk subsystem is a very important component in network servers.58 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION DISK SUBSYSTEMS . The faster the rotational speed of the disk drives.R. In 1994.000rpms. the rotational speed of disk drives.M.000rpms. but the type of disk drives used. Content may include the following: • Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE/ATA) • Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE/ATA2) • Ultra ATA / Ultra DMA • Serial ATA • Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) • Self-Monitoring.) • Fibre Channel • Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) • Serial Storage Architecture (SSA) • Storage area network (SAN) • Network-attached storage (NAS) Disk Subsystem Transfer Rates Because most disk channels transfer bits in parallel (usually 8 bits or 16 bits). Not only is the proper selection of the amount of disk storage important.

Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE/ATA-2) is an enhanced version of the original IDE specification. The differences between IDE and EIDE are that EIDE can transfer data faster and support larger hard disk drives than IDE.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 59 An IDE/ATA adapter can have two channels.5 megabytes per second. Because the IDE/ATA interface is relatively easy to implement (which translates into lower costs). EIDE is also called Fast IDE or Fast ATA. using DMA for . When two IDE/ATA disk drives are attached to one channel. The short length of the IDE/ATA channel limits the use of IDE/ATA to disk drives that are internal to the network server. IDE/ATA disk drives are often found in desktop computer systems where the limits of 18-inch channels and 4 disk drives are acceptable. Each channel (actually a ribbon cable with 40 conductors using 40-pin connectors) can be up to 18 inches long. In other words. The disk controller on the master drive actually controls both disk drives in this arrangement. IDE/ATA disk drives are seldom found in network server except for entry-level workgroup servers.3 to 8. with a maximum of two disk drives per channel. using IDE/ATA technology puts a load on the processor of the network server. This means that an IDE/ATA adapter can have up to four disk drives attached to it.3 megabytes per second (MBps). For the processor.Chapter 1 0. PIO requires that the processor of the network server be involved in the data transfer. Ultra ATA/Ultra DMA The use of direct memory access (DMA) allows data to be moved from the disk drive to main memory without the computer’s processor being involved in the process.3 to 16. they must be set to master and slave roles. EIDE was adopted as the ATA-2 standard by ANSI in 1996. EIDE can transfer data at a rate of 11. IDE/ATA technology uses a technique called programmed input/ output (PIO) to move data from the disk drive to the memory of the computer. IDE/ATA technology can transfer data at a rate of 3. The actual controller for IDE/ATA disk drives is on the disk drive itself.

this translates into approximately 150MBps. can transfer data at speeds of up to 100MBps. The cables for these faster modes use 80 conductors in the cable rather than 40 conductors in the cable. can transfer data at speeds of up to 33MBps. and IDE technologies. whereas parallel ATA specifies its speed as megabytes per second (MBps). but using DMA disk transfers can be much faster.) Because serial ATA uses serial transmission. its speed is specified in megabits per second (Mbps). The ATA adapter is still restricted to two channels with two disk drives per channel. The transfer rate of the fastest ATA disk drives currently available is 40MBps. There are currently three versions of Ultra ATA: á Ultra ATA 33. . However. or Ultra DMA 66. (Bits travel down the ATA cable one after the other.5 gigabits per second). the connector used for Ultra ATA 66 and Ultra ATA 100 is still a 40-pin connector. or Ultra DMA 33. EIDE. there are currently no ATA disk drives that can sustain such speeds. á A thinner (4 wire) and more flexible serial ATA cable replaces the current flat 40-wire or 80-wire ribbon cable used by parallel ATA. NOTE Ultra Controversy The high transfer speeds offered by Ultra ATA 100 are considered by some people to be very misleading in that although it is true that the ATA channel can support these very high transfer speeds. can transfer data at speeds of up to 66MBps. or Ultra DMA 100. which means the transmission speed is 1500Mbps (1. Ultra ATA 66 and Ultra ATA 100 require a different cable than that used by Ultra ATA 33.) Work is under way to create a new ATA specification that uses a serial data transfer mechanism. The advantages of serial ATA over parallel ATA are as follows: á A cable length of up to 1 meter (compared to 18 inches for parallel ATA). Serial ATA All versions of the ATA specification up to now have used a parallel data transfer mechanism.60 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION disk data transfer to memory is much more efficient than using PIO used by IDE and EIDE technology. (Multiple bits that represent data travel down the ATA ribbon cable in parallel wires. á Ultra ATA 100. á Ultra ATA 66. The first serial ATA specification is known as Serial ATA/1500. Because of the overhead of serial transmissions.

The SCSI-1 bus could have up to 7 SCSI devices attached.dell.serialata. Dell and IBM. You can find additional information on serial ATA at the Serial ATA Working Group web page at www. and SCSI devices can be internal or external to the computer system. (Ultra ATA 100. Small Computer System Interface The Small Computer System Interface (SCSI).com/us/en/biz/ topics vectors_2000-sata.htm?clkd=iwm. The major supporters of serial ATA are Intel Corporation. SCSI-1 The original SCSI standard adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1979 was renamed to SCSI-1 when the SCSI-2 standard was adopted in 1984. the fastest parallel ATA specification. The original SCSI bus was 8 bits wide and could transfer up to 5MBps. It offered many improvements over the SCSI-1 standard.) á Future versions of serial ATA will support data transfer rates of 300MBps and 600MBps.Chapter 1 0. SCSI is significant for many reasons: It is a bus controller. A new physically smaller 68-pin connector was used by SCSI-2 devices. which is pronounced “scuzzy. Maxtor.org. Quantum. The SCSI-2 standard defined both 8-bit-wide (which used a 50-pin connector) .0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 61 á The first version of serial ATA will support transfer speeds of up to 150MBps. For more information on serial ATA.” began life in 1979 as SASI (Shugart Associates Systems Interface). and disk drive manufacturers. read the Dell white paper on serial ATA at www. SCSI-2 The SCSI-2 standard was approved by ANSI in 1994. APT Technologies. not a disk controller. many devices can be attached to a single bus. The maximum length of the SCSI-1 bus was 6 meters. computer makers. The SCSI-1 bus used 50-pin connectors. and Seagate. has a maximum transfer rate of 100MBps.

2 summarizes the SCSI-3 standards. The external 68-pin connector is often referred to as a very high density cable interconnect (VHDCI) connector. SCSI-3 Confused? Don’t confuse Ultra 2 SCSI and SCSI 2! Ultra 2 SCSI is a SCSI-3 standard that can transfer data at 40MBps. The Low-Voltage Differential (LVD) SCSI signaling system was introduced with SCSI-3.2 SUMMARY SCSI Standard SCSI-1 SCSI-2 SCSI-2 SCSI-2 SCSI-3 OF SCSI S TA N D A R D S Bus Speed (MHz) 5 Bus Width 8 bit 8 bit 16 bit 16 bit 8 bit Transfer Speed MB/s 5 10 10 20 20 Marketing Term Fast Wide Fast Wide Ultra 10 5 10 20 .62 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION and 16-bit-wide (which used the 68-pin connector) buses. and devices per channel. SCSI-2 also introduced Differential SCSI (later called High Voltage Differential (HVD) SCSI) that could have a cable length of 25 meters. Serial Storage Architecture. and IEEE 1394). Table 1. The internal 68-pin connector is often referred to as a high density (HD) 68-pin connector. 10MBps. A higher transfer speed. but it also added Serial SCSI standards (Fibre Channel. SCSI-3 devices use 50-pin or 68-pin connectors. A Wide SCSI bus can support 15 devices rather than the normal 7 devices of SCSI-1 or Narrow SCSI-2. cable types. Notice the marketing terms for the different SCSI standards. The SCSI-3 standard has led to faster SCSI buses. SCSI-2 is the predecessor to the SCSI-3 standard that can transfer data at a maximum of 20MBps (for the Fast Wide variant). was specified as Fast SCSI. Unlike the SCSI-1 and SCSI-2 standards. Table 1. NOTE TABLE 1. The higher speed SCSI-3 standards use 68-pin connectors exclusively. causing the 8-bit bus to be called Narrow SCSI. The 16bit version was known as Wide SCSI. Both the Fast Narrow SCSI and the Slow Wide SCSI could transfer data at 10MBps. the SCSI-3 specification is actually a set of several standards. There was also a combination Fast Wide SCSI that could transfer data at 20MBps.3 lists SCSI cable lengths. SCSI-3 maintained the parallel bus of SCSI-1 and SCSI-2.

A timing technique that allows transmission of data at both the beginning and at the end of a clock cycle.Chapter 1 0. PER CHANNEL SCSI Standard SCSI-1 SCSI-2 Fast SCSI-2 Wide SCSI-2 Fast Wide SCSI-3 Ultra SCSI-3 Ultra Wide SCSI-3 Ultra2 Maximum Number of Devices 7 7 15 15 7 7 7 Cable Type 50-pin 50-pin 68-pin 68-pin 50-pin 68-pin 50-pin AND DEVICES HVD Cable 25 25 25 25 25 LVD Cable 12 SingleEnded Cable 6 3 6 3 3 3 - continues . TABLE 1.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 63 SCSI Standard SCSI-3 SCSI-3 SCSI-3 SCSI-3 SCSI-3 SCSI-3 Marketing Term Ultra Wide Ultra2 Ultra2 Wide Ultra160 Ultra320 Fibre Channel IEEE 1394 Bus Speed (MHz) 20 40 40 40DT* 80DT* Bus Width 16 bit 8 bit 16 bit 16 bit 16 bit 1 bit (serial) 1 bit (serial) Transfer Speed MB/s 40 40 80 160 320 100 megabits per second 400 megabits per second SCSI-3 *DT. C A B L E T Y P E . effectively doubling the amount of data that can be transmitted in a given period of time.3 SCSI C A B L E L E N G T H . Double Transition Clocking.

3 continued AND SCSI C A B L E L E N G T H .) is a technology often found on Ultra ATA and SCSI disk drives installed in network servers.T.A.A. Self-Monitoring. Analysis and Reporting Technology (S.64 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION TABLE 1.R. Analysis.T is a disk drive reliability prediction technique that can predict when a disk drive is going to fail by monitoring various performance parameters such as the following: á Head flying height á Temperature á Spin-up time á Retries á Internal error logs .R.org. PER CHANNEL SCSI Standard SCSI-3 Ultra2 Wide Maximum Number of Devices 15 Cable Type 68-pin HD internal 68-pin VHDCI external 68-pin HD internal 68-pin VHDCI external 68-pin internal 68-pin VHDCI external DEVICES HVD Cable LVD Cable 12 SingleEnded Cable - SCSI-3 Ultra160 15 - - 12 SCSI-3 Ultra320 15 - - 12 For more information about all versions of the SCSI specification.) Self-Monitoring. S. visit the SCSI Trade Association web site at www.M. C A B L E T Y P E .M.R.A.T.M. and Reporting Technology (S.scsita.

to be connected to a single Fibre Channel. SSA supports several different topologies. hundreds. . Fibre Channel can transmit data at up to 2GBps using fiber-optic cable.T. Fibre Channel can be implemented using one of several different topologies: the fabric topology.A.fibrechannel. It is one way to implement a storage area network (SAN). SSA loops can use either shielded copper cables or fiber-optic cables for connecting devices in the loop. SSA adapters for an Intel-based network server can support simultaneous full-duplex 40MBps connections. it can use TCP/IP to transfer data. FC-AL can use either fiber-optic cable (with a length of up to 10 kilometers) or copper cable (with a length of up to 30 meters). FC-AL can transfer data at 100MBps. In one form. Fibre Channel is an external bus that allows tens.R.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 65 The reporting component of S. it is a version of serial SCSI-3. and thousands of devices. Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop The most common Fibre Channel implementation is Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL). the point-to-point topology. will notify the system that the drive is about to fail. and the arbitrated loop topology. see the Fibre Channel Industry Association (FCIA) web site at www. thus allowing time for the system administrator to take actions (such as performing a backup and replacing the disk drive before it fails) to avoid loss of data. SSA can support up to 127 nodes in a single loop.com. FC-AL makes a good choice for implementing an external bus with many disk drives. In another form. Support for copper cable was later added to the Fiber Channel specification.M. such as disk drives. but it has been adopted as an ANSI standard as of 1994. The most common of these topologies is the arbitrated loop topology. A FC-AL can have up to 127 ports connected in a loop configuration. NOTE EXAM TIP Fibre Channel Fibre Channel is an ANSI standard serial data transfer architecture.Chapter 1 0. For more information about Fibre Channel. Why Is It Spelled Fibre? The original Fiber Channel specification supported fiber-optic cable only. A Fibre Channel can be implemented using either fiberoptic cable or copper cable. FC-AL SAN Know that FC-AL can support a large number of disk drives in a SAN. It was decided to use the French spelling of Fiber (Fibre) in the name Fibre Channel in hopes that this would reduce the natural connection of Fibre Channel with fiber-optic cable. Serial Storage Architecture Serial Storage Architecture (SSA) was originally created by IBM in 1991. but the most common is the SSA loop.

and HTTP.5 shows an example of a NAS system. NetBEUI) Storage Area Network using data access protocols such as SCSI and Fibre Channel fibre channel switch fibre channel switch FIGURE 1. Network clients communicate directly with the intelligent storage server. Network-Attached Storage As the name implies. FTP. such as the Network File System (NFS). Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk . IPX/SPX. Ethernet or Token Ring) and common network protocols. Figure 1. Figure 1.4 shows a diagram of a typical SAN. the Common Internet File System (CIFS) for Windows networks. Client Client Client Local Area Network using standard network protocols (TCP/IP. network-attached storage (NAS) is disk or tape storage attached to a network that is accessed via the network itself using the common network systems (for instance. SANs are generally more expensive to implement than network-attached storage.4 Storage area network. A SAN is usually implemented using high-speed technology such as Fibre Channel or Serial Storage Architecture. except that the storage is accessed via a dedicated network.66 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Storage Area Network A storage area network (SAN) is very similar to a network-attached storage (NAS) system.

Always buy disk drives that support S. Consider the number of disk drives that will fit into the network server chassis. Ultra ATA disk drives are good choices for entry-level servers that can tolerate the limited number of disk drives (four) that can be attached to a single ATA disk controller. When selecting the disk subsystem for a network server and considering the role that the network server will perform in the network. continues . S.A. However. When planning for storage requirements. IPX/SPX. remember that there is no such thing as too much disk storage on a network server. as well as the number of disk drives that can be attached to a single controller bus.T technology can be found on both ATA and SCSI disk drives.T.A. In general. NetBEUI) Network-Attached Storage (NAS) R E V I E W B R E A K This section discussed the disk subsystem for a network server. Plan for expandability.R.5 Network-attached storage.R. SCSI disk drives offer the most expandability and the fastest transfer rates.M.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 67 Server Client Client Server FIGURE 1.M. acquire the fastest disk drives available.Chapter 1 0. LAN using standard network protocol (TCP. technology.

and the mouse were also created at PARC. but any RAID is better than no RAID at all. Ethernet was created by Bob Metcalfe and Dave Boggs at the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) of Xerox Corporation in the early 1970s.3) Ethernet is a low-level protocol used to create networks. NETWORK SYSTEMS . In the late 1970s. Xerox. . Lastly.68 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION continued Because disk drives are the only mechanical devices (other than cooling fans) in a network server. Yet. there is a good chance that some of them will fail during the useful life of the network server.8 Identify different network subsystems. Plan for fault tolerance of the disk subsystem. the graphical user interface. 0. Always use RAID technology on network servers. and Digital Equipment Corporation cooperated to get Ethernet standardized by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) project 802. The network devices required to implement a network are also discussed. Ethernet (IEEE 802. not megabytes. NOTE Network Transmission Rates Most network communications systems transmit data in a serial fashion and their transmission rates are measured in megabits (Mb). These two networking systems are discussed in this section. Software-based RAID does use some of the processing power of the network server processor. Successfully attach various devices to and remove various devices from the network subsystem. The original “experimental” Ethernet ran at slightly less than 3Mbps. Content may include the following: • Ethernet • Token Ring • Network interface cards (NICs) • Network devices • Network protocols • Network management The two most popular network systems are Ethernet and Token Ring. NOTE PARC Smart Ethernet was not the only technology invented at Xerox’s PARC. Note: This is megabits. Intel. The personal computer. network management techniques are discussed. but does cost more to implement than software-based RAID. hardware RAID has many advantages. another source of confusion.

DIX Connector The 15-pin connector that was standard on most Ethernet adapters until a few years ago is often referred to as a DIX connector in honor of the three companies that proposed the Ethernet standard (Digital. which operates at 1000Mbps. However. but also very difficult to work with due to its thickness. 10BASE-2 is also wired as a bus. and has a maximum cable length of 185 meters. NOTE NOTE Standard Ethernet The following sections cover the 10Mbps Ethernet standards. Rather than coaxial cable. Yes. Project 802? The IEEE project 802 was so named because it was started in February of 1980. As the name implies. The 10BASE-2 specification for Ethernet uses a thinner coaxial cable (RG-58) that is more flexible and cheaper—hence the names thinnet and cheapernet. which operates at 100Mbps. No wonder it was called the DIX connector. The correct name for this connector is the Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) connector. not 200 meters as the name implies.3u).3z). Like 10BASE-5. The maximum cable length was 500 meters. faster Ethernet standards. and the maximum cable length is 500 meters. and Gigabit Ethernet (802. The original Ethernet is now known as 10BASE-5. Fast Ethernet (802. Intel. 10BASE-T uses unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable that is similar to phone cable. 10BASE-T The 10BASE-T specification for Ethernet changed the Ethernet world forever. Ethernet is the most popular networking system in the world. uses baseband transmission. The name 10BASE-5 indicates that the speed is 10Mbps.3) has a data transfer rate of 10Mbps and uses a media access method known as CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple access with collision detection).Chapter 1 0. the need for cheaper cabling prompted the creation of the 10BASE-T Ethernet standard using twisted-pair cabling. Faster versions of Ethernet have been created since the original Ethernet standard was finalized. The next version of Ethernet that used a much thinner cable is known as 10BASE-2. For many years these were the only Ethernet standards. 10BASE-2 The thick coaxial cable used by the original Ethernet was not only costly.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 69 The standardized Ethernet (IEEE 802. . are the names of the new. 10BASE-5 The original Ethernet used a thick coaxial cable (RG-8) to connect computers. it is 185 meters. A 10BASE-5 network is wired as a bus (a long length of cable) with computers attached at various points along the length of the cable. which are often used to refer to 10BASE-2. it uses baseband transmission. 10BASE-2 has a speed of 10Mbps. The use of fiber-optic cable for increased cable length led to the 10BASE-F Ethernet standard. and Xerox).

with each computer’s cable running to a central point (Ethernet 10BASE-T hub). IN THE FIELD BIT SIZE The natural image of a data bit is something that is rather small.70 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION 10BASE-T networks are popular due to the ease of installation and the fact that the cable is relatively inexpensive. You already know that that 10 million bits per second are sent on standard Ethernet.000 kilometers per second. Maximum cable length is 2 kilometers. you get the following bit lengths for 10Mbps Ethernet.000 Plugging these numbers into the formula.66c 177. The cable used by 10BASE-T contains 4 pairs (8 wires) and it is terminated by using an RJ-45 connector. 10BASE-T networks are wired as a star.59c . 10BASE-F The 10BASE-F specification is for 10Mbps Ethernet running over fiber-optic cable rather than copper wire.000 . The formula for calculating the length of a bit is Medium propagation speed × Speed of light in a vacuum / Speed of Ethernet in megabits per second = Size of bit in meters The propagation speed of electrons through the medium is expressed as a fraction of the speed of light(c). which is 300. This gives a maximum computer to computer distance of 200 meters. The maximum cable length from the computer to the hub is 100 meters.77c Propagation Speed in Kilometers per Second 231. . Medium Propagation Speed as Fraction of (c) .65c 195.000 198. Just how big is a bit sent over 802. The last piece of information that you need is the medium propagation speed of the different media used by standard Ethernet.3 Ethernet? You need several pieces of information to calculate this. First you need to know the speed of light in a vacuum.000 Thick coaxial cable (RG-58) Thin coaxial cable (RG-58) Twisted-pair cable Fiber-optic cable .

Fast Ethernet can use twisted-pair cable or fiber-optic cable.3u.000 10Mbps 19. Fast Ethernet can use Category 5 twisted-pair cables up to 100 meters long.Chapter 1 0. 2MHz Used for: voice. In general. Listed here are the category names. The length of a bit in Fast Ethernet (100Mbps) is approximately 2 meters. the more twists per foot in the cable. Fast Ethernet The Fast Ethernet standard changes the speed of Ethernet from 10Mbps to 100Mbps.000 Ethernet Speed in Millions of Bits per Second Bit Length in Meters Thick coaxial cable (10BASE-5) Thin coaxial cable (10BASE-2) Twisted-pair cable (10BASE-T) Fiber-optic cable (10BASE-F) 10Mbps 23. depending on the medium being used.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 71 Medium Propagation Speed in Kilometers per Second 231.000 10Mbps 17.5 177. and the greater bandwidth available on the cable.8 And you thought bits were small! In standard Ethernet (10Mbps). a bit is approximately 20 meters long.1 195.7 198. alarm wire continues . the distance traveled by an electron is 1/10 as far. bandwidth. and common uses of the UTP cable categories: • Category 1 (Cat 1). The length of a bit represents the distance that an electron (the bit) can travel through the medium in 1 second. IN THE FIELD TWISTED-PAIR CABLE CATEGORIES The EIA/TIA (Electronics Industry Association / Telecommunications Industry Association) has established categories of unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable. The IEEE specification for Fast Ethernet is 802. twists per foot. the higher the category number. not rated • Category 2 (Cat 2). because Fast Ethernet is 10 times as fast as standard Ethernet.000 10Mbps 19.

the name Gigabit Ethernet is used. Gigabit Ethernet can transfer data at 1Gbps (or 1000Mbps).72 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION continued • Category 3 (Cat 3). 16Mbps Token Ring • Category 5 (Cat 5).6 twists/foot Used for: 10BASE-T. 100BASE-T4. Very few companies make equipment. hubs and NICs. 4. 15–24 twists/foot Used for: 10BASE-T. 100BASE-T. 100BASE-TX uses the same wiring scheme as 10BASE-T. 20MHz. The Gigabit Ethernet standard was ratified in 1998. but the twisted-pair cable can be Category 3. Category 4. or Category 5. 16MHz. 16Mbps Token Ring • Category 5E (Cat 5E). 1000BASE-T. 1000BASE-T • Category 6 (Cat 6). Gigabit Ethernet There are specifications for Ethernet that are faster than Fast Ethernet. Instead of calling the next Ethernet standard Faster Ethernet. . 12–20 twists/foot Used for: 10BASE-T. 100MHz. 100BASE-F 100BASE-F is the specification for Fast Ethernet over fiber-optic cable and it allows data transmission at 100Mbps for a maximum cable length of up to 2 kilometers. 15–24 twists/foot Used for: 10BASE-T. 100MHz. and 100BASE-F. 250MHz (proposal) 100BASE-T The 100BASE-T specification is actually three separate specifications: 100BASE-TX.8–9. 100BASE-T. 100BASE-T4 uses a twisted-pair cable with 4 pairs (8 wires). 4Mbps Token Ring • Category 4 (Cat 4). that can use the 100BASE-T4 standard. but the unshielded twisted-pair cable must meet the Category 5 specification for it to work.

It is designed for low-cost fiber-optic cable over distances of 220 meters to 550 meters.3ae. 10 Gig Ethernet will use only fiber-optic cable as a transmission medium. There is a proposal for High-Speed Token Ring (HPTR) networks with speeds up to 100Mbps.3z specification. For more information on High-Speed Token Ring.5 standard. For more information about the 10 Gig Ethernet standard. It is anticipated that the new standard will allow data transmission speeds of 10Gbps for distances of 100 meters using multimode fiber-optic cables and distances of at least 2 kilometers using single-mode fiber-optic cable.3z specification. Token Ring was created by IBM and later standardized by IEEE as the 802. 10 Gig Ethernet The proposed 10-gigabit per second Ethernet standard is known as 802. . The original Token Ring networks operated at 4Mbps.10gea. Maximum cable length is 100 meters. 1000BASE-SX The 1000BASE-SX specification is a 1-gigabit Ethernet standard using fiber-optic cable.com. 1000BASE-LX The 1000BASE-LX specification is a 1-gigabit Ethernet standard using fiber-optic cable that is designed for long distances using more expensive single-mode fiber-optic cable over distances of up to 5 kilometers.hstra. Later versions of Token Ring operated at 16Mbps. see the High-Speed Token Ring Alliance web site at www. Gigabit Ethernet uses all four pairs of wires in a high-quality unshielded twisted-pair (Category 5 or higher) cable. It is also part of the 802.5) Token Ring is a low-level protocol used to create networks.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 73 1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet using twisted-pair wiring is known as 802. Token Ring (IEEE 802. check out the web site at www.org.Chapter 1 0. It comprises part of the 802.3ab.

Adapter Teaming Multiple NICs are often found in network servers. The IEEE has defined a standard for wireless networks. just like twisted-pair Ethernet networks. making the server available on all the attached networks. Wireless Networks (IEEE 802. A 64-bit NIC will perform much better than a 32-bit NIC. The NICs installed in network server often are more sophisticated and intelligent than NICs that would be used in client computers. The original Token Ring networks used shielded twisted pair (STP) cabling. In the past. Because the NIC is a critical component of a network server.11. the better the network connectivity for the network server. An 802. The faster and wider the PCI bus and matching PCI NIC. A PCI bus that operates at 66Mbps will outperform a PCI bus that operates at 33Mbps.11 network consists of access points (APs) that can be connected together to support a relatively large network. both in the corporate environment and for home networks. Although . The computer could be up to 100 meters away from the central network device known as a multi station access unit (MSAU). multiple NICs were attached to different physical networks.11) Many people are interested in wireless networks. Future versions of this standard will likely double the data transmission rate. known as 802. PCI buses offer the best bandwidth. The wireless LAN standard supports transmission of data at up to 11Mbps using a radio frequency of 2. More recent versions of Token Ring use Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable. however. the NIC should be inserted into a bus with the best possible bandwidth.4GHz. Network Interface Cards The Network Interface Card (NIC) is the adapter that is inserted into a network server to allow it to be attached to the network. The power output of the AP dictates the distance that a computer (usually a laptop computer) can be from the access point and still access the network.74 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Token Ring networks use the token-passing method to access the media rather than the CSMA/CD method used by Ethernet networks.

and port aggregation. The primary NIC will both receive and transmit data. EXAM TIP WOL and Its Magic Packet Know how Wake-On-LAN and its magic packet operate. For example. whereas the other NICs in the team share the transmission load.Chapter 1 0. If the primary NIC fails. a technique known as adapter teaming provides new capabilities. thus providing fault tolerance. Adapter teaming is the technique of using more than one NIC in a network server to provide adaptive fault tolerance. This feature is handy for remote troubleshooting and remote backup operations. one of the other NICs will take over its function. Allows multiple NICs to be installed in a network server.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 75 multiple NICs might still serve the same purpose today.com/products/npd/overview/20212. The network server operating system must support adapter teaming for it to be implemented on the network server. is sent to the NIC on the remote computer. adaptive fault tolerance. Wake-On-LAN A recent addition to the functions that can be performed by a NIC is called Wake-On-LAN (WOL). called a magic packet. adapter load balancing.html. For more detailed information about a magic packet. will be active. or port aggregation. A special TCP/IP packet. A secondary NIC in the team will be utilized when there is a failure of the primary NIC in the team. the WOL NIC powers up the computer in which it is installed. Multiple NICs Know the terms that deal with multiple NICs in a network server: adapter teaming. all of which are attached to the network. All NICs in the team should run at the same speed. Wake-On-LAN technology enables a network administrator to power up a computer with a WOL NIC from anywhere on the network. see the web site at www. . Only one NIC. which will then power up the computer. á Port aggregation. Requires an Ethernet switch that supports port aggregation. the primary NIC. NOTE EXAM TIP Magic Packet A magic packet is a standard TCP/IP packet that contains the IP address of the destination computer with WOL capabilities repeated 16 times in the data portion of the packet. adapter load balancing. Allows multiple NICs to be installed in the network server (up to eight). á Adapter or adaptive load balancing. The NICs in the team may be running at different speeds. Upon receipt of the magic packet. all of which are attached to the same network. The following list describes the various capabilities that can be provided by using various forms of adapter teaming: á Adaptive or adapter fault tolerance.amd. Allows multiple NICs to act together to increase the bandwidth available to the network server. four 100Mbps NICs could be used to provide 400Mbps total bandwidth to the network server.

That is why a repeater regenerates the signal. Each network computer is attached to the hub. A repeater can also act as a media converter. Amplifying the signals would not only amplify the data signal but the noise as well. Hub A hub is a network device used in an Ethernet network that uses twisted-pair cabling. A coaxial cable could be connected to one port and a fiber-optic cable could be connected to the other port. which normally has a maximum single cable length of 500 meters. The repeater receives the signals from one cable segment and regenerates the signals and sends them to the other cable segment. A bridge can be a hardware device or a network server in the role of a bridge. you should be familiar with the function of these devices. The hub is nothing more than a multiport repeater. It creates a temporary link between the source and destination computers (based on hardware addresses) for the time it takes to transmit a single data packet. for instance. Multiples of these temporary links can . As a server hardware specialist. A repeater is not an amplifier. Switch A switch is a network device that is basically a very high-speed bridge. The bridge will keep network traffic that is destined for computers within the building local and only forward network traffic to the backbone when the destination is a computer not in the building. two 500 meters cables can be joined together by a repeater to form a total network length of 1000 meters. Bridges are often used to connect a network in a building to a backbone network.76 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Network Devices Several different network devices can be used to create a network. Bridge A bridge is a network device that segregates two segments on the same network. A bridge makes its decision based on the hardware addresses of the source and destination computers. Repeater A repeater is a network device that allows the use of longer cables than specified by the network standards. In a 10BASE-5 Ethernet network.

TCP/IP TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is currently the 500-pound gorilla of network protocols. but luckily only a few of these are in common use. have switched to TCP/IP.Chapter 1 0. that had used their own network protocols in the past. more important than the popularity of TCP/IP is the fact that it is the protocol of the Internet. A router can be a hardware device or a network server operating in the role of a router. such as Novell NetWare. TCP/IP addresses and IPX/SPX addresses are software addresses. from the smallest home computer to the largest super computer. and NetBEUI. It was the only protocol used with early versions of Novell NetWare (versions 2 and 3 and 4) and is an option on NetWare . TCP/IP is available on practically all computer systems. However. you’ve got to have TCP/IP. and routers. IPX/SPX The Internet Packet eXchange/Sequenced Packet eXchange (IPX/SPX) protocol is a derivative of Xerox’s XNS (Xerox Network System) protocol. Other protocols that might be encountered on a network include AppleTalk and DLC. (The bandwidth of a 100Mbps Ethernet hub is shared among the computers attached to it. Even successful network operating systems. EXAM TIP Network Devices Know the function of the various network devices: repeaters. There are literally hundreds of network protocols. A 100Mbps Ethernet switch effectively gives each computer attached to it a full (unshared) 100Mbps bandwidth. The three most common network protocols are TCP/IP. If you want to surf the web. switches.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 77 be active simultaneously.) Some Ethernet switches can aggregate the bandwidth of several ports to support the port aggregation function of network server NICs. Network Protocols Network protocols are sets of rules that allow data and messages to go from one computer to another over the network. Router A router is a network device that moves data packets from one network to another based on the network address of the destination computer. bridges. The network address is also sometimes called the software address. IPX/SPX. hubs.

So the full name would then be Network Basic Input/Output System Enhance User Interface. Other systems with a need to communicate with Novell NetWare had to use IPX/SPX. Microsoft developed NetBIOS over TCP/IP and NetBIOS over NWLink to allow its network naming system to operate regardless of the protocol being used on the network. The lack of routability means that large networks cannot be built using NetBEUI as the protocol. however. The NetBIOS acronym stands for Network Basic Input/Output System. However. even if the underlying protocol is TCP/IP or NWLink. It is reliable and self-tuning. believing that PC networks would generally have fewer than 20 microcomputers on them.78 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION version 5. but it cannot be routed. over a distance of 1000 feet. AppleTalk The AppleTalk protocol was developed by Apple Computers to connect Macintosh computers together in a small network. Microsoft used NetBEUI for LAN Manager. With NetWare 5 having a native TCP/IP protocol available. all of these Microsoft operating systems supported other protocols as well. IBM used NetBEUI for early PC networks in its LAN Server product. Windows 95. The communications speed is 230. Microsoft developed an IPX/SPXcompatible protocol that is called NWLink (NetWare Link) for their Windows operating systems. the days of IPX/SPX are probably numbered. NWLink allows Microsoft operating systems to communicate with Novell NetWare servers using IPX/SPX. NetBEUI NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI) was developed by IBM. . and Windows NT operating systems. Windows for Workgroups. it is available in Microsoft Windows 2000 as well. For backward compatibility. NetBEUI works well only for small networks consisting of fewer than approximately 20 computers. The NetBIOS naming component of NetBEUI is still utilized in Microsoft operating systems. The original AppleTalk could support up to 32 devices.000 Kbps. Windows 98. Even Novell had a version of NetBIOS over IPX in its NetWare operating system to support the applications that used the early NetBIOS naming convention. Don’t you just love it when acronyms are used to make other acronyms.

The oldest and most popular of these tools is the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). The AppleTalk protocol is routable. instead of AppleTalk. including the Desktop Management Interface (DMI). including network servers and their software. Nearly all network devices. DLC The Data Link Control (DLC) protocol cannot be used to allow computers on a network to communicate with each other. Several other management technologies are also available.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 79 AppleTalk Phase II increased the number of devices on a single AppleTalk network to 254. can be managed via SNMP. provided that SNMP agent software is available and it has been installed. support the AppleTalk protocol to allow Apple Macintosh computers to connect to their network.Chapter 1 0. Network Management As networks get larger and more complicated and the number of qualified people available to manage the networks remains limited. SNMP was originally defined to allow management of network devices (such as routers and hubs) via means of an SNMP agent installed on the device to be managed. Simple Network Management Protocol The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a standard part of the TCP/IP protocol suite. The DLC protocol can also be used to communicate with networkattached printers. All of these technologies are described on the following pages. Most Macintosh computers now use Ethernet and TCP/IP like most other computers in the world. several software network management tools are available to make network management possible. Luckily. . and SCSI Enclosure Services (SES). the SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosures (SAF-TE) technology. which is part of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Some network operating systems. and Novell NetWare 5. Rather it is used as a mechanism to allow IBM mainframes to communicate with microcomputers on a network. such as Microsoft Windows NT Server 4. the need for software tools to help manage the network increases dramatically. Microsoft Windows 2000 Server.

When the condition is met. The SAF-TE specification identifies a methodology for the management of external enclosures containing SCSI devices (disk drives). The DMI specification is designed to be independent of the operating system running on the computer. SAF-TE monitors the activity and condition of the devices in the SCSI enclosure and can report on alert .org/spec/dmis. SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosures The SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosures (SAF-TE) specification was created by Conner Peripherals. These conditions are known as SNMP traps. network servers. the SNMP agent can send an alert to the SNMP management console. “4. SNMP agents can also be configured to check for specific conditions to occur on the managed device.dmtf.80 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION The number of devices that can be managed by SNMP has been greatly expanded to include microcomputers. Incorporated (now n-Stor) and Intel Corporation in 1995. You can obtain information about DMI from the DMTF’s web site at www. For more information about using SNMP see the “Working with SNMP”section in Chapter 5. These additional devices can be managed because SNMP agents (software) have been written to monitor these devices. The SNMP agent knows what items to monitor and manage on a device by means of a Management Information Base (MIB). The desktop environment includes hardware and software installed on the computer. and some software packages (such as database servers). Translating information generated by DMI to a form that can be used by SNMP is defined as well. The MIB is specific to the device being managed.0—Proactive Maintenance.” Desktop Management Interface The Desktop Management Interface (DMI) was designed by the Desktop Management Task Force (DMTF) as a way to collect information about a computer’s operating environment and report it back to a central information point. The SNMP management console software displays the status of the managed devices. The SNMP management console is a software package that communicates with the SNMP agents running on the managed devices.html.

The SNMP management software is also rather expensive to acquire. software applications (such as database or email).Chapter 1 0. however. SAF-TE uses the SCSI channel itself as the communication mechanism. and desktop computers has made the task of managing large installations much easier. The use of SNMP to manage not only network devices. SCSI Enclosure Services A portion of the SCSI-3 standard defines the SCSI Enclosure Services (SES) command set. TCP/IP is available for most computers from the smallest desktop computer to the largest supercomputer. This service performs the same basic function of SAF-TE. SAF-TE Net Know the purpose and specifications of the SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosures. it supports FC-AL enclosures as well as SCSI enclosures. due to its flexibility and the fact that it is the protocol used to access the Internet. This status information can also be displayed locally on the enclosure itself by means of status lights. SAF-TE can also generate SNMP alerts that can be sent to an SNMP management station on the network. devices that support SNMP agents still cost more than devices that do not support SNMP agents. It appears that Ethernet won that battle. as all new development for faster networks has been using Ethernet. With the advent of the use of twisted-pair wiring to implement networks. EXAM conditions specified by the user.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 81 You can find a white paper on the SAF-TE specification at www. The protocol of choice today is TCP/IP.com/support/whitepapers/safte. Which network technology (Ethernet or Token Ring) was one of the topics of the holy wars of computing and networking in the early 1990s. they are now much simpler to implement than they were in the days of coaxial cable. but also network servers. However. TIP . such as routers and hubs. TCP/IP does require more configuration that most of the other protocols.pdf .andataco. However. but the use of DHCP and APIPA has made that much less painful. R E V I E W B R E A K This section discussed the network subsystem of the network server.

. Backup hardware devices can be expensive to purchase. and thus not having a backup copy of the data and software of the network server. Many tape drives can also compress the data before it is stored on the tape. The most common backup hardware device (historically and now) is some form of magnetic tape drive.82 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION BACKUP HARDWARE . As the name implies. This has the effect of doubling the storage capacity of the tape. In most cases the compression ratio is 2:1. Table 1. the tape used in QIC is one-quarter inch wide. pronounced “quick”) tape standard was created by 3M in 1972. some backup hardware must be available on the network server.4 summarizes QIC standards. A backup hardware device is a required part of any network server installation. There are a variety of tape devices that use different tape formats for storing data. Still later versions used the IDE hard disk drive interface. Other backup hardware devices can be used for backup operations. 0. There have been many versions of the QIC tape drives over the years. Later versions could be attached to the parallel port on the computer. Early QIC tape drives actually attached to the floppy disk controller in the computer. However. can be far more expensive. Backup hardware types include: • Tape drives • Disk drives • Other backup devices To perform a backup (copying of the data and software on a network server). Quarter Inch Cartridge The Quarter Inch Cartridge (QIC. the consequences of not having a backup hardware device on a network server. Tape Drives Tape drives are most commonly used as the device for backup of the data on a network server’s disk drives. but these are much less common than tape drives.9 Identify various types of hardware used for backup systems.

SCSI-2 SCSI-2 SCSI-2 SCSI-2 Travan Cartridge Tape A spinoff of the 3M company. .0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 83 The QIC standard has limited storage capacity and is used only in entry-level network servers. Travan tape drives have a higher storage capacity than the older QIC tape drives. IDE IDE. or read compatible with QIC cartridges (see Table 1. parallel Floppy.5 summarizes the Travan tape standards. Imation. Travan is based on QIC technology and in many cases is either read and write compatible with some QIC tape cartridges. parallel. parallel Floppy. IDE Floppy.6GB/3.36GB 1. Table 1. TABLE 1.6). parallel Floppy.Chapter 1 0. parallel. introduced the Travan cartridge tape standard in 1994.4 QIC T A P E S TA N D A R D S QIC Standard QIC-40 QIC-40 QIC-80 QIC-80 QIC-80XL QIC-3020XL QIC-3020XL QIC-3095 QIC-3220 QIC-5010 QIC-5210 QIC Cartridge DC-2000 DC-2060 MC-2120 MC-2120Extra MC-2120XL MC-3020XL MC-3020Extra MC-3095 MC-3220 DC-5010 DC-5210 Storage Capacity Native/Compressed 40MB/80MB 60MB/120MB 125MB/250MB 400MB/800MB 170MB/340MB 680MB/1.2GB 4GB/8GB 10GB/20GB 16GB/32GB 25GB/50GB Interface Floppy Floppy Floppy.

EIDE TABLE 1. . EIDE SCSI-2. TR-1 QIC-3010. parallel Floppy. QIC-3020. TR-3.2GB 4GB/8GB 4GB/8GB 10GB/20GB 10GB/20GB Interface Floppy.84 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION TABLE 1. QIC-3010.6 T R AVA N R E A D /W R I T E Travan Standard Travan-1 Travan-3 Travan-4 Travan NS-8 Travan NS-20 AND R E A D C O M PAT I B I L I T Y Can Read QIC-40 QIC-80. parallel Floppy.6GB 1. QIC-3020 QIC-3095 Travan tape drives have the capacity to back up low-end network servers. Backup speed is about 1MBps. QIC-80. QIC-80 TR-4. TR-1 QIC-3010. but are relatively slow. EIDE SCSI-2.5 T R AVA N T A P E D R I V E S TA N D A R D S Travan Travan-1 Travan-2 Travan-3 Travan-4 Travan NS-8 Travan-5 Travan NS-20 Tape Cartridge TR-1 TR-2 TR-3 TR-4 NS-8 TR-5 NS-20 Storage Capacity Native/Compress 400MB/800MB 800MB/1. parallel SCSI-2. QIC-3020. EIDE SCSI-2. QIC-3095 Can Read/Write QIC-80 TR-2.6GB/3.

Chapter 1 0. TABLE 1. which stores the tape log to facilitate locating a file’s location on a restore operation. AIT tapes actually have memory in the tape cartridge.7 8 M M TA P E T E C H N O L O G I E S 8mm Tape Technology 8200 8500 Storage Capacity Native/Compressed 2.9 summarizes AIT tape standards. known as Memory-In-Cassette (MIC).0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 85 8mm Tape Tape technology that uses 8mm tape was pioneered by Exabyte Corporation. TABLE 1. . Table 1. The technology uses a tape similar to 8mm videotape and the same helical scan system used by a VCR. Table 1.5GB/5GB 5GB/10GB Transfer Speed 246KB per second 500KB per second Mammoth 8mm tape technologies are an improvement on the original 8mm tape technologies with higher storage capacities and faster transfer speeds.8 M A M M O T H 8 M M TA P E T E C H N O L O G I E S Mammoth Technology Mammoth-1 Mammoth-2 Storage Capacity Native/Compressed 20GB/40GB 60GB/120GB Transfer Speed 3MBps 12MBps Advanced Intelligent Tape Advanced Intelligent Tape (AIT) technology was introduced in 1996.7 reviews 8mm tape technologies.8 reviews Mammoth 8mm tape technologies. Table 1. AIT technology uses 8mm tapes that use the helical scan recording hardware (much like a VCR).

Table 1. Digital Audio Tape EXAM DDS Capacities Know the storage capacities of the different DDS formats. There are currently four different DDS standards. TABLE 1.com.aittape.9 AIT T A P E S TA N D A R D S AIT Standard AIT-1 AIT-1 AIT-2 AIT-2 AIT-3 Tape Media SDX125C SDX135C SDX236C SDX250C Prototype Storage Capacity Native/Compressed 25GB/50GB 35GB/70GB 36GB/72GB 50GB/100GB 100GB/200GB Transfer Speed 3MBps 3MBps 6MBps 6MBps 12MBps For more information about AIT technology. TIP The Digital Audio Tape (DAT) tape standard uses 4mm digital audiotapes to store data in the Digital Data Storage (DSS) format.86 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION TABLE 1. see the AIT Forum web site at www.10 DAT T A P E S TA N D A R D S DDS Format DDS-1 DDS-2 DDS-3 DDS-4 Storage Capacity Native/Compressed 2/4GB 4/8GB 12/24GB 20/40GB Transfer Speed 1MBps 1MBps 2MBps 6MBps AKA -DAT8 DAT24 DAT40 .10 summarizes DAT tape standards.

IBM. DLT tape drives support high storage capacity and a fast transfer speed.11 DLT T A P E S TA N D A R D S DLT Standard DLT-2000 DLT-2000XT DLT-4000 DLT-7000 DLT-8000 Super DLT Storage Capacity Native/ Compressed 10GB/20GB 15GB/30GB 20GB/40GB 35GB/70GB 40GB/80GB 110GB/220GB Transfer Speed 1. and Seagate. and one designed for fast access (Accelis).12 LTO T A P E F O R M AT S LTO Format Ultrium Accelis Storage Capacity Native/Compressed 100GB/200GB 25GB/50GB Transfer Speed Native/Compressed 20MBps/40MBps 20MBps/40MBps .5MBps 5MBps 6MBps 11MBps Linear Tape-Open Linear Tape-Open (LTO) technology was developed by HewlettPackard. LTO comes in two distinct forms: one designed for high storage capacity (Ultrium).Chapter 1 0.25MBps 1. Table 1. EXAM TIP Know DLT Capacities Know the storage capacities of the different DLT formats.25MBps 1. TABLE 1. DLT tapes record information on the tape in a linear format unlike 8mm tape technologies that use helical scan recording techniques. DLT tape drives are expensive.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 87 Digital Linear Tape Digital Linear Tape (DLT) technology offers high-capacity and relatively high-speed tape backup capabilities. TABLE 1. However. Table 1.11 compares DLT tape formats.12 reviews the LTO tape formats.

RAIT can be used for mirroring of tape drives. Having the backup hard disk drive in the same room as the network server doesn’t provide much protection in the event that the network server room is destroyed by fire. unless the “backup disk drives” can be hot swapped. Tape Autochangers A tape autochanger (also known as a tape auto loader) allows the tape drive to load a new tape when the current tape gets full while performing a backup. there is no provision for off-site storage of the backup. Disk Drives Disk drives can also be used for backup operations. and returning the tapes to the proper location. or (with at least three tape drives) implemented as data striping with parity. This relieves the operator from having to remove one tape and insert a new tape. However.lto-technology. This is very handy because backups are usually performed in the dead of night. Performing a backup to disk drives is a faster operation than performing a backup to a tape drive.88 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION For more information about LTO tape technology. Most of these technologies use four identical tape drives and implement the tape version of RAID. With all this intelligence and sophistication. data recovery can still occur. see the LTO web site at www. Tape Arrays Several network server vendors offer an array of tape drives with fault-tolerance characteristics. it should be obvious that tape libraries are the high end of backup systems.com. and an automatic mechanism for locating the tapes. tens or hundreds of tapes. This can be translated into meaning that they are expensive. . Tape Libraries A tape library is usually an external system that has multiple tape drives. which is called RAIT (redundant array of independent tapes). The result is that if a tape is damaged or lost. loading them into the tape drives. Most tape autochangers support unloading and loading a limited number of tapes (10 or fewer).

Content may include the following: • Power supplies • Fans • Hot swap .m. Some tape arrays even provide fault tolerance. 0. Although tape capacity is important. or destroyed. Data is written to several tapes simultaneously. if you have only 4 hours in which to perform the backup. lost. A high-capacity tape that takes 8 hours to back up the network server might not be a wise choice.10 Identify hardware components that might fail and plan on redundancy of those components. and the slowness might not be acceptable in all environments. the writing of compact discs is a relatively slow operation. If multiple tapes are going to be required to backup the network server. REDUNDANT COMPONENTS . There is a huge assortment of magnetic tape drives from which to choose. The most common device used for backup is a magnetic tape drive. which means that the data can be recovered even if a tape in the array has been damaged. some tape drives can be purchased in arrays that perform much like disk arrays. However. to change out the tape while the backup is running). would be a much better choice.Chapter 1 0. Although these are acceptable backup devices. R E V I E W B R E A K This section discussed the various types of backup hardware available for a network server. For increased capacity and speed. which can perform the backup in 2 hours. this is not always possible.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 89 Other Backup Devices Some sites use other devices for backup. A lower capacity tape with an autochanger. It is best to choose a tape drive that has enough capacity to back up the entire network server on a single tape. such as CD-Recordable (CD-R) or CD-ReWritable (CD-RW) compact discs. so is the speed at which data is written to the tape. consider obtaining a tape drive with an autochanger (unless you really want to be in the server room at 3 a.

Redundant Fans Network servers can generate a large amount of heat internally. large amount of memory. Redundant Power Supplies Having multiple power supplies in a network server allows the balancing of the electrical load amount the power supplies and allows for fault tolerance if one of the power supplies should fail. This heat removal is accomplished by means of cooling fans. Some network servers have multiple cooling fans placed front to back to provide some redundancy in case of failure of the cooling fan. This capability is called hot pluggable fans. the network server will build up heat internally and either fail or be shut down by the heat-monitoring features built in to many network servers. Many cooling fan systems allow for the failed cooling fan to be replaced while the network server is operational. . and number of internal disk drives. If a cooling fan fails.90 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION • Hot plug • Fail-over • Hot spare • NIC fail-over To keep network servers operational around the clock. Many redundant power supply schemes allow for a failed power supply to be removed and replaced while the network server is operational. due to the multiple processors. you can use redundant components in the network server in several different schemes. This heat must be removed from the network server chassis or heat-sensitive network server components can fail. This capability is called hot swappable power supplies. however.

replace. the network server automatically switches over to the “fail-over” component and keeps running. When the one component fails. Fail-Over Fail-over is a technology that allows for multiple components to be installed in a network server. Hot spares are often found in RAID systems. Hot swapping power supplies and hot swapping cooling fans (as mentioned above) serve as good examples of hot swapping. Disk drives can also be acquired that allow hot swapping. Hot Spare A hot spare is a network component that is powered up but not currently being used (usually a disk drive). If a disk drive fails in the RAID array.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 91 Hot Swap Hot swapping is the capability to replace components in a network server while the server is running.Chapter 1 0. The Universal Serial Bus (USB) supports hot plugging of USB devices while the system is running. Hot Plug Hot plugging is the capability to add. . Some PCI buses support hot plugging of PCI adapters. or remove components while the system is operational. The terms “hot swap” and “hot plug” are often confused and misused. the RAID controller starts rebuilding the data from the failed disk drive on the hot spare drive. but only one of the components is operational at any given time. Hot plugging is more sophisticated than hot swapping in that a device that is hot plugged is automatically recognized by the system.

High availability requires the use of redundant components. There are currently three basic methods: á Mirrored disk drives.11 Define server clustering. including at least two network servers. If the primary NIC fails. If one of the network servers in a server cluster fails. another network server in the cluster will take over its workload.92 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION NIC Fail-Over The network server can have two NICs installed. SERVER CLUSTERING . but the NIC driver uses only one. . but the data on the disk drives are copied to at least one other network server in the cluster. Server clustering is having multiple independent network servers perform as a single system. R E V I E W B R E A K This section discussed the various redundant components that the server hardware specialist might find in a network server. several things are needed. such as cooling fans. Server clustering is not a new technology. some type of hardware that will allow the network servers to share disk drives. can mean downtime of the network server. The problem with disk mirroring is keeping the copies of the data on the mirrored disk drives synchronized. Of course the high availability provided by redundant components does mean that the price of the network server will increase. 0. The critical part of creating a cluster of servers is the method used to allow access to the disk drives among the network servers. even failure of simple components. This configuration can provide high availability and scalability. the NIC driver automatically starts using the other NIC (fail-over to the other NIC). The use of redundant components in a network server helps provide fault tolerance. The characteristics of this method are that each network server has its own disk drives. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) created clusters of its VAX computers in the 1970s. To create a server cluster. Without redundancy. Describe the hardware components required to cluster servers. and some special software designed to implement the cluster.

In the event of the failure of a network server in the cluster. Examples of scalability include the following: á The capability to easily install additional processors in the network server á The capability to easily add much more memory to the network server á The capability to easily add more disk drives to the network server chassis . Scalability is planned at the time of the purchase of the network server. If it is suspected or expected that the load on the network server will increase with time. The characteristics of this method are that the network servers have their own disk drives and share no data with other network servers in the cluster.Chapter 1 0.12 Identify hardware components that give a network server the capability to scale up in order to meet the demands of a larger workload. there is a mechanism that allows the disk drives “owned” by the failed network server to be transferred to another network server in the cluster. This solution can be rather expensive and requires applications that have been modified to support the shared disk drives. 0. This solution has limitations on scalability because contention among the network servers in the cluster grows as more network servers are added to the cluster. á Shared nothing. Scalability is the capability to “grow” a network server. it is best to buy a network server that is scalable. The characteristics of this method are that the network servers share all disk drives.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 93 á Shared disk drives. SCALABILITY .

but the system supported by the cluster keeps running.14 Identify various strategies to perform backup of the data on the network server and plan for the recovery of the data in the event of a hardware failure. UPS. A backup strategy (making copies of the data on the network server) is a critical part of implementing a network server. clustering). This is a much better solution in that all servers are operational and providing services all the time. 7 days per week. Some network server vendors provide what they call high availability solutions.94 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION HIGH AVAILABILITY . When one server fails. some other methods are also available. Most of these involve two servers sharing an external set of RAID disk drives. • Full backup • Incremental backup • Differential backup A copy of the data stored on the network server is a very valuable asset when there is a network server failure or you must recover a file that was “accidentally” deleted by a user. 7 day per week operating environment. High availability is the goal of keeping the network server operational 24 hours per day. the other server takes over. 0.13 Identify hardware components that give a network server the capability to be up a very high percentage of the time. up to and including a 24 hour per day. Some clustering schemes have the capability to keep running if one network server in the cluster fails. This high availability solution is expensive because one server is not utilized at all until the other server fails. 0. In addition to methods already discussed (redundancy. fault tolerance. . BACKUP STRATEGIES . RAID. The loss of one network server in the cluster will degrade performance. Many techniques can be used to try to achieve high availability.

Incremental backups take less time each day to backup the data. 7 days a week. . and the use of a redundant scheme in the disk subsystem to allow it to keep operating when a disk drive fails. Whether the backup scheme is differential or incremental depends on how much time is available to perform the back up and how quickly the data needs to be restored in the event of a loss of data. During the week. but not ever doing a trial restore to make sure that the data on the backups can be read correctly • Having a backup system and plan. but not having a copy of the backup media stored off-site FAULT TOLERANCE . and doing a trial restore on occasion. 0. Failure of a network server can mean a tremendous loss in revenue to the company.Chapter 1 0. but take longer to restore after a loss of data. Fault-tolerance methods include: • Uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) • Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) Network servers are often required to operate 24 hours a day. The most common backup strategy is to perform a full backup once a week (usually done on the weekend when there is usually less activity on the network server). but not performing regular backups • Having a backup system and plan. Differential backups take longer to perform the backup. This full backup every day strategy usually cannot be implemented due to time constraints.15 Identify various methods to provide the network server with fault tolerance. either incremental backups or differential backups are usually performed. performing backups on a regular schedule.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 95 With unlimited time to perform the backup. but allow for a quicker restore operation after a loss of data. The most common fault-tolerance schemes are the use of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) to allow the network serve to shut down gracefully during a power failure. see the section “Understanding Backups” in Chapter 5. The goal is to keep the network server running without interruption. the best solution is to back up all the data on the network server every day. To achieve this goal. NOTE Backup Sins The four big sins associated with backups are as follows: • Not having a backup system or plan • Having a backup system and plan. performing backups on a regular schedule. For more information on backup strategies. some fault tolerance needs to be planned into the network server.

An SPS feeds power directly to the network server and when there is a power failure quickly switches to the battery. Having a network server without a UPS is like having a car without brakes. A disk drive is a mechanical device. but to keep the network server running long enough for it to shut down gracefully when a power failure occurs. RAID accomplishes this fault tolerance or redundancy through disk drives storing parity information along with the data or writing data to two different disk drives. An ungraceful shutdown of the network server caused by a sudden loss of electrical power prevents the data in memory from being written to disk. For information on getting the right size UPS for a network server. The UPS monitoring cable generally attaches to the UPS through a serial or USB cable. “1. Uninterruptible Power Supply An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is an essential part of any network server installation. RAID levels 3. A less expensive battery backup system is a standby power supply (SPS). but rather a matter of when the disk drive will fail. the UPS keeps the network server running via power supplied by its batteries.96 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION NOTE UPS not SPS For network servers. When a power failure occurs.” Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) is designed to allow some fault tolerance to prevent loss of data in the event of a disk drive failure on a network server. . Network operating systems don’t take kindly to a sudden loss of electrical power. A quality UPS will also condition the power as it passes through the UPS by suppressing power spikes and boosting power sags. see the “UPS Sizing Worksheet” on the CD-ROM. Network operating systems often cache content in memory for a few seconds before it is written to disk. A UPS feeds all power through its battery. That action is usually a graceful shutdown of the network server. An explanation of UPS sizing is given in “Verifying the Uninterruptible Power Supply Size” in Chapter 2. always purchase an uninterruptible power supply. The goal of a UPS is not to keep the network server running during a power failure. The network server will then take the action configured by the network administrator. This momentary time lag could be long enough to cause the network server to fail. it is just a disaster waiting to happen.0—Installation. which could cause data corruption on the disk. and it is not a matter of if the disk drive will fail. so that when there is a power failure. RAID level 1 uses duplication of the data to provide fault tolerance. 4. Through the monitoring cable. A UPS can be monitored by software running on the network server. it also alerts the network server that power has failed and power is being supplied by batteries. there is no time lag in supplying power from the UPS battery.

0/ Describe/ncstrl. 7.ucb/CSD-87-391. RAID 2 uses a special “hamming code” instead. 3. Berkeley. and 5) and offered the RAID solution as an alternative to SLED (single large expensive disk). RAID level 2 is the oddball RAID in that it doesn’t use duplication or parity to provide fault tolerance. many people have started using the phrase redundant array of independent disks. 4. The original paper can be viewed at http://sunsite.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 97 and 5 use “parity” information that is calculated from the bit patterns of the data being written to the RAID array to provide fault tolerance. NOTE Higher RAID Level Number Doesn’t Mean Better Protection Higher RAID level numbers do not indicate a higher level of data protection. 10. 4. In the past few years. of this misinformation. 2. In fact. This allows the disk subsystem and the network server to keep functioning.6 shows an illustration of RAID 0. in that it does not provide any redundancy. or 5. If a disk drive in the RAID 0 array fails. and whether the “A” in RAID stands for array or arrays. all data in the RAID 0 array is lost. and others mentioned in many vendors’ literature. 53. . RAID is a term that is surrounded by a tremendous amount of misinformation. Patterson. it is not RAID at all. RAID 0 is just an array (or group) of disk drives used as a single disk. albeit a bit slower due to the calculations required to “re-create” the missing data.” This is very ironic in that. Gibson.berkeley. You’ll find RAID 6. Figure 1. RAID 0 RAID 0 was not defined in the 1987 Berkeley paper. When a disk drive fails in RAID 3. RAID level 0 is also often called disk striping without parity. RAID was defined in 1987 in the paper “A Case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)” written by David A. 50. The data is written in chunks or stripes to all the disk drives in the array. This section attempts to end some. and Randy H. Katz at the University of California. substituting the word “independent” for “inexpensive. There is disagreement about how many levels of RAID are defined.Chapter 1 0. Garth A.edu/Dienst/UI/2. RAID 5 does not provide better data protection than RAID 1. in 1987 disk drives were anything but inexpensive. whether the “I” in RAID stands for inexpensive or independent. if not all. the parity information can be used along with the data on the remaining disk drives in the array to calculate the data that was on the disk drive that failed. The original paper defined five levels of RAID (1. This improves disk input/output performance in that several chunks of data can be written or read simultaneously.

RAID 1 writes all data to two separate locations. RAID Level 1 Disk Mirroring . the two disk drives are connected to the same disk controllers. To store 20GB of data using RAID 1. require at least three disk drives) to implement. two 20GB disk drives are required. There are two ways to implement RAID 1: through disk mirroring or disk duplexing. This is a 50% loss of storage capacity.6 RAID level 0.7 RAID level 1 (disk mirroring). Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Disk Controller RAID Level 0 Stripe Set WITHOUT Parity RAID 1 RAID 1 requires a minimum of two disk drives (all other RAID levels. use disk duplexing rather than disk mirroring. Drive 1 Drive 2 Block 1 Block 3 Block 5 Block 2 Block 4 Block 5 Block 1 Block 3 Block 5 Block 2 Block 4 Block 6 Disk Controller FIGURE 1. Figure 1. there is no access to the mirrored data.98 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 1. To eliminate this single point of failure. In disk mirroring. except level 0.7 shows a diagram of disk mirroring. The only problem with disk mirroring is that if the disk controller fails.

data and the parity information calculated from the data is written to the disk drives in blocks. Figure 1. This eliminates the single point of failure in pure disk mirroring.8 shows a diagram of disk duplexing. The ECC can detect and correct single bit errors and detect double bit errors. On a RAID 4 array. The loss of storage capacity in RAID 4 systems is equivalent . RAID 3 RAID 3 uses bit-level parity with a single parity disk to provide fault tolerance of data stored on the RAID 3 array in the event of failure of a single disk drive in the array. RAID 2 is very difficult and expensive to implement and has a very high overhead (for example. there is no need for the disk drives to be synchronized together. It requires a minimum of three disk drives to implement. Disk Controller Disk Controller RAID Level 1 Disk Duplexing FIGURE 1.html. and the disk drives can be accessed independently. visit the web site at www. RAID 3 requires that all the disk drives in the array be synchronized with each other.Chapter 1 0. 3 parity bits for each 4 data bits).0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 99 In disk duplexing. The only additional cost is the additional disk controller. A minimum of three disk drives is required to create the array.8 RAID level 1 (disk duplexing). which will probably fail before the other drives in the array. RAID 4 RAID 4 uses block-level parity with a single parity disk to provide fault tolerance to the RAID 4 array in the event of failure of a single disk drive in the array. For a very nice animation of how a hamming code operates.edu/cse/Courses/CSE208W/ Animations/Ani_Hamming. The problem with RAID 4 is that the parity drive is accessed on every write operation to the RAID array. The ECC code has to be read and decoded each time data is read from the disk.eng2. RAID 2 has no commercial implementations due to the expense and difficulty of implementation. This will cause heavy utilization of the parity drive. each disk drive in the mirrored set is connected to a different disk controller. The bits of the data and the parity information calculated from the data are written to all the disk drives in the array simultaneously. RAID 3 requires a minimum of three disk drives to create the array. Drive 1 Drive 2 Block 1 Block 3 Block 5 Block 2 Block 4 Block 6 Block 1 Block 3 Block 5 Block 2 Block 4 Block 6 RAID 2 RAID 2 uses a hamming code to create an Error Correcting Code (ECC) for all data to be stored on the RAID 2 array.uconn.

RAID Level 5 Disk Striping with Parity RAID Disk Controller . the total storage capacity of the array will be 60GB (a loss of 1/6. which are a maximum of two channels with a maximum of two disk drives per Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 Block 1 Parity 1 Block 6 Block 2 Block 4 Parity 2 Block 3 Block 5 FIGURE 1. This eliminates the parity drive failure common in RAID 4 systems.10 shows a diagram of RAID 0/1. if you have seven 10GB disk drives in a RAID 5 array. there are two RAID 0 stripe sets (used to provide high input/output performance) that are mirrored (which provides the fault tolerance). but spreads the parity information among all the disk drives in the disk array. In another example. or 33%).9 RAID 5 (disk striping with parity). Figure 1. The loss of storage capacity in RAID 5 systems is equivalent to the storage capacity of one of the disk drives. In RAID 0/1. RAID 0/1 RAID 0/1 is also known as RAID 0+1 and it is sometimes called RAID 10. Figure 1. for instance.100 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION to the storage capacity of one of the disk drives. RAID Controller RAID controllers are specialized disk controllers that use either ATA or SCSI technologies. or 33%). If you have three 10GB disk drives in a RAID 5 array. RAID 0/1 requires at least four disk drives to implement.67%). or 16.9 shows a diagram of RAID 5. If you have three 10GB disk drives in a RAID 5 array. RAID 5 RAID 5 uses block-level parity. ATA RAID controllers are limited in the number of disks that can be attached due to ATA channel limitations. the storage capacity of the array will be 20GB (a loss of 1/3. the storage capacity of the array will be 20GB (a loss of 1/3.

2.3] is mirrored on Stripe set [4. RAID controllers with three. Without the battery to supply power to the RAID controller. (Two channels are common. RAID controllers often have an onboard memory cache ranging in size from 4MB to 256MB. The read cache will improve the read performance. The memory cache on the RAID controller can usually be configured as read cache.2.10 RAID 0/1 (mirrored stripe set without parity). SCSI RAID controllers have multiple channels. write cache. or a combination of both. 5. .0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 101 Disk 1. onboard memory cache could lead to the data on the disk drive not being updated with the current data. This onboard memory cache often has a battery backup system to prevent data loss in the event of sudden power loss to the network server.Chapter 1 0. This could easily lead to the loss of data integrity.6] Disk 4. and 3 are RAID 0 Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 FIGURE 1.) RAID controllers are generally expensive due to the sophistication that they must contain. This is critical because data written from the system memory to the RAID controller is first written to the onboard cache and it could be several seconds before the data is actually written to disk. The write cache will allow the processor to continue with other tasks instead of waiting for the data to be written to the disk. Block 1 Block 4 Block 2 Block 5 Block 3 Block 6 Disk Controller RAID 0/1 Mirrored Stripe Sets Disk 4 Disk 5 Disk 6 Block 1 Block 4 Block 2 Block 5 Block 3 Block 6 RAID 1 mirror Stripe set [1. and 5 are RAID 0 channel (for a total of four disk drives). four.5. and five channels are available.

RAID 5 implemented in software requires the processor to calculate all the parity information when writing data to the RAID 5 disk array. This means that the operating system cannot be stored on and therefore cannot boot from a RAID 5 system implemented in software. . and Microsoft Windows 2000. For example. 1. including Novell NetWare. you could use three 10GB partitions on three different disk drives to create a software RAID 5 array. Software RAID systems usually support RAID 0. the RAID implementation can be based on disk partitions rather than entire disk drives. Software RAID is usually implemented at the disk partition level rather than the physical disk (entire disk) level as in hardware RAID. This is not an issue when a RAID 5 system is implemented using hardware. RAID disk controllers are rather expensive. and 5. 32 bit. combination. 64 bit) Hardware RAID Versus Software RAID RAID is usually implemented using a RAID disk controller. RAID 1 implemented in software puts a minimal load on the network server processor. look for these features: á Number of channels á Speed of channels á Onboard cache (read. Microsoft Windows NT. There could be space in different partitions on each of these disk drives that could be used for some other purpose.102 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION When evaluating RAID controllers. the files on the RAID array are not available until the network server operating system is running. When RAID 5 is implemented in software. write. battery backup option) á Fast host adapter (PCI) á Bus width (16 bit. In software-based RAID. Software-based RAID does have one advantage over hardware-based RAID. However. The drawback to software RAID is that it requires the network server processor to perform the work usually done by the RAID controller in hardware RAID. RAID can also be implemented in software by several network operating systems.

0—Disaster Recovery. 0. but software-based RAID is much better than no RAID at all. see Hewlett-Packard’s web site at www.com/eprise/main/storage/ tapebackup/selectionPages/obdr. having RAID implemented in software is much better than not having any disk fault tolerance at all.products. Using OBDR.storage. With the entire operation of a corporation often dependent on the network and its associated network servers. For more information on OBDR. Network servers should utilize RAID technology. .” One of the most innovative additions to disaster-recovery technology is Hewlett-Packard’s One Button Disaster Recovery (OBDR). A written disaster-recovery plan should be a standard part of any network server installation or operation. The details of disaster recovery are covered in Chapter 8. you just perform a full tape restore from the backup tapes.Chapter 1 0.16 Identify techniques and plan for recovery from a disaster (total failure of the network server). hardware-based RAID is better than softwarebased RAID. DISASTER RECOVERY . the loss of either could result in the failure of the corporation. no need to reinstall a clean version of the network operating system. there is no need to wipe the disk drives clean.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 103 In nearly all cases. and no need to install the tape backup software before beginning a restoration of the network server’s data from tape. “7. Hardware-based RAID is better than software-based RAID. With OBDR. no need to install service patches to the network operating system. This technology allows a tape drive equipped with OBDR to restore the contents of the network server without going through the usual restoration steps.htm. R E V I E W B R E A K This section discussed the various methods available to give faulttolerant capability to a network server. This will restore the entire contents of the network server to the state of its last full backup. however.hp.

The following sections describe these various components. Video Monitor A video monitor for a network server should support 800 × 600 or better video resolution. A video controller that can support 1024 × 768 resolution and 64K colors should be sufficient for most network servers. A large video monitor (21 inches) might be useful on a network server. If the video monitor is going to be installed in a server rack.104 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION MISCELLANEOUS NETWORK SERVER HARDWARE . the video monitor must be physically small enough to fit into the rack.17 Identify miscellaneous hardware components that are part of a network server. Content may include the following: • Video controller • Video monitor • Universal Serial Bus (USB) • FireWire (IEEE 1394) • Keyboard • Mouse • CD-ROM drive • DVD-ROM drive • Floppy disk drive • Modem Several miscellaneous hardware components can be included in a network server. . 0. An LCD display could also be used as a monitor for a network server. Video Controller A video controller doesn’t need to support high video resolutions on the network server. The maximum size for a video monitor that is going into a server rack is about 15 inches.

a USB keyboard. Data transfer rates of up to 400Mbps are achievable using the IEEE 1394 standard. Version 2.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 105 Universal Serial Bus The Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an external bus standard that supports data transfer rates up to 12Mbps. The keyboard can use a traditional round plug or a USB connector. If multiple network servers are going to be in the same area or in a server rack. Keyboard Every network server needs a keyboard for data input.Chapter 1 0. This will save valuable space. A USB bus supports Plug and Play technology and devices that can be hot plugged (devices that can be attached to and unattached from the USB bus without powering down the network server).1394ta. FireWire (IEEE 1394) EXAM EXAM TIP A video monitor can consume a considerable amount of space.0 of the USB standard will allow data transmission rates up to 480Mbps.org. KVM Switch Know the purpose of a keyboard/video/mouse (KVM) switch. . TIP The IEEE 1394 standard (known as FireWire by Apple Computer) is an external serial bus that uses the SCSI-3 standards for communications. To use a USB port on a network server. the types of devices that you might attach to a USB port could include a USB mouse. One USB port can have up to 127 devices connected to it. A single IEEE 1394 can have up to 63 devices attached to it. The IEEE 1394 standards support Plug and Play technology and hot plugging much like the Universal Serial Bus. a USB modem. For more information about the IEEE 1394 standard. then using a keyboard/video/mouse (KVM) switch will allow one monitor (keyboard and mouse) to be switched among several network servers. On a network server. the network operating system must have the capability to recognize and have drivers for the USB port. or a USB monitoring cable for a UPS. FireWire Know the specifications for IEEE 1394 (FireWire). see the 1394 Trade Association’s web site at www.

In addition.106 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Mouse Every network server needs a mouse for the same reasons that a desktop computer system needs a mouse: to interact with a graphical user interface. Floppy Disk Drive A floppy disk drive is often required on a network server to load some hardware drivers and to perform flash BIOS upgrades. In some cases. To implement a fax server. CD-ROM Drive A CD-ROM drive is required on a network server for operating system and other software installations. such as a touch pad or a trackball. the mouse will be replaced with a different pointing device. For example. one or more fax modems (which differ from data modems) must be installed in the network server. . a DVD-ROM drive can be useful on a video server to transfer video from the DVD to the disk drives on the video server. Modem A modem or multiple modems might need to be installed in the network server due to requirements of the role it will play in the network. DVD-ROM Drive A DVD-ROM drive on a network server can perform the same functions as a CD-ROM drive. a remote access server would need one or more modems to support dial-in access to the network.

18 Identify situations when network servers should be installed in a server rack and know the proper procedures for installation of the network server into a server rack.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 107 RACKING SERVERS . For example.5 inches). Identify specialized components and installation requirements for rack-mounted network servers.75 inches) 73.11 A network server rack. EIA Rack Unit (1. . Content may include the following: • EIA rack unit (1. Server rack height is specified in rack units.75 inches.Chapter 1 0. 0. a rack that is 42U high is (42 × 1. Figure 1.75 inches) • Keyboard/video/monitor (KVM) switch • Cable management • Rack layout • Security • Cooling • Rack-mounted keyboard/trackball • Rack-mounted monitor/LCD panel • Rack-mounted uninterruptible power supply (UPS) To conserve space in the server room.11 shows a diagram of a network server rack.5 inches high (6 feet.75 Inches) The Electronic Industry Association (EIA) has specified that the standard rack unit (vertical) is 1. 1. network servers can be purchased in a chassis that can be installed into a standard 19-inch equipment rack. FIGURE 1.

. Generally the rack-mounted UPSs are installed on the bottom of the rack due to their weight. mouse. video display. and so on) is accomplished by hinged cable management arms attached to the network server on one end and the rack on the other. Rack Layout The layout of the components in the rack is important. video. it makes sense to have a single keyboard. video display.108 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Keyboard/Video/Monitor Switch A keyboard/video/monitor (KVM) switch is a common component in a network server rack. Cable Management With several network servers and other devices in a rack. Most manufacturers of network server racks provide software to aid in creating a layout of the devices in the network rack. the management of the various cables becomes critical. much like a drawer can be pulled out from a cabinet. A rack-mountable KVM switch usually fits within 1 rack unit and provides the capability to share the keyboard. power. keyboard. and mouse that can be switched among the network servers. and mouse among the network servers in the rack. The rack-mounted display adapter should be at eye level. Pulling the network server out of the rack without disconnecting all the cables running to the network server (LAN. generally devices that are installed in a rack can be pulled out of the rack for service. Security The network server should have side panels (which are usually optional) and front and rear doors that are lockable to provide security for the network devices installed in the rack. Also. A rack-mounted keyboard should be at the proper height to allow comfortable typing. With multiple network servers installed in a single equipment rack.

Rack-Mounted Keyboard/Trackball Rack-mounted keyboards or keyboard/trackball combinations that fit into a drawer that slides into the rack are available. A monitor larger than 15 inches is usually too large to fit into a rack. . Most network servers that are designed to be rack-mounted are designed to have a flow of air from the front of the rack to the back.Chapter 1 0. Rack-Mounted Monitor/LCD Panel When it comes to the video display to be used in a rack. There are also keyboard/LCD display combinations that are available for racks. The front and rear doors of the rack are often perforated to provide ventilation. A standard 15-inch CRT video display can be installed on a shelf in the rack. The LCD display actually folds down and slides into the rack when not in use. This one keyboard can be attached to a rack-mounted KVM switch so that it can control all the network servers in the rack. Rack-Mounted UPS Special UPSs designed to fit into a rack are available. These UPSs are generally installed in the bottom of the rack because of their weight.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 109 Cooling The network server rack should provide adequate ventilation to keep the network devices in the rack as cool as possible. The keyboard/LCD display combination is only 2 rack units high. The keyboard drawer is usually 2 rack units high. there are several options.

The one drawback to a server rack is that when it is fully filled it can weight well over 1. external disk systems.19 Identify network operating systems. Rackmountable UPSs. and special rack-mountable keyboards are also available. Content may include the following: • Novell NetWare 4 • Novell NetWare 5 • Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 • Microsoft Windows 2000 Server • UNIX • Linux • IBM OS/2 Warp Server Several network server operating systems can be used to create and manage a network. To move the rack from one location to another. the network server and its components must be removed before the rack is moved and reinstalled after the rack has been moved. 0. .110 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION R E V I E W B R E A K This section discussed putting network servers into racks specifically designed to conserve floor space by allowing multiple network servers to be installed into a single rack. this generally requires prepurchase planning. Know the characteristics of various network operating systems. However.000 pounds. NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS . The network server should be purchased in a rack-mount chassis. Most major server vendors have software available that can be used to configure the components to be installed in a server rack. should be designed to be installed in a server rack. as well as other peripherals. The network servers.

NetWare 4 uses the IPX/SPX protocol natively.novell. NetWare 4 supports software-based RAID 1 (both mirroring and duplexing) and RAID 5. Windows NT Server 4 supports software-based RAID 0. For more information on Windows NT Server 4. The Novell Storage Services File System supports file sizes up to 8 terabytes. and supports a non-native version of the TCP/IP protocol.novell.1.com/products/netware/.asp?site=427&subid=22&pg=1. Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 Microsoft Windows NT Server is the third major version of Windows NT Server.com/catalog/ display.2. NetWare 4 supports the NetWare File System (NWFS). For more information on NetWare 5. The FAT file system is available for compatibility with other operating systems and it provides no security on the directories or files stored on it. see Novell’s web site at www.microsoft. see the Microsoft web site at www. NetWare 5 also supports two different file systems: the NetWare File System (NWFS) and the Novell Storage Services (NSS) File System. The NTFS file system supports security at the directory and file level as well as native data compression. Windows NT supports the File Allocation Table (FAT) file system and the NT File System (NTFS). For more information on Netware 4. The maximum file size on NWFS is 4GB.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 111 Novell NetWare 4 Novell’s NetWare version 4 was the first version of NetWare to incorporate Novell’s Directory Service (NDS).Chapter 1 0. see Novell’s web site at www. and RAID 5.com/products/netware4. . Novell NetWare 5 Novell’s NetWare version 5 supports the TCP/IP protocol natively. RAID 1 (mirroring and duplexing).

In the early days. Supports up to 8 processors and 8GB of memory á Windows 2000 Datacenter Server. All versions of UNIX today are variations of these two major versions of UNIX. Supports up to 4 processors and 4GB of memory á Windows 2000 Advanced Server. For more information on Windows 2000 Datacenter Server. NOTE Berkeley: The 1960s I have heard it said that the two main things that Berkeley was known for in the 1960s were LSD and BSD UNIX. IEEE 1394. Windows 2000 supports the FAT file system. Windows 2000 Server actually comes in three different varieties: á Windows 2000 Server. Fibre Channel. The University of California Berkeley was one of the universities given a copy of the source code for the AT&T UNIX operating system.microsoft. and Plug and Play. The NTFS file system in Windows 2000 supports folder and file security.com/ windows2000/guide/server/overview/default.asp.com/windows2000/guide/ datacenter/overview/default. Windows 2000 Server supports many advanced technologies including USB. Supports up to 32 processors and 64GB of memory For more information on Windows 2000 Server and Advanced Server. file compression.asp. see the Microsoft web site at www. AT&T gave away the source code to UNIX. . UNIX The UNIX operating system originated at AT&T’s Bell Labs. They heavily modified AT&T UNIX and distributed it as BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) UNIX. Some believe that this was not a coincidence. and the NTFS (version 5) file system. the FAT32 file system. known as Active Directory.microsoft.112 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Microsoft Windows 2000 Server is actually Windows NT version 5. see the Microsoft web site at www. I2O. Windows 2000 introduces Microsoft directory service. and file encryption.

The most attractive features of Linux are that it is free and the source code is available (known as open source). Microsoft used OS/2 as a basis for development of the Windows NT operating system. Microsoft and IBM eventually terminated their partnership. with Microsoft spending its time on Windows and IBM taking on development of OS/2. Many major hardware and software vendors are supporting Linux. which is better known as OS/2. It has support for . was developed by IBM and Microsoft in the late 1980s as a replacement for the single user.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 113 Several versions of UNIX are designed to run on Intel processors including the following: á SCO OpenServer 5 á SCO UnixWare á SUN Solaris á FreeBSD Linux Linux is a clone of the UNIX operating system initially created by Linus Torvalds in 1991. Examples of available Linux distributions include the following: á Caldera Linux á Red Hat Linux á SuSE Linux á VA Linux IBM OS/2 Warp Server Operating System 2.Chapter 1 0. non-multitasking DOS operating system. OS/2 Warp Server is now a 32-bit multitasking operating system that supports symmetric multiprocessing (SMP).

see the IBM web site at http://www-4.20 Identify hardware and software available to manage network servers.com/software/os/warp/warp-server/. TCP/IP services available for OS/2 include a web server. applications compatibility. Content may include the following: • Vendor-specific installation and configuration software • Vendor-specific management software • Vendor-specific management hardware • Antivirus software • Documentation Many network server hardware vendors have available specialized software and hardware to provide advanced management capabilities for network servers. NETWORK SERVER MANAGEMENT . This section discusses several of these specialized pieces of hardware and software. network connectivity issues. the operating systems of existing network servers. 0. and cost. a Dynamic DNS server. a DHCP server. . and a remote access server. “which network operating system is best?” depends on the role the network server will perform.114 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION several different file systems. an FTP server. OS/2 supports both the TCP/IP and NetBEUI protocols for network connectivity. For more information on IBM OS/2. R E V I E W B R E A K This section described some of the various network operating systems that can be installed on an Intel-powered network server. its own High Performance File System (HPFS). The answer to the question. and a Journaled File System (JFS).ibm. including the File Allocation Table (FAT) file system.

Examples of network server installation and configuration software supplied by the network server vendors are as follows: á Compaq. usually provides software to configure the RAID controller if one is being used in the network server. including the installation of vendor-specific drivers for hardware in the network server.Chapter 1 0. IBM Netfinity Setup and Installation CD Use of the vendor-supplied server setup software has many advantages. The software utilities installed on this special partition are accessible at the power-up time of the network server. Another very useful feature of the setup software is that it often creates a special “diagnostics” or “configuration” partition on the first disk drive in the network server. such as temperature.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 115 Vendor-Specific Installation and Configuration Software The installation of the network operating system is often assisted by vendor-supplied network server installation and configuration software. Dell OpenManage Server Assistant á Hewlett-Packard. Vendor-Specific Management Software Major network server hardware vendors often have server monitoring and management software available. The network server setup software usually simplifies the installation of the network operating system by prompting the installer for configuration information on one or two screens and then supplying the information to the operating system installation process. . Compaq SmartStart á Dell. For this software to monitor the different components of the network server. The setup software also enables you to partition the disk space available on the network server. which is often supplied on a bootable CD-ROM disk. HP NetServer Navigator á IBM. This same software.

Often this modem connection can be used for outgoing calls as well. Compaq Insight Manager á Dell. This process is usually accomplished automatically when using the network server vendor’s server setup software. monitoring agents need to be installed on the network server. it may be necessary to install these monitoring agents after the network operating system has been installed. Advanced System Management Processor Several of these adapter boards allow remote management by means of a modem (often built in to the adapter card). Netfinity Director Vendor-Specific Management Hardware Most network server manufacturers have an adapter card that can be installed in the network server to provide additional management capabilities. Follow the network server vendor’s installation instructions to install the system monitor agents. Integrated HP Remote Assistant á IBM. and network utilization. The following network server monitoring and management software is available from several network server hardware vendors: á Compaq. Dell OpenManage IT Assistant á Hewlett-Packard.116 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION processor utilization. Compaq Remote Insight Board á Dell. Dell OpenManage Remote Assistant Card (DRAC) á Hewlett-Packard. Generally these management adapters cards are independent of the network operating system on the network server. At least one vendor is building this capability into the network server system board. . HP Toptools Remote Control Card á Hewlett-Packard. Representative network server manufacturers and their network server management adapters include the following: á Compaq. However. the remote management adapter can call the administrator’s pager with diagnostic information as needed. HP Toptools á IBM.

When a virus gets onto your network server. and configuration software provided by the network server vendor can make the job of setting up the network server much easier. A wellmaintained logbook is an invaluable tool when it is time to upgrade the network server or when it is time to troubleshoot a problem with the network server. The installer of the network server should create a logbook for the network that initially will contain the configuration information for the network server. Documentation Documentation is very important to the successful installation and operation of a network server. it is more easily spread to all the computers that access the network server. installation.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 117 Antivirus Software There is an even greater need to protect a network server from computer viruses than to protect desktop computers from computer viruses. The documentation supplied with the network server should be read and stored in a safe place. and it handles RAID system configuration. If the computer virus is destructive. to acquire as part of installing a new network server. additional entries should be recorded in the logbook. As the network server is upgraded and maintained. Antivirus software for a network server should be configured to update the virus signature file frequently. Antivirus software should be near the top of the list. This software also sets up the diagnostic partition. special hardware drivers. especially if multiple network servers need to be managed together. Using the network server setup. Running a network server without antivirus software is just not prudent. along with backup software and the network server operating system. R E V I E W B R E A K This section discussed the various hardware and software utilities available to aid in the management of a network server. Special network server management hardware and software that is available from the network server vendor is a wise investment that quickly recovers its own cost. continues . as new viruses are found on practically a daily basis.Chapter 1 0. you could easily lose all the data stored on the network server.

It will prove to be invaluable later.118 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION continued Running a network server without antivirus software is just asking for trouble. The installation plan for the network server is usually created by a network engineer. The entire “Network Server Installation Plan Worksheet” is on the following pages in Figures 1.21 Creating an Installation Plan After reading this chapter and understanding the size. if you have more than one RAID controller). Not all the pages in the worksheet will be used in every completed plan.) Be sure to document everything about the setup. installation. and maintenance of the network server in a logbook. role.) In some cases. upgrading. it is time to create the installation plan. (For example. The “Network Server Installation Plan Worksheet” is a set of forms that can be filled in to help describe the network server. a page from the worksheet will be used more than once (for example. A properly filled-in worksheet can be used as a basis for creating a full-blown installation plan.25).19 through 1. configuration.18. it is unlikely that you will have both IDE and SCSI disks in the same network server. (I consider it to be an absolute requirement. The biggest difference between the worksheet and the finished installation plan is additional verbiage giving details that aren’t on the worksheet. CREATING AN INSTALLATION PLAN . 0. armed with the information from this chapter and by using the “Network Server Installation Plan Worksheet. and components required for a network server. A completed network server installation plan is also included for illustrative purposes (see Figures 1. However. . There is also a copy of the worksheet document on the CD-ROM included with this book.12 through 1. when troubleshooting a network server problem.” most people who want to acquire a new network server can get a good start on creating the installation plan.

0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 119 Network Server Installation Plan Worksheet Server Role ________________________________________________________________ Server Operating System _____________________________________________________ Server Operating System Version Number ________________________________________ Server Operating System Patch or Service Pack Level ______________________________ FIGURE 1. Speed) ___________________________________________ Floppy Disk Drive 3. Model) ______________________________________ Network Interface Card(s) (Brand. Model.12 Network Server Installation Plan Worksheet. Speed) ____________________________________________ DVD-ROM (Brand. Capacity) ______________________________________ Backup Software (Brand.Chapter 1 0. Model.5" (Brand. Model. Maximum Resolution) ______________________ Uninterruptible Power Supply (Brand. Model. Type. Speed)_________________________________________________ Other Adapters _____________________________________________________________ . VA rating) ______________________________ Server Management Adapter (Brand. Model. Model. Version) ______________________________________________ Video Adapter (Brand. Brand. Speed) 1 ___________________________________________________________________ 2 ___________________________________________________________________ 3 ___________________________________________________________________ 4 ___________________________________________________________________ Modem (Brand. Speed) __________________________________ Other __________________________________________________________________ Tape Back System (Brand. Model. Video RAM. L2 Cache) ______________________ Removable Media Disk Drives CD-ROM (Brand. Speed. Model. Server Hardware Components Server Brand and Model ______________________________________________________ Server Memory (total amount) __________________________________________________ Server Processor(s) (Quantity. Model.

13 Server Memory. Server Memory Memory Form Factor /__/ SIMM /__/ DIMM /__/ RIMM /__/ Other ________________________ Memory Type /__/ EDO /__/ EDO Buffered /__/ SDRAM /__/ SDRAM Registered /__/ RDRAM /__/ Other ________________________ Memory Error Checking /__/ none /__/ Parity /__/ ECC Memory Module Connectors /__/ Tin /__/ Gold Server Memory Map Bank 1 |________| Slot 1 Bank 2 |________| Slot 1 Bank 3 |________| Slot 1 Bank 4 |________| Slot 1 |________| Slot 2 |________| Slot 2 |________| Slot 2 |________| Slot 2 |________| Slot 3 |________| Slot 3 |________| Slot 3 |________| Slot 3 |________| Slot 4 |________| Slot 4 |________| Slot 4 |________| Slot 4 .120 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 1.

Chapter 1 0. SCSI ID 8 ________________________________________________ Channel 2. SCSI ID 14 _______________________________________________ Channel 2. SCSI ID 2 ________________________________________________ Channel 2. Disk Controller Brand and Model Channel 1 – Device 1 (Master/Slave/CSEL) Channel 1 – Device 2 (Master/Slave/CSEL) Channel 2 – Device 1 (Master/Slave/CSEL) Channel 2 – Device 2 (Master/Slave/CSEL) Channel 3 – Device 1 (Master/Slave/CSEL) Channel 3 – Device 2 (Master/Slave/CSEL) ATA. ATA2. . SCSI ID 6 ________________________________________________ Channel 1. SCSI ID 3 ________________________________________________ Channel 1. SCSI ID 15 _______________________________________________ FIGURE 1. SCSI ID 10 _______________________________________________ Channel 1. SCSI ID 4 ________________________________________________ Channel 2. SCSI ID 3 ________________________________________________ Channel 2. SCSI ID 9 ________________________________________________ Channel 1. ATA2. SCSI ID 11 _______________________________________________ Channel 1. Speed) Channel 1.14 ATA. Model. Capacity. SCSI ID 13 _______________________________________________ Channel 1. SCSI ID 12 _______________________________________________ Channel 2. Model. SCSI ID 13 _______________________________________________ Channel 2. SCSI ID 12 _______________________________________________ Channel 1. SCSI ID 1 ________________________________________________ Channel 1. SCSI ID 0 ________________________________________________ Channel 1. SCSI ID 5 ________________________________________________ Channel 2. SCSI ID 4 ________________________________________________ Channel 1. SCSI ID 1 ________________________________________________ Channel 2. SCSI Bus Controller Complete one copy of this page for each SCSI Bus Controller in the Network Server SCSI Bus Controller Number _____________________________________________ SCSI Bus Controller (Brand. SCSI ID 7 ________________________________________________ Channel 2. SCSI ID 5 ________________________________________________ Channel 1. SCSI ID 11 _______________________________________________ Channel 2. SCSI ID 2 ________________________________________________ Channel 1.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 121 FIGURE 1. SCSI ID 14 _______________________________________________ Channel 1. Ultra ATA Disk Controller. SCSI ID 8 ________________________________________________ Channel 1. SCSI ID 15 _______________________________________________ Channel 2.15 SCSI Bus Controller. SCSI Standard) ___________________________ (Brand. SCSI ID 9 ________________________________________________ Channel 2. SCSI ID 10 _______________________________________________ Channel 2. Ultra ATA Disk Controller 1. SCSI ID 6 ________________________________________________ Channel 2. SCSI ID 0 ________________________________________________ Channel 2. SCSI ID 7 ________________________________________________ Channel 1.

SCSI ID 1 Channel 1. SCSI Standard) (Brand. Speed.16 RAID Controller. SCSI ID 13 Channel 1. SCSI ID 7 Channel 1. SCSI ID 5 Channel 1. SCSI ID 9 Channel 1. SCSI ID 10 Channel 1. SCSI ID 14 Channel 1. SCSI ID 15 . SCSI ID 14 Channel 1. SCSI ID 11 Channel 1. SCSI ID 1 Channel 1. SCSI ID 8 Channel 1. SCSI ID 12 Channel 1. SCSI ID 2 Channel 1. RAID Level) Channel 1. SCSI ID 4 Channel 1. RAID Controller Complete one copy of this page for each RAID Controller in the Network Server RAID Controller Number RAID Controller (Brand. SCSI ID 2 Channel 1. SCSI ID 13 Channel 1. SCSI ID 5 Channel 1. SCSI ID 12 Channel 1. SCSI ID 9 Channel 1. SCSI ID 8 Channel 1. SCSI ID 3 Channel 1. SCSI ID 11 Channel 1. SCSI ID 0 Channel 1. Model. Model. SCSI ID 6 Channel 1. Capacity.122 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 1. SCSI ID 0 Channel 1. SCSI ID 6 Channel 1. SCSI ID 3 Channel 1. SCSI ID 10 Channel 1. SCSI ID 4 Channel 1. SCSI ID 7 Channel 1. SCSI ID 15 Channel 1.

Bus Types (ISA.18 Server Installation Site Preparation.Chapter 1 0. EISA.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 123 FIGURE 1. Micro Channel.17 PCI Bus Layout PCI Bus# Slot# Adapter Installed PCI Bus1 Slot 1 Bus1 Slot 2 Bus1 Slot 3 Bus1 Slot 4 Bus1 Slot 5 PCI Bus2 Slot 1 Bus2 Slot 2 Bus2 Slot 3 Bus2 Slot 4 Bus2 Slot 5 PCI Bus3 Slot 1 Bus3 Slot 2 Bus3 Slot 3 Bus3 Slot 4 Bus3 Slot 5 Other Buses Bus Type Slot # Adapter Installed PCI Bus Layout. . AGP) Server Installation Site Preparation Is space available to install the new server (yes/no)? Is there a working network connection available for the new server (yes/no)? Is electrical power available for the new server (yes/no)? Is the electrical power of the right voltage (yes/no)? Is the electrical power of the right amperage (yes/no)? Do the electrical receptacles match the electrical plugs on the UPS (yes/no)? Does the installation site have enough cooling to support the new server (yes/no)? Is the installation site secure (yes/no)? FIGURE 1. VL-Bus.

Model. Speed) Slow-n-Easy. Version) Mighty Mite Backup Software Version 2. 256KB Removable Media Disk Drives CD-ROM (Brand. Capacity) Brand 2. Model. Speed) Brand X. Model. FastNet. Speed) 1. 4. Intel. Network Server Installation Plan Worksheet Server Role Web Server using Microsoft Internet Information Server Server Operating System Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server Server Operating System Version Number Server Operating System Patch or Service Pack Level Service Pack 1 Server Hardware Components Server Brand and Model Generic Server Corporation Server memory (total amount) 512 Megabytes Server Processor(s) (Quantity. Model. Speed none Floppy Disk Drive 3. L2 Cache) 2. 700MHz. Model) none Network Interface Card(s) (Brand. Model. 10/100MBps 2.124 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 1. Modem (Brand. Model. Type. 2024 x 768 Uninterruptible Power Supply (Brand. 2000 VA Server Management Adapter (Brand. Speed) Brand A. Maximum Resolution) Ultra VGA Computer Model 33. 8MG. 30X DVD-ROM (Brand.5" (Brand. Model A. 56Kbps Other Adapters . Model.19 Completed Network Server Installation Plan Worksheet. zippy12. 40GB Backup Software (Brand. VA rating) Big Battery Backup.x Video Adapter (Brand. Ethernet. Model. Speed. 12. Pentium III Xeon. Model 4 Other Tape Back System (Brand. Model 2. 3. Model 12x. Video RAM. Brand. Model.

Memory Type /__/EDO /__/EDO Buffered /X/ SDRAM /__/SDRAM Registered /__/SDRAM /__/Other Memory Error Checking /__/ none /__/ Parity /X/ ECC Memory Module Connectors /__/ Tin /X/ Gold Server Memory Map Bank 1 Bank 2 Bank 3 Slot 1 Bank 4 Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 4 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 4 I 64MB I Slot 1 I 64MB I Slot 1 I 64MB I Slot 2 I 64MB I Slot 2 I 64MG I Slot 3 I 64MG I Slot 3 I 64MB I Slot 4 I 64MB I Slot 4 .0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 125 Server Memory Memory Form Factor /__/ SIMM /X/ DIMM /__/ RIMM /__/ Other FIGURE 1.20 Completed Server Memory.Chapter 1 0.

Device 2 (Master/Slave/CSEL) SCSI Bus Controller Complete one copy of this page for each SCSI Bus Controller in the Network Server SCSI Bus Controller Number One Builtin. SCSI ID 7 Channel 2. SCSI ID 5 Channel 1. SCSI ID 13 Channel 1. SCSI ID 1 Channel 2. Model.22 Completed SCSI Bus Controller. SCSI ID 12 Channel 2. SCSI ID 0 Channel 2. SCSI ID 10 Channel 1.126 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 1. ATA2. SCSI ID 2 Channel 2. Speed) Channel 1. Ultra ATA Disk Controller. SCSI ID 1 Channel 1. SCSI ID 13 Channel 2. SCSI ID 7 Channel 1. SCSI ID 5 Channel 2. SCSI-2 SCSI Bus Controller (Brand. SCSI ID 4 Channel 2.Device 2 (Master/Slave/CSEL) Channel 2 . Capacity. Model. One. SCSI ID 9 Channel 2.Device 1 (Master/Slave/CSEL) Channel 3 .21 Completed ATA. SCSI Standard) (Brand. SCSI ID 11 Channel 1. SCSI ID 3 Channel 2. SCSI ID 9 Channel 1. SCSI ID 3 Channel 1. SCSI ID 12 Channel 1. SCSI ID 8 Channel 2. SCSI ID 6 Channel 1.Device 1 (Master/Slave/CSEL) Channel 2 . Ultra ATA Disk Controller 1. SCSI ID 4 Channel 1. SCSI ID 14 Channel 1.Device 1 (Master/Slave/CSEL) Channel 1 .Device 2 (Master/Slave/CSEL) Channel 3 . SCSI ID 15 Channel 2. ATA. SCSI ID 15 Brand 2. SCSI ID 2 Channel 1. SCSI ID 10 Channel 2. Disk Controller Brand and Model Channel 1 . . ATA2. SCSI ID 0 Channel 1. SCSI ID 11 Channel 2. SCSI ID 6 Channel 2. Model A Tape Backup FIGURE 1. SCSI ID 14 Channel 2. SCSI ID 8 Channel 1.

SCSI ID 1 Channel 2. SCSI ID 3 Channel 2.Chapter 1 0. SCSI ID 6 Channel 1. 40GB. SCSI ID 2 Channel 2. SCSI-3 (Brand. 10000. SCSI ID 1 Seaweed. RAID 5 Channel 1. . TWO. 40GB. SCSI ID 13 Channel 1. SCSI ID 14 Channel 1.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 127 Raid Controller Complete one copy of this page for each RAID Controller in the Network Server. 10000.23 Completed RAID Controller. SCSI ID 15 Channel 2. SCSI ID 12 Channel 1. 3232. SCSI ID 13 Channel 2. SCSI ID 11 Channel 2. SCSI ID 3 Seaweed. SCSI ID 15 FIGURE 1. RAID 5 Channel 1. Speed. SCSI ID 7 Channel 2. RAID 5 Channel 1. 3232. SCSI ID 11 Channel 1. Capacity. SCSI ID 8 Channel 2. SCSI ID 14 Channel 2. SCSI ID 9 Channel 2. RAID 5 Channel 1. SCSI Standard) RAIDER. 10000. Model. 40GB. 3232. SCSI ID 6 Channel 2. SCSI ID 8 Channel 1. SCSI ID 5 Channel 1. 3232. SCSI ID 4 Channel 2. RAID Controller Number One RAID Controller (Brand. SCSI ID 4 Seaweed. SCSI ID 5 Channel 2. Model. SCSI ID 10 Channel 2. SCSI ID 9 Channel 1. SCSI ID 0 Seaweed. SCSI ID 2 Seaweed. SCSI ID 12 Channel 2. 40GB. 10000. SCSI ID 0 Channel 2. 3232. 40GB. RAID 5 Channel 1. RAID Level) Channel 1. SCSI ID 10 Channel 1. SCSI ID 7 Channel 1. 10000.

24 Completed PCI Bus Layout.128 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 1. AGP) Server Installation Site Preparation Is space available to install the new server (yes/no)? YES YES Is there a working network connection available for the new server (yes/no)? Is electrical power available for the new server (yes/no)? YES YES YES YES Is the electrical power of the right voltage (yes/no)? Is the electrical power of the right amperage (yes/no)? Do the electrical receptacles match the electrical plugs on the UPS (yes/no)? Does the installation site have enough cooling to support the new server (yes/no)? YES Is the installation site secure (yes/no)? YES FIGURE 1. RAIDER TWO Bus1 Slot 2 Bus1 Slot 3 Bus1 Slot 4 Bus1 Slot 5 PCI Bus2 Slot 1 SCSI Controller. Micro Channel. VL-Bus. Builtin One Bus2 Slot 2 Bus2 Slot 3 Bus2 Slot 4 Bus2 Slot 5 NIC.25 Completed Server Installation Site Preparation. . PCI Bus Layout PCI Bus# Slot# Adapter Installed PCI Bus1 Slot 1 RAID Controller. Fastnet zippy 12 PCI Bus3 Slot 1 Bus3 Slot 2 Bus3 Slot 3 Bus3 Slot 4 Bus3 Slot 5 Other Buses Bus Type EISA Slot # 1 Adapter Installed Modem. EISA. Slow-n-Easy Bus Types (ISA.

The differences between the two major types of networks—peer to peer and server centric—were identified. Finally. Those components fit into major categories such as processors. you learned about the technologies used to create network servers. Miscellaneous additional topics related to a network server. the network subsystem. KEY TERMS • 10BASE-2 • 10BASE-5 • 10BASE-F • 10BASE-T • 100BASE-TX • 802. management software. and the disk subsystem. tape backup system. including the network server operating system.3 • 802. uninterruptible power supplies. and network server racks. were described. The goal is to select the proper network server components so that it can adequately fulfill its role in the network. The major categories of network server.11 • Adapter teaming • Adapter load balancing • Adaptive fault tolerance • Advanced Intelligent Tape • American National Standards Institute (ANSI) • American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) • AT Attachment (ATA) • Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) • Buffered memory • Cache • Daemon • Departmental server • Desktop Management Interface (DMI) . memory. The major components of a network server were then discussed to give the server hardware specialist and the network engineer the insight necessary to select components for the network server.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 129 CHAPTER SUMMARY In this chapter. The major network server roles were described in detail.5 • 802. the creation of an installation plan was discussed.Chapter 1 0. based on size. were covered to fill in any gaps related to network server selection.

130 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION CHAPTER SUMMARY • Differential backup • Differential SCSI • Digital Audio Tape (DAT) • Digital Data Storage (DDS) • Digital Linear Tape (DLT) • Direct Memory Access (DMA) • Directory services server • Disk duplexing • Disk mirroring • Disk striping without parity • Disk striping with parity • Domain Name Service (DNS) • Dual in-line memory module (DIMM) • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) • Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) • Electronics Industry Association (EIA) • Extended Binary Coded Decimal Information Code (EBCDIC) • Enterprise server • Error Correcting Code (ECC) • Ethernet • Fast Ethernet • Fax server • Fibre Channel • Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) • FireWire (IEEE 1394) • Full backup • Gigabit (Gb) • Gigabit Ethernet • Gigabyte (GB) • Hardware RAID • High Voltage Differential (HVD) SCSI • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) • IBM OS/2 • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) • Incremental backup • InfiniBand Architecture (IBA) • Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) • Intelligent Input/Output (I2O) • Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) • IPX/SPX protocol • Keyboard/video/mouse (KVM) switch • Kilobit (Kb) • Kilobyte (KB) .

R.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 131 CHAPTER SUMMARY • Linear Tape–Open (LTO) • Linux • Low Voltage Differential (LVD) SCSI • Magic packet • Megabit (Mb) • Megabyte (MB) • Megahertz (MHz) • Microsoft Windows NT Server • Microsoft Windows 2000 Server • NetBEUI protocol • NetBIOS • Network-attached storage (NAS) • Non-ECC Memory • Novell NetWare • NWLink protocol • Peer-to-peer network • Port aggregation • Post Office Protocol (POP) • Programmed input/output (PIO) • Quarter Inch Cartridge (QIC) • RAID 0 • RAID 1 • RAID 2 • RAID 3 • RAID 4 • RAID 5 • RAID 0/1 • Random access memory (RAM) • Redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) • Redundant array of inexpensive tapes (RAIT) • Registered memory • Remote access server (RAS) • RIMM • SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosures (SAF-TE) • SCSI Enclosure Services (SES) • SCSI-1 • SCSI-2 • SCSI-3 • Self-Monitoring.M.A.) • Serial Storage Architecture (SSA) • Server appliance • Server-centric network • Shielded twisted-pair (STP) • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) . Analysis and Reporting Technology (S.T.Chapter 1 0.

132 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION CHAPTER SUMMARY • Single-ended SCSI • Single in-line memory module (SIMM) • Single large expensive disk (SLED) • Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) • Software RAID • Static random access memory (SRAM) • Storage area network (SAN) • Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) • Terminal server • Token Ring • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) • Travan tape • Ultra ATA • Ultra 2 SCSI • Ultra160 • Ultra320 • Unbuffered memory • Universal Serial Bus (USB) • UNIX • Unregistered memory • Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) • Virtual memory • Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) • Workgroup server .

and room to install the network server. Using the “Installation Plan Worksheet. What is the purpose of a NAT server? 2. C. Make sure that the installation site has adequate power. C. D. HP) and select and configure a network server model offered by that vendor that meets the specifications. What is sent to a Wake-On-LAN Network Interface Card to cause it to power up the computer? 5.doc file that is on the CD-ROM. B. The network server will be a web server. Review Questions 1.000 distinct web pages and their associated graphic images. Plan for fault tolerance of the disk storage by using either hardware or software RAID. The web server software uses the remaining memory in the network server to cache frequently accessed web pages.” plan the configuration and installation of a network server that meets the following specifications. Estimated time: One to four hours 1. IBM.Chapter 1 0. As noted above. many of which utilize lots of graphic images. 3. What is the purpose of a KVM switch? 4. What is the purpose of an uninterruptible power supply? 3. Don’t forget the tape backup system.000 distinct web pages. this entire exercise can be repeated for any network server role. B. 4. The web server will run many CGI or ASP scripts. At least 256MB of memory.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 133 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Exercises 1. The web server will contain approximately 200. Visit a network server vendor web site (Compaq. The web server will run Microsoft Windows 2000 Server and it will use Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS) as the web server. Dell. What is SMP? 6. Based on these specifications. the web server will probably need the following: A. You can repeat it for different server vendors and for different server roles. 5. At least 100GB of disk storage to hold the 200. and the UPS. cooling. Windows 2000 Server needs at least 128MB of memory. The CGI and ASP scripts will use memory to run. 6. probably 512MB is a better choice.1 Create an Installation Plan This exercise is intended to give you some hands-on experience planning the specifications for a network server installation. A. Plan for high availability by using fault-tolerant components and redundancy when necessary. Print a copy of the 01 Installation Plan Worksheet. What is adapter teaming? . Repeat step 6 using a different network server vendor than the one originally selected. 2.

What is the data transfer rate of USB? 17. Which of the following RAID levels provide fault tolerance using parity information and a minimum of three disk drives? i. RAID 0 B.R.A. What is the minimum number of disk drives required to implement RAID 0/1? 9. What are the reasons for having more than one NIC in a network server? 22. What is the native storage capacity of a Digital Audio Tape (DAT) using the DDS-4 format? 21. but provides no redundancy? A. Why is ECC memory important to network server? 19. What is the purpose of a WINS server? 25. RAID 3 D. Which RAID level provides improved disk input/output. What is the name of the system bus created by IBM for the IBM PS/2 microcomputer? 11. iii and iv C. What is the purpose of I2O technology? 12. i and iii . Which network server operating systems support the NTFS file system? 23. What is the purpose of racking servers? 18.M. What is the speed of Fast Ethernet? 14. What is the purpose of S. RAID 4 iv. RAID 5 A.134 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 7. What is the difference between write thru and write back cache? 15. RAID 5 2. RAID 5 3. How many devices can be attached to an IEEE 1394 bus? 8. What is the data transfer speed of FireWire? Exam Questions 1.T technology? 16. What is the downside to using disk mirroring? 20. RAID 3 D. Which RAID level provides redundancy at the expense of the loss of 50% of the disk storage capacity? A. and iv D. What are the common form factors for network server memory? 13. RAID 1 C. What is the purpose of a DNS server? 10. RAID 0 B. i and ii B. What are common speeds associated with the processor “frontside bus”? 24. RAID 0 ii. ii. RAID 1 iii. RAID 1 C. iii.

Which of the following network server roles can be used to attach a corporate LAN to the Internet? i. 12GB D. AGP iv. Which of the following network operating systems can utilize the NTFS file system? i. 4GB B. ii. Which of the following buses are “local buses”? i. Linux A. Microsoft Windows NT Server iii.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 135 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 4. You need to install 80 disk drives in an external enclosure and control them from a single controller in the network server. Firewall iii. and iii C. Router ii. SDRAM C. 8GB C.Chapter 1 0. Proxy server iv. ii and iv B. Novell NetWare ii. iv only 8. RDRAM 9. What is the native (not compressed) storage capacity of a DAT24 tape drive? A. DDR DRAM D. ii and iv D. and iv 5. PCI ii. 40GB 7. ii. and iv C. i. Microsoft Windows 2000 Server iv. Which of the following memory technologies can be buffered? A. i and iv B. iii and iv 6. Network Address Translation (NAT) server A. EDO B. Ultra 100 C. iii. i. ii and iii D. i and iii C. SCSI-3 . EISA A. i and ii B. ISA iii. i. i and ii D. FC-AL D. ii. Which disk technology will you use? A. SCSI-1 B.

20MBps C. Bridge D. Which of the following TCP/IP protocols can be used to manage network devices? A. DNS B.136 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 10. SNMP D. Which of the following network services is used to automatically configure TCP/IP? A. DHCP D. SMTP B. Serial ATA D. 3 meters B. USB C. SDRAM D. ECC . What is the maximum bus (cable) length for a SCSI system that uses Low Voltage Differential (LVD) signaling? A. SAN 15. 80MBps 16. SNA 14. Switch C. FireWire B. SCSI-1 C. 40MBps D. SCSI-3 12. SCSI-0 B. WINS C. SCSI-2 D. Router 11. Which network device supports port aggregation? A. Serial Storage Architecture 17. Hub B. What is the data transfer speed of Ultra2 SCSI? A. 6 meters C. 12 meters D. 25 meters 13. What type of memory is used in the Level 2 cache of an Intel processor? A. SRAM C. Which of the following has a data transfer rate of 12Mbps and allows attachment of up to 127 Plug and Play devices? A. FTP C. 10MBps B. DRAM B. Which SCSI standard defines standards for both parallel and serial communications? A.

Enchanced QIC B. Shared nothing iv. 3 meters . ii and iii D. Which of the following memory technologies operates at the clock speed of the memory bus? i. i and iv B. ii and iii C. Microsoft B. DDR SDRAM iv. Compaq 22. Intel D. DLT 20. Serial Storage Architecture iii. Redundant NICs A. FireWire A. Kingston C. What is the name of the magnetic tape technology that is an enhanced version of Quarter Inch Cartridge (QIC) tape technology? A. ii. Mirrored disk drives ii. RAID 0 B. Server clustering can be achieved using which of the following techniques? i. RAID 5 D. Direct Rambus A. RAID 3 19. Universal Serial Bus iv.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 137 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 18. i and iv 21. iii and iv D. 18 inches C. ii and iv C. 1 meter D. Which of the following RAID systems provide disk fault tolerance by duplicating data in two locations? A. SDRAM iii. i. and iii D. i and ii B. i and iii C.Chapter 1 0. What is the maximum cable length for a ATA/IDE disk channel? A. i and ii B. AIT C. RAID 1 C. iv only 23. iii and iv 24. Travan D. Fibre Channel ii. EDO DRAM ii. What company created the PCI bus standard? A. 12 inches B. Shared disk drives iii. Which of the following high-speed technologies can be used to create a storage area network (SAN)? i.

see the section “Micro Channel Architecture. An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) performs several functions. and mouse. A UPS also protects the network server from voltage spikes and voltage sags. A magic packet. see the section “Intelligent Input/Output. RAID 0/1 requires a minimum of four disk drives. and mouse to be switched among several network servers. For more information.” 2. 33MHz B. see the section “Network Address Translation Server. The purpose of Intelligent Input/Output (I2O) is to offload the input/output process from the network server processor. For more information. For more information. A Network Address Translation (NAT) server is used to attach a corporate network that uses private TCP/IP addresses to the Internet.” 10.” 5.1 specification? A. Adapter teaming is a technique that allows multiple adapters to function together to provide greater throughput and/or fail-over capabilities. For more information.” 3. see the section “Wake-On-LAN. see the section “Adapter Teaming. For more information. For more information.138 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 25. For more information. repeats 16 times in the data portion of the TCP/IP packet.” 8.” Answers to Review Questions 1. For more information. 132MHz D. which is a special TCP/IP packet that contains the IP addresses of the computer to be awakened. For more information. video display. For more information. see the section “Video Monitor.” 6. see the section “RAID 0/1. see the section “Uninterruptible Power Supply. see the section “Symmetric Multiprocessing. Symmetric multiprocessing is the capability of a network server to support more than one processor and use them efficiently. see the section “Domain Name System Server. Most importantly it supplies power to a network server during an electrical power outage long enough for the network server to shut down gracefully. IBM created the Micro Channel Architecture bus when it introduced the PS/2 microcomputer. see the section “FireWire (IEEE 1394). A keyboard/video/mouse switch allows a single keyboard. This helps reduce the amount of space taken up by the network servers and the peripheral keyboard. video display. 66MHz C.” .” 7. 8MHz 4.” 11. IEEE 1394 or FireWire can support 63 external devices. The NAT server has a small range of valid TCP/IP addresses that can be used by clients on the corporate LAN that have private addresses. What is the bus speed of the PCI 2. A Domain Name System (DNS) server translates IP names to IP addresses. For more information.” 9.

Analysis and Reporting Technology (S. see the section “Racking Servers. see the section “Windows Internet Naming Service Server.” 16.” 18.” 22.Chapter 1 0. A WINS server is used to register a computer’s NetBIOS name and IP address when it is powered up.T). For more information. The common form factors for memory in network servers are SIMMs (single in-line memory module). the data is written only to the cache.” 19. For more information.T) is a disk drive technology that monitors disk drive parameters for indications of failure. In write back cache. see the section “Universal Serial Bus. Analysis and Reporting Technology (S. see the section “Self-Monitoring. For more information.” 24.” 23. Putting network servers into a rack allows for the installation of many servers in a small amount of floor space.” 13. DIMMs (dual in-line memory module) and RIMMs. For more information. For more information. Fast Ethernet operates at 100Mbps. For more information. The data transfer rate of a Universal Serial Bus (USB) is 12Mbps. Error Correcting Code (ECC) memory can detect and correct single-bit errors and detect double-bit errors in the memory of network servers.” 15. see the section “RAID 1.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 139 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 12.A. The WINS server is also used to resolve a NetBIOS name to an IP address.R. see the section “FireWire (IEEE 1394). aka FireWire. Multiple NICs in a network server allow the network server to be attached to more than one physical network. The Self-Monitoring. Common frontside bus speeds are 66MHz. The NTFS file system is supported by Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 and Microsoft Windows 2000 Server. see the section “Adapter Teaming.” 14. is 400Mbps. multiple NICs allow for adapter teaming. For more information.M.M. For more information. see the section “Memory Bus. see the section“Digital Audio Tape. The difference between write thru and write back cache is that with write thru cache data is written to main memory and the cache at the same time.” 20. see the sections “Write Thru Cache” and “Write Back Cache. see the section “Fast Ethernet. The data transfer speed of IEEE 1394. which writes it to main memory when necessary.” . For more information.” 25. The native storage capacity of a DAT tape using DDS-4 format is 20GB.” 21. More importantly. For more information. and 133MHz. For more information. For more information. see the section “Memory Form Factors. 100MHz. Failure of the disk controller means loss of the mirror set.” 17.A. For more information. see the section “Memory Error Checking. For more information. Disk mirroring has a data storage loss of 50% and both disk drives in a mirrored set are attached to a single disk controller.R. see the section “Network Operating Systems.

Only FC-AL (Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop) of the choices in the answer has the capacity to attach 80 disk drives to a single disk controller. A. see the section “SCSI-3”. 7.” 11.1. For more information. RAID 4 and RAID 5 both require a minimum of three disk drives and provide fault tolerance by means of parity. see the section “Buffered Memory and Registered Memory. A switch can support port aggregation.” 15. D. The maximum cable length for Low Voltage Differential (LVD) SCSI is 12 meters. For more information.” . see the section “Simple Network Management Protocol. see the section “Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop. The compressed storage capacity of DAT24 is 24GB.” 17. see Table 1. SCSI-3 has standards for both parallel and serial communications. see the section “RAID 1. For more information.” 5. 16. a proxy server. For more information. see the sections “Router. C. C. see the section “Port Aggregation. see Table 1. B.9. see the section “Universal Serial Bus. A router. and a NAT server can all be used to connect a corporate LAN to the Internet. For more information. For more information. B.1. Ultra2 SCSI can transfer data at 20MBps. B. D. see the section “RAID 0. see Table 1. Each server has a different purpose. Static RAM (SRAM) is used in the Level 2 cache in Intel processors. see the section “Processor Cache. For more information. C. 13. B. but at the cost of 50% of the storage capacity of the disk drives being mirrored or duplexed. C. A. B.” 3.” 10.140 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Answers to Exam Questions 1.” 6.” and “Network Address Translation Server. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) can be used to automatically configure TCP/IP clients. For more information. Only EDO memory can be buffered. RAID 1 (disk mirroring or disk duplexing) provides redundancy by writing the same data to two disk drives. see the section “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server.” “Proxy Server. C.” “Firewall. For more information. RAID 0 provides improved disk input/output but does not provide fault tolerance. a firewall. Both Microsoft Windows NT Server and Microsoft Windows 2000 Server can use the NTFS file system. The native storage capacity of DAT24 is 12GB. For more information. see the sections “Peripheral Component Interconnect” and “Accelerated Graphics Port. but they all connect a corporate LAN to the Internet. B. For more information.” 8. For more information. Both PCI and AGP are local buses. The Universal Serial Bus (USB) has a data transfer speed of 12Mbps and supports up to 127 Plug and Play devices.” 4. For more information. see the sections “Microsoft Windows NT Server” and “Microsoft Windows 2000 Server. The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) can be used to manage network devices. see the sections “RAID 4” and “RAID 5. For more information. B.” 9. For more information. 12. For more information.” 14. For more information. C.” 2.

microsoft. The PCI 2. B. It does provide some backward compatibility with QIC tapes. Both Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) and double data rate (DDR) synchronous DRAM operate at speed of the memory bus. Server clusters can be created using any of these three methods: mirrored disk drives.com/catalog/ display. C. Two technologies that can be used to create a storage area network (SAN) are Fibre Channel and Serial Storage Architecture.” 23.microsoft. Upgrading and Repairing PCs. 4th Edition. B. ISBN 0-5960-0158-4.htm 9.” 20.microsoft.com/sna/default. For more information. Gary and Peter M. and shared nothing. Microsoft Exchange Server www. A. see the section “Peripheral Component Interface. O’Reilly & Associates (2001). The Travan tape technology is an enhanced version of the QIC tape technology. Que Publishing (2000).” Suggested Readings and Resources 1. No Starch Press (2000).” 25.com/exchange/default. Microsoft SQL Server www. Microsoft SNA Server www. 4.microsoft. C. The PCI bus standard was created by Intel Corporation. For more information. For more information. Charles E. Paul and Cricket Liu. see the section “Travan Cartridge Tape. Microsoft Proxy Server www. 12th Edition. B. Ethernet: The Definitive Guide.asp 11. Dedek. see the section “RAID 1. ISBN 0-7897-2303-4.microsoft. 3. Spurgeon. RAID 1 (disk mirroring or disk duplexing) provides disk fault tolerance by duplicating data to two different locations. see the section “Storage Area Network.microsoft. 6.htm 8. DNS and BIND.com/isaserver/ . see the section “Memory Technologies.0—PLANNING AND SPECIFICATIONS 141 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 18. ISBN 1-8864-1110-7.0 Server www.Chapter 1 0. B. Microsoft Windows NT 4. For more information. 5. see the section “Peripheral Component Interface. Mueller.” 22. Ancot Corporation (2000) ISBN 0-9637-4396-1.1 specification has a bus speed of 66MHz. The maximum cable length for an ATA/IDE channel is 18 inches. O’Reilly & Associates (2000). see the section “Integrated Drive Electronics. For more information.” 19. For more information.” 24. Microsoft Host Integration Server www. Scott. Jan and Gary Stephens. Ridge. shared disk drives.microsoft.asp?site=427&subid=22&pg=1 7. 5th Edition. The Book of SCSI: I/O for the New Millennium.com/proxy/ and www.com/sql/default. Albitz. What Is Fibre Channel?. For more information. For more information.com/hiserver/ 10. C. see the section “Server Clustering. Field. 2.” 21. ISBN 1-5659-2660-9.

dell.ucb/CSD-87-391 16.com/products/groupwise/ 25.org/spec/dmis.edu/Dienst/UI/2.dmtf. Kingston’s Ultimate Memory Guide www.microsoft.andataco. Novell NetWare 5.com/smsmgmt/default.142 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Suggested Readings and Resources 12. Novell NetWare for SAA www.asp .novell. IBM OS/2 Warp Server http://www-4.berkeley.ibm.novell.utexas.asp 24. Novell NetWare 5. Zenworks for Servers 2 www.com/ 21.microsoft. InfiniBand Trade Association www.novell.com/servers/ 20.apache.com/tools/umg/default.3 Web site www.asp 26.asp 27.2 www. Microsoft System Management Server www.1 www. University of California Berkley paper that defines RAID http://sunsite.com/windows2000/guide/ datacenter/overview/default.pdf 18.com/windows2000/guide/ server/overview/default.com/products/host/saa4/ 28. Desktop Management Task Force on DMI www.com/support/ whitepapers/safte.novell. Novell Netware Cluster Services for NetWare 5. Intelligent Input/Output (I2O) www.ots.html 19. Novell NetWare 4.microsoft.com/downloads/global/vectors/ infiniband.1 (evaluation software) www.html 30.1 www.com/ software/os/warp/warp-server/ 33. Microsoft Windows 2000 Server www. Charles Spurgeon’s Ethernet IEEE 802.com/products/zenworks/servers/ 13.novell.asp 17.com/products/netware/ evaluation.com/products/netware/ 29.infinibandta. Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server www.intelligent-io.org/ 35.microsoft. Netscape Servers http://home.kingston.com/products/clusters/ncs/ 32.com/windows2000/guide/ server/overview/default.com/ windows2000/edk/default.org/docs/misc/FAQ.1394ta.com/ products/netware4/ 31.novell.microsoft. nStor SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosures (SAF-TE) www. Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server (free 120-day evaluation) www. 1394 Trade Association www.novell.org/ 14. Apache Web Server FAQ http://httpd.pdf 15. Dell white paper on InfiniBand architecture www.edu/ethernet/ 34. Microsoft Windows 2000 Datacenter Server www. Novell GroupWise 6 www.html 22.asp 23.0/ Describe/ncstrl.netscape.

drives. space. processors.0—Installation . Examples of concepts and modules include the following: • Plan the installation • Verify the installation plan • Verify hardware compatibility with operating system • Verify power sources.1 Conduct pre-installation planning activities.2 Install hardware using ESD best practices (boards. Every server hardware specialist should prepare for the installation of a network server by checking the installation plan and verifying that all hardware components have been delivered.) Examples of modules include the following: • Mount the rack installation • Cut and crimp network cabling • Install UPS • Verify SCSI ID configuration and termination C H A P T E R 2 1. 1. memory. Uninterruptible Power Supply and network availability • Verify that all of the correct components and cables for the network server have been delivered . internal cable. etc.OBJECTIVES This chapter covers the following CompTIA-specified objectives for the Installation section of the Server+: 1.

OUTLINE Introduction 147 Planning for Installation The Installation Plan Verifying the Installation Plan Verifying Hardware Compatibility with the Operating System Verifying the Installation Site Verifying the Power Source Verifying Adequate Cooling Verifying the Uninterruptible PowerSupply Size Verifying the Network Connection Verifying Hardware Components for the Network Server Server Chassis Server Rack Processor(s) Memory Disk Drives Monitor Keyboard Mouse Uninterruptible Power Supply Backup System SCSI Cables SCSI Adapter(s) RAID Controller(s) Fibre Channel .Arbitrated Loop Host Bus Adapter Network Interface Card(s) Miscellaneous Hardware 147 147 148 148 149 149 152 153 153 153 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 157 157 158 158 159 159 159 159 160 Installing Hardware Electrostatic Discharge ESD Best Practices Installing Processors Match Processor Speed Match Processor Cache Size 161 161 162 162 162 162 .) • Verify power-on via power-on sequence .. modem rack. subsystems. A server hardware specialist should be able to install all the components of a network server. keyboards. which could damage delicate network server components. etc. Every server hardware specialist should be capable of installing server hardware components while following the best practices to avoid electrostatic discharge (ESD).OBJECTIVES • Install external devices (e. monitors.g.

OUTLINE Match Processor Stepping (Version) Buses Peer Buses Bridged Buses Memory Installation Match Memory Type Match Memory Speed Disk Subsystem Installation IDE/ATA Disks EIDE/ATA-2 Disks Ultra ATA/Ultra DMA SCSI Disks SCSI Disk Types SCSI-1 SCSI-2 SCSI-3 Installing SCSI Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop Network Subsystem Installation Ethernet Token Ring Network Interface Cards Network Cabling NIC to Hub Hub to Hub 163 163 163 164 164 165 165 166 166 167 168 168 170 170 171 173 173 175 175 175 176 176 176 177 177 Backup System Hardware Installation Uninterruptible Power-Supply Installation Miscellaneous Server Components Installation Monitor Keyboard Mouse Video Adapter Server Management Adapter CD-ROM/DVD-ROM Drive Redundant Component Installation Power Supply Cooling Fan Redundant NIC Server-Rack Installation Power-On Test Document. Document. Document 178 178 179 179 179 179 181 181 181 181 181 182 182 182 184 185 Chapter Summary 186 Apply Your Knowledge 188 .

Review the objectives again. do the following: . . review the information in the chapter related to this topic. . If you don’t fully understand the Test Tip. Use the ExamGear test engine on the CDROM that accompanies this book for additional exam questions concerning this material. Review the Test Tips available in various places in this chapter. Make certain that you understand the information in the Test Tip.S T U DY S T R AT E G I E S To prepare for the Installation objectives of the Server+ exam. . Study the information in this chapter. . . Answer the Review and Exam Questions at the end of the chapter and check your results. Read the objectives at the beginning of this chapter. .

These activities include: • Plan the installation • Verify the installation plan • Verify hardware compatibility with operating system • Verify power sources. This chapter covers the two objectives of the Installation job dimension.1 Conduct pre-installation planning activities. PLANNING FOR INSTALLATION . It should contain such details as the following: á The exact location where the server is to be installed á The location of the network connection for the server á The location of the power outlet for the server á A complete list of the hardware for the server á The role that the network server will take in the network . This objective ends with an actual power-on of the network server to see that all the network server hardware is recognized after installation. space. 1. This section is the topic of approximately 17% of the exam questions. The first objective deals with reviewing the installation plan. checking all the network server hardware.0—INSTALLATION 147 INTRODUCTION The Installation section covers the pre-installation and installation of network server hardware. and checking that the installation site is ready for the network server to be installed. UPS and network availability • Verify that all correct components and cables have been delivered The Installation Plan The installation plan is a guide that the server hardware specialist uses to install the network server. The second objective covers the actual installation of the network server hardware.Chapter 2 1.

microsoft. Verification activities include the following: á Verify that the location where the server is to be installed is ready for the installation. The hardware components of the server are dictated by the server’s role in the network.com/hcl/default. (Test with a volt/ohm meter. Always check the vendor’s hardware compatibility list for the network operating system vendor and make sure that all the hardware for the network server is on the list. Most operating system vendors publish a list of hardware that they certify will work with their software. Verifying Hardware Compatibility with the Operating System Network operating systems are generally tested to see that they work with the various hardware components that you use to assemble a network server.0—Planning. Verifying the Installation Plan The first step that the server hardware specialist should attempt is to verify that everything specified in the installation plan is ready and available before beginning the installation.148 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION As discussed in Chapter 1. The latest hardware compatibility list for the following network operating systems can be found at the following Web sites: á Microsoft Windows NT and Windows 2000. “0.asp . www. It takes into account the role the server will play in the network. á Verify that the power outlet for the network server is available and active. á Verify that all the hardware for the network server has arrived and that the hardware is as specified in the installation plan.) á Verify that the network connection is available and active.” the installation plan is a written document that should have been created by a network engineer during the initial phases of the discussion to acquire the network server (see the section “The Installation Plan” in Chapter 1).

www.com/support/hardware/ á Linux (SuSE). instead of the more common 15-amp circuit. The correct voltage for Europe.5 can be used as a guide to verify the installation plan. which of course would require a special power socket. Because the UPS is the component that is to be plugged into the power source. . A copy of the “Installation Plan Checklist” is included as a Microsoft Word document on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book.calderasystems. this information can be found in the UPS documentation.novell. the Middle East.1 through 2. The correct voltage for North America and Latin America is a nominal 120 Volts.htm This site gives information about Novell Yes.0—INSTALLATION 149 á Novell NetWare.Chapter 2 1.com/os2ddpak/ html/index. Verifying the Power Source The server hardware specialist should verify that the power needed for the network server is actually available and live. http://cdb. Be sure to check that the voltage for the power source is correct by using a volt/ohm meter or a digital multimeter.software. www.html á Caldera OpenLinux. The “Installation Plan Checklist” shown in the following Figures 2. http://service. á Linux (Red Hat).com/support/ hardware/ á IBM OS/2. Tested and Approved program. and Africa is a nominal 230 Volts.de/cdb_english. http://developer. The UPS may require a 20-amp or a 30-amp circuit. the server hardware specialist should visit the installation site and verify the items listed in the installation plan. Also check that the power source has the correct amperage rating and that power plug is of the correct configuration.ibm. The power source also should be on a power circuit unto itself.suse. NOTE Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a volt/ohm meter.redhat. The UPS also may have a special locking power plug.com/yespgm/ hardwarecert.htm Verifying the Installation Site After reading and verifying the installation plan.

3. Model. Speed) Tape Back System (Brand. Network Server Role Installation Plan Checklist Network Server Operating System Network Server Operating System Version Number Network Server Operating System Patch or Service Pack Level Server Hardware Components Network Server Memory Removable Disk Drives CD-ROM (Brand. Speed) 1. Model.1 Installation Plan Checklist. Speed) Video Adapter (Brand. Speed) 1. Model. Model. Speed) DVD-ROM (Brand. Model. Is the installation site secure? . 4. Video RAM. Interface. Speed) IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA2 Hard Disk Drives (Brand. Model) Network Interface Card(s) (Brand. 3. 2.5" (Brand. Speed) Floppy Disk Drive 3. Modem (Brand. Model. Model. VA rating) Server Management Adapter (Brand. Model.150 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 2.2 Site Checklist. 2. 4. Type. Maximum Resolution) Uninterruptible Power Supply (Brand. Model. Site Checklist Is space available to install the new network server? Is there a working network connection available for the new network server? Is electrical power available for the new network server? Is the electrical power of the right voltage? Is the electrical power of the right amperage? Do the electrical receptacles match the electrical plugs on the UPS? Does the installation site have enough cooling to support the new network server? FIGURE 2.

SCSI 2.SCSI 1.SCSI 2.4 SCSI Bus Controllers. Model. .SCSI 1.SCSI 2.SCSI 2.Device 1 (Master/Slave/CSEL) Channel 2 .SCSI 2.SCSI 1.SCSI 1. SCSI 1.SCSI 1. Capacity.SCSI 1.SCSI 1.SCSI 1.SCSI 2. Model.Device 2(master/Slave/CSEL) Channel 2 . SCSI 2. SCSI Bus Controllers Complete one copy of this page for each SCSI Bus controller in the Network Server SCSI Bus Controller Number SCSI Bus Controller (Brand.3 IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA2 Disk Controller.SCSI 2.Chapter 2 1. Disk Controller Brand Model Channel 1 .SCSI 2.SCSI 1.SCSI 1.SCSI 2.0—INSTALLATION 151 IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA2 Disk Controller 1.Device 1 (Master/Slave/CSEL) Channel 1 .SCSI 1.SCSI 2. Speed) Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel 1.SCSI ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 FIGURE 2.SCSI 2. SCSI 1. SCSI Standard) (Brand.SCSI 2.Device 2 (Master/Slave/CSEL) FIGURE 2.SCSI 2.SCSI 1.SCSI 2.SCSI 2.SCSI 1.

SCSI 1. Model. SCSI 1.SCSI 2.SCSI 2. it is doubtful that there is adequate cooling for the new network server. Most network servers use internal fans for cooling.SCSI 2.SCSI 1. The documentation of the network server will specify the cooling clearances. For these fans to work properly and provide adequate cooling there has to be adequate clearance around the server for proper airflow.SCSI 2.SCSI 2.152 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 2. RAID Controllers Complete one copy of this page for each RAID Controller in the Network Server RAID Controller Number RAID Controller (Brand. SCSI 1. The installation plan should state the heat output of the devices that will be part of the network server installation (chassis.SCSI 2. SCSI 2.SCSI 1.SCSI 1.SCSI 2.5 RAID Controllers.SCSI 2.SCSI 1.SCSI 1.SCSI 2. Speed. UPS.SCSI 2. The site should have adequate air-conditioning capacity to handle the addition of the network server to be installed.SCSI 1.SCSI 1. Capacity. SCSI Standard) (Brand Model.SCSI 1. An adequate indicator of the available cooling capacity of the room where the network server will be installed is the room temperature. NOTE .SCSI 1. monitor.SCSI 1.SCSI 2.SCSI 2. RAID Level) Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel 1.SCSI ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Verifying Adequate Cooling Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a digital thermometer. If the temperature of the room is more than 72 degrees Fahrenheit without the new network server being installed.SCSI 2.SCSI 2.SCSI 1.SCSI 2. BTUs) of the room where the network server is to be installed.SCSI 1. It may be difficult to ascertain the current heat load (measured in British Thermal Units. and so on).

Having the two most common network adapters available for the laptop computer should make the verification that the network connection is functional a trivial matter. The size of a UPS is specified by a volt-amp (VA) rating. A larger VA rating also allows additional network server components to be added. A UPS with a larger VA rating will keep the network server operating for a longer period of time when there is a power failure. . the total VA rating for all equipment is the minimum size for a UPS to support the network server. The larger the VA rating of the UPS. This time period is usually 5 to 10 minutes.0—INSTALLATION 153 Verifying the Uninterruptible Power-Supply Size The uninterruptible power supply (UPS) should be of adequate size to keep the network server running long enough for it to perform a normal shutdown. Verifying Hardware Components for the Network Server The next step for the server hardware specialist is to check the components that will be used to assemble the network server. Some network server vendors do not assemble all the hardware components Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a laptop computer with both an Ethernet PC Card and a Token-Ring PC Card.Chapter 2 1. Verifying the Network Connection NOTE A server hardware specialist should be able to determine that the network connection for the network server is available and of the correct type and speed. the longer the UPS can keep the network server running in the event of a power failure. As noted on the worksheet. The UPS should be large enough to support all the components of the network server that are connected to (plugged into) the UPS. An oversized UPS will not only keep the network server operational for a longer period of time during a power backup but will also allow for growth of the network server (adding components to the network server over time).7.” as shown in Figures 2. You can test this by using another computer system with the proper network adapter installed to see whether the network connection that will be utilized by the network server is working. An undersized UPS will keep the server running only a very short time. Verify that the UPS is of adequate size to support the network server by completing the “UPS Sizing Worksheet. This worksheet also is available as a Microsoft Word document on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book.6 and 2.

6 UPS Sizing Worksheet. List all the equipment that will be protected by the UPS (that is. Use Table 1 to list equipment that has voltage and amperage listed. Multiply watts times 1. all equipment that will be plugged into the UPS).154 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 2. UPSs are measured in terms of VA (volts-amps). In the following table. Total VA requirements of all network server equipment to be attached to the UPS: . minimum size to Table 1 Equipment Voltage (110/220) Amperage VA (Volts x Amps) In the following table.5 to get the VA rating estimate. Table 2 Equipment Wattage VA (Watts x 1. The total VA rating is the select for the UPS that will support the network server.5) FIGURE 2. Multiply voltage times amperage to get the VA rating.7 UPS Sizing Worksheet. list all the equipment that has voltage and amperage ratings listed. Add all numbers in the VA columns of both Table 1 and Table 2. list all the equipment that has wattage ratings listed. Use Table 2 to list all the equipment that has power consumption listed in watts. UPS Sizing Worksheet This worksheet is designed to aid in the sizing of an uninterruptable power supply (UPS) to meet the needs of a network server.

Server racks generally come in several sizes (heights). a wide. The server hardware specialist must be able to take all the components and assemble them into a working network server. or a rackmount configuration. The doors and side panels help form both a secure environment and also are designed to aid in cooling the equipment in the rack by controlling airflow patterns. Server racks generally have both front and rear doors and side panels to form a completely enclosed unit. This includes the UPS. Server Rack A rack-mount server chassis must be mounted in an equipment rack designed for rack-mounted hardware. Figure 2.Chapter 2 1.0—INSTALLATION 155 NOTE NOTE for a network server when they are ordered. A rack-mounted server installation conserves space in the room where the servers reside.8 Server tower chassis. This is done for several reasons.000 pounds. FIGURE 2. Most server chassises are either of a tower configuration. 2. The equipment installation in the server rack should be done to the server vendor’s specifications.or “fat-” tower configuration.8. A standard rack unit is 1.75 inches. the keyboard/mouse. A new network server will either be installed in an existing server rack or a new server rack will be purchased for the new network server. Most server vendors that sell servers in a rack-mount chassis also sell the server rack. For example. and 2.11 shows an example of a server rack. Wide-Tower to Rack-Mount Conversion Some wide-tower server chassises can be easily converted to a rack-mount configuration with the purchase of a special rack-mount adapter kit from the server manufacturer. Make sure that if you ordered model X in a tower configuration. If you go with a rack-mounted configuration. A fully loaded server rack might well weigh in excess of 1. then relocate the server rack. Remove all of the equipment first.10). and not Model X in a rack-mount configuration (see Figures 2. and the monitor (either LCD or CRT) for the server.9. including the weight of the rack-mount UPS and the need to avoid the possible damage to a network server caused by a leaking UPS battery. multiple server racks can be joined together to form an installation space for a large number of servers. Several server vendors offer software to aid in the proper placement of the equipment into the server rack. however. Do Not Move a Loaded Server Rack Never attempt to move a server rack that has equipment installed in it. In most cases. Server Chassis Verify that the server chassis is the correct model that was ordered and the correct form factor. lastly reinstall the equipment removed from the server rack. all server vendors recommend that the UPS be installed on the bottom of the rack. that indeed Model X in a tower configuration is delivered. generally all equipment must be designed to fit into a server rack. Server rack size is measured in rack units (U). .

other server vendors supply the server with a “standard” amount of memory.) Failure to install the memory correctly will result in the server either not recognizing all the memory installed or the server failing to start at all. Verify that the processors are of the same type. SCSI. Also verify that each processor has the same size of L2 cache. verify that the memory is the correct type for the server and follow the server hardware vendor’s instructions for installation of the additional memory.156 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Processor(s) Network servers commonly have more than one processor. . Some server vendors install all the memory that was ordered. instead of singly. SCSI-2. Follow the network server vendor’s instructions for installing additional processors. and stepping (version). FIGURE 2. The disk drives may come installed in the server chassis or they might be shipped in separate cushioned boxes to avoid damage. Memory Network servers generally require a considerable amount of memory for them to adequately perform their function. speed. Verify that the correct number and type of processors are available for the network server. and type) should be installed in the network server. Some servers require that memory be installed in groups of 2 or 4 memory modules. however. Some server vendors install all the processors that were ordered. EIDE/ATA-2. FIGURE 2. speed. If some of the memory must be installed. and the server hardware specialist must install any additional processors. Verify that the disk drives are the correct size. Verify that the server has the amount of memory that was ordered. (Check the server vendor’s documentation to see whether memory modules must be installed in groups of 2 or 4. The installation plan will specify which disk drives (size. and type (IDE/ATA. speed. other server vendors supply the server with zero or one processor installed.9 Server wide-tower chassis. This is a critical step. and the server hardware specialist must install the memory above the standard amount.10 Server rack-mount chassis. SCSI-3). Disk Drives Many network server configurations require that a large amount of disk storage be available in the server.

In general the monitor should support VGA resolution of at least 1024 × 768 dots per inch. There are no special requirements for the mouse that will be used with a server. In a rack-mounted configuration. Verify that the type of connection required by the mouse is available on the network server. FIGURE 2.Chapter 2 1. . Mouse Verify that there is a mouse for the server. Keyboard Verify that there is a keyboard for the server. a special monitor shelf will need to be purchased. or a PS/2-type mini-DIN connection. Top-of-the-line UPSs often enable you to monitor them via an SNMP management console or a builtin Web interface. Through the purchase of additional hardware for the UPS. you can usually monitor a UPS through the network. these often include a keyboard/trackball combination in a single rack drawer. usually through a serial communications cable. make sure that a serial connection is available on the network server. This rack-mounted keyboard often includes a built-in trackball or touch pad to substitute for a mouse. There are no special requirements for the keyboard that will be used with a server. Uninterruptible Power Supply Verify that a UPS is available for the network server. the mouse is often replaced by a trackball or touch pad built in to the rack-mounted keyboard. A rack-mounted keyboard is available for rack-mounted server installations. All UPSs should be capable of being monitored by the network server. The UPS should be of adequate size to support the network server for a short period of time.11 A server rack. Special rack-mounted LCD flat-panel monitors are available. The mouse might require a serial connection. which will allow a graceful shutdown of the server. a Universal Serial Bus (USB) connection. Rack-mounted UPSs are available for rack-mounted network server installations. If the monitor is to be rack mounted.0—INSTALLATION 157 Monitor Verify that the monitor for the network server is as ordered. The monitor can be the traditional CRT type or one of the newer LCD flat-panel monitors. If the UPS is to be monitored via the serial connection.

to provide peak performance during the backup process. SCSI cables differ distinctly from each other (for example. for example.158 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Backup System Verify that the backup system is as specified in the installation plan and that it is adequate to support the backup of the network server. Also make sure that the SCSI cables have enough connectors to allow all the SCSI devices to be attached. for example. Internal SCSI cables are generally ribbon cables. plus one where it can be attached to the SCSI adapter. If you determine that given the specifications of the tape drive. The backup devices should be installed on a separate controller from the disk drives of the network server. a full backup of the network server would take 10 hours and you only have 4 hours to perform the backup. the tape drive is inadequate for the job. . Verify that the SCSI cables have the correct number of connectors for the network server configuration. such as hard disk drives. The capacity of the tape drive and the speed that data can be transferred to the tape drive are both of critical importance. SCSI-1. External SCSI cables are generally in a round bundle. the SCSI cable needs at least four connectors for the disk drives. You also can back up other devices. The backup system is generally a magnetic tape drive of one form or another. CD-R devices. with pin 1 identified by a colored (usually red) strip on the edge of the ribbon cable. SCSI Cables Verify that the correct cables have been delivered to connect the SCSI channel controller to the SCSI devices (disk drives). The wide versions of SCSI-2 and SCSI-3 utilize different cables. SCSI2. and CD-RW devices. See Chapter 1 for a complete discussion of backup systems. If you need to attach four SCSI disk drives to a SCSI channel. and SCSI-3). The tape drive should be capable of backing up the contents of the disk drives on the network server in a timely manner. Make sure that the SCSI cables do not exceed the SCSI channel length maximums.

The vast majority of FC-AL installations have the disk system external to the network server chassis.0—INSTALLATION 159 SCSI Adapter(s) Verify that the correct SCSI adapter is available. “2. verify that the RAID controller is available. verify . Some network servers have the NIC built in to the network server. EISA. or PCI-64. Make sure that the HBA has the correct connection (fiber optic or copper) and that the correct cables are included. Many network servers have one or more SCSI adapters built in. If redundant NICs are required for the network server. Network Interface Card(s) Verify that the network interface card (NIC) for the network server is available.” covers the connection of FC-AL external devices. Fibre Channel may use either fiber-optic cable or copper wire for the connection media. Make sure that the SCSI adapter and SCSI devices are of the same type of SCSI (SCSI-1.Chapter 2 1. Fibre Channel—Arbitrated Loop Host Bus Adapter If the network server is going to be using Fibre Channel—Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) disk systems. The RAID controller must be configured before the network operating system can be installed. SCSI-3. The RAID controller should be delivered with configuration software. or PCI-64. Make sure that the SCSI adapter’s interface matches the bus that is in the network server for example. Make sure that the RAID controller matches the bus that is in the network server for example. Most RAID controllers are designed to support some version of SCSI disk drives. verify that the correct Fibre Channel host bus adapter (HBA) has been delivered.0—Configuration. SCSI-2. RAID Controller(s) If the network server is going to use the hardware version of RAID. EISA. PCI. Additional SCSI adapters may be required to support the number of SCSI devices that will used with the network server. and so forth). PCI. Chapter 3.

and monitor. The network server does require a video adapter to support the network server monitor. Multiple NICs might also be installed in a single network server if it is to be attached to multiple networks. A video adapter that can support VGA resolution of up to 1024 × 768 and 65. A network server also should have some devices commonly found on most desktop computer systems. The video monitor on a network server is generally utilized only to perform administrative functions on the network server. hardware drivers. and monitor. Token Ring. . and other software onto the network server. Some of these devices have a builtin modem. There is no reason to spent lots of money getting a fancy video adapter that has a large amount of video memory to support extremely high video resolution and billions of colors. and so on). mouse and video display to switch (usually from the keyboard) among the network servers in the rack. These devices are required to install operating system software. such as a 3. This saves space in the rack.160 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION that all NICs are available. mouse. Miscellaneous Hardware Other hardware might be required for the network server. which will allow monitoring of the server hardware via a dial-in connection.536 colors should be adequate for most network servers. Some cost savings also is associated with sharing the keyboard. Make sure that the NIC supports the type of network where the network server is going to be installed (Ethernet. because you don’t have to buy them for each server. mouse.5-inch floppy disk drive and a CD-ROM drive or a DVD-ROM drive. A rack-mounted network server might include a keyboard/video/ mouse (KVM) switch to allow one keyboard. These devices generally monitor the health of the server hardware and can be used by server management software running on a designed management computer. The KVM switch allows the keyboard. and one mouse to be utilized by multiple network servers that are in a single rack. because each network server will not require its own keyboard. Many server hardware vendors have a specialized server management adapter that can be purchased and installed in their network servers. one video display.

. ESD can be caused by any of the following: á People moving around (especially on carpet) á Low humidity á Unshielded cables á Improper grounding . monitors. it is very important that you do not accidentally build up an electric charge that can be transferred to components inside the network server.2 Install hardware using ESD best practices (boards. the next step is the actual installation of the hardware. upgrade. or maintain components in the chassis). Electrostatic Discharge Electrostatic discharge.) These activities include: • Mount the rack installation • Cut and crimp network cabling • Install Uninterruptible Power Supply • Verify SCSI ID configuration and termination • Install external devices (e. etc.Chapter 2 1. internal cables. modem rack. drives. etc. 1. You should follow the list of ESD Best Practices included here anytime that you open the chassis of the network server (to install. memory. subsystems. better known as ESD.) • Verify power-on via power-on sequence Once the server hardware specialist has verified all the hardware for the network server.g. While installing components inside of a server chassis.0—INSTALLATION 161 INSTALLING HARDWARE . This buildup of electric charge can easily damage the sensitive components found inside a network server. is a build up of electric charges on a body that can be transferred to another body upon contact. keyboards.

follow this list of the best practices to ensure that you do not have a problem with ESD: á Always use a static discharge device (static wrist strap. be sure that you follow the ESD best practices. Match Processor Speed The clock speed of the processors in a network server must be the same. Know them. Always follow the server hardware vendor’s installation instructions. While working on a network server. even though some network server manufacturers do support mixed cache sizes. á Use antistatic solutions on carpets in the server room. Mixing processors with caches of different sizes will not work at all in some network servers. antistatic mat) when you open the server chassis to access components in the server. and will affect performance in the network servers that do allow mixing of processor cache sizes. and 2048KB (2MB). á Before you touch anything inside a network server. á Hold disk drives by the edges. 1024KB (1MB). Processors generally have cache sizes of 256KB. Match Processor Cache Size The size of the processor cache for all the processors in a network server must be the same. á Use a room humidifier if the humidity is constantly below 50%. This will discharge any static charge that may have built up on your body. á If possible. It is best not to mix processor cache sizes.162 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION EXAM TIP ESD Best Practices Know the ESD Best Practices You are likely to be asked about electrostatic discharge best practices on the exam. 512KB. . á Always store components in static bags until you are ready to use them. touch the housing of the power supply. Installing Processors If you must install additional processors in a network server. install antistatic carpet in the server room. Do not touch the circuit board on the bottom of the disk drive. You must check several factors about additional processors before installing the additional processors.

but needs to be aware of the buses that are in the network server to install additional adapters in the network server. Most peer bus systems are dual peer (two buses) or triple peer (three buses). see Intel’s Web site at www.) The PCI-64 bus is 64-bits wide. thus doubling the transfer rate. This means that a PCI bus has a maximum theoretical transfer rate of 32MBps (33 million hertz × 4 bytes/second). It is best that the processors have the same identical stepping number.12 shows a diagram of a peer bus. This means that each bus has the full transfer rate available. PCI buses that operate at 100MHz will soon be available. The PCI bus is 32–bits wide. Intel refers to this as (N+1) stepping. Intel recommends that processors in a multiprocessor server should have steppings that differ by no more than one.com/newsgroups/mips/mip_2.intel. For more information about steppings. The PCI and PCI-64 buses operate at 33 Megahertz. which means that it can transfer 4 characters or bytes of data per clock cycle. Most servers have one or more PCI or PCI-64 buses. Buses The server hardware specialist does not install the buses in the network server.Chapter 2 1. A PCI-64 bus has a maximum theoretical transfer rate of 264MBps (33 million hertz × 8 bytes/second). (32 bits divided by 8 bits per byte equals 4 bytes. Stepping Know that multiple processors in a network server must meet the (N+1) stepping requirements. can have this workload balanced between the peer buses. . Some newer PCI buses operate at 66 Megahertz.htm#five.0—INSTALLATION 163 TIP EXAM Match Processor Stepping (Version) A stepping is the Intel term used to describe different versions of a given processor. The multiple buses allow the server to transport more data between the NICs and the network server or the SCSI controller and the network server. Figure 2. The trade-off for this faster bus speed is usually fewer connections available on the bus. as well as transferring large amounts of data to and from the network. Peer Buses A network server with peer buses has multiple buses that act independently. You just place the disk controller on one bus and the NIC on the other bus. On a server that will be transferring large amounts of data to and from the disk drives. which means that it can transfer 8 characters of data per clock cycle.

) EXAM TIP Bridged Buses Buses Know the difference between a peer bus and a bridged bus. To take advantage of the two buses. (For instance. Both buses share the available transfer speed.164 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 2.13 shows a diagram of a bridged PCI bus. This is done to increase the number of PCI slots available on a server. Placing the disk controller on one bus and the NIC on the other bus has no load balancing benefit because the buses are essentially one. effectively doubling data transfer capacity. be sure that you follow the ESD best practices listed earlier in this chapter. Always follow the server hardware vendor’s installation .12 Peer PCI bus. Memory Installation If you must install additional memory into the network server. Figure 2. put a 100BASE-T network adapter on one bus and put a SCSI controller on the other bus. A server with bridged buses has multiple buses that act as one. install adapters that require high data-transfer capability on separate buses. Processor System Bus Memory Bridge Bridge Primary PCI Bus Secondary PCI Bus Dual-Peer PCI Buses A dual-peer PCI bus provides two separate buses that can each operate at full speed.

You cannot mix types of memory in a server. Match Memory Speed The memory speed must be the same for all the memory in the network server. Again. some servers require that memory be installed in groups of 2 or 4 memory modules. You must check several factors about additional memory before installing the additional memory. Bridge Bridge Primary PCI Bus Secondary PCI Bus Bridged PCI Buses instructions. Check the memory speed required by the network server hardware and make sure that all memory to be installed into the network server is the same speed.Chapter 2 1. Chapter 1 fully describes memory speed.0—INSTALLATION 165 System Bus Processor Memory FIGURE 2. Match Memory Type The memory type must meet the requirement of the network server hardware. .13 Bridged PCI bus. Chapter 1 fully describes the different types of memory. Check the memory type required by the network server hardware and make sure that all memory to be installed into the network server is of the correct type. even if the memory can be physically installed into the server.

The IDE/ATA channel is a 40-conductor ribbon cable that is a maximum of 18 inches long. Most RAID controllers are also SCSI controllers. The short channel length limits IDE/ATA to devices that are internal to the network server. A third option called Cable Select (CSEL) will allow the IDE adapter to select which IDE disk drive will function as Master and which IDE disk drive will function as Slave. In essence. If both IDE disk drives that are on a single channel are set to Master. 2 channels per controller). the disk hardware on the Master disk drive controls both the Master and Slave disk drives. If a second IDE disk is attached to the same channel as an existing IDE disk drive that is set to Master.) SCSI can support both internal and external disk drives. IDE and EIDE disk controllers are also limited to disk drives that are internal to the network server. No industry standard applies to the jumper settings for IDE disk drives. . Most server hardware uses SCSI disk drives for their speed and the number of disk that you can attach to a single SCSI controller. or if both are set to Slave. so read your drive documentation carefully. Figure 2.14 shows a diagram of the selections available for a typical IDE disk drive.166 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Disk Subsystem Installation The installation process of the disk subsystem for the network server will vary greatly depending on the type and number of disk drives to be installed. Each disk drive that is attached to an IDE/ATA disk controller must have a jumper set on the back of the disk drive to specify the role the disk will perform in relationship to the other disk on the same channel. That is a total of 4 disk drives per IDE/ATA disk controller. therefore the same installation rules for SCSI apply for SCSI-based RAID. the disk subsystem will not work. (No external connections allowed. A single IDE disk is usually set to the master role. IDE or EIDE disks are seldom used in servers due to the load that they put on the processor and the limited number of disk drives that can be installed on a single disk controller (2 disks per channel. it must be set to the slave role. These disk controllers rely on the processor of the computer to perform most of the disk input/output operations. Be sure to use ESD best practices when installing disk subsystem components. Chapter 1 fully discusses disk subsystems. IDE/ATA Disks IDE disk drives and controllers (also known as ATA disk drives and controllers) are limited to two channels with a maximum of 2 disk drives per channel.

However. If a second EIDE/ATA-2 disk is attached to the same channel as an existing EIDE/ATA-2 disk drive that is set to Master.0—INSTALLATION 167 FIGURE 2. Drive 1: Master Drive 2: Slave 40-pin connector Jumper block Power connector EIDE/ATA-2 Disks NOTE Enhanced IDE disk drives (also known as ATA-2 disk drives) are an enhancement to the original IDE/ATA disk drive specification and allow for increased performance. Each disk drive that is attached to an EIDE/ATA-2 disk controller must have a jumper set on the back of the disk drive to specify the role the disk will perform in relationship to the other disk on the same channel.14 Representative IDE disk drive jumper settings. . this ATA-2/RAID controller limits you to using only four disk drives. the disk hardware on the Master disk drive controls both the Master and Slave disk drives. A single EIDE/ATA-2 disk is usually set to the master role.Chapter 2 1. The length of the EIDE/ATA-2 channel (ribbon cable) remains at 18 inches. CSEL will allow the EIDE/ATA-2 adapter to select which EIDE/ATA-2 disk ATA-2/RAID At least one manufacturer builds a RAID controller based on an ATA-2 disk controller. In essence. it must be set to the slave role.

) 4. Failure to use these special cables for these high-speed disks can result in disk system problems and possible data loss. Set the Master/Slave/CSEL jumper on each disk drive. the disk subsystem will not work.168 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION drive will function as Master and which EIDE/ATA-2 disk drive will function as Slave. SCSI Disks The majority of server hardware will use Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) disk drives for a multitude of reasons. (Red line on ribbon cable connects to pin 1 on connector on disk drive. Connect power cable to each IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 disk drive. or are both set to Slave. the faster versions. require that a special ribbon cable be used to connect the disk drives to the ATA adapter.1 Installing IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 Disk Drives 1. However. (Red line on ribbon cable connects to pin 1 on connector on disk controller. Connect IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 ribbon cable to IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 disk drive.) 3. Connect IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 ribbon cable to IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 disk controller. disk drives adhere to the ATA-3 specification. Document all settings. 2. These disk drives are typically much faster than the older ATA and ATA-2 disk drives. which is also known as Ultra DMA. including the following: . but it still uses the same 40-pin connectors used by earlier ATA disk drives. ATA-66 and ATA-100. If both EIDE/ATA-2 disk drives that are on a single channel are both set to Master. STEP BY STEP 2. 5. Ultra ATA/Ultra DMA Ultra ATA. This special cable contains 80 conductors. These disk drives are installed and configured the same way that ATA-2 disk drives are configured (Master/Slave/CSEL). EXAMTIP Drives Know the IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 Master/Slave/CSEL requirements.

SCSI Controller Terminated Not Terminated Terminated FIGURE 2. Each end of the SCSI bus must be terminated.15 SCSI bus termination. SCSI ID numbers are generally set by jumpers on the SCSI disk drive itself. á SCSI disks are generally very fast compared to other disk drive systems. but should be used only for lower speed SCSI channels with relative short cables. Generally the SCSI controller itself is on one end of the SCSI bus and it usually has onboard termination.Chapter 2 1. Other rules for SCSI are pretty simple. which are numbered from 0 through 7. active termination. There are three types of SCSI termination: passive termination. the extra cost will result in a much more reliable SCSI system. . á A SCSI controller can control up to 7 devices per channel (15 devices on SCSI-3 controllers).15 shows an example of SCSI termination. The other end of the SCSI cable is either terminated by a resistor on the last disk drive on the chain or a physical terminator on the end of the SCSI bus. á The SCSI bus controller is an intelligent device that offloads from the server processor the tasks of accessing the disk subsystem. If you want to be able to boot from a SCSI disk drive. However. Forced perfect termination is the best method and can be used for even the highest speed SCSI implementation. á A SCSI controller can have up to 5 channels.0—INSTALLATION 169 á SCSI is a bus controller (not a disk controller). Passive termination is cheap to implement. give it a SCSI ID of 0 or 1. Active termination is preferred and can handle much higher speeds and longer cables. (Some versions of SCSI support a total of 16 devices per channel. Duplication of the SCSI IDs on a SCSI channel can cause the channel to be inaccessible. á SCSI devices can be internal to the server or external to the server (in a separate enclosure). and forced perfect termination (FPT). Most SCSI buses can handle a total of 8 devices per channel. E X A MT I P Terminating SCSI Know that both ends of a SCSI bus must be terminated. The SCSI bus identifies each device by a SCSI ID number.) Each device on a SCSI channel must have a unique SCSI ID. á You should not run both internal and external devices on the same SCSI channel. which are numbered 0 through 15. Figure 2. It also is the most complex to implement and therefore the most costly.

it was used by many Apple computers in the early 1980s. There are also three signaling systems (single-ended [SE]. it is very common for low-voltage differential SCSI devices to not have the capability to terminate the SCSI bus on the device itself. differential [DIFF]—also known as high-voltage differential [HVD]—and lowvoltage differential [LVD]) that can be used by SCSI devices. This allowed a data transfer rate of 5MB per second. There is no difference in the connectors used among the three different signaling systems. SCSI Disk Types Three major versions of the SCSI standard are currently on the market. Luckily. you must use a special terminator inserted in the last connector on the SCSI cable. Installation of SCSI devices among the three different SCSI standards is very similar. they are known as SCSI-1. and SCSI-3. . Chapter 1 includes a detailed discussion of SCSI in all its various forms. a system of symbols has been devised to identify the different signaling systems. Mixing disk drives from the different versions of SCSI can seriously impact performance of the SCSI channel. In fact.170 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION SCSI termination may be implemented in several ways. Figure 2. one termination point will be on the SCSI adapter itself. SCSI-1 Originally just known as SCSI. SCSI-2. To help identify the signaling system used by SCSI devices (controllers and drives). SCSI-2. SCSI-1. the last disk drive on the SCSI channel must be terminated (usually done via a jumper on the disk drive or a special terminator inserted on the last connector on the SCSI cable). By today’s standards it was rather slow.16 shows examples of the SCSI symbols. but it is not recommended. The SCSI bus ran at 5MHz using an 8-bit data path. On the other end of the SCSI bus. Because both ends of the SCSI bus must be terminated and because the SCSI adapter is going to be on one end of the SCSI bus. and SCSI-3 disk drives can be mixed on the same SCSI channel. Look for these symbols on all SCSI devices. The differences are mainly in the size of the SCSI connector that is used to connect the SCSI disk drive to the SCSI cable. This is usually done automatically and there is no need for additional changes to the SCSI adapter for it to terminate the SCSI bus at one end.

Many early SCSI controllers used a DB-25. This extra bus width requires the use of a 68-pin connector. or an actual terminator attached to the end of the SCSI bus. Maximum cable length of SCSI-1 is 6 meters. The two signaling systems are incompatible and cannot be mixed on the same SCSI bus. Make sure that all devices. The SCSI-2 internal cable was a ribbon cable that was attached to the disk controller by a 50-pin connector. However. which can transfer 16 bits at a time as opposed to the 8 bits at a time used by normal SCSI-1 and normal SCSI-2. SCSI-2 SCSI-2 uses two different signaling systems. Single Ended SCSI Devices Low Voltage Differential SCSI SCSI DIFF SCSI LVD/SE Low Voltage Differential/Single-Ended Multi-mode SCSI High Voltage Differential SCSI FIGURE 2. Wide SCSI-2 allows for 16 devices on the SCSI-2 channel. whereas normal SCSI-2 (also called narrow SCSI-2) and SCSI-1 only allow 8 devices on the SCSI channel. SCSI-2 also has a variant called Wide SCSI-2. single-ended SCSI-2 cabling is usually found inside a server chassis. SCSI-2 uses the same 50-pin connector on the internal SCSI cable that is used by SCSI-1 devices. . The termination for the SCSI-1 was usually a set of 3 resistors on the SCSI controller (assuming it was at the end of the SCSI bus) or a set of three resistors on the last SCSI disk drive on the bus.0—INSTALLATION 171 SCSI-1 generally supported a single channel per SCSI controller.Chapter 2 1.16 SCSI symbols. are all using either single-ended interface or all using the differential interface. SCSI SE SCSI LVD WA R N I N G Differential Danger Attaching a device using the differential (HVD) signaling method can seriously damage devices designed to use the single-ended or low-voltage differential signaling systems. known as single-ended interface and differential interface. The differential interface allows for longer cable lengths and is generally found connecting the server to an external SCSI device. Due to bus length restrictions. including the SCSI-2 controller. 25-pin connector for external SCSI devices.

25 1 50 FIGURE 2. and 2. Know Your Connectors Be able to identify 50-pin.19 80-pin or SCA SCSI connector. and 80-pin (SCA) connectors respectively.18. 26 1 34 68 FIGURE 2. 2. SCSI-2 (Narrow SCSI-2) uses 50-pin connectors on the internal SCSI-2 devices. provides all SCSI control functions. and 80-pin SCSI connectors. Due to the increased speed. The Fast SCSI-2 and Fast-Wide SCSI-2 variants require active termination.18 68-pin SCSI connector. and the SCSI ID’s jumpers into one connector. there also is a Fast-Wide SCSI-2 implementation.17 50-pin SCSI connector.172 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Another variant of SCSI-2 is Fast SCSI-2. 35 Pin 2 Pin 1 Pin 80 . Wide SCSI-2 uses 68-pin connectors on the internal SCSI-2 devices. The SCSI 80-pin connector is a special connector that is often used by server hardware OEMs. And. of course. EXAM TIP FIGURE 2. and short cable length (3 meters).17. The 80-pin connector is a single connector that combines the functions of a normal SCSI connector. which doubles the bus speed from 5MHz to 10MHz. Fast SCSI-2 requires an active termination technique. a power connector. Figures 2. and sets the SCSI ID of the disk drive (usually based on the position of the drive in the chassis). This makes the installation of hot-swappable disk drives very easy. although active termination is preferred. 68-pin. The single 80-pin SCA connector provides power to the disk drive. active termination. the bus length is reduced from 6 meters to 3 meters. Regular SCSI-2 and Wide SCSI-2 can use passive termination. but it can transfer data at 20MBps. 68-pin.19 show examples of 50pin. It requires 68-pin cables.

It combines all the best features of the previous SCSI standards. It uses LVD. which can be up to 12 meters long. Insert SCSI controller into the server.2). Table 2. known as Ultra (20MHz). TABLE 2.5 meters 12 meters 25 meters Installing SCSI Step-by-Step 2. Set the SCSI IDs on the disk drives (see Table 2.2 walks you through the process of installing SCSI components. continues . Install SCSI disk drives into the server. 3.0—INSTALLATION 173 SCSI-3 SCSI-3 is the latest standard of the SCSI family. There are both narrow (8-bit) and wide (16-bit) implementations of the three SCSI-3 bus speeds. SCSI-3 supports three different bus speeds. Ultra SCSI-3 and Ultra2 SCSI-3 both use 50-pin connectors. and Ultra3 (double-clocked 40MHz). The wide variants (Wide Ultra SCSI-3 and Wide Ultra2 SCSI-3) as well as Ultra3 (also known as Ultra160 SCSI-3) use 68-pin connectors. which uses differential signaling.2 Installing SCSI Components 1.1 M A X I M U M SCSI B U S L E N G T H Type of SCSI Standard Fast Wide-Ultra Low-voltage differential Differential Length BY TYPE 6 meters 3 meters 1. STEP BY STEP 2.Chapter 2 1. 2. Ultra2 (40MHz). and supports up to 15 devices on a single cable. All versions of SCSI-3 require active termination.1 summarizes the maximum cable lengths for various types of SCSI.

Document all settings.174 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION continued 4.2 shows the various jumper settings for setting the SCSI ID on SCSI devices. 8. Connect the SCSI ribbon cable to SCSI disk drives.) 5. Table 2. 7. (Red strip on the ribbon cable should be attached to pin 1 on the SCSI controller.) 6. Connect the power connector to the SCSI disk drives. TABLE 2.2 SCSI A D D R E S S J U M P E R S E T T I N G S SCSI ID 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Jumper 4 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON Jumper 3 OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON ON ON OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON ON ON Jumper 2 OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF ON ON Jumper 1 OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON . Terminate both ends of the SCSI bus. (Red strip on the ribbon cable should be attached to pin 1 on the SCSI connector on the disk drive. Connect the SCSI ribbon cable to SCSI controller.

0—INSTALLATION 175 Only Wide SCSI devices have 4 jumpers. The maximum distance from the hub or switch to the NIC is 100 meters. The disk system to be attached to the FC-AL HBA is generally external to the network server chassis. you are counting from 0 to 15 in binary. Other vendors install the NIC in an available slot on the PCI bus in the server. Luckily 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T use the same type of network cabling. the NIC must match the network to which the server is going to be attached (Ethernet or Token Ring). Figure 2. The twistedpair cable contains 4 pairs of 2 wires each that are twisted around each other.Chapter 2 1. The other end of the UTP cable plugs into a network device (either a hub or a switch). The connectors on the FC-AL can be either fiberoptic or copper wire. insert the FC-AL HBA into an available slot on the network server bus. . Chapter 3 discusses FC-AL in more detail. unshielded twisted-pair (UTP).20 Ethernet RJ-45 connector. 100BASE-T Ethernet operates at 100Mbps and is known as Fast Ethernet. Network Subsystem Installation Many network servers come with a built-in NIC. All other SCSI devices have 3 jumpers. Ethernet The vast majority of networks today are based on a version of Ethernet. One end of the UTP cable plugs into an RJ-45 jack on the back of the NIC in the server. Check that the correct external cable is available. The two most common types of Ethernet are known as 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. 1000BASE-T is becoming available and operates at 1Gbps (1000 megabits per second) and is known as Gigabit Ethernet. Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop If the network server is going to be attached to an external Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop disk system. 8 1 FIGURE 2. In either case. 10BASE-T Ethernet operates at 10Mbps.20 shows an example of an Ethernet connection. The connector on the end of the UTP is known as an RJ-45 connector. Notice that if you substitute the numeral 1 for all the ON settings and the numeral 0 for all the OFF settings.

These can be used to attach the network server to multiple networks. Token Ring Universal Data Connector [Connects to MultiStation Access Unit (MSAU)] . if one NIC fails the other NIC takes over. The distance from the NIC to the MSAU in either case is limited to 100 meters. If STP cable is used.21 Connectors for Token-Ring network cable. Network Interface Cards A network server can have multiple NICs. or one Ethernet and the other Token Ring). The connector on the end of the cable is known as an RJ-45 connector.) Network Cabling Most networks today are built using UTP cable. the cable plugs into a DB-9 connector on the back of the NIC (only 4 pins are used). UTP cable has a total of 8 wires in it (4 pairs of 2 wires each).21 shows an example of a Token-Ring connection.176 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Token Ring Token-Ring networks can use either the same type of cable that is used by Ethernet network (UTP) or a more expensive type of cable known as shielded twisted-pair (STP). The RJ-45 connector terminates all 8 wires in a clear plastic connector. which can be the same type or different types (for instance. Multiple NICs also can be used to provide fault tolerance. Token Ring operates at either 4Mbps or 16Mbps. the cable plugs into an RJ-45 jack on the back of the NIC in the server. (For instance. The other end of the cable is plugged into an RJ-45 connector on a device known as a multi-station access unit (MSAU). both Token Ring. both Ethernet.) Multiple NICs also can be used together to provide more network throughput to the server. The 8 wires are Token Ring DB-9 Connector (Connects to Network Interface Card) FIGURE 2. Figure 2. The other end of the STP cable has an IBM Universal Data Connector on it that plugs into an MSAU. (For instance. four 100Mbps NICs in one server used together would provide 400Mbps throughput to the server. If UTP cable is used.

It also is sometimes called a patch cable. Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a supply of RJ-45 connectors and a crimping tool.22 shows a crimping tool. . and 8 go straight through. Pins 4. 7.22 A UTP crimping tool. In a cross-over cable. 5. This is just like the cable normally used to attach an Ethernet NIC to an Ethernet hub.23 shows an example of wiring a straight-through UTP cable. Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a 10-foot straight-through cable. You can connect two Ethernet hubs together by using a special UTP cable known as a crossover-cable.23 Ethernet RJ-45 straight-through cable. the 8 wires in the UTP cable are wired differently. you have two choices. you can use a standard Ethernet straight-through UTP cable. Figure 2. A crimping tool is used to terminate a UTP cable in an RJ-45 connector. Wires 4. 5.Chapter 2 1. The 8 wires are in the same order (1–8) at each end of the cable. If the Ethernet hub has a special RJ-45 jack known as an uplink port (also sometimes labeled MDI-X ).24 shows an example of a cross-over cable. 7 and 8 are not used Pin number Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7 Pin 8 Wire color Orange/White Orange Green/White Blue Blue/White Green Brown/White Brown Straight-Through Wire Becomes 1 1 2 2 3 3 6 6 Pin number Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7 Pin 8 Wire color Orange/White Orange Green/White Blue Blue/White Green Brown/White Brown FIGURE 2.0—INSTALLATION 177 color coded to allow them to be placed in the correct order when the UTP cable is terminated. Ethernet Wiring Know the wiring for an Ethernet UTP straight-through cable. wire 1 goes to wire 3 on the other end. 7 and 8 are not used Receive (3&6) Transmit (1&2) Transmit (1&2) Receive (3&6) Pins 4. NIC to Hub The cable used to connect an Ethernet NIC to an Ethernet hub (or switch) is called a straight-through cable. In a crossover cable. FIGURE 2. Figure 2. wire 2 goes to wire 6 on the other end. NOTE EXAMTIP NOTE Hub to Hub If you need to connect two Ethernet hubs together in a network. The other choice comes into play when the Ethernet hubs do not have an uplink port. Figure 2. This is the most common type of Ethernet cable. 5.

. 5. NOTE Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a 10-foot cross-over cable.178 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 2. 5. This provides the best backup performance. 7 and 8 are not used Pin number Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7 Pin 8 EXAMTIP Wire color Orange/White Orange Green/White Blue Blue/White Green Brown/White Brown Crossed-Over Wire Becomes 3 1 6 2 1 3 2 6 Pin number Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7 Pin 8 Wire color Orange/White Orange Green/White Blue Blue/White Green Brown/White Brown Backup System Hardware Installation More Ethernet Wiring Know the wiring for an Ethernet UTP crossover cable. A rack-mounted UPS is generally installed as the lowest device in the rack. Figure 2.25 shows a diagram of UPS cabling.24 Ethernet RJ-45 cross-over cable. Tape drives can be internal to the server chassis or external in a different cabinet. the tape drive should have a SCSI interface. 7 and 8 are not used Receive (3&6) Transmit (1&2) Transmit (1&2) Receive (3&6) Pins 4. The server and its components are then plugged into the UPS. The UPS is plugged directly into the power source. NOTE NIC to NIC You also can use a cross-over cable to connect two NICs together to form a two-computer network without a hub in between them. so that it will know when the power has failed and the UPS is providing power via batteries. The backup system hardware is generally a tape drive of some sort. Uninterruptible Power-Supply Installation The UPS is always a device that is external to the server itself. Pins 4. The tape drive should be connected to a SCSI controller that is different from the SCSI controller that has the hard disk drives that you are going to back up to the tape drive. For top performance. A serial or USB cable that runs from the UPS to a port on the server gives the network operating system the capability to monitor the UPS.

it usually sits on a specially designed shelf in the rack (see Figure 2. Care must be taken to not reverse the keyboard and mouse connections. A mouse with a Universal Serial Bus (USB) connector might also be utilized on a network server. Serial Port UPS Power Cord Server Power Cord Power Connector UPS Wall Outlet UPS outlet UPS Cabling Miscellaneous Server Components Installation The remaining miscellaneous server components are installed as needed. Keyboard The keyboard plugs into the keyboard port on the server. Mouse The mouse plugs into the mouse port (sometimes called a PS/2 mouse port) on the server.Chapter 2 1. If the CRT monitor is to be rack mounted. There is no difference between plugging a mouse into a server and plugging a mouse into a standard desktop computer. it will fit into a rack-mounted drawer in the rack. If the keyboard is a special rackmount keyboard. The rack-mounted keyboard may have an integrated trackball or touch pad to substitute for a mouse (see Figure 2. Monitor The monitor is connected to the video adapter via a 15-pin HD-15 connector. because they use the same type PS/2 connector.27). Care must be taken not to reverse the mouse and keyboard connections.26).0—INSTALLATION 179 Server Serial Port Seria l Cab le FIGURE 2. because they use the same type connector. There is no difference between plugging a keyboard into a server and plugging a keyboard into a standard desktop computer. .25 Cabling an uninterruptible power supply.

180 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 2. FIGURE 2.26 CRT monitor on shelf in rack. .27 Rack-mounted keyboard.

which then routes it to the video display. the other power supply can and will handle the entire electrical load. If one power supply fails. This adapter usually includes a built-in modem to allow server management via a dial-in connection. The following sections address components that are commonly set up in redundant fashion.Chapter 2 1. Having two or even three power supplies allows the power supplies to balance the electrical load.0—INSTALLATION 181 Video Adapter The video adapter for the server may be either built in or an adapter that plugs into an available bus slot. Redundant Component Installation Many times server hardware that is prone to failure will be duplicated in the server to provide redundancy. The server video display is usually used only for simple administrative tasks that do not require high resolution. This is usually required for operating system and other software installation. Some server management adapters require that the VGA video be routed from the standard video adapter to the server management board. CD-ROM/DVD-ROM Drive Most server hardware includes either a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive. Server Management Adapter Some vendors of network servers also sell a specialized server management adapter to aid in the management of the server hardware. Power Supply Server hardware may have multiple hot-swappable power supplies. . This feature allows the server management adapter to capture the boot-up sequence of the network server for playback on demand. The failed power supply can be replaced with a new power supply without taking the network server offline. No need for a fancy video adapter with lots of video memory.

SCSI cables). you must take a few special steps. only one of which is actually communicating over the network. UPS monitor cable. If components inside the server chassis get too hot. for example. . it will automatically switch to the other NIC. Redundant NIC Having a redundant NIC in the network server will allow the network server to keep communicating over the network even if a NIC fails. Not only do you have to have all rack-mount components (server. which is hot swappable in case of a cooling fan failure. A special software driver for the redundant NICs constantly monitors the network communications and if the software driver determines that the NIC currently being used to communicate over the network has failed.182 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Cooling Fan Keeping the inside of the server chassis relatively cool is of major importance. monitor. This allows the server chassis. keyboard/ mouse. If you have only one cooling fan and it fails. and so on). but there are also recommendations that you should follow as to the order that equipment is installed in the rack. each rack-mount component has special supports that must be installed on the component and the rack to later provide access to the components installed in the rack. Figure 2. This usually is accomplished by having two identical NICs in the server. Because servers installed in the rack must be slid out of the rack for you to gain access to the inside of the chassis. special cable management arms are attached to the back of the components. Many hardware manufacturers provide the ability to add a redundant cooling fan. Server hardware has cooling fans to keep air circulating around the components.28 shows a picture of a cable management arm. to be slid out of the rack for access without having to disconnect any of the cables attached to the rear of the server (for instance. Also. network cable. the inside of the server chassis will overheat and the server will fail. they will tend to fail. You must follow the rack-installation instructions provided by the server vendor. Server-Rack Installation If the network server you are installing is a rack-mount server. UPS.

0—INSTALLATION 183 If more than one network server is installed into a single server rack. one video monitor.28 Cable management arm in server rack. and one mouse to control all network servers in a single rack. a keyboard/video/mouse (KVM) switch should also be installed to allow the use of one keyboard.29 Wiring a KVM switch. FIGURE 2. Figure 2. . MON ITOR VGA 1 VGA 2 VGA 3 Keyboard 1 Mouse 1 Keyboard 2 Mouse 2 Keyboard 3 Mouse 3 VGA 4 Keyboard 4 Mouse 4 FIGURE 2.Chapter 2 1.29 shows the wiring for a KVM switch.

30). <<< Press <CTRL><A> for SCSISelect (TM) Utility! >>> SCSI SCSI SCSI SCSI ID:LUN ID:LUN ID:LUN ID:LUN NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER #:# #:# #:# #:# 0:0 1:0 2:0 3:0 COMPAQ COMPAQ COMPAQ COMPAQ DFHSS42 ST15150@ ST34371W ST15150W DRIVE DRIVE DRIVE DRIVE (80H) (80H) (80H) (80H) SCSI BIOS Installed Successfully! FIGURE 2. 1996 Compaq Computer Corporation. Processor Slot 10. Processor Slot 10. tape drives).” 524288 KB Detected COMPAQ System BIOS . Processor Processor Processor Processor Slot 9. “6. and then you should see a series of messages from the SCSI controllers as they go through and locate SCSI devices on each SCSI channel (see Figure 2. read Chapter 7. All rights reserved. If you don’t see the SCSI devices listed during the power. . Processor 1 2 1 2 Initialized Initialized Initialized Initialized at at at at 200 200 200 200 MHz MHz MHz MHz Adaptec AHA-2940 Ultra/Ultra W BIOS v1. and so on) have been made. Some servers have an interlock mechanism that prevents power on if a cover is not in place.30 SCSI adapter finds SCSI devices during power up. mouse. You should see a series of messages that count the amount of RAM in the server.184 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION NOTE Reinstall Chassis Covers Install all covers on the network server chassis before attempting power on. Then power on the server. Processor Slot 9.E16 (12/30/1996) Copyright 1982. All Rights Reserved. the number and types of processors installed.on process. it is time to see whether the server will power on.0—Troubleshooting and Problem Determination. Inc.25 (c) 1996 Adaptec. turn them on first. Power-On Test After all components have been installed into the server chassis and all external connections (keyboard. If there are external powered devices (disk drives.

Document. á Number of SCSI or RAID controllers. Be sure to write down the following (at least): á The amount of memory. á The SCSI ID of the CD-ROM/DVD-ROM drive. This information will prove to be invaluable later in the life of the server. á The SCSI ID of the tape backup system. Also record the number of available (empty) memory slots.Chapter 2 1. including size and type of each memory module and which memory slot it occupies. size. SCSI ID. á The SCSI channel. write down the entire hardware configuration in a log book for the network server. Document After the installation is complete.0—INSTALLATION 185 Document. and the speed of each SCSI disk drive. .

RAID. After installation of the components. The discussion then turned to the process of installing the components into the network server chassis. FC-AL. You also learned to check the network server components that are available and compare them to the network server components as specified in the installation plan. you learned to run a preliminary test of the server by performing a power on. . memory. These components include processors. and network connectivity. adapter cards (such as SCSI. The discussion began with the verification of the installation plan.186 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS • ANSI • ATA • ATA-2 • Bus • Cross-over cable • Differential • EIDE • Electrostatic discharge • Ethernet The chapter discussed verification of the installation plan and then focused on the actual installation of the hardware for a network server. you will configure the components and install the network operating system. In the next chapter. You read about the need to check the installation site for power. and network). cooling.

Chapter 2 1.0—INSTALLATION 187 CHAPTER SUMMARY • IDE • L2 cache • Low-voltage differential • Keyboard/video/mouse switch • PCI bus • Rack • RAID • RJ-45 • SCSI • SCSI-1 • SCSI-2 • SCSI-3 • Single ended • Standard rack unit • Stepping • STP • Straight-through cable • Token Ring • Ultra ATA • Ultra DMA • Ultra SCSI • Ultra2 SCSI • Uninterruptible power supply • UTP • Wide Ultra SCSI .

Just in case you are not. When do you use a UTP cross-over cable? 7. but as it applies to SCSI drives. Estimated Time: 10 minutes. How many terminators are on a properly terminated SCSI bus? 8. Examine the disk drive. 2. How many Wide SCSI-2 disk drives can be connected to one Wide SCSI-2 channel? 10. to be a Master drive. 1. You may not have the same level of familiarity with these drives because they are less often encountered in desktop machines. it doesn’t hurt to refresh your memory. a 68-pin. What is the maximum length of a low-voltage differential (LVD) SCSI cable? 13. You should notice a sticker on the back of the disk drive that gives you instructions on how to set the disk drive to be a single drive.1 Becoming Familiar with IDE Disk Drives 3. Attach the cable to the disk drive.188 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Exercises 2.1. What is a KVM switch? 11. or an 80-pin connector? 4. How is the size of an uninterruptible power supply determined? The objective of this exercise is the same as that of 2. or to be a Slave drive. What is electrostatic discharge? 6. 3. 1. How big is one rack unit? 3. You should notice a label on the back of the disk drive that gives you instructions on how to set the SCSI ID for the disk drive. What are the different types of server chassis? 2. You are probably already familiar with IDE drives and their installation in a desktop PC.2 Becoming Familiar with SCSI Disk Drives Review Questions 1. What are the three different types of SCSI bus termination? 12. How many ATA-2 disk drives can be connected to one ATA-2 channel? 9. Attach the cable to the disk drive. How do you convert watts to volt-amps? 4. What is the rule on processor steppings when multiple processors are installed in a server? 5. You might also see whether the disk drive supports CSEL. Does the disk drive use a 50-pin. Estimated Time: 10 minutes. this exercise runs you through some drive basics. . What is the purpose of a hardware compatibility list? 15. And even if you are familiar with IDE drives. What is the purpose of having redundant power supplies in a network server? 14. 2. Examine the disk drive. The jumper settings and their names are not standardized and therefore differ from one manufacturer to another. Get an IDE/ATA or EIDE/ATA-2 disk drive and cable. Get a SCSI disk drive and a SCSI cable. 2.

D. Wide tower C. 1. SCSI is limited to two devices per channel. 9-pin D connector B. 4096KB 4. 2 B. 10 meters B. 37-pin connector D. 6 meters C. 15 5. Which of the following hardware components is of little importance for a network server? A.5 meters D. 32KB B. Which of the following is an advantage of SCSI over EIDE/ATA-2? A. CD-RW drive D. Tower B. Rack-mount 7. SCSI supports both internal and external devices. Which of the following devices is the most common device used as a backup device? A. 7 D. To minimize the floor space used by multiple network servers. SCSI is cheaper than EIDE/ATA-2. 3 meters B. 9. 50-pin connector 2. Hard disk drive . SCSI is limited to two channels. Which of the following is a connector that can be used with SCSI devices? A. 150 meters D. Memory 8. CD-R drive C. 512KB D. Processor C. Video adapter D. C. 25 meters 3. 100 meters C. 64KB C. For an Ethernet 100BASE-T network.0—INSTALLATION 189 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Exam Questions 1. 15-pin D connector C. B.Chapter 2 1. What is the maximum SCSI cable length for differential SCSI? A. 4 C. 1000 meters 6. How many devices can be attached to a normal (narrow) SCSI channel? A. which type of server chassis should be utilized? A. what is the maximum cable length (UTP cable) from the hub to the server? A. Hard disk drive B. Magnetic tape drive B. Which of the following is a typical processor L2 cache size? A.

” 3. Pincher 12. How should the jumpers on a SCSI disk drive be set in order for it to have a SCSI ID of 6? A. 80-pin (SCA) connector D.75 inches. One standard rack unit is 1.” 5. see the section “Match Processor Stepping. For more information.190 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 10. A good estimate to convert watts to volt-amps is to multiply watts by 1. what role must a second disk drive take when attached to the same channel? A. Crimper D. 50-pin connector B. OFF OFF OFF 13. What is the maximum cable length for an IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 cable? A. If the first disk drive on an EIDE/ATA-2 channel is set to the master role. see the section “Server Rack. and power into a single connector? A. Which of the following SCSI connectors combines the normal SCSI control lines. For more information. For more information. ON ON OFF C. CSEL Answers to Review Questions 1. ON OFF OFF D. ON ON ON B. UTP cross-over cables are used to connect two Ethernet hubs that do not have uplink ports.” .5. Slave C. 25-pin connector 14. For more information.” 2. see the section “UPS Sizing Worksheet. 36 inches C. For more information. When multiple processors are installed in a network server the steppings (versions) must be within 1 number of each other (known as (N+1) stepping). 4 C. Pliers C. 144 inches 15. see the section “Electrostatic Discharge. wide tower. 68-pin connector C. 18 inches B. 8 11.” 4. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the release of static electricity from a human body to an electronic component. see the section “Server Chassis. Master B. 72 inches D. Terminator B. How many wires are in a UTP cable that is terminated with an RJ-45 connector? A. see the section “Hub to Hub. 2 B. There are three major types of chassises for servers: tower. and rack mount. SCSI ID setting. 6 D.” 6. What is the name of the tool that is used to terminate a UTP cable in an RJ-45 connector? A. For more information.

For more information. 3. C. C. For more information. One disk assumes the master role and the other disk assumes the slave role. see the section “EIDE/ATA-2 Disks. For more information. C. see the section “Server Rack.” 11. An uninterruptible power supply should be large enough to keep the network server equipment running long enough to allow a graceful shutdown on the network server. and forced perfect.” 15.” .Chapter 2 1.1. The three types of SCSI bus termination are passive.” 5.1. B. For more information. see the section “SCSI Disks.” 8. The maximum cable length between an Ethernet hub and an Ethernet NIC in a computer is 100 meters. and mouse for each server.” 14. 1024KB. SCSI uses 50-pin. Two ATA-2 disk drives can be connected to a single ATA-2 channel.) For more information. For more information. Seven devices can be attached to a narrow SCSI channel. For more information. In normal practice. see the section “Verifying Hardware Compatibility with the Operating System. A wide SCSI channel can support 16 devices. Typical processor cache sizes are 256KB. see Table 2.0—INSTALLATION 191 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 7. A hardware compatibility list (HCL) lists the hardware that has been verified as working with a particular network operating system. The maximum length of a low-voltage differential (LVD) SCSI cable is 12 meters. the other 15 devices can be disk drives. 512KB. For more information. several network servers can be installed into a single rack. see the section “Verifying the Uninterruptible Power-Supply Size. see the section “Power Supply. and 2048KB. one must be the SCSI controller. see Table 2. (There are actually 8 devices. see the section “Ethernet. see the section “SCSI Disk Types. 13. A KVM switch (keyboard/video/mouse) permits control of several servers from a single keyboard. and 80-pin (SCA) connectors. video monitor. see the section “SCSI-2. For more information. video monitor. For more information. and mouse.” 10. A SCSI bus must be terminated on both ends. see the section “SCSI Disks. D. Redundant power supplies can balance the electrical load and can power the network server in the event of a single power-supply failure. therefore two terminators are required. A rack-mount chassis is designed to use a minimum amount of floor space. See “SCSI Disks.” Answers to Exam Questions 1. For more information. see the section “Miscellaneous Hardware.” 6. Differential SCSI has a maximum cable length of 25 meters.” 12. see the section “Match Processor Cache Size. D. but one of them is the SCSI controller itself. The alternative is to use a keyboard.” 9.” 2. 68-pin. For more information. active.” 4. For more information. For more information.

see the section “SCSI-2.” 9. The second EIDE/ATA-2 disk drive must assume the slave role if the first disk drive is set to the master role. 4. The maximum IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 cable length is 18 inches.scsita. see the section “SCSI Disks. see the section “IDE/ATA Disks. The video adapter is the least important of the four hardware components listed for a network server. 1998.” 15. For more information. and power into a single connector. 3. Brooks. The tool that is used to terminate a UTP cable in an RJ-45 connector is called a crimper. For more information. see the section “Backup System.org/faqs/scsi-faq/part1/ www. Gary. see the section “EIDE/ATA-2 Disks.com/ www.scsifaq.faqs. For more information. C. B.192 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 7. A. 2. A. The Book of SCSI. A+ Certification Training Guide.” 14. 2001. For more information. Third Edition. C. 2000. SCSI supports both internal devices and external devices.org/scsifaq. The 80-pin SCA SCSI connector combines the SCSI control signals.” 8. SCSI FAQ www. Field. For more information. C. C. D.” 10. There are 8 wires (4 pairs) in a UTP cable that is terminated with an RJ-45 connector. Fourth Edition.” 12.html . For more information. 2nd Edition.” Suggested Readings and Resources 1. 13.2. the SCSI ID settings. see Table 2. see the section “Video Adapter. ANCOT Corporation. For more information.” 11.faqs. Charles J.html www. For more information. see the section “Network Cabling. Basics of SCSI. No Starch Press. see the section “Network Cabling.org/faqs/scsi-faq/part2/ http://scsifaq. For more information. A magnetic tape drive is the most common device used for backups.org/experts/SCSI_ExpertFAQ. New Riders Publishing.paralan. The SCSI jumpers set to ON ON OFF represents the SCSI ID 6. B.

com www.ic.com/cgi-bin/default.doc.com/support/kb/disc/ index_faq.webopedia. Electronic Edition www.com/offline/ BookInfo/Ebook/newtoc.html 11.com 8.com .com www. Rosch Hardware Bible.ac. The PC Guide http://www.faqs.org/faqs/pc-hardwarefaq/enhanced-IDE/part1 www.thetechpage.uk/foldoc/ index.finitesystems.whatis. IDE/EIDE Disk Drives FAQ www.htm 10.org/faqs/pc-hardwarefaq/enhanced-IDE/part2/ 12.com Webopedia.pcguide.faqs.htm 7. Tom’s Hardware Guide www.com/PRODUCT/san/fc/ fcfaq.seagate.leroctechnologies. Electronic Dictionaries on the World Wide Web Whatis. Fibre Channel FAQ www. Free On-Line Dictionary Of Computing (FOLDOC) http://foldoc.cgi 13.tomshardware. Disk Drive Specifications and Jumper Settings www.Chapter 2 1. Winn L.html General Computer Hardware Sites 9. Disk Drives (ATA and SCSI) www.com 6.0—INSTALLATION 193 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Suggested Readings and Resources 5.

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) C H A P T E R 3 . Although a server hardware specialist would not actually configure the network. Every server hardware specialist should be able to check the version of the network server’s BIOS/firmware and upgrade the BIOS/firmware if necessary to support the network server. Installation of the network operating system may require that the server hardware specialist utilize vendor-specific NOS installation software. hard drive. or external CD-ROM drives. Different RAID levels have different configuration requirements.) . etc.1 Check/upgrade BIOS/firmware levels (system board. you need to understand network configuration well enough to verify that the server is connecting to the network.0—Configuration . 2. external drive subsystems. 2. etc. Every server hardware specialist should be able to install the selected network operating system for the network server.3 Install NOS (Network Operating System). Every server hardware specialist should be able to configure devices that are external to the network server. 2. Every server hardware specialist should be able to configure hardware-based RAID.4 Configure external peripherals (UPS. RAID controller. external disk drives. such as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS).2 Configure RAID . 2.OBJECTIVES This chapter covers the CompTIA-specified objectives for the Configuration section of the Server+ Certification exam. 2. Related activities include: • Configure network • Verify network connectivity .

9 Document the configuration . Every server hardware specialist should be able to identify and install updated drivers for vendorspecific hardware. Configuring External Peripherals Configuring an External Disk Subsystem Configuring an External CD-ROM System Configuring an Uninterruptible Power Supply 216 217 218 218 . Some service tools may be hardware vendor specific. Every server hardware specialist should be able to identify and install service tools on the network software.OBJECTIVES 2. etc. 2.) Configuring Hardware-based RAID Hardware-based RAID Configuration RAID 0 Configuration RAID 1 Configuration (Mirroring) RAID 1 Configuration (Duplexing) RAID 5 Configuration RAID 0/1 Configuration 200 200 203 203 204 204 205 .5 Install NOS updates to design specifications OUTLINE Introduction 198 . event logs. 2. system monitoring agents. backup software. Every server hardware specialist should be able to check the availability of updates (patches) to the specific network operating system installed on the network server.6 Update manufacturer specific drivers Network Server Configuration Checking the System BIOS Checking the SCSI Controller BIOS Checking the RAID Controller BIOS 198 199 199 200 . 2.8 Perform server baseline Installing the Network Operating System File Systems Windows NT Server 4 Windows 2000 Server Novell NetWare 5 UNIX Linux IBM OS/2 Warp Server Installing the Network Operating System Configuring the Network Verifying Network Connectivity 207 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 213 215 216 . 2.7 Install service tools (SNMP. Every server hardware specialist should document (in a log book) the complete installation and configuration of the network server. Every server hardware specialist should be able to perform a baseline performance measurement on the newly installed and configured network server to be used to gauge performance against a similar measurement on the same network server at a future time.

If you don’t fully understand the Exam Tip. do the following: . Answer the Review and Exam Questions at the end of the chapter and check your results . Study the information in this chapter. . Installing Service Tools Installing and Configuring SNMP Installing Backup Software Installing Anti-Virus Software Installing System Monitor Agents Configuring Event Log(s) Configuring Swap file(s) Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Novell NetWare 5. Make certain that you understand the information in the Exam Tip.1 IBM OS/2 Warp Server Linux 221 222 223 223 224 225 225 226 226 227 227 227 Performing a Server Baseline 228 Documenting the Network Server Configuration 230 Chapter Summary 230 Apply Your Knowledge 232 .OUTLINE Installing Network Operating System Updates 220 S T U DY S T R AT E G I E S To prepare for the Configuration objective of the Server+ exam. . Review the objectives again. Review the Exam Tips available in various places in this chapter. Read the objectives at the beginning of this chapter. Configuring Manufacturer Specific Drivers 220 . . review the information in the chapter related to this topic. Use the ExamGear test on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book for additional Exam Questions concerning this material.

If hardware-based RAID is being implemented on the network server. RAID controller. Drivers specific to the manufacturer hardware in the network server must be installed to support the manufacturerspecific hardware. SCSI controller. hard drive. The BIOS is a program that performs lowlevel input and output operations among the components in the network server. and RAID controller. system. it must be configured (select RAID levels and disk partitions) before any software can be installed on the network server. . The BIOS is usually stored in a chip and due to its combination software and hardware nature. must be configured. a performance baseline measurement should be taken and the complete hardware and software configuration should be documented. such as a UPS. the next step is to configure the hardware components as specified in the installation plan. backup. External devices. NETWORK SERVER CONFIGURATION . system monitoring agents. This includes checking and if necessary upgrading the BIOS of major components. and antivirus software—must be installed and configured.1 Check and upgrade if necessary the Basic Input Output System (BIOS) or other firmware levels (system board. After all software has been installed and configured.198 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION INTRODUCTION This job dimension covers the configuration of network server hardware and software and it is the topic of approximately 18% of the Server+ Certification exam. it is often called firmware. etc. 2. The network operating system is installed next and any “patches” or “updates” to the network operating system are applied.) • System BIOS • SCSI controller BIOS • RAID controller BIOS Several components in a network server have a built-in BIOS (Basic Input/Output System). Network server management software—such as SNMP. After installation of the hardware components for the network server.

RAID controllers also contain a BIOS. On occasion the network server hardware manufacturer might update the system BIOS. the BIOS on a RAID controller will have updates issued by the RAID controller manufacturer. Some SCSI controllers require that a new chip containing the new BIOS be purchased to replace the BIOS chip on the SCSI controller. Checking the System BIOS When the network server goes through power up. Most network servers have a BIOS that is flashable. or support new hardware. on occasion the SCSI controller manufacturer might upgrade the SCSI controller BIOS to correct bugs in the original BIOS or to add new features. Most system BIOSs can be upgraded by a program supplied by the server hardware manufacturer.0—CONFIGURATION 199 The system BIOS is the most well known of the several BIOSs usually found in the network server. requiring replacement of the system board. Again. If a newer version of the system BIOS is available on the vendor’s web site. Check the network server vendor’s web site to determine whether the version of the system BIOS installed on your network server is the latest system BIOS available for the model of the network server that you have. This will prevent the flash upgrade of the BIOS from becoming a total disaster if an electrical power outage occurs during the upgrade. it can be updated via software. Although not updated as frequently as a system BIOS. correct BIOS bugs (such as the recent Year 2000 date problem). the SCSI controller displays the current version of the BIOS on the SCSI controller. WA R N I N G Take Care When Flashing That BIOS Loss of power to the network server while its flash BIOS is being upgraded could result in a totally unusable server. Checking the SCSI Controller BIOS During the network server’s power up. meaning that it can be easily erased and updated via software. or support for large hard disk drives). This is a good example of when you would want to make sure that the network server is plugged into a functioning uninterruptible power supply.Chapter 3 2. the version number of the system BIOS usually displays. download the upgrade and follow the vendor’s instructions to update the system BIOS on the network server. These changes or updates to the BIOS are usually done to add features to the system BIOS (such as Plug and Play support. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) controllers have a BIOS on the controller itself. . If the SCSI controller has a flashable BIOS. It is advisable to check the vendor’s web site for the latest BIOS available for the model of SCSI controller that you have.

CONFIGURING HARDWARE-BASED RAID . make sure that you perform and verify a full system backup before attempting the upgrade. the RAID controller may have a flashable BIOS. The RAID controller vendor’s web site will have information on how to update the BIOS on a particular model RAID controller. If you must upgrade the RAID BIOS.0—Planning and Specifications. The disk drives of the RAID system might be internal to the network server chassis or external in a separate enclosure. RAID is used to provide fault tolerance in case of a disk drive failure in the network . This usually means that you have experienced some problem with the SCSI controller and the technical support people of the SCSI controller manufacturer have instructed you to upgrade the BIOS. because a corrupted SCSI BIOS upgrade could destroy all data stored on the disk drives attached to the SCSI controller. “0. • RAID 1 (mirroring) configuration • RAID 1 (duplexing) configuration • RAID 5 (stripe set with parity) configuration • RAID 0/1 (mirrored stripe sets without parity) configuration Network servers that contain a RAID controller must have the RAID system configured before the network operating system can be installed. 2.200 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION WA R N I N G A SCSI BIOS Upgrade Is Dangerous Don’t upgrade the BIOS on a SCSI controller unless absolutely necessary. Like SCSI controllers. If you must upgrade the SCSI BIOS. Hardware-Based RAID Configuration As a reminder from Chapter 1. whereas other RAID controllers may require a BIOS chip replacement for a BIOS upgrade. This usually means that you have experienced some problem with the RAID controller and the technical support people of the RAID controller manufacturer have instructed you to upgrade the BIOS.2 Configure hardware-based RAID • Hardware RAID Configuration • RAID 0 (stripe set without parity) configuration WA R N I N G A RAID BIOS Upgrade Is Dangerous Don’t upgrade the BIOS on a RAID controller unless absolutely necessary. because a corrupted RAID BIOS upgrade could destroy data on the disk drive attached to the RAID controller. Checking the RAID Controller BIOS A RAID controller will also display the version of its BIOS on the screen during the power-up process of the network server. make sure that you perform and verify a full system backup before attempting the upgrade.” RAID stands for redundant array of inexpensive disks. The network hardware vendor or the RAID hardware vendor usually supplies software to aid in the configuration of the RAID system. Configuration of the RAID system consists of selecting actual physical disk drives and grouping them together into one of the available RAID configurations (usually RAID 1 or RAID 5).

thus relieving the network server processor of this task. you might pick two physical disk drives and tell the RAID configuration software to use these two disk drives to implement a RAID 1 (mirroring) solution. it is just a matter of when they will fail. (When in actuality. the RAID controller is reading and writing to two physical disk drives.) In another example. However. . The RAID controller would tell the network server operating system that there is a single logical disk drive. The RAID controller would tell the network server operating system that there is a single logical disk drive.Chapter 3 2. “0. For example. It is not a matter of if they will fail. “7.” The RAID disk controller has its own processor to implement the RAID configuration.0—CONFIGURATION 201 server. Most RAID controllers are designed to use SCSI disk drives.) In yet another example. The configuration of the RAID controller in the network server is accomplished by software provided by the network server (or RAID controller) vendor. (When in actuality. the RAID controller. all the software works basically the same way. Some network operating systems can implement software-based RAID at the expense of additional load on the network server processor. It enables you to see the disk drives attached to the RAID controller. you might select the same five physical disk drives and tell the RAID configuration software to use these five physical disk drives to implement RAID 5 (disk striping with parity). they will fail at some time. Although vendor specific. at least one disk controller manufacturer makes a RAID controller that uses EIDE/ATA-2 disk drives. The software then “prepares” the disk drives to implement the RAID solution. you might select five physical disk drives and tell the RAID configuration software to use these five physical disk drives to implement RAID 5 (disk striping with parity). The term hardware-based RAID means that the disk drives in the network server have RAID implemented by a special disk controller.0—Planning and Specifications. the RAID controller is reading and writing data in blocks across all five disk drives in the RAID 5 disk array. For an in-depth discussion of the different RAID levels.” and Chapter 8.0—Disaster Recovery. Because disk drives are mechanical devices. see Chapter 1. You select the disk drives that you want to utilize and specify the version of RAID that you want to implement using the selected disk drives.

the single logical disk drive could be “partitioned” into two partitions by the RAID configuration software.1 shows an example of how a RAID controller manages disk drives and shows the logical disk drive to the network server operating system. Figure 3. whereas in actuality the RAID controller is reading and writing data in blocks across all five disk drives in the RAID 5 disk array. 36 Gigabytes Logical Disk FIGURE 3. Drive .1 RAID controller disk drive presentation. a portion of a logical disk drive) that can be identified (by drive letter or volume name) and used separately from the other portions of the physical disk drive. Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 NOTE 18 Gigabytes Physical Disk Drive 18 Gigabytes Physical Disk Drive 18 Gigabytes Physical Disk Drive The RAID controller sees three 18-GB disk drives RAID Disk Controller configured for RAID-5 The operating system sees one 36 Gigabyte disk drive. The network operating system would see two logical disk drives (one on each partition). Further.202 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION What Is a Partition? A disk partition is a portion of a physical disk drive (or in the case of a RAID system.

the failure of one disk drive does not represent a catastrophe. TIP EXAM RAID 0 Is Not Fault Tolerant Know that RAID 0 is not fault tolerant. It is used only to improve disk input/output performance. but it is used to improve disk input/output performance. Because data is duplicated on two different disk drives. it is a stripe set without parity). everything written to one disk is also written to a second disk. both disk drives are attached to the same disk controller. RAID 1 Configuration (Mirroring) RAID 1 has two different implementations: disk mirroring and disk duplexing. In disk mirroring. two 18GB disk drives configured to implement RAID 0 have a storage capacity of 36GB.0—CONFIGURATION 203 RAID 0 Configuration RAID 0 is known as disk striping (specifically. Figure 3.3 RAID 1 (disk mirroring). When time permits. the broken disk drive can be replaced and the data on the working disk drive copied to the replacement. For example. RAID 0 should not be used in a production server environment. Reading can be performed from either disk. However. thus re-creating the mirror. You need at least two disk drives to implement RAID 0. RAID 0 is not fault tolerant. but merely an inconvenience. The “disk overhead” for RAID 1 is 50%.2 shows an example of a RAID 0 implementation. The disk controller represents a single point of failure for mirrored disk drives. Figure 3. Drive 1 Drive 2 Block 1 Block 2 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 5 Block 5 Block 6 Disk Controller FIGURE 3. Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Disk Controller FIGURE 3.3 shows an example of a RAID 1 (mirroring) implementation. A minimum of two disk drives is required to implement RAID 1.2 RAID 0 (disk striping without parity). In disk mirroring. . The network server will keep running using the single working disk drive. RAID 0 is often used in a high-powered workstation to improve disk input/output performance by reading and writing files in blocks to several disks simultaneously as opposed to reading and writing a file sequentially to a single disk drive.Chapter 3 2.

Chapter 1 provides an indepth discussion of RAID 5. Because of this fact. During the useful life (about 4 years) of the first three file servers that I ever had. There is generally no significant performance difference between disk mirroring and disk duplexing (although see the Note. the storage capacity of the “mirror set” will be only 18 GB. A database server needs to write the database files and the database log files simultaneously. BIG FAN OF DISK MIRRORING I’m a big fan of disk mirroring. The failed disk drive should be replaced as quickly as possible. and I kept my job. none of the users knew that there was a disk drive failure. The disk drives that comprise a RAID 5 solution are often referred to as a RAID 5 array. This is done by adding another disk controller and configuring the RAID system to “duplicate” data on disk drives that are attached to two different disk controllers. Placing the database files on disk drives attached to one disk controller and placing the database log files on disk drives attached to another disk controller can significantly improve performance of the database server. RAID 5 requires a minimum of three disk drives to implement. Because the disk drives were mirrored. NOTE Another Use for Multiple Disk Controllers A network server serving as a database server can benefit from having multiple disk controllers. RAID 1 Configuration (Duplexing) Disk duplexing eliminates the single point of failure that exists in disk mirroring. RAID 5 cannot survive the failure of a second disk drive after one disk drive has failed.4 shows an example of a RAID 1 (duplexing) implementation.204 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION IN THE FIELD NOTE RAID 1 Disk Overhead If you configure two 18GB disk drives to use RAID 1. one of the mirrored disk drives failed in each of the servers. The failure of a single disk drive does not cause the network server to fail. You are just adding further redundancy in the form of a second controller. Figure 3. Drive 1 Drive 2 RAID 5 Configuration Block 1 Block 2 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 5 Block 6 RAID 5 uses a much more complicated scheme to provide fault tolerance in the case of a single disk failure. The overhead of RAID 1 (mirroring or duplexing) is 50%. The “missing” information that was on the failed disk can be re-created on-the-fly using the information on the remaining disks.4 RAID 1 (disk duplexing). some RAID systems allow for the configuration of a “hot spare” disk drive in the Disk Controller Disk Controller FIGURE 3. . “Another Use for Multiple Disk Controllers”).

) The parity information is actually stored across all the drives in the RAID 5 array.5 shows an example of a RAID 5 implementation.0—CONFIGURATION 205 RAID system. This hot spare methodology minimizes the amount of time it takes to get the RAID rebuilt and the windows of time that the RAID system is vulnerable to a second drive failure that could destroy all data stored on the RAID array. where n is the number of disk drives in the RAID 5 array.7%. the overhead is 1/6 * 100. When the failure of a disk drive in the RAID array occurs. RAID 0/1 Configuration RAID 0/1 (sometimes called RAID 0+1 or RAID 10) involves mirroring (or duplexing) two RAID 0 arrays. Another way of looking at this is that you lose the capacity of one of the disk drives in the RAID 5 array. The total storage capacity of the RAID 5 array is (n – 1) * c. RAID 5 is more efficient than the other RAID levels in that the overhead is 1/n * 100. or 16. In this example. Figure 3. Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Parity 1 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Parity 2 RAID Disk Controller FIGURE 3. EXAM TIP TIP EXAM EXAM TIP RAID 1 Disk Overhead Is 50% Know that the disk overhead for RAID 1 is 50%. where n is the number of disk drives in the array. it is just waiting for a drive in the disk array to fail so that it can be used. or 90GB. but contains no data. the RAID system starts rebuilding the data that was on the failed drive on the hot spare disk drive.Chapter 3 2. In other words. This yields the fault tolerance of RAID 1 and the input/output speed of RAID 0. RAID 5 Array Storage Capacity Know that the total storage capacity of a RAID 5 array is (n – 1) * c. the total storage capacity of the RAID 5 array is (6 – 1) * 18.6 shows an example of a RAID 0/1 implementation. RAID 0/1 requires a minimum of four disk drives to implement. . Figure 3. A hot spare disk drive is powered up and running. (This space is used to store the parity information.5 RAID 5 (disk striping with parity). where c is the capacity of each of the disk drives. if your RAID 5 array is comprised of six 18GB disk drives. RAID 5 Disk Overhead Know that the disk overhead of a RAID 5 array is 1/n * 100. where n is the number of disk drives in the array and c is the capacity of each of the disk drives in the array.

but provides no fault tolerance. and 3 are RAID 0 Disk 2 Disk 3 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 RAID 1 mirror Disk Controller Stripe set [1. and the disk overhead for RAID 0/1 is 50%. and fault tolerance. However. good write performance.6 RAID 0/1 (mirrored stripe sets without parity). 2.2. it does provide a very high level of redundancy. Disk 1 Disk 1. This has dual redundancy (the redundancy of RAID 1 with the redundancy of RAID 5) and it is very expensive to implement. RAID 5 requires a minimum of three disk drives to implement. used to implement a RAID 1 array. .5.206 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 3. EXAM RAID 0 provides excellent read and write performance. However. What Is RAID 0/1? Know that RAID 0/1 combines the fault tolerance of RAID 1 with the input/ output performance of RAID 0. Because there is no fault tolerance in RAID 0. 5. and 6 are RAID 0 R E V I E W B R E A K Which RAID level should you use? You must decide based on both performance requirements and economic considerations. RAID 5 has lower disk overhead than RAID 1 or RAID 0/1 but it has only good read performance and fair write performance. The disk NOTE TIP Something for the Truly Paranoid There is an implementation of RAID known as RAID 5+1 (also called RAID 51 and RAID 6) that mirrors a pair of RAID 5 disk arrays. Two 18GB disk drives.3] is mirrored on Stripe set [4. have a storage capacity of 18GB.6] Disk 4 Disk 5 Disk 6 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Disk 4. A minimum of two disk drives is required to implement RAID 1. However. the disk overhead (loss of storage capacity) for RAID 1 is 50%. you should not use it in a production network server. RAID 1 offers very good read performance. RAID 0/1 combines the great performance of RAID 0 with the fault tolerance of RAID 1. RAID 0/1 requires a minimum of four disk drives to implement.

2. However. The original FAT used 12 bits to address clusters and was limited to a EXAM Know Characteristics of the Various RAID Levels Know the characteristics of the different RAID levels presented in Table 3. The original file system used by early versions of the Disk Operating System (DOS) was called the File Allocation Table (FAT) file system.Chapter 3 2. one final planning step remains before the actual installation of the NOS: the selection of the file system to be used by the NOS. File Systems A file system defines how files are stored on a disk drive. the server hardware specialist is ready to install the network operating system (NOS).3 Install the Network Operating System (NOS) • Configure network • Verify network connectivity After the RAID system has been configured.0—CONFIGURATION 207 overhead for RAID 5 is equal to the capacity of one of the disk drives in the array. Table 3.1 CHARACTERISTICS RAID Level RAID 0 OF RAID L E V E L S Read Performance Excellent (but no fault tolerance) Very good Excellent Good Write Performance Very good (but no fault tolerance) Good Very good Fair Minimum Number of Drives 2 RAID 1 RAID 0/1 RAID 5 2 4 3 INSTALLING THE NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM . three 18GB disk drives in a RAID 5 array have a storage capacity of 36GB. TIP .1 summarizes characteristics of the different RAID levels.1. TABLE 3. For example.

. Fat16 was used by early versions of Windows 95. The larger the cluster size. Using the default cluster size of 4KB. hence the name FAT32. a file containing one character would be allocated 8KB of disk space when the cluster size is 8KB. Later versions of DOS increased the number of bits from 12 to 16 and could address a disk partition up to 2GB in size. This allowed a failed (and unbootable) network server running Windows NT Server 4 to be booted from a floppy disk using DOS and its FAT-based file system. and 3.1. single disk partition of about 32MB.) Installing Windows NT Service Pack 4 or higher allows Windows NT 4 to read and write FAT32 file systems as well. the more inefficient the use of the disk space. However. (Since the introduction of Windows 2000. 4KB (8 sectors).) Supports long filenames (up to 254 characters). Once booted from the floppy. 3. the files (including the NT system files) that were installed on the FAT16-formatted C: drive could be read and written using standard DOS FAT16 utilities. 16KB (32 sectors). the NTFS that is used on Windows NT Server 4 has been called NTFS version 4. For example. Common cluster sizes are 2KB (4 sectors). The Windows NT Server 4 file systems are as follows: á FAT16. to indicate that it uses 16 bits to address the clusters on the disk drive. The installation of Windows NT Server 4 itself was often done on a FAT16 file system. FAT32 can access a disk drive up to 8GB in size.208 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION What Is a Cluster? A disk cluster is a group of disk sectors (512 bytes) that are accessed together. Windows NT Server 4 requires either FAT16 or NTFS on the disk partition from which it boots. This means that corrupted Windows NT Server 4 system files stored on FAT16 could be replaced from the original Windows NT Server 4 CD-ROM. This means that a disk cluster is the smallest amount of disk space that can be allocated to a file. NOTE Windows NT Server 4 Microsoft’s Windows NT Server 4 supports both the FAT16 file system and its own native file system known as NTFS (NT File System). Partitions up to 4GB. FAT32 can address large disk drives with ease. (Partitions over 2GB are not readable by DOS. and 32KB (64 sectors). The following sections give some details about the various file system that can be used by NOSs. 8KB (16 sectors). The various network operating systems have their own file systems.5. This version of the FAT file system is now called FAT16. NOTE HPFS on Windows NT Previous versions of Microsoft’s Windows NT (versions 3. The OSR2 (OEM Service Release 2) update to Windows 95 introduced a new version of the FAT file system that uses 32 bits to address the clusters on the disk drive.51) supported the OS/2 HPFS file system.

FAT32. All volumes on Windows NT Server 4 are assigned drive letters (A–Z). or 65. Stores characters and filenames as Unicode. it is no longer necessary to install the network operating system on a FAT partition. servers are seldom configured to support booting to other operating systems (other than in learning and teaching environments).551. What Is Unicode? Unicode is a 16bit code that can represent 216.446.0—CONFIGURATION 209 NOTE á FAT32.) Supports long filenames (up to 254 characters).616 bytes). As one of my former students said while taking a Windows 2000 upgrade class that I was teaching: “We now have a FAT-free network operating system. The Recovery Console can perform all the operations (copying and replacing corrupted files) that were done when booting from a DOS floppy disk under Windows NT 4. (Partitions over 2GB are not readable by DOS. á NTFS version 4. The only other reason to have FAT16 or FAT32 file systems available is to support dual booting of two different operating systems (such as Windows 95 and Windows 2000). The root volume is C:\. File and volumes up to 16 exabytes (264 bytes. and NTFS version 5 file systems. With the introduction of the Recovery Console with Windows 2000 Server. However. or 18. . Partitions up to 8GB using the smallest cluster size of 4KB. Windows 2000 Server Microsoft’s Windows 2000 Server supports the FAT16.” Windows 2000 Server supports the following file systems: á FAT16. Supports long filenames (up to 254 characters). Partitions up to 2 terabytes can be supported using larger cluster sizes. it can perform these operations on the NTFS version 5 file system. Supports compression and NTFS file system permissions.073. However.709. Supports long filenames (up to 254 characters). This is more than enough to represent all the characters in all the different languages currently used on the earth.Chapter 3 2. Partitions up to 4GB.744. Partitions up to 2 terabytes can be supported using larger cluster sizes. á FAT32. Supports long filenames (up to 254 characters).536 characters. Partitions up to 8GB using the smallest cluster size of 4KB.

file encryption. Supports file compression.210 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION á NTFS version 5. Supports long filenames (up to 254 characters). The NWFS was available on previous versions of NetWare.744. This mechanism eliminates the limitation of 26 disk drive letters that hampered Windows NT Server 4. and NTFS file system permissions. Maximum file size is 2GB. In Windows 2000 Server. and each volume can be 1TB in size. Windows 2000 Server’s NTFS version 5 file system has an additional feature in that it allows disk partitions to be mounted on empty folders much like the mount points available in UNIX file systems. a small (Novell recommends 50MB) FAT partition is required to start up the NetWare server.709. Stores characters and filenames as Unicode. volumes can be assigned drive letters the same way as in Windows NT Server 4.616 bytes). with all the other disk drives in the network server “mounted” to empty folders on the C: disk drive. or 18.551. However. It has a maximum of 64 volumes.446. The required SYS volume must use NWFS. disk quotas. Novell NetWare 5 Even with the latest version of Novell’s NetWare. Novell NetWare supports two different native file systems: the original NetWare File System (NWFS) and the newer Novell Storage Services (NSS) file system. File and volumes up to 16 exabytes (264 bytes. . Used on all previous versions of NetWare. In theory a Windows 2000 Server could be configured with a single disk drive letter. Supports file compression. C:.073. Root volume is C:\.

Deleted files before they are purged. The .Chapter 3 2. However. file systems. It has a maximum of 256 volumes. The file structure of UNIX/Linux systems differs significantly from the more familiar DOS file structure used by many other network operating systems. Not Used (backward compatibility) NetWare Operating System files. NetWare Utilities. TCP/IP configuration files. most of them do support the FAT file system for compatibility with other operating systems.SAV | LOGIN | MAIL | SYSTEM | PUBLIC | | NOVDOCS DELETED.0—CONFIGURATION 211 The NSS file system is new to NetWare 5.SAV The Main NetWare Volume. often unique. where each volume is assigned a drive letter. Root Volume is SYS:. UNIX Each of the various versions of UNIX that run on an Intel-based network server has its own. NetWare documents in HTML format. User Login files. and each volume can be up to 8TB in size. It does not support file compression. The basic structure of the SYS volume on NetWare is as follows: SYS: | | ETC SYS: ETC LOGIN Mail SYSTEM PUBLIC NOVDOCS DELETED. It’s the best choice for RAID systems and stores characters as Unicode. Maximum file size is 8TB.

Various stuff and e-mail spool. UNIX devices. Temporary file space. It appears that the Linux support community wants to be compatible with every file system ever created. file names limited to 30 characters and a maximum file system size of 64MB). Xia was an enhancement that removed some of the file system restrictions of minix.212 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION UNIX/Linux file structures (sometimes referred to as the standard system directories) vary among the different versions of UNIX/Linux. UNIX program libraries. System files. but most have the following file structure in common: / (aka root) | | /bin / (root) /bin /dev /etc /home or /u /lib /tmp /usr /var | /dev | /etc | /home | /lib | /tmp | /usr | /var The top level directory of the file ➥system. Password files and system startup ➥files. Minix is the oldest of the Linux file systems and probably the least used due to its lack of features (for instance. Other much less commonly used native Linux file systems include minix and xia. so for compatibility with other operating systems. For compatibility with FAT file systems EXAM TIP . Linux also supports (among others) the following (non-native) file systems: á Msdos. Linux What Is the Root of the UNIX/Linux File Structure? Know that the name of the root of the UNIX/Linux file structure is “/. which is an enhancement of an older extended file system known as ext. UNIX standard utilities.” The most popular native Linux file system is the ext2 (the second extended file system) file system. User home directories.

Best used for application servers. Installing the Network Operating System The installation of the network operating system is often assisted by vendor-supplied network server setup software. á HPFS386. which is often supplied on a bootable CD-ROM disk. á HPFS (High Performance File System). Best used for file servers. File systems and their characteristics include the following: á FAT. á JFS (Journaled File System). For compatibility with Windows NT NTFS file system á Sysv. For compatibility with OS/2’s HPFS file system á Ntfs. Supports long filenames (up to 254 characters). usually provides software to configure the RAID controller if one is being used in the network server.0—CONFIGURATION 213 á Usmdos. Used for backward compatibility with other operating systems. Another very useful feature of the setup software is that it often creates a special “diagnostics” or “configuration” partition on the first disk drive in the network server. For compatibility with AT&T variants of UNIX file systems IBM OS/2 Warp Server IBM’s OS/2 Warp Server supports several file systems. Enhanced msdos file system that supports long filenames and has the capability to be treated like a regular Linux file system á Hpfs. The software utilities installed on this special partition are accessible during the network server’s power up. The setup software also enables you to partition the disk space available on the network server. This same software. Root volume is C:\. . Stores characters as Unicode.Chapter 3 2.

The network operating system can be installed following the network operating system vendor’s instructions. . However. Use of the vendor-supplied network server setup software is not required. The network server setup software usually simplifies the installation of the network operating system by prompting the installer for configuration information on one or two screens and then supplying the information to the operating system installation process. It also means that the special “diagnostics” partition is not created on the network server disk drive. Windows 2000) support Plug and Play detection of the hardware in the network server and install the correct drivers automatically. The following information is generally needed to complete the installation of the network server. this method requires that you later load the vendor-specific drivers for special hardware in the network server. sound cards. It is a very good idea to have the interrupt requests (IRQ). Some network operating systems (for example. and I/O addresses available for the NICs.214 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Examples of special network server setup software supplied by the network server vendors are as follows: Compaq—Compaq SmartStart Dell—Dell OpenManage Server Assistant Hewlett-Packard—HP NetServer Navigator IBM—IBM Netfinity Setup and Installation CD Use of the vendor-supplied server setup software has many advantages. Windows NT) do not use Plug and Play and you must configure some hardware components. and SCSI controllers in your network server. Most network operating system software is supplied on a bootable CD-ROM disk. direct memory access channels (DMA). This information should be included in the installation plan for the network server. including the installation of vendor-specific drivers for hardware in the network server. Other network operating systems (for example.

) Ethernet frame type or Token Ring frame type . you need the following information: IP address Subnet mask Default gateway IP address of DNS server(s) IP address of WINS server(s) (Microsoft networks only) To configure IPX/SPX (Microsoft’s NWLink is their version of the IPX/SPX protocol. To configure TCP/IP.Chapter 3 2. Most network servers use either the TCP/IP protocol or the IPX/SPX protocol or both.0—CONFIGURATION 215 Server name Password for the administrative account If using TCP/IP protocol: IP domain name IP address Subnet mask Default gateway address Address of DNS server(s) Address of WINS server(s) (Microsoft networks only) If using IPX/SPX protocol: Frame type Configuring the Network The network configuration consists of selecting the network protocol and configuring it to operate correctly on your network.

216 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION You can use the following commands to view or change the network configuration for various network operating systems: Windows NT/Windows 2000 Server—ipconfig Novell NetWare 4.200 The best IP address to ping is the IP address of the default gateway. external CD-ROM systems. external drive subsystems. “6. all network operating systems use the ping command.x/5.” for additional information about the ping command.4 Configure external peripherals (UPS. CONFIGURING EXTERNAL PERIPHERALS .168. External disk subsystems are necessary when the amount of disk storage cannot be accommodated by the disk drive bays internal to the network server chassis. These external disk subsystems can be either SCSI or Fibre Channel.1. Generally. Fibre Channel–based systems can support many more disk drives than a SCSI-based external system.0—Troubleshooting and Problem Determination.x—inetcfg UNIX/Linux—ifconfig IBM OS/2 Warp Server—ifconfig Verifying Network Connectivity To test network connectivity when using the TCP/IP protocol. .) • Configure an external disk subsystem • Configure an external CD-ROM system • Configure an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) This section discusses the configuration of external disk subsystems. and uninterruptible power supplies. because it should always be available to return the ping request. ping 192. 2. See Chapter 7. etc.

Fibre Channel–based external disk systems can handle a very large number of disk drives. The simple external disk subsystem with only a few disk drives might just be attached to the external port on a SCSI or RAID controller. These large systems are often configured separately from the disk controller in the network server to which they will be attached. . To connect the external disk subsystem to the network server. which can accommodate a large number of CD-ROM drives and make them available to client computers on the network. Often you can configure large external disk subsystems to be shared by more than one network server. The disk drives just happen to be external to the network server chassis.Chapter 3 2. Configuring an External Disk Subsystem Even though server class microcomputers often have many empty bays designed to hold disk drives. The network servers that implement CD-ROM libraries are often called CD-ROM servers. Generally. you generally need to install the UPS monitoring software and attach the UPS monitoring cable to the network server and the UPS to be monitored.0—CONFIGURATION 217 External CD-ROM systems are generally used to implement CD-ROM libraries. On the high end. The external disk drives would then function in the same way that internal disk drives function. This is one way to implement a high-availability server solution. it is often necessary to have disk drives external to the actual server chassis. Fibre Channel is described in detail in Chapter 1. an external disk subsystem chassis might have 100 or more disk drives in it. Some large external disk subsystems may have their own RAID mechanism built right in. External disk subsystems may consist of a single disk drive in its own chassis with its own power supply. you could use a standard external SCSI cable or even Fibre Channel. To configure an uninterruptible power supply.

218 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION In all cases. Part of the SCSI standard is a little-used feature called a Logical Unit Number (LUN). they are seldom used (except on large groups of CD-ROM drives). Follow the UPS vendor’s instructions to install the UPS monitoring software. Although LUNs are defined in the SCSI standards. Be sure that the external CD-ROM system is powered up before powering up the network server. The process is actually pretty simple. 21. 14. This means that on a single SCSI channel with SCSI IDs of 1 through 7. you could have 7 LUNs for each SCSI ID. What Are LUNs? Know that LUNs allow multiple devices to share the same SCSI ID. Configuring an External CD-ROM System External CD-ROM systems are often referred to as a CD-ROM library. “1. This means that you could have 7 CD-ROM drives all with the SCSI ID of 5. be sure that the power switch on the external disk subsystem is turned on before turning on the network server.0—Installation. follow the manufacturer’s installation and configuration instructions. The network server needs to know when a power failure has occurred and that the UPS is supplying power to the network from its batteries. You might be wondering how to attach that many CD-ROM drives to a single network server. each having a different LUN (1 through 7) all on the same SCSI channel. Imagine a tower chassis with 7. To configure the external CD-ROM system.” Be aware that a network server does not automatically monitor a UPS. Having these CD-ROM drives attached to a network server means that it is possible to share all these CD-ROM drives and the CD-ROMs that they contain with all users on the network. . A LUN enables you to assign “sub-SCSI IDs” to a single SCSI ID. or more CD-ROM drives. You must install UPS monitoring software on the network server to give it this capability. EXAM TIP Configuring an Uninterruptible Power Supply The installation of a UPS was covered in Chapter 2. for a total of 49 CD-ROM drives on a single SCSI channel.

This prevents warning messages from being sent to clients when there is a momentary loss of power.7 shows an example of the Windows 2000 Server UPS Configuration dialog box. This is generally a few minutes. Status items include such things as the voltage level entering the UPS as well as the voltage level leaving the UPS. á Time to wait before beginning a shutdown of the network server. Figure 3. This may be just the name of the server shutdown command.0—CONFIGURATION 219 After you have installed the UPS monitoring software.7 UPS Configuration dialog box in Windows 2000 Server.Chapter 3 2. This allows time for power to be restored before sending a message. . á Name of a program or group of commands to run as part of the shutdown process. but it also may include programs that do things such as sending a message to the network server’s administrator’s pager along with the network server shutdown command. This is generally a few seconds. you must configure the following parameters: á Time to wait before sending a warning to clients that the server is running on battery power. The UPS monitoring software often enables you to check the status of the UPS. FIGURE 3.

These updates have various names. You can always find the newest drivers available at the hardware vendor’s web site. To install the update. IBM calls them fixpacs. For example. follow the network operating system vendor’s instructions. Such an update is required for the network application to operate correctly. Download the updates from the operating system vendor’s web site. (Microsoft calls them service packs. 2. Be aware that some network applications (for example. download the newer version and install it. 2. an email server) require you to install a specific service pack level before you can install the network application. You should download updates that fix or close security holes from the network operating system vendor’s web site and immediately install them on the network operating system. check Compaq’s web site (www.220 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION INSTALLING NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM UPDATES .) These updates usually fix bugs or close security holes that have been found in the released version of the operating system.compaq. Check the vendor’s web site for the latest driver for the hardware device. Microsoft Exchange Server. CONFIGURING MANUFACTURERSPECIFIC DRIVERS .5 Install NOS updates to design specifications Periodically. Record the driver version for each hardware device in the network server as part of the configuration documentation. and Novell calls them patches. . network operating system vendors issue updates to their network operating systems.6 Update manufacturer specific drivers Always check the version number of drivers for devices in the network server.com) for the latest drivers for Compaq hardware components. If the driver available on the manufacturer’s web site is a newer version than the one you have installed on the network server.

) • Install and configure SNMP • Install backup software • Install anti-virus software • Install system monitor agents • Configure event log(s) • Configure swap file(s) After installing the network server operating system. 2.7 Install service tools (SNMP. These software tools perform many useful functions on the network server. The swap file (also called a paging file) facilitates virtual memory on network operating systems that support virtual memory. The backup software enables you to write the contents of the network server’s disk drives to magnetic tape for safe. etc. are vital to the network server’s successful operation. Some network server operating systems require that you “activate” the log files before they can be utilized by the network server operating system. .Chapter 3 2.0—Proactive Maintenance. To facilitate the management of the network server. The antivirus software will protect the network server from computer viruses. “4. Network server operating systems enable you to specify the size (and in some cases the number) and location of the swap file on the system.0—CONFIGURATION 221 INSTALLING SERVICE TOOLS . you should install and configure the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).” You also can install various system monitoring agents to monitor the various components on the network server. backup software. SNMP is covered in detail in Chapter 5. event logs. Many network servers and their operating systems can log events to a log file as they occur. such as antivirus software and backup software. it is time to install a variety of service tools. The swap file is a space on a disk drive that temporarily holds portions of programs (pages) while the memory space that they were using is needed by other programs. Installation of any of these “service tools” usually requires “supervisor” permissions on the network server. system monitoring agents. Several types of service software. Many times these log files are created automatically when the network operating system is installed. off-site storage.

The community name is a primitive password mechanism. the use of SNMP has been expanded to allow it to be able to manage practically any device. including a computer. EXAM TIP . such as routers. However. If the SNMP community names differ.222 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Installing and Configuring SNMP SNMP allows an SNMP management console to manage devices that have an SNMP agent installed on them. attached to a network.8 Configuring SNMP community in Windows 2000 Server. The default SNMP community name is Public. To install the SNMP agent on the network operating system.8 shows the configuration of an SNMP community name in Microsoft Windows 2000 Server. FIGURE 3. SNMP was designed to make it possible to manage network devices. Figure 3. SNMP management console and SNMP agents with the same SNMP community name can exchange information. they will not be able to communicate. you must configure it with an SNMP community name. SNMP Community Know the purpose of the SNMP community name. follow the instructions that come with the network operating system. You should install the SNMP agent on your network operating system. After you have installed the SNMP agent. You should always change this to something other than Public.

backup software cannot back up open files (files being used by other programs). To install the backup software. The Registry is a special system file that is always open when Microsoft Windows NT Server is running. Installing Antivirus Software One of the fastest ways to spread a computer virus through your organization is to allow a file infected with a computer virus to be copied to your network server. There are various reasons for this. this backup system is often not feature rich. Therefore. The MIB contains a list of the items that can be managed by SNMP on the device associated with the MIB. and on domain controllers. computers. Each unique network device has a unique MIB defined. Only backup software certified to work with Microsoft Windows NT Server can back up the Registry.” The system state contains the Windows 2000 Registry. This lack of features often requires the purchase of a third-party backup software package. Unfortunately. it also contains the Active Directory and the contents of the system volume (SYSVOL). follow the backup software vendor’s installation instructions. Backup software certified to work with Microsoft Windows 2000 Server can back up the “system state. there are MIBs for routers. it is even more important EXAM SNMP’s Management Information Base Know the purpose of the SNMP MIB. Installing Backup Software The backup software for a network server has to be specific to the network operating system installed on the network server. backup software for Microsoft Windows NT Server must be certified to work with Microsoft Windows NT Server.0—CONFIGURATION 223 The SNMP agent knows what to monitor on the network device by looking at a Management Information Base (MIB) for the device.Chapter 3 2. EXAM TIP Backup Software Know the purpose of backup software. Usually. and even some software packages. hubs. such as database systems. TIP . it is required because the Windows NT Server Registry must be backed up. For example. In the case of Windows NT Server. switches. Some network operating systems provide a rudimentary backup system. For example.

follow the antivirus software vendor’s installation instructions. The antivirus software for a network server differs somewhat from the antivirus software that you would use on a desktop computer. The following are a few examples of network server monitoring and management software available from various vendors: Compaq—Compaq Insight Manager Dell—Dell OpenManage IT Assistant HP—HP Toptools IBM—Netfinity Director EXAM . TIP System Monitor Agents Know the purpose of system monitor agents. to install antivirus software on the network server than on most desktop computers. and the capability to put entries into a log file about viruses detected or files checked for viruses. processor utilization. To install antivirus software.224 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION EXAM TIP Antivirus Software Know the purpose of antivirus software. The biggest difference is that it generally costs much more than its desktop computer counterpart. If the antivirus software has an option to perform a live update via the Internet. Given the number of new computer viruses that appear on almost a daily basis. Despite the expense. Other features often found on an antivirus software package designed for a network server include the capability to notify the network server administrator via email or pager that a computer virus has been located. and network utilization—you must install monitoring agents on the network server. However. follow the network server vendor’s installation instructions. antivirus software is vital software for a network server. To install the system monitor agents. To enable this software to monitor the different components of the network server—such as temperature. you can do so automatically when using the network server vendor’s server setup software. You can usually install antivirus software on the network server by just following a series of installation screens. Installing System Monitor Agents Major network server hardware vendors often have server monitoring and management software available. it may be necessary to install these monitoring agents after the network operating system has been installed. be sure to configure the option to update the virus signature files frequently. Usually. configuring the signature files update option to “daily” is not a bad idea.

When the log file is full. Configuring Swap File(s) Network operating systems that use virtual memory (NetWare 5. Windows NT. Windows 2000. the swap file should be installed on or moved to a different physical disk drive from the disk drive that contains the operating system files. .9 Configuring the size of Windows NT Server 4 event logs. The following sections identify the swap file names and default sizes for various network operation systems. or frequently accessed application files (such as databases). Most implementations of logs are done in a circular fashion. Figure 3. The following are a few examples of the remote network management hardware and software available from various vendors: Compaq—Compaq Remote Insight Board Dell—Dell OpenManage Remote Assistant Card (DRAC) HP—HP Toptools Remote Control Card HP—Integrated HP Remote Assistant IBM—Advanced System Management Processor Configuring Event Log(s) Event logs are usually installed on the network server by default.Chapter 3 2. Linux. The overwriting of the circular logs might destroy messages that would have helped solve a problem.9 shows the configuration of the size of the Windows NT Server 4 event logs. FIGURE 3. overwriting old entries in the log. UNIX. or the logs start at the top of the log file.0—CONFIGURATION 225 Some network server vendors also offer optional hardware and software that enable you to perform remote management of network servers. You should consider increasing the default size of the log files. Increasing the size of the log file will help prevent the overwriting of log entries. For optimum performance.x. either all logging ceases until the log is emptied. However. OS/2) have a swap file on the network server disk drive. the size of the event logs is usually set to a minimum amount.

System. Microsoft Windows 2000 Server The Windows 2000 Server defaults include the following: Swap file name: Default size: C:\PAGEFILE.226 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 The Windows NT Server 4 defaults include the following: Swap file name: Default size: C:\PAGEFILE.SYS Same as amount of RAM in server One swap file is allowed per volume. Figure 3. Virtual Memory button.10 Windows NT Server 4 paging file dialog box. FIGURE 3. Control Panel. .SYS Amount of RAM in server times 1. To change the number of paging files or to change the size of a page file.10 shows the Windows NT Server 4 paging file configuration dialog box. Performance.5 One swap file is allowed per volume. Settings. select Start.

Chapter 3 2. EXAM EXAM TIP Windows NT and Windows 2000 Paging Files Know the name of the Windows NT Server 4 and Windows 2000 Server paging files and how to configure them. The mkswap utility “formats” the swap partition. Utility used to create swap file: SWAP ADD <volume name> IBM OS/2 Warp Server The OS/2 defaults include the following: Swap file name: C:\OS2\SYSTEM\SWAPPER.11 shows the Windows 2000 Server paging file configuration dialog box. . which are created by the installation process and/or the administrator. Novell NetWare 5.11 Linux Linux uses swap partitions. Also know that the SWAP ADD command is used to add a swap file to a volume.DAT Utility used to create swap file: none Swap file size is set by the SWAPPATH= statement in the CONFIG.1 The Novell NetWare 5.SYS file. The swapon utility makes the swap partition(s) available. Windows 2000 Server paging file dialog box. Figure 3. TIP Adding NetWare Swap Files Know that NetWare allows one swap file per volume.1 defaults include the following: Swap file name: Default size: SYS:<unspecified name> 2 Megabytes One swap file is allowed per volume.0—CONFIGURATION 227 To change the number of page files or to change the size of a paging file. The format is as follows: SWAPPATH= path minfree initial_size FIGURE 3. select Start/Settings/Control Panel/System/Advanced tab/ Performance Options button/Virtual Memory Change button.

TIP PERFORMING A SERVER BASELINE . it is time to consider upgrades to the component. vmstat.228 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION EXAM OS/2 Swap File Know the name and location of the OS/2 swap file and how to configure it. and the network subsystem. You can compare these numbers with those collected over time to see how these four network server components are being utilized. 2. The following are examples of performance monitoring software tools for various network server operating systems: Microsoft Windows NT Server—Performance Monitor Microsoft Windows 2000 Server—System Monitor Novell NetWare—ManageWise UNIX/Linux—sar. the memory. The utilization of these four network server components will generally increase as the network server goes into service and as the demands on the network server increase over time. The purpose of a baseline measurement is to capture performance information about these four network server components under an initial load. iostat. A performance monitoring tool enables you to ascertain the performance of various network server components under normal operating conditions.8 Perform server baseline A server baseline is a measurement of the server performance. Most network operating systems have as standard some system utilities that can measure resource utilization. Some network operating systems include a performance monitoring tool. the disk subsystem. ps IBM OS/2—System Performance Monitor/2 (SPM/2) . As a component nears its maximum utilization. Various third-party utilities also enable you to measure a network server’s resource utilization. The major network server components that should be monitored are the processor(s).

12. baseline measurements can be performed. FIGURE 3. the Microsoft System Monitor utility shows heavy processor utilization on a Windows 2000 Server. .0—CONFIGURATION 229 Chapter 7 covers some of these utilities in more detail. The baseline measurements should include the following statistics: Processor: Percent utilization Processor: Processor queue length Memory: Hard page faults Memory: Soft page faults Disk subsystem: Percent disk utilization Disk subsystem: Disk queue length Network: Percent network utilization Network: Network queue length In Figure 3.12 Microsoft System Monitor showing heavy processor utilization.Chapter 3 2. Using the utilities available for the various network operating systems.

however. such as antivirus software and backup software.230 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION DOCUMENTING THE NETWORK SERVER CONFIGURATION . At this point. It also covered the installation of common network server software.9 Document the configuration You should document the entire configuration of the network server. and the installation of the network operating system. You should have completed some of this documentation during the installation process. It dealt with the configuration of RAID on the network server. the selection of the proper file system. The chapter concluded by reminding you to document all of these items. you can add the following items to the documentation: Network operating system version Update level for network operating system RAID configuration Server name Antivirus software and version Backup software and version Network address for each NIC Location and size of swap file(s) SNMP community name Server monitoring agents installed System BIOS version The server baseline measurements CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS • Antivirus software • Backup software • BIOS • Cluster • Disk array • Disk duplexing • Disk mirroring • FAT This chapter covered the job dimension having to do with the configuring of the server. . 2.

Chapter 3 2.0—CONFIGURATION 231 CHAPTER SUMMARY • FAT16 • FAT32 • Flashable BIOS • Hot spare • HPFS • LUN • MIB • NTFS • NWFS • NSS • Paging file • Partition • Plug and Play • RAID controller BIOS • RAID 0 • RAID 1 • RAID 5 • RAID 0+1 • RAID 0/1 • RAID 10 • SCSI controller BIOS • Sector • SNMP • SNMP community • Stripe set with parity • Stripe set without parity • Swap file • System BIOS • Unicode • Virtual memory .

Which RAID level is not fault tolerant? 5. the installation process begins by inserting the network operating system CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive and rebooting the computer system.html Installing a network server operating system is a major task.sco.sun.1 Installing and Configuring Network Operating Systems • Sun Solaris 8 Intel Platform www. noncomercial) www.redhat.html SCO OpenServer 5.com/download/ howto_download. the experience gained by installing a network operating system is invaluable. unsupported) www.html Caldera Linux (60-day trial and installation computer-based training) www.sco.com/offers/license.232 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Exercises 3.calderasystems.com/offers/license. What is the purpose of the SNMP community name? • Novell NetWare 5.html • UNIX flavors UnixWare 7 (free.com/products/ volution/cbt/ After you have the computer system and copies of the network operating systems on hand. What is the difference between disk mirroring and disk duplexing? 4. What is the disk overhead associated with RAID 1? 3. How do you check the version of the system BIOS? 6. $15 for 5-user version www.html . Estimated Time: 30 minutes to several hours (will vary with operating system). Most network operating systems come on bootable CD-ROMs.com/products/ netware/evaluation.com/software/solaris/ binaries/get. noncommercial) www. However.microsoft.com/ windows2000/edk/default. You can obtain the following operating systems from the listed web sites: • Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server (180 days) www.novell.asp • Linux versions RedHat Linux (free. The computer system can be a desktop computer system for practicing the network operating system installation.5 (free. What is the minimum number of disk drives required for a RAID 5 array? 2.1 (90 days). You need a computer system that meets the minimum requirements of the network operating system. If you don’t have a copy of the network operating system software. You also need a copy of the network operating system software itself. Review Questions 1. just follow the installation instructions of the network operating system. you can find a free or low-cost copy (it may be a time-limited evaluation copy) of popular network operating systems at the following web sites.0. As long as the computer system has a bootable CD-ROM drive. You may want to get several different network operating systems so that you can practice the different installation scenarios.

108GB D. What is a SCSI LUN? 15. Spreadsheet software 4. RAID 1 C.0—CONFIGURATION 233 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 7. Virtual memory D. After you have configured the RAID array with the six disk drives. Backup software C. what is the total storage capacity of the single logical drive created by the RAID array? A. RAID 1 B. Which RAID level does not provide fault tolerance? A. Processor(s) B. RAID 10 5. 216GB B. How many swap files are allowed in Microsoft Windows 2000 Server? 9. What is the minimum number of disk drives needed to implement RAID 0/1? 12. RAID 0 Exam Questions 1. RAID 5 D. Which of the following software packages are not normally installed on a network server to support its operation? A. Power supplies D. What processor statistics should be included in the server baseline measurement? 14. Memory C. What is the most popular native Linux file system? 13. What is the “top” of the UNIX/Linux file structure called? 2. RAID 5 C. Which of the following is not a network server component that should be monitored to determine resource usage? A. 36GB B.Chapter 3 2. What is the name of the utility that enables you to test TCP/IP network connectivity? 11. Backup software 3. 180GB C. You have a group of six 36GB disk drives that you want to configure as a RAID 5 array. Which of the following technologies allows a network server to run more programs than will fit into its physical RAM? A. What is the purpose of UPS monitoring software? 10. Disk subsystem . What is the name of and the default size of the swap file on Microsoft Windows 2000 Server? 8. UPS monitoring software D. Antivirus software B.

The CD-ROM that contains the network operating system 12. The CD-ROM that was packaged with the hardware component C. The hardware vendor’s web site D. Novell NetWare C. What is the name of the Windows NT Server 4 command that will display the current TCP/IP configuration? A. SWAPPER. winipcfg B. The network operating system vendor’s web site B. The network server hardware vendor’s web site B. ifconfig D. Windows 2000 Server C. Where is the best place to look for the latest security patches for a network server operating system? A. You have four 18GB disk drives that you want to configure using RAID 0/1. The network operating system vendor’s web site C.SYS D. What is the best place to find the latest driver for a network server component? A. UNIX . Windows NT Server 4 B.234 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 6. PAGEFILE. IBM OS/2 Warp Server B.SYS B. UNIX/Linux 9. 32MB B. What network server operating system is installed on the network server? A. What will be the storage capacity of the RAID 0/1 array after it has been configured? A. The CD-ROM that came with the network server D.DAT C. 36GB C. What is the maximum disk partition size that can be addressed by the FAT16 file system? A. You discover that the very top of the file structure for a network server is “/”. IBM OS/2 Warp Server D. inetcfg C. ipconfig 11.DAT 10. What is the name of the IBM OS/2 Warp Server swap file? A. PAGEFILE. 18GB B. SWAPPER. 54GB D. 32GB 13. The High Performance File System(HPFS) is native to which network operating system? A. The network operating system CD-ROM 7. Novell NetWare D. 72GB 8. 8GB D. 2GB C.

) For more information.” .SYS. see the section “Installing and Configuring SNMP. each disk drive is attached to a different disk controller. see the section “Configuring an Uninterruptible Power Supply. The default size of PAGEFILE. The system BIOS version displays on the server monitor when the server is powered up. see the section “Verifying Network Connectivity. is not fault tolerant. For more information. (For instance. For more information.5 times the amount of RAM in the server. see the section “RAID 1 Configuration (Mirroring)” or “RAID 1 Configuration (Duplexing). For more information.SYS file that is 768MB in size. What is the default SNMP community name? A. 9GB 15. SemiPrivate D.SYS is 1. In disk duplexing. the community name of the SNMP agent and the SNMP manager must be the same. both disk drives are attached to a single disk controller. see the section “RAID 0 Configuration.” 6.” 7. Public B. The minimum number of disk drives required to implement RAID 5 is three. For more information. The SNMP community is a primitive form of security for the SNMP protocol. The cute answer to this question is one disk controller. Private C. For more information.” 2. see the section “RAID 5 Configuration. RAID 0. The disk overhead associated with RAID 1 is 50%.” 3. see the section “RAID 1 Configuration (Duplexing). To access information through SNMP. UPS monitoring software allows the network server to determine when a power failure has occurred and that the UPS is supplying power to the network server from its batteries. It is used to improve disk drive input/output. 54GB D. For more information. Open 4. 18GB B. see the section “Configuring Swap File(s). The ping command is used to test TCP/IP network connectivity. a server with 512MB of RAM will have a PAGEFILE. 36GB C. In disk mirroring. For more information. see the section “Configuring Swap File(s). the difference between mirroring and duplexing is one disk controller.0—CONFIGURATION 235 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 14.” Answers to Review Questions 1. There can be one swap file per volume in Microsoft Windows 2000 Server.Chapter 3 2. Hence. For more information. The swap file for Microsoft Windows 2000 Server is called PAGEFILE.” 5.” 8.” 10.” 9. For more information. see the section “Checking System BIOS. disk striping without parity. What is the storage capacity of a RAID 0 array that contains three 18GB disk drives? A.

” Answers to Exam Questions 1.” 7. The most popular native Linux file system is ext2 (the second extended file system).” 8. B. The storage capacity of a RAID 0/1 array with four 18GB disk drives is 36GB. see the section “Performing a Server Baseline. For more information. D. The “top” of the UNIX file structure is named “/” or root. It does provide improved disk input/output performance.” 12.236 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 11. see the section “Installing Network Operating System Updates.” 6. For more information. For more information. see the section “Linux.” 5. For more information. see the section “RAID 0 Configuration.” 11. For more information. For more information. For more information. The total storage capacity of the single logical disk drive created by the RAID 5 array is 180GB. For more information. see the section “Performing a Server Baseline. see the section “RAID 0/1 Configuration.” 15. see the section “RAID 0/1 Configuration. B. D. D. see the section “RAID 5 Configuration. For more information. see the section “File Systems. For more information. When performing a server baseline measurement. see the section “File Systems. (6 – 1) * 36 = 180. For more information. B.” 10. The best place to look for the latest security patches for a network server operating system is the network operating system vendor’s web site. For more information. For more information.” 4. RAID 0 (disk striping without parity) does not provide any fault tolerance of disk drives. The best place to look for the latest driver for a network server component is the component vendor’s web site.” 2.” 3. Using the formula (n – 1) * c. For more information. RAID 0/1 requires a minimum of four disk drives to implement. see the section “Configuring Swap File(s). C. The UNIX/Linux operating systems have a file structure with the top designed as “/” or root. see the section “Configuring Swap File(s).” 9. C. For more information. see the section “Configuring the Network. The name of the IBM OS/2 Warp Server swap file is SWAPPER. see the section “Installing Service Tools. see the section “Configuring an External CD-ROM System. A SCSI LUN is a Logical Unit Number that allows multiple SCSI devices to share a single SCSI ID. see the section “Configuring Manufacturer-Specific Drivers. Spreadsheet software may be installed on the network server for delivery to network client computers.” 14. The Windows NT Server 4 command that will display the current TCP/IP configuration is ipconfig. Virtual memory allows a network server to run more programs than will fit in its physical RAM. For more information.” .DAT. The power supply is not a network server component that requires monitoring to determine percentage of the resource being utilized. Spreadsheet software is not used to support the operation of the network server. the processor percent utilization and the processor queue length statistics should be recorded. A. C.” 13. B.

see the section “File Systems.html 4.com/ windows2000/en/server/help/ 6. The High Performance File System (HPFS) is native to the IBM OS/2 Warp Server network operating system.Chapter 3 2. A. see the section “File Systems. Novell NetWare 5. B. A. Microsoft Windows 2000 DataCenter Server online documentation http://windows. see the section “Installing and Configuring SNMP.novell. Scott. see the section “RAID 0 Configuration.com/documentation/lg/nw51/ docui/index. SCO OpenServer Release 5.” 15. The storage capacity of a RAID 0 array with three 18GB disk drives is 54GB.novell. For more information. 12th Edition.” 14.0—CONFIGURATION 237 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 12. The default SNMP community name is Public.” 13. For more information.microsoft. Novell NetWare 4. C.microsoft. Upgrading and Repairing PCs. Que Publishing.microsoft.html 5. Mueller. Microsoft Windows 2000 Server online documentation http://windows.sco.1 online documentation www.com/ 7. For more information.0 online documentation http://osr5doc. Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server online documentation http://windows. For more information.” Suggested Readings and Resources 1.2 online documentation http://www.com/ windows2000/en/advanced/help/ 3. The maximum disk partition that can be addressed by the FAT16 file system is 2GB.com/ windows2000/en/datacenter/help/ .com/documentation/lg/ nw42/docui/index. (ISBN 0-7897-2303-4) 2.

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OS updates. master/ slave and potential cross-brand compatibility • Upgrade mass storage 3. confirm cabling. review FAQs. 3. facts and issues.OBJECTIVES This chapter covers the following CompTIA-specified objectives for the Upgrading section of the Server+ Certification exam. including: locate/ obtain latest test drivers. review and baseline.3 Add hard drives C H A P T E R 4 • Verify that drives are the appropriate type • Confirm termination and cabling • For ATA/IDE drives.2 Add Processors • On single processor upgrade. etc. schedule downtime. test and pilot. software. instruction. verify compatibility • Verify N+1 stepping • Verify speed and cache matching • Perform BIOS upgrade • Perform OS upgrade to support multiprocessors • Perform upgrade checklist..1 Perform full backup • Verify backup . Every server hardware specialist should always perform and verify a full backup before beginning any upgrade to the network server. confirm that upgrade has been recognized. Every server hardware specialist should be able to add processors to a network server and upgrade the network operating system to recognize multiple processors.0—Upgrading . implement ESD best practices. 3. document upgrade . 3.

implement ESD best practices.. instruction. review FAQs. facts and issues. DMA. OS updates. etc. software. schedule downtime.g. implement ESD best practices. confirm that upgrade has been recognized.. including: locate/ obtain latest test drivers. document upgrade . confirm that upgrade has been recognized. 3.. including: locate/ obtain latest test drivers. test and pilot. schedule downtime. implement ESD best practices. speed.) • Perform upgrade checklist. 3. confirm that upgrade has been recognized. instruction. implement ESD best practices. facts and issues..4 Increase memory 3. test and pilot. facts and issues. facts and issues. schedule downtime. confirm that upgrade has been recognized.) • Verify hardware and OS support for capacity increase • Verify memory is on hardware/vendor compatibility list • Verify memory compatibility (e..5 Upgrade BIOS/firmware • Perform upgrade checklist. including: locate/ obtain latest test drivers. instruction. etc.7 Upgrade peripheral devices. document upgrade . etc. test and pilot. SDRAM/RDRAM) • Perform upgrade checklist. SCSI cards. etc.. review and baseline. review FAQs. confirm that upgrade has been recognized. implement ESD best practices. review and baseline. review FAQs.g. NICs. OS updates. RAID. brand. 3. including: locate/ obtain latest test drivers. software. document upgrade . etc.. expansion slots. OS updates. internal and external • Verify appropriate system resources (e. etc.g. EDO. IRQ. review FAQs. test and pilot. review and baseline. document upgrade . review and baseline. OS updates. software. review and baseline. including: locate/ obtain latest test drivers. • Perform upgrade checklist. software. instruction. software. schedule downtime.OBJECTIVES • Add drives to array • Replace existing drives • Integrate into storage solution and make it available to the operating system • Perform upgrade checklist. review FAQs. Every server hardware specialist should be able to install hard disk drives in the network server. test and pilot. Every server hardware specialist should be able to add memory to a network server. etc. schedule downtime. facts and issues. instruction. document upgrade .6 Upgrade adapters (e. Every server hardware specialist should be able check the versions of the BIOS/firmware on a network server and upgrade the BIOS/firmware as necessary. OS updates. Every server hardware specialist should be able to upgrade adapters for a network server.. capacity. ECC/non-ECC.

test and pilot. diagnostic tools.OBJECTIVES . SSU. implement ESD best practices. facts and issues. facts and issues. OS updates. confirm that upgrade has been recognized. document upgrade . diagnostic partition. etc. schedule downtime. Adding Hard Drives Upgrading ATA Hard Disk Drives 255 256 Upgrading IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 Disk Drives to SCSI Disk Drives 257 . Every server hardware specialist should be able to upgrade the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) for the network server. including: locate/ obtain latest test drivers. confirm that upgrade has been recognized.. test and pilot. including: locate/ obtain latest test drivers. implement ESD best practices. etc. test and pilot.10 Upgrade UPS Performing a Full Backup 247 Adding Processors Replacing a Single Processor with a Faster Processor Installing Additional Processors Upgrading the Operating System for Multiple Processors Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Novell NetWare 5 Red Hat Linux 248 248 249 253 253 253 254 255 • Perform upgrade checklist. schedule downtime. etc. software. document upgrade . software. software. Every server hardware specialist should be able to upgrade the service tools for the network server. review and baseline. review FAQs. Every server hardware specialist should be able to upgrade the system monitoring agents for the network server. 3. 3. instruction. including: locate/ obtain latest test drivers. OS updates.8 Upgrade system monitoring agents OUTLINE Introduction 243 The Upgrade Checklist Locating the Latest Software Reviewing Instructions and FAQs Testing the Upgrade Scheduling Downtime Performing a Full System Backup Implementing Electrostatic Discharge Best Practices ESD Best Practices Confirming the Upgrade Reviewing the Upgrade and Performing a New Baseline Documenting the Upgrade 243 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 247 • Perform upgrade checklist. implement ESD best practices. • Perform upgrade checklist. OS updates. etc. review FAQs. schedule downtime.. EISA configuration.9 Upgrade service tools (e. instruction. review and baseline. review and baseline. facts and issues. instruction. 3. confirm that upgrade has been recognized.. review FAQs. document upgrade .g. Every server hardware specialist should be able to add peripheral devices to the network server..

Make certain that you understand the information in the Exam Tip. . If you don’t fully understand the Exam Tip. . review the information in the chapter related to this topic. do the following: . Read the objectives at the beginning of this chapter. Review the Exam Tips available in various places in this chapter. .OUTLINE Upgrading SCSI Hard Disk Drives Adding SCSI Hard Disk Drives Replacing SCSI Hard Disk Drives Adding Drives to a RAID Array New Drives in a Separate Array New Drives in an Existing Array 258 258 258 259 259 259 S T U DY S T R AT E G I E S To prepare for the Upgrading objective of the Server+ exam. . Answer the Review and Exam Questions at the end of the chapter and check your results. Upgrading the BIOS/firmware 263 Upgrading Adapters Upgrading Adapter Memory Upgrading Adapter BIOS or Firmware Replacing an Adapter 265 265 266 266 Upgrading Peripheral Devices 268 Upgrading System Monitoring Agents 269 Upgrading Service Tools 270 Upgrading the Uninterruptible Power Supply 271 Chapter Summary 274 Apply Your Knowledge 275 . Adding Memory Check Existing Memory Checking Memory Upgrade Feasibility Checking Memory Upgrade Compatibility Installing Additional Memory 260 260 261 262 262 . Review the objectives again. Study the information in this chapter. Use the ExamGear test on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book for additional Exam Questions concerning this material.

The upgrade checklist includes the following components: á Locate and obtain the latest hardware drivers. and other software needed for the upgrade. á Test the upgrade and perform a pilot deployment. á Review the upgrade and perform a new server baseline. á Document the upgrade. organized. you need to approach all upgrades in a systematic. system monitoring agents. á Confirm that the network server and the operating system have recognized the upgrade.0—UPGRADING 243 INTRODUCTION This job dimension covers the upgrading of network server hardware and software and is the topic of approximately 12% of the exam questions. á Schedule downtime for the upgrade. adapters. To most easily complete an upgrade successfully. UPS. memory. á Implement ESD best practices. á Review FAQs. á Perform a full system backup before attempting the upgrade. and service tools. An upgrade checklist is just a list of items that should be followed to perform an upgrade to a network server. operating system updates. The network server hardware upgrades that are discussed include processors. THE UPGRADE CHECKLIST All network server upgrades have the potential to render the network server inoperative. and issues about the upgrade. and peripherals. and careful manner.Chapter 4 3. hard disk drives. . the server hardware specialist should follow an upgrade checklist. instructions. For that reason. This chapter covers the upgrading of various types of network server hardware and software. The software upgrades discussed include BIOS/firmware. facts.

visit the operating system manufacturer’s web site. For the latest patches to the network server operating system. In some cases (Compaq. such as Microsoft. Some operating system vendors. or BIOS upgrades. with specific hardware). a new updated hardware driver will probably be necessary. often require that some of the software on the network server be updated as part of the upgrade. you must obtain the operating system upgrade from the operating system vendor’s web site. It also is a very good idea to read the opinions of others who have attempted the same upgrade that you are planning. for example). offer technical library subscription services where the latest operating system updates (and other things) are shipped to you monthly on CD-ROMs. even those that involve hardware. For the latest upgrades to configuration and diagnostic software for the network server hardware. these software packages are available on CD-ROMs. TIP Reviewing Instructions and FAQs After you have obtained the software updates. system monitoring agents. these are often not the latest drivers available. Latest Software Know where to locate the latest software needed to perform an upgrade. Also check the vendor’s web site for any known issues affecting the upgrade. You can obtain this type of information from newsgroups on the Internet that . read the instructions that accompany the updates. do not install the upgrade. Some operating system upgrades (such as Microsoft service packs) can be very large (more than 20MB) and can take a very long time to download from the vendor’s web site at speeds available via dial-up connections. and you have those same conditions at your site. Again. If the upgrade does not work correctly under certain conditions (for instance. Often these upgrades are also available on a CD-ROM. these software items are generally available from the network server vendor’s web site. Check the hardware vendor’s web site for the latest driver for the hardware you are going to install. It is not uncommon for the upgrade to work correctly in most situations and for it to not work correctly under certain circumstances. Even though the new hardware will probably have a driver available on a CD-ROM or floppy disk that comes with the hardware.244 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Locating the Latest Software Most upgrades. visit the network server hardware manufacturer’s web site. visit the hardware component manufacturer’s web site. EXAM In some cases you need new copies of other software such as configuration and diagnostic tools. For the latest drivers for a new network server hardware component. For an operating system upgrade or patch. For new or upgraded hardware.

it is a good idea to have more than one copy of the system backup. the network server administrator should be involved in the discussion of when to perform the upgrade. A compilation of questions that are asked frequently in these news groups is usually available.Chapter 4 3. If the upgrade fails on the nonproduction or test server. FAQs have become so popular that many vendor sites include FAQs areas on their web sites to answer common questions. such as Yahoo!. Some upgrades. These are called Frequently Asked Questions. so you may need to perform a full backup at least twice. to search the Internet for FAQs on specific subjects. you need to schedule a time to perform the upgrade that will have the least effect on the work being performed on the network server. you don’t adversely affect the users on the production network server. it may well be time to dust off the old resume. Performing a Full System Backup Before performing any upgrade to a network server. Testing the Upgrade If at all possible. Scheduling Downtime Because most upgrades require that the network server be shut down for a while. If the upgrade fails on a production server. might destroy data on the disk drives. you should test the upgrade on a nonproduction network server that is identical to the production network server that you plan to upgrade. it is a very good idea to perform a full system backup.0—UPGRADING 245 specialize in the hardware. . or FAQs (pronounced “facts”). A full backup is the only way to restore the data to the network server if a data loss results from the upgrade. particularly those involving the disk subsystem. software. In fact. Unfortunately. You can use most common Internet search engines. or operating system that you are using. this often means that many upgrades are performed in the wee hours of the morning or on weekends. The downtime should be announced so that everyone is aware that the network server will be unavailable. Of course.

á Hold disk drives by the edges. á Use antistatic solutions on carpets in the server room. touch the housing of the power supply. you run the risk that electrostatic discharge (ESD) might damage the components in the network server. . be sure to follow the ESD best practices (as mentioned in Chapter 2. á Always store components in static bags until you are ready to use them. TIP Confirming the Upgrade After you have completed the upgrade.0—Installation. antistatic mat) when you open the server chassis to access components in the server. EXAM Know the ESD Best Practices This material is likely to be asked about on the exam ESD Best Practices You should adhere to the following list of best practices to ensure that you do not have a problem with ESD while working on a network server: á Always use a static discharge device (static wrist strap. install antistatic carpet in the server room. “1. Any time that you open a network server chassis. This discharges any static charge that may have built up on your body.246 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Implementing Electrostatic Discharge Best Practices Many system upgrades. á Before you touch anything inside a network server. require that the network server chassis be opened. mainly those involving hardware. When performing a network server upgrade. á Use a room humidifier if the humidity is constantly below 50%. you must confirm that the network server itself has recognized the upgrade and ultimately that it has been recognized by the operating system on the network server. Don’t touch the circuit board on the bottom of the disk drive. á If possible.” and repeated in the following section).

you should document the entire upgrade process in the network server log. you should review the upgrade process.0—UPGRADING 247 Some upgrades—such as a BIOS upgrade. NOTE EXAM EXAM TIP TIP Items to Include in a Baseline You should include the following items in your baseline measurement (as also discussed in Chapter 2): • Processor: Percent utilization • Processor: Processor queue length • Memory: Hard page faults • Memory: Soft page faults • Disk subsystem: Percent disk utilization • Disk subsystem: Disk queue length • Network: Percent network utilization • Network: Network queue length Reviewing the Upgrade and Establishing a New Baseline After you have completed the upgrade. Other upgrades require that new drivers for the hardware be installed after the hardware upgrade has been performed. 3. PERFORMING • Verify backup A FULL BACKUP Back Up Before Upgrade Know that you should always perform a full system backup before attempting any upgrade to the network server. Documenting the Upgrade As a final step. Some upgrades. Be sure to note any problems encountered during the upgrade and your solutions to those problems. Note any major problems.1 Perform full backup Before you attempt any upgrade operation. It cannot be overstated how important a full backup of the entire system is for the successful completion of an upgrade. A should establish a new baseline measurement. or SCSI disk drive additions—are verifiable during the power-up POST of the network server. Actually. a memory upgrade. . you should be documenting the entire process as it is occurring. such as migrating from a single processor network server to a multiple-processor network server. and verified that both the network server hardware and the network server operating system have recognized the upgrade. always fully back up the entire network server. because you might need to perform the same upgrade on another network server sometime in the future. Upgrade Checklist Know the steps outlined in the upgrade checklist. This comparison should confirm whether the upgrade meets the intended goal of increased performance.Chapter 4 3. may require major operating system software changes on the network server. . You can compare this baseline to the original baseline measurement that was taken when the network server was originally installed.

Replacing a Single Processor with a Faster Processor Whether a processor in a network server can be replaced with a faster processor depends on several factors. but you get the assurance that the contents of the disk drives and the backup tapes match exactly. You can obtain this important upgrade information from the manufacturer of the network server’s motherboard. The other factors include the physical package that the existing processor uses and whether a faster processor is available that utilizes the same physical package (or form factor). the most important of which is whether the motherboard in the network server will support a processor with a faster clock cycle. ADDING PROCESSORS . you check the contents of the tape against that of the corresponding files on the disk drives. Verification effectively doubles the time that it takes to perform a backup. You then have to determine whether a . Check the motherboard manufacturer’s web site to see whether you can upgrade the processor to a faster processor.2 Add Processors • On single processor upgrade. or adding an additional processor to a multiprocessor-capable network server. 3.248 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION You also should verify the backup. During verification. verify compatibility • Verify N+1 stepping • Verify speed and cache matching • Perform BIOS upgrade • Perform OS upgrade to support multiprocessors • Perform upgrade checklist Processor upgrades fall into two general categories: replacing an existing processor with a faster processor. Performing a verification of the backup is usually an option that you can select as part of the backup process.

Verify that the new processor is recognized by the network server hardware and the network operating system. 7.1 Performing a Single Processor Upgrade 1. Close the network server chassis. Pentium II. Remove the current processor. Pentium II Xeon.Chapter 4 3. and so on) as the existing processor á Have the same clock speed á Have the same Level 2 (L2) cache size á Match the stepping within one version (N+1) EXAM TIP .intel. 2. Upgrade the system BIOS. 3.htm. For pictures and descriptions of form factors used by Pentium II and Pentium III processors. Upgrading to a faster processor may also require that you upgrade the BIOS on the system board. 6.com/support/processors/procid/ptype. 5. Pentium III. Insert the new processor. check out the web site at http://support. Follow the upgrade checklist. Open the network server chassis (following ESD best practices). 4. Pentium 4. Upgrading a Single Processor Know the steps necessary to upgrade a single processor to a faster processor. Pentium Pro. STEP BY STEP 4. Pentium III Xeon.0—UPGRADING 249 faster processor is available in a form factor that is compatible with the existing processor. Installing Additional Processors To add another processor to a multiprocessor-capable network server. the new processor must meet the following criteria: á Be the same model processor (Pentium.

1 Intel identification program (Windows version). The Intel processor identification utility is available in two versions: one that operates under the Microsoft Windows operating system. You can download the bootable floppy disk version of the Intel identification utility from http://support.htm.1 shows sample output from the Windows version of the Intel identification program. and one that runs from a bootable DOS floppy disk.250 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION You may be wondering how to tell what processor is currently in your network server (so that you can match it).com/support/processors/tools/ frequencyid/freqid. You can obtain the Microsoft Windows version of the Intel identification utility can be downloaded from http://support. FIGURE 4. Intel provides information on all of its processors on its web site. .intel.htm. You can find the answer quite simply.com/support/ processors/tools/frequencyid/bootable. Figure 4.intel. it also offers a utility that detects and identifies the Intel processor that is currently in your network server.

E. then press "Ctrl + Alt + Delete" to restart the system.C.2 256 KB 16 KB Level 2 cache: Level 1 data cache: Level 1 instruction cache: 16 KB YES YES MMX(tm) Technology: Streaming SIMD Extensions: Streaming SIMD Extensions 2: NO Utility completed. This tag contains a 5-digit S-spec number that starts with the letter “S.00.” You can use this 5-digit number and the Intel web site to identify the Intel processor that is in your network server. If this information differs from what was expected.E. All rights reserved.C.C. You can find a description of the Intel identification program along with installation instructions at http://support. please contac the PC system manufacturer or microprocessor place of purchase.0 floppy disk. Bootable Intel(R) Processor Frequency ID Utility version 3./S.intel.2 Output from the bootable version of Intel identification program. Eject the Bootable Intel(R) Processor Frequency ID Utilty version 3. .Chapter 4 3.2 shows sample output from the bootable floppy disk version of the Intel identification program.C. You also can identify the current processor by a tag on the processor itself. Intel (R) Pentium (R) III Xeon(TM) Processor Frequency Test Reported CPU Frequency: Intel Expected CPU Frequency: Report System Bus Frequency: 733 MHz 733 MHz 133 MHz 133 MHz Intel Expected System Bus Frequency: The tested Intel(R) processor and system bus appear to be operating within their frequency specifications.com/ support/processors/tools/frequencyid/download. FIGURE 4. CPUID Data Processor Type: Family: Model: Stepping: 6 8 3 0 Packaging: S. Figure 4.htm.0—UPGRADING 251 Figure 4.20001114 Copyright (C) 2000 Intel Corp.3 shows a sample Intel tag and identifies the S-spec number.

htm á Pentium II http://support. 2.com/support/processors/sspec/ p2xp.3 Intel processor S-spec number location.intel.intel.com/design/pro/qit/index.htm á Pentium III http://support. á Pentium Pro http://developer. STEP BY STEP 4.htm á Pentium 4 http://support.htm á Pentium II Xeon http://support.intel.com/support/processors/sspec/p3p.intel.0V S1 FFFFFFFF-NNNN XXXXX ©’98 SYYYY TM You can use the S-spec number from the processor label and the following Intel web sites to identify the processor currently in your network server: á Pentium http://developer.2 Adding an Additional Processor 1. 3. Insert the new processor(s).com/support/processors/manuals/.252 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION 500V512/100/2.intel. You can obtain Intel processor installation manuals at http://support.intel.com/support/processors/sspec/p4p.com/support/processors/sspec/ p3xp. 5. The installation instructions for Intel processors are also available at the Intel web site.intel. Upgrade the system BIOS. Close network server chassis.com/design/pentium/qit/ S-spec FIGURE 4. Open the network server chassis (following ESD best practices).intel.htm á Pentium III Xeon http://support. Follow the upgrade checklist.htm The processor that you are adding to the network server should come with installation instructions. . 4.com/support/processors/sspec/p2p.

For information about the processors recognized by the current version of Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0—UPGRADING 253 6. TIP .EXE utility available on the Microsoft Windows NT 4 Server Resource Kit. Microsoft Windows 2000 Server If your original installation of Microsoft Windows 2000 Server was on a network server with a single processor. Upgrading the Operating System for Multiple Processors Quite often a network server operating system will not recognize that an additional processor has been installed on the network server. You can determine the number of processors in other ways. but this is one of the easiest. The following sections detail how to remedy this situation.3 (from Microsoft Knowledge Base Article Q234558). EXAM Upgrading to Multiple Processors Know the steps necessary to upgrade to multiple processors. Look for the variable Number_of_processors to see how many processors Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 recognizes. you need to use the UPTOMP. To install support for multiple processors on Windows 2000. 7. the HAL on the network server must be updated for the network server to recognize and use multiple processors. open a command prompt window and type the following command: SET This command prints a list of all the current environment variables. follow the procedure in Step by Step 4. Verify that the new processor is recognized by the network server hardware and the network operating system. Upgrade the operating system to recognize multiple processors.Chapter 4 3. To upgrade Windows NT 4 to a multiprocessor HAL. the hardware abstraction layer (HAL) on the network server must be updated for the network server to recognize and use multiple processors. Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 If your original installation of Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 was on a network server with a single processor.

6. and then select the Drivers tab. Double-click to expand the Computer branch. Click Display a List of Known Drivers for This Device. Novell NetWare 5 If your original installation of Novell NetWare 5 was on a network server with a single processor. and then click Next. 3. Settings. you must make several changes in the configuration of the Novell NetWare 5 server for it to recognize and use multiple processors. Load NWCONFIG | Multi CPU Options | Select a Platform Support Module. and then click System. For information about the processors recognized by the current version of Microsoft Windows 2000 Server. Update Driver. 5. click Next. Look for the variable Number_of_processors to see how many processors Microsoft Windows 2000 Server recognizes. . and select Device Manager. You can determine the number of processors in other ways. Double-click the computer type that is listed under the Computer branch. but this is one of the easiest.254 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION STEP BY STEP 4. and then click Finish. Control Panel. Click the Hardware tab. except for multiple CPUs).3 Activating Multiple Processor Support on Windows 2000 Server 1. open a command prompt window and type the following command: SET This command prints a list of all the current environment variables. 4. 2. and then click Show All Hardware of This Device Class. To upgrade Novell NetWare 5 so that it will recognize the additional processor. follow these steps: 1. Click Start. Note the type of support that you currently have. Click the appropriate computer type (a computer type that matches your current type.

use the following command: cat /proc/cpuinfo ADDING HARD DRIVES .3 Add hard drives • Verify that drives are the appropriate type • Confirm termination and cabling • For ATA/IDE drives. Make sure that the main Makefile (/usr/src/linux/Makefile) contains the line SMP=1.0—UPGRADING 255 2. Rebuild the Linux kernel using the normal methods. 3. Restart the Novell NetWare 5 network server after NWCONFIG modifies the STARTUP.NCF and the AUTOEXEC. For information about the processors recognized by the current version of Linux.Chapter 4 3.NCF files. confirm cabling. master/slave and potential cross-brand compatibility • Upgrade mass storage • Add drives to array • Replace existing drives • Integrate into storage solution and make it available to the operating system • Perform upgrade checklist . For information about the processors recognized by the current version of Novell NetWare 5. the Linux kernel must be rebuilt. use the following command on the NetWare console: DISPLAY PROCESSORS Red Hat Linux For Red Hat Linux (and other versions of Linux as well) to recognize multiple processors.

you can attach a second disk drive in either of the two following ways: á You can attach the second disk drive to the same ribbon cable as the existing disk drive using the second 40-pin connector on the ribbon cable. verified full backups of the data on the disk drives. preferably two. In this case. the term “ATA refers to IDE/ATA. Ultra ATA Ribbon Cables The ribbon cables used by the high-speed Ultra ATA disk subsystems actually contain 80 conductors. Upgrades to ATA disks generally fall into two categories: adding disk drives. When only a single disk drive is attached to the ATA disk controller. NOTE Upgrading ATA Hard Disk Drives This section shows you how to upgrade ATA hard disk drives. one disk drive must be set to the master ATA disk role and the other must be set to the slave ATA disk role. NOTE . CD-ROM drives. or replacing existing disk drives with larger or faster disk drives. and Ultra ATA hard disk drives. Alternatively. The process is the same for all versions of ATA disk drives. The ATA channels are usually labeled “primary” and “secondary” so that the system can distinguish between them. One end of the channel is attached to the ATA disk controller. EDIE/ATA-2. verified full backups of the data on the disk drives. to which a maximum of two disk drives can be attached. These 40-pin connectors are used to attach ATA disk drives to the ATA channel. Disk drive upgrades come in two varieties: adding disk drives to an existing network server. Adding ATA disk drives to an existing ATA disk subsystem is relatively straightforward. ATA disk controllers generally have two channels to which ATA devices (disk drives. preferably two. and replacing existing disk drives with faster or larger disk drives. Upgrades to disk drives have the most potential of any upgrade to destroy data. make absolutely sure that you have at least one. and so forth) can be attached.256 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Disk System Upgrades Are Dangerous to Data Before attempting any upgrade to the disk subsystem of a network server. The channel (a 40-conductor ribbon cable) usually has two 40-pin connectors attached to it. you could set cable select (CSEL) for both disk drives. which may actually be built in to the system board. make absolutely sure that you have at least one. but they still utilize a 40-pin connector to attach the Ultra ATA disk drives. Each channel consists of a ribbon cable that can be up to 18 inches long. Before attempting any disk drive upgrade. To shorten the discussion.

By putting the second ATA disk drive onto the secondary channel. .4GB. and the SCSI ID of the boot disk must be set to 0. You would set this single drive to either the single drive or master ATA disk role depending on the manufacturer’s instructions for configuring a single disk drive on an ATA channel. If you want to change from IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 disk drives to SCSI disk drives.000rpm. 1GB. It is best to use disk drives made by the same manufacturer on the same ATA or ATA-2 channel. and install a SCSI bus controller and SCSI disk drives. A system BIOS upgrade might be required when upgrading from small ATA disk drives to very large ATA disk drives. remove or disable the built-in IDE/EIDE controller. You can avoid conflicts by acquiring disk drives from the same manufacturer. you can enhance the performance of the disk subsystem. because most manufacturers perform tests to make sure that their own products operate together correctly. 4GB. 2GB. and 8. The two disk drives need to work well together.Chapter 4 3. Disk drive speeds are characterized by their rotational speed. NOTE EXAM TIP ATA Interoperability Even though ATA is an ANSI standard. The definition of “very large” has changed over the years. Common rotational speeds are 5400rpm. Many of these have proven to be barriers to ATA that had to be overcome by newer. Upgrading from slow disk drives to faster disk drives involves a complete replacement of the disk drives. thus having one ATA disk drive on each ATA channel. you literally remove all the IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 disk drives. ATA Interoperability Know that there have been and may continue to be manufacturer-interoperability issues with ATA/ATA-2 disk controller implementations. 7200rpm. Remember that to boot from a SCSI disk drive. Remember one disk drive is going to be the master drive and the other disk drive is going to be the slave drive. The faster the rotational speed. Be sure to check the disk drive vendor’s web site for any known issues between disk drives made by different manufacturers. the BIOS on the SCSI bus controller must be enabled. Chapter 2 details how to select the hard disk drive role. Upgrading IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 Disk Drives to SCSI Disk Drives There is really no upgrade path from IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 disk drives to SCSI disk drives. or improved BIOSs. better. and 10. the faster the disk can access data. which they usually do when made by the same manufacturer. See “Upgrading BIOS/Firmware” later in this chapter for details on how to upgrade the system BIOS.0—UPGRADING 257 á You can attach the second disk drive to the secondary ATA channel using a second ribbon cable for the ATA controller. Older system BIOSs might not have the capability to address all the space on very large ATA disk drives. on occasion ATA implementations by different disk drive vendors don’t interoperate correctly. Various definitions of “large” have been 504MB.

SCA connectors automatically set the SCSI ID of the SCSI disk drive. Replacing SCSI Hard Disk Drives Replacing an existing SCSI hard disk is just a matter of removing the old SCSI hard disk and checking its SCSI ID. To guarantee the success of the addition. If the SCSI disk to be replaced uses an SCA connector. . differential). You might also have to move the SCSI terminator. 2. You need to know the SCSI IDs of the existing disk drives and where the SCSI bus is terminated. The second most common problem is proper termination of both ends of the SCSI bus. you can just remove the old SCSI disk drive and insert the new SCSI disk drive in its place. You need to set the SCSI ID of the new disk drive to a SCSI ID that is not already in use on the SCSI bus. External SCSI devices are usually connected to the SCSI channel in a daisy-chain manner. If no SCSI connectors are available on the SCSI bus ribbon cable. the server hardware specialist must review the documentation of the SCSI bus. Adding SCSI Hard Disk Drives Adding SCSI disk drives to an existing SCSI channel is a rather simple process. Exceeding the SCSI cable length is the biggest problem encountered when adding an additional external SCSI device. Set the SCSI ID on the new SCSI hard disk to match the SCSI ID of the SCSI disk drive that was removed and install the new SCSI hard disk. For internal SCSI devices. you also need to determine whether any SCSI connectors are available on the SCSI bus ribbon cable. The SCSI disk drive in the upgrade should match the existing SCSI disk in SCSI level (1. remembering that the SCSI bus must be terminated at both ends. Adding an additional external SCSI device involves picking a SCSI ID that is not currently in use on the SCSI channel. or 3).258 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Upgrading SCSI Hard Disk Drives Upgrades to SCSI disk drives fall into two categories: adding SCSI disks to an existing SCSI channel. type (normal. you must obtain a new SCSI ribbon cable with the correct number of connectors. wide). LVD. and replacing existing SCSI disks with disk drives with a faster rotation speed. and signaling system (SE. and adding the SCSI device into the daisy chain. however.

This means a loss of data on the existing disk drives. New Drives in a Separate Array If you configure the newly installed disk drives as a separate array from the existing array. NOTE EIDE-Based RAID Upgrade Adding disk drives to an EIDE-based RAID array is similar to just adding disk drives to a EIDE controller. you must use the RAID configuration utility to add the disk drives to the RAID array. If you have an existing RAID 5 array consisting of three disk drives and you install two new disk drives that you want to configure as a RAID 1 array. you must initialize all five disk drives. You must use the RAID configuration utility to add the disk drives to the RAID array. including the existing drives. the data on the existing disk array will be unaffected. The RAID controller will then have two separate RAID arrays configured: the original RAID 5 array. After installing the two new disk drives. No loss of data on the original array will occur. you need to initialize all disk drives in the array. the data that was on the original RAID 5 array (with the three disk drives) will be destroyed in the process and will need to be reloaded from the backup tape. except that after the disk drives are added to the array. for instance. New Drives in an Existing Array If you want the newly installed SCSI disk drives to become part of an existing RAID array. . the original RAID 5 array will not be affected. use the array configuration utility to initialize the two new disk drives and configure them as a RAID 1 array. However.Chapter 4 3. and the new RAID 1 array. If you have an existing RAID 5 array consisting of three disk drives and you install two new disk drives that you want to configure into a RAID 5 array using all five disk drives. consisting of three disk drives. You can then combine the five disk drives into a single RAID 5 array using all five disk drives. The RAID controller will have a single RAID 5 array consisting of five disk drives. consisting of two disk drives.0—UPGRADING 259 Adding Drives to a RAID Array Adding drives to a SCSI-based RAID array is no different from adding drives to a SCSI channel. for instance.

One. speed. capacity. dual in-line memory modules. ECC/non-ECC. brand. Check Existing Memory Before adding memory to a network server. there are a few exceptions. RIMMs. The documentation for the configuration of the network server should have all the details of the memory configuration. you can only put as much memory in the network server as it was designed to contain. buffered. you need to determine it. When this information isn’t readily available. You want to answer the following questions: How many memory slots does the network server have? How many memory slots are empty and available for additional memory to be installed? What is the size (megabytes) and speed of the current memory modules? What type of memory module (SIMMs. The most reliable way to check the existing memory configuration is to open the chassis of the network server. you need to verify the current memory configuration. There is always a maximum amount of memory that can be supported by the processors and/or the control chipsets of the motherboard of the network server. registered) is currently installed? . SDRAM/RDRAM) • Perform upgrade checklist It has been said that there is no such thing as too much memory in a server. You must keep both of these exceptions in mind when considering a memory upgrade to a network server. The other exception is having more memory than the network server operating system can utilize. RAMbus in-line memory module. Although in many cases this is true. EDO. however.260 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION ADDING MEMORY . single in-line memory modules.. unbuffered.4 Increase memory • Verify hardware and OS support for capacity increase • Verify memory is on hardware/vendor compatibility list • Verify memory compatibility (e.g. 3. DIMMs.

This will limit the total amount of memory as well. For more information on memory. you must first determine whether the network server hardware can support the amount of memory that you want to have in the network server. check out “Kingston’s Ultimate Memory Guide” at www. DRAM. Chapter 1. non-parity. RDRAM) used in the network server? What error-detection method is used on the memory module (parity. If the network server has only four memory slots and two of them are occupied by 64MB memory modules and you want to achieve a total of 512MB (which in this example requires four 128MB modules). Check the network server operating system vendor’s web site for maximum memory supported. You also should verify that the network server operating system supports the amount of memory that you plan to install.kingston.” discusses the different types of network server memory. “0. Be aware that you might have to remove the existing memory modules and replace them with larger memory modules to achieve the total amount of memory required. . Checking Memory Upgrade Feasibility Before attempting a memory upgrade. ECC.pdf. The best source of information about how much memory can be installed in a particular network server is the documentation that came with the network server or the network server vendor’s web site.com/tools/umg/umg2000. SDRAM.0—Planning and Specifications.0—UPGRADING 261 What type of memory is the memory module (EDO. Some system board control chipsets limit the amount of memory that can be utilized in the network server. non-ECC)? You should answer these questions by reviewing the documentation that shipped with the network server. Limitations might also apply to the maximum size of a memory module that you can place into a single memory slot. for instance. You might also find this information in the log that was kept as part of the installation process. you must remove the two 64MB memory modules.Chapter 4 3.

Installing Additional Memory After determining the feasibility of the memory upgrade and the compatibility of the memory with the network server. NOTE Don’t Mix Metals Do not mix tin and gold between memory modules and memory slot connectors.4 shows a diagram of SIMM installation. and they will tell you the memory modules that they have available that are designed to work in your network server. STEP 1 Insert the SIMM into the socket at a slight angle. but it also specifies the memory layout of the network server and whether the memory modules must be installed singly. Figure 4. One other very important consideration is the metal plating on the leads of the memory module. This mismatching of metals causes corrosion at the contact points and results in a bad connection over time. Be sure to install the memory according to the manufacturer’s instructions. making sure the clips at each end of the SIMM socket click into position. The tool also specifies whether a BIOS upgrade is required to support larger memory modules. Checking Memory Upgrade Compatibility After you have answered all these questions.262 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION NOTE Vendor Memory Selection Tools Most major memory suppliers have software tools available on their web sites that enable you to specify the brand and model of your network server. Two common metals are used on the memory module leads and the connectors in the memory slots: tin and gold. Kingston’s web site contains one such tool (www. DIMMs.4 SIMM memory module installation.asp). gold on the memory module and tin in the connector or vice versa). This particular tool will not only show which Kingston memory modules are available that will work in the network server. . Rotate the SIMM into the upright position. Both metals work just fine. or RIMMs. However. or in groups of four. This bad connection causes memory errors to occur. never mix the two metals (for example.kingston. check the network server vendor’s hardware compatibility list to make sure the vendor has certified the memory that you have selected. Remember that the memory modules may have a requirement to be installed in pairs or groups of four. Most network servers have SIMMs. STEP 2 FIGURE 4.ec. the last step is to actually install the additional memory.com/ecom/kepler/m frmod_Bod. in pairs.

While performing a memory upgrade. . Failure to have continuity modules in the memory slots not occupied by RIMMs may result in a network server that does not power up. a continuity module must be installed. Adding a RIMM memory module involves removing a continuity module and replacing it with a RIMM memory module. You might want to upgrade the system BIOS for some of the following reasons: á To add support for newer hardware that didn’t exist when the original BIOS was created á To correct known bugs in the BIOS code á To add support for newer and/or faster processors á To add Plug and Play support á To add support for larger or faster hard disk drives á To add boot support to removable media disk drives such as LS-120 or ZIP drives (more often seen on desktop computers rather than servers) Before deciding that a BIOS upgrade is necessary. A continuity module does not contain any memory. The BIOS brand and version number is usually displayed on the system monitor when the network server is powered up. . If an actual RIMM memory module is not installed in a slot.5 UPGRADING THE BIOS/FIRMWARE DIMM/RIMM memory module installation. be sure to follow the upgrade checklist.Chapter 4 3. 3.5 Upgrade BIOS/firmware • Perform upgrade checklist You may need to upgrade the system BIOS to support new hardware or features in the network server. RIMM installation differs only slightly from DIMM installation.5 shows a diagram of DIMM and RIMM installation. FIGURE 4. All memory module slots designed to use RIMMs must be populated. you need to determine the version of the BIOS currently in the network server.0—UPGRADING 263 Figure 4.

Step by Step 4. Never interrupt the flash BIOS upgrade process. A flash BIOS upgrade is basically a software upgrade and does not require that the network server chassis be opened. NOTE STEP BY STEP 4. This is a simple process of replacing the BIOS program that is stored in flash memory. They also require a special device to allow them to be reprogrammed after they have been erased. Shut down and boot the server from the floppy disk containing the BIOS upgrade program and the latest BIOS. because the BIOS code is stored in an EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) . Obtain the latest BIOS program from the vendor (generally from the vendor’s web site). A disruption or loss of electrical power to the network server during the flash upgrade process could leave the code in the EEPROM in an incomplete and invalid state. 2. 4. Although the process of upgrading a BIOS is vendor specific. be sure to follow the upgrade checklist. because it could result in a network server that cannot be booted. . However. the network server cannot boot.4 Performing a Flash BIOS Upgrade 1. Follow the onscreen instructions as you perform the BIOS upgrade. 3. 5. Without valid code in the BIOS. As with all upgrades. The flash upgrade process is dangerous in that the old BIOS code in the EEPROM is first erased before the new BIOS code is written to the EEPROM.4 lists the procedure you must generally follow.264 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION EPROMs are Different EPROMs (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) are erased via exposure to ultraviolet light. The BIOS upgrade process is specific to each different system board manufacturer. Follow the vendor’s instructions as you load the BIOS upgrade program onto a floppy disk drive. most BIOSs manufactured after 1995 can usually be upgraded by performing a “flash” upgrade.

0—UPGRADING 265 BIOSs that cannot be upgraded via a flash upgrade mechanism generally require the purchase of a new BIOS chip that must physically replace the old BIOS chip. RAID controller. UPGRADING ADAPTERS . The following adapters use onboard memory: á Video adapter. or more powerful adapter.g.) • Perform upgrade checklist Adapter upgrades also fall into several categories: upgrading components on the adapter.. Follow the adapter manufacturer’s instructions to perform the memory upgrade.6 Upgrade adapters (e. You must obtain the new BIOS chip from the system board manufacturer. upgrading the BIOS or firmware on the adapter. FC-AL HBA) follow a very similar procedure to upgrades to the system BIOS. and replacing the adapter with a newer. Upgrading Adapter Memory Often network server adapters have onboard memory that you can upgrade. A SCSI adapter uses onboard memory as a buffer or cache between the SCSI disk drives and the network server’s memory. All read and write operations actually occur to the buffer rather than the disk drive. etc. Upgrades to the BIOSs or firmware on certain adapters (SCSI adapter. á SCSI adapter. NICs. the higher the resolution and/or the more colors that can be supported on the video monitor. faster. A video adapter uses memory to store the image that is displayed on the monitor. SCSI cards. the faster information can be supplied to the network server. The more memory on the video adapter. A BIOS upgrade that requires replacement of the BIOS chip is a hardware upgrade and ESD best practices must be followed (because you must open the network server chassis to perform this upgrade). The larger the onboard memory buffer. TIP . EXAM Flash BIOS Upgrade Understand the process of performing a flash BIOS upgrade. such a memory.Chapter 4 3. RAID. 3.

Replacing an Adapter You generally replace adapters after they fail. . Upgrading Adapter BIOS or Firmware Upgrading the BIOS or firmware on an adapter is very similar to upgrading the system BIOS. Remove the defective adapter. 2. Install the new adapter. One big difference is that the onboard memory on a RAID controller is often “backed up” by an onboard battery. Power down the network server. Locate the latest BIOS or firmware on the adapter vendor’s web site. 4. A RAID controller uses onboard memory in much the same way that a SCSI adapter uses memory. but in general they are as follows: 1. as a buffer. This results in downtime and lost productivity. 2. Power up the network server. are vendor specific. or add an adapter without powering down the network server. a recent technology known as PCI hot plug (or PCI hot swap) enables you to replace. 3. The replacement procedure generally follows several simple steps: 1.266 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION á RAID controller. upgrade. Download the BIOS or firmware upgrade and follow the vendor’s instructions to install the upgrade. This prevents the loss of data that is in the buffer if the network server loses power unexpectedly. However. Obviously this process requires that the network server be taken out of operation. as you might expect. The steps.

Press the PCI hot plug button. Close the server chassis. STEP BY STEP 4. Open the network server chassis. 6. On a PCI bus that supports hot plug. 7. Replacing an existing adapter with an upgraded adapter while the network server is running á Hot expansion. and the network server operating system must be PCI hot plug aware. Close the slot release lever to secure the adapter in the PCI slot. Installing a new adapter into a previously empty slot while the network server is running For PCI hot plug to work. . 2. the adapter drivers. Open the slot release lever on an available PCI slot.0—UPGRADING 267 PCI hot plug has three capabilities: á Hot replacement. This removes power from the select PCI slot.Chapter 4 3. This reapplies power to the PCI slot. a slot release lever replaces the use of a screw to secure the adapter in the PCI slot.5 Using PCI Hot Plug to Add an Adapter 1. Attach any necessary cables to the adapter. 8. Removing a failed PCI adapter and inserting an identical adapter into the same slot while the network server is operational á Hot upgrade. Install the adapter into the selected PCI slot. 5. the network server hardware. The network server operating system locates and loads the appropriate device drivers for the adapter or prompts the installer for the location of the appropriate device drivers. The network server hardware allows power to be removed from individual PCI slots and allows adapters to be removed and inserted without the use of a screwdriver. 3. 4.

as well as the data load placed on the PCI bus by the adapters currently on each PCI bus. memory. or adding internal peripherals such as a CD-ROM drive. Internal peripherals include such components as disk drives.) • Perform upgrade checklist A peripheral device is any device that is not part of the core computer system (processor. 3. etc. and I/O address cannot conflict with any adapter already installed in the network server. floppy disk drives. expansion slots. External SCSI disk drives are discussed in “Adding SCSI Hard Disk Drives” in this chapter. monitors. upgrading. Peripheral devices can be either internal to the server chassis or external to the network server chassis. and mice). follow the manufacturer’s installation instructions after you have identified an empty PCI slot into which you want to install the NIC. As with all upgrades. or a NIC requires you to shut down the network server. SCSI controllers. and input/output (I/O) address. External peripherals are devices external to the network server chassis (such as printers. a ZIP drive. and network interface cards. Upgrading disk drives (EIDE and SCSI) is covered in the “Add Hard Drives” section in this chapter. RAID controllers. DMA. By doing so you can decide which bus is the best candidate for installation of the new adapter. follow the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Remember that some network servers will have peer PCI buses and the “data load” should be balanced among the buses. and so on) to network servers that have multiple peer (not bridged) buses. internal and external • Verify appropriate system resources (e. be sure to follow the upgrade checklist. This requires some knowledge of which PCI slots are on which PCI bus.268 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION UPGRADING PERIPHERAL DEVICES . modems. IRQ. To install the drives. If the adapters are not Plug and Play. Replacing. you may have to configure the adapters with an interrupt (IRQ). External devices might be hot plug and Plug and EXAM TIP . and the data bus).. Be sure to download the latest drivers for the NIC from the NIC vendor’s web site.7 Upgrade peripheral devices. The IRQ. To install the NIC. a tape drive. a DVD-ROM drive. Balance the Load When adding additional adapters (NICs. a direct memory access (DMA) channel. keyboards.g. consider the data load expected to be supported by the new adapter. DMA. CD-ROM drives.

These agents are generally installed. system utilization.8 Upgrade system monitoring agents • Perform upgrade checklist System monitoring agents are software specific to the network server itself (and supplied by the network vendor). Compaq’s Insight Manager). System monitoring agents monitor various aspects of the network server (such as configuration.0—Configuration”). 3. As with all upgrades.0—UPGRADING 269 Play compatible (printers and monitors. . for example). The agents usually use standard protocols such as HTTP. As with all upgrades. Netscape or Internet Explorer). follow the upgrade checklist. Because the system monitoring agents are extremely vendor specific. at the installer’s option.Chapter 4 3. Other external devices might require that the network server be shut down before they can be upgraded. a vendor-supplied management console (for example. As the network server vendor releases newer versions of the system monitoring agents. The management console might be a standard web browser (for instance. “2. and DMI to report information to a management console. SNMP. UPGRADING SYSTEM MONITORING AGENTS . mass storage. the memory. you must upgrade the system monitoring agents. be sure to follow the upgrade checklist. and operating system status). thermal conditions. In some cases. or a third-party network management console (such as Hewlett-Packard’s OpenView). when using the vendorsupplied operating system installation-assistance software (see Chapter 3. Follow the manufacturer’s installation instructions for external peripherals. the network monitoring agents can predict the impending failure of network server components (such as the processor. you must follow the vendor’s installation instructions to upgrade the system monitoring agents. or the hard disk drives). network interface card.

Some diagnostic tools might be installed on the diagnostic partition and specific to the network server.) • Perform upgrade checklist Due to the rather unique nature of network servers compared to standard desktop microcomputers. follow the vendor’s installation instructions to install the updated tools on the network server. and maintain them. EISA configuration. There are also third-party diagnostic tools. Several sets of utilities can be categorized as diagnostic tools. These service tools are software that is installed on the network server during the installation and configuration processes (see Chapters 2 and 3). Network server vendors often release new versions of these tools to fix bugs. etc. does usually require you to shut down the network server.g.9 Upgrade service tools (e. As with any upgrade. follow the upgrade checklist. 3. Most service tools fall into the following general categories: á Diagnostic tools. Updates to these service tools are available from the network server operating system vendor. Other diagnostic tools comprise part of the network server operating system. Upgrading service tools is generally a software upgrade operation. Upgrading the utilities on the diagnostic partition. add new features. . or add support for new hardware to the utilities. you should follow the upgrade checklist. troubleshoot. diagnostic partition. diagnostic tools. which is only available at network server boot time. a wide variety of service tools are sometimes necessary to configure. Regardless. This means that you need to schedule downtime to upgrade the software utilities on the diagnostic partition. SSU. After you have access to the updated tools. These updated tools are generally available on either CD-ROMs supplied by the network server vendor or from the vendor’s web site.270 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION UPGRADING SERVICE TOOLS . Some service tools are part of the network operating system..

The utilities in the diagnostic partition enable you to view and change the configuration of the hardware components in the network server without the network server operating system being loaded.Chapter 4 3. 3. This enables you to troubleshoot nonfunctioning hardware components.0—UPGRADING 271 á EISA Configuration.10 Upgrade UPS • Perform upgrade checklist Upgrading an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) could mean replacing the UPS battery (which can be a hot swap operation) or putting a UPS with a larger VA rating in place of a smaller UPS. the EISA configuration utility enables you to configure the components of the network server. á The network server’s power requirements have increased because of the addition of power-consuming hardware to the network server (for instance. On network servers that have an EISA bus. EISA is not Plug and Play and adapters installed into the network server must have a “configuration file” loaded from a disk to allow configuration of the adapter. backup software and antivirus software) play a vital role in support of the network server UPGRADING THE UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY . additional internal hard disk drives). á Diagnostic partition. These utilities (for example. á Server support utilities. The EISA configuration utility is used while the network operating system is not loaded. A UPS upgrade might be required for any of the following reasons: á The current UPS does not provide power for a time period that is long enough to allow the network server to shut down gracefully. .

Also check power requirements of the new UPS. thus increasing the load on the UPS. USB port)? Does the new UPS need updated or different UPS monitoring software installed on the network server? Will the new UPS physically fit into the space currently occupied by the old UPS? STEP BY STEP 4. 4. Before installing the new UPS. plug it into a power source to charge its batteries. you must shut down the network server.272 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION á The amount of equipment (such as external hard disk drives) that must be supported by the UPS during a power failure has increased. follow the upgrade checklist. As with any upgrade.6 Replacing an Uninterruptible Power Supply 1. 2. This shutdown obviously means that you must schedule downtime. Turn off the old UPS. Power off the network server and other devices that are connected to the UPS. Disconnect all power cords from the old UPS. Shut down the network server. To replace a UPS with one with a higher VA rating. . 3. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for unpacking the UPS and preparing it for use. Is the old power source adequate? Is it the correct amperage? Does the new UPS use the same type of power plug that the old UPS used? Does the new UPS use the same type of monitoring cable as the old UPS (serial port. The initial charge time is usually 12 hours or more.

Disconnect the old UPS monitoring cable. Turn on the new UPS. Plug the new UPS into the power source. If the UPS is rack mounted. You can perform some UPS battery replacement operations while the network server is running and the UPS is supplying power to the network server. This would be considered to be a battery hot swap. The battery replacement is just as likely to require that the UPS be turned off during the battery replacement. 7.Chapter 4 3. Although rechargeable. To replace the battery in a UPS. you must shut down the network server for the UPS battery replacement procedure. you will need to replace the UPS battery. 6. If the UPS has to be turned off. 8.0—UPGRADING 273 5. Install the new (fully charged) UPS. Plug the power cords of the devices to be supported by the UPS into the UPS. Disconnect the old UPS power cord from the power source. Connect the UPS monitoring cable. 10. consult the UPS manufacturer’s instructions. . remove it from the rack. Power up the network server and other devices that are plugged into the UPS. the batteries in a UPS do not last forever. 12. Upgrade and reconfigure the UPS monitoring software on the network server. 14. At some point. 13. 11. 9.

This chapter started with a full description of the upgrade checklist. adapters. and after an upgrade to the network server. The upgrade checklist is a list of procedures that should always be followed before. You should consult the upgrade checklist and follow it as a regular part of any upgrade to a network server. You also learned about the upgrade checklist. firmware. Upgrades to network server software including the system BIOS. Discussion of upgrades to the network server hardware included processors. system monitoring agents. during. Next. memory. and uninterruptible power supplies. the importance of always performing a full. verified backup before starting any upgrade was discussed. . hard disk drives. and service tools were also discussed in this chapter. peripherals.274 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS • BIOS • Buffer • Cache • Diagnostic partition • DIMM • DMI • EEPROM • EPROM • Firmware • Flash BIOS upgrade • Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) • HTTP • PCI hot plug • Plug and Play • RIMM • Service tools • SIMM • SNMP • System monitoring agents • Upgrade checklist • UPS hot swap This chapter covered upgrades to various components of the network server.

Chapter 4 3. 1. Insert the floppy disk into the floppy disk drive. access the memory information for a Hewlett-Packard NetServer LPr 750/800/850.1 Identifying an Intel Processor Estimated Time: 10 minutes. you download the bootable floppy DOS version of the Intel Identification Program and use it to identify the processor in your computer system. Download the DOS version of the Intel Processor Identification Program from http://support. 3. Using a web browser access the Kingston Memory web site at www. What memory kits are available for this server? 4.2 Identifying Network Server Memory The objective of this exercise is to use a memory vendor’s web site to identify memory in specific network servers. Record the information that displays onscreen. In this exercise. 3. 7.com/ support/processors/tools/frequencyid/ bootable. Shut down your computer. 6.htm.intel.) D. 4.kingston. 5.0—UPGRADING 275 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Exercises 4. What is the maximum memory configuration? C. 5. How many memory sockets (slots) are in the server? F. Answer the questions posed in step 2. Now try that again for a different network server. This will familiarize you with the process of using a memory vendor’s web site as well as the information about memory that can be obtained from a memory vendor’s web site. While still at the Kingston Memory web site. 1. Use the Intel Processor ID links listed above to find information about the processor in your computer. but this time about the memory configuration of a Hewlett-Packard NetServer LPr 750/800/850 as provided by the Kingston Memory web site. What is the processor found in this server? G. What memory modules are used in this network server? E. . What is the bus architecture of this server? H. 2. Follow Intel’s instructions to create a bootable floppy disk with the Processor Identification Program installed. 2. How many memory modules must be added simultaneously to this network server? (Hint: Click the More Info link. Answer these questions about the memory configuration of a Compaq Proliant 5000 6/200 as provided by the Kingston Memory web site: A. What is the standard memory configuration? B. 4. Access the memory information for a Compaq Proliant 5000 6/200. Estimated Time: 15 minutes.com. The computer will boot and automatically run the Intel Processor Identification Program.

The network server operating system vendor’s web site. What are the requirements to add an additional processor to your current network server? 9. How do you identify the processor currently in your network server? 10. B. What is a FAQ? 7. The network server vendor’s web site. . How do you add disks to a RAID 5 array? 13. Where is the best place to locate the latest updates to the network server operating system? A. The network server operating system vendor’s installation CD-ROM. D. C. What is the very first step of any upgrade to a network server? A. What are the requirements to add a SCSI disk drive to an existing SCSI chain? 12. Where is the best place to locate the latest drivers for a third-party NIC installed in a network server? A. The network server vendor’s support CD-ROM. Shut down the server operating system. How do you determine the maximum amount of memory that can be installed in a given network server? 14. The network server operating system vendor’s web site. What types of memory modules are most likely to be found in a network server? 6. C. What is the purpose of verifying a backup? 2. Under what circumstances would you want to upgrade the BIOS on a network server? 15. What is PCI hot plug? Exam Questions 1. C. How do you determine whether the current processor in a network server can be replaced with a faster processor? 8. The NIC vendor’s web site. D. The CD-ROM that came with the NIC. Remove the cover of the network server. Power down the network server. What are system monitoring agents? 3. What is the upgrade checklist? 5. Back up the entire contents of the network server. Why must the network server operating system be upgraded after adding an additional processor to a network server that initially had a single network server? 11. 3. B.276 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Review Questions 1. B. D. Where is the best place to get the latest drivers for network server hardware components? 4. 2. The network server vendor’s web site.

Master B. ii and iv 7. NoProcs C.Chapter 4 3. However. i and iii D. SIMMs B. S-spec number A. How do you correct the situation? A. Configure the system BIOS to report both processors to the network operating system. Slave C. the network server operating system does not recognize the fact that there is now a second processor in the network server. Which memory technology requires that a continuity module be inserted into all empty memory module slots in a network server? A. NumbProc D. Date of manufacture iv. Processors 6. Which of the following must be the same on the existing processor and the processor that is to be added to a multiprocessor-capable network server? i. Double the amount of memory in the network server. Number_of_processors B. RIMMs D. DIMMs 8. B. C.0—UPGRADING 277 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 4. iii and iv C. Level 2 cache ii. 5. D. After installing a second processor in a network server. What environment variable in Microsoft Windows NT and Microsoft Windows 2000 is set to the number of processors in the network server? A. You want to add a second EIDE disk drive to the same channel. How must it be configured for both disk drives to work correctly? A. Secondary . A network server has a single EIDE disk drive configured as a master. Upgrade the processor software drivers to the latest version. the network server boots up just fine and the second processor is detected by the system BIOS. i and ii B. Upgrade the network operating system to recognize the additional processor. Processor clock speed iii. SIPPs C. CSEL D.

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9. How do you upgrade an EIDE disk subsystem to a SCSI subsystem? A. Remove all EIDE disk drives, cables, and controllers. Add the SCSI controller, cables, and disk drives. B. Remove the EIDE controller and replace it with a SCSI controller, using existing cables and disk drives. C. Remove the EIDE controller, add the SCSI controller, and change the drive electronics from EIDE to SCSI. D. Remove the EIDE disk drives, install the SCSI disk drives, and attach the SCSI disk drives to the EIDE controller. 10. Which of the following adapters usually contain onboard memory that can be upgraded? i. Video adapter ii. Sound card iii. RAID controller iv. SCSI controller A. ii and iii B. i, ii, and iii C. i, iii, and iv D. ii only 11. Your network server has dual-peer PCI buses. The RAID controller is installed in PCI bus number one. You need to install a 100Mbps NIC into the network server. Where do you install the NIC? A. Install the NIC into PCI bus number one. B. Install the NIC into PCI bus number two. C. You cannot install a NIC and RAID controller in the same network server. D. The NIC has its own special slot because this is a network server. 12. What problem are you most likely to encounter when adding external SCSI disk drives to a SCSI bus? A. No available SCSI IDs B. Exceeding the SCSI channel cable length C. Slow performance D. Heat 13. What are the proper combinations for installing memory modules into memory slots? i. Gold leads on memory modules, gold contacts in memory slots ii. Tin leads on memory modules, tin contacts in memory slots iii. Gold leads on memory modules, tin contacts in memory slots iv. Tin leads on memory modules, gold contacts in memory slots A. iii and iv B. iii only C. iv only D. i and ii

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14. Which of the following limits the amount of memory that can be utilized in a network server? A. The control chipset on the network server motherboard B. The speed of the processor(s) in the network server C. The speed of the PCI bus D. The width of the data bus 15. What is the process of replacing a SCSI disk drive with an SCA connector? A. Remove the old SCSI disk drive and insert the new SCSI disk drive. B. Remove the old SCSI disk drive and note its SCSI ID. Set the SCSI ID on the new SCSI disk drive to the same SCSI ID and insert the new SCSI disk drive. C. Remove the old SCSI disk drive and note its SCSI ID. Set the SCSI ID on the new SCSI disk drive to be different from the SCSI ID of the old disk drive. Insert the new SCSI disk drive. D. Remove the old SCSI disk drive. Set the new SCSI disk drive to CSEL. Insert the new SCSI disk drive. 2. System monitoring agents monitor critical components in the network server and report their status to a monitoring console. For more information, see the section “Upgrading System Monitoring Agents.” 3. The best place to find the latest drivers for network server hardware components is the hardware component vendor’s web site. For more information, see the section “Locating the Latest Software.” 4. The upgrade checklist is a list of procedures that should be followed before, during, and after an upgrade to a network server. For more information, see the section “The Upgrade Checklist.” 5. Most network servers will have SIMM, DIMM, or RIMM memory modules installed. For more information, see the section “Checking Existing Memory.” 6. FAQs are Frequently Asked Questions. A FAQ is a compilation of questions that are often asked in newsgroups or are often asked of technical support personnel. For more information, see the section “Reviewing Instructions and FAQs.” 7. To determine whether the processor in a network server can be upgraded to a faster processor, check the network server system board vendor’s web site. For more information, see the section “Replacing a Single Processor with a Faster Processor.”

Answers to Review Questions
1. The processing of verifying a backup ensures that the information stored on the tape matches exactly the information stored on the disk drives. For more information, see the section “Performing a Full Backup.”

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8. The requirements to add an additional processor to a network server are as follows: The network server system board must be multiprocessor capable. The additional processor must be the same model, have the same clock speed, the same size Level 2 cache, and be within one stepping of the existing processor. For more information, see the section “Installing Additional Processors.” 9. To identify the processor currently in a network server, use the Intel Processor Identification Utility. For more information, see the section “Installing Additional Processors.” 10. If there was only one processor in the network server when the network operating system was installed, the operating system installed support for a single processor. The network operating system will not automatically detect the additional processor once it is rebooted. The operating system must be upgraded to recognize the additional processor. For more information, see the section “Upgrading the Operating System for Multiple Processors.” 11. The additional SCSI disk drive should use the same signaling system as the existing SCSI disk drives. The additional SCSI disk drive should be of the same type as the existing disk drives. There must be an available connector on the SCSI cable for the additional SCSI disk drive. The new disk drive must have a SCSI ID that differs from the existing disk drives on the SCSI chain. For more information, see the section “Adding SCSI Hard Disk Drives.” 12. Back up the entire system. Add the disk drives as you would add disk drives to a SCSI chain. Use the RAID configuration utility for the network server to delete the old RAID configuration and create a new RAID configuration using the old disk drives and the additional disk drives. Restore the entire system from the backup. For more information, see the section “New Drives in an Existing Array.” 13. To determine how much memory can be installed in a given network server, consult the network server documentation, the network server vendor’s web site, or a memory vendor’s web site. For more information, see the section “Adding Memory.” 14. There are many reasons to upgrade a system BIOS in a network server, such as adding support for new hardware including processors, large hard disk drives, and new bootable devices. Known BIOS bugs are also corrected by BIOS upgrades. For more information, see the section “Upgrading BIOS/Firmware.” 15. PCI hot plug technology enables you to replace, upgrade, or add an adapter without powering down the network server. For more information, see the section “Replacing an Adapter.”

Answers to Exam Questions
1. C. The best place to get the latest updates to the network server’s operating system is the network server operating system vendor’s web site. For more information, see the section “Locating the Latest Software.”

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2. D. The best place to get the latest drivers for a third-party NIC is the NIC vendor’s web site. For more information, see the section “Upgrading Peripheral Devices, Internal and External.” 3. B. The very first step of any upgrade to a network server is to fully back up the entire server. For more information, see the section “Performing a Full Backup.” 4. C. The network operating system must be upgraded or reconfigured for it to recognize the additional processor. For more information, see the section “Upgrading the Operating System for Multiple Processors.” 5. A. The environment variable in Microsoft Windows NT and Microsoft Windows 2000 that is set to the number of processors in the network server is Number_of_processors. For more information, see the section “Microsoft Windows NT Server 4” or “Microsoft Windows 2000 Server.” 6. A. The processor cache size and the processor clock speed must be the same on the two processors in a network server. For more information, see the section “Installing Additional Processors” 7. C. RIMMs require that continuity modules be inserted into all unfilled memory slots in a network server. For more information, see the section “Installing Additional Memory.” 8. B. The second EIDE disk drive on the channel must be configured as a slave because the first disk drive is configured as a master. For more information, see the section “Upgrading EIDE/ATA-2 Hard Disk Drives.” 9. A. To “upgrade” from an EIDE disk subsystem to a SCSI subsystem, you must remove all the EIDE disk drives, cables, and controllers, and replace them with SCSI disk drives, cables, and controllers. It isn’t really an upgrade, it is a complete replacement. For more information, see the section “Upgrading IDE/ATA/EIDE/ATA-2 Disk Drives to SCSI Disk Drives.” 10. C. Video adapters, SCSI controllers, and RAID controllers usually have onboard memory that can be upgraded. For more information, see the section “Upgrading Adapter Memory.” 11. B. The NIC should be installed on PCI bus number 2. This will balance the load because the RAID controller is on PCI bus number 1. For more information, see the section “Upgrading Peripheral Devices, Internal and External.” 12. B. A common problem encountered when adding external SCSI devices to a SCSI bus is exceeding the maximum cable length for the SCSI channel. For more information, see the section “Adding SCSI Hard Disk Drives.” 13. D. Don’t mix metals. Gold to gold. Tin to tin. For more information, see the section “Checking Memory Upgrade Compatibility.” 14. A. The control chipset on the network server motherboard can limit the amount of memory that can be utilized in the network server. For more information, see the section “Adding Memory.” 15. A. The SCA connector sets the SCSI ID. Just remove the old SCSI disk drive and install the new SCSI disk drive. For more information, see the section “Replacing SCSI Hard Disk Drives.”

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Suggested Readings and Resources
1. Mueller, Scott. Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 12th Edition. Que Publishing, 2000. 2. The Ultimate Memory Guide
www.kingston.com/tools/umg/umg2000.pdf

4. General computer hardware sites The PC Guide
www.pcguide.com

Tom’s Hardware Guide
www.tomshardware.com

3. Memory manufacturer’s web sites
www.kingston.com www.crucial.com www.micron.com

Whatis.com
www.whatis.com

Webopedia.com
www.webopedia.com

Free Online Dictionary of Computing
http://foldoc.doc.ic.ac.uk/foldoc/ index.html

OBJECTIVES
This chapter covers the following CompTIA-specified objectives for the Proactive Maintenance section of the Server+ exam:
4.1 Perform regular backup

. Every system administrator must know how to do backups on every server in the network. The cost of lost data to a company can be crippling and often the only salvation in the event of a disaster is the faithful backup tape.
4.2 Create baseline and compare performance

. When changes are made to a system they can affect performance in ways that are both favorable and adverse. The only way to truly gauge the effect of any change is to know how the system is performing before the change and compare it with how the system is performing afterward. This is known as creating a baseline.
4.3 Set SNMP thresholds

. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) enables you to monitor your TCP/IP-based network and be alerted when events occur. Those events happen when a threshold you define is reached and can encompass and include any monitorable item. For example, you can be notified when too much data must be re-sent (alerting you to consider adding switches in place of hubs on your network).
C H A P T E R

4.4 Perform physical housekeeping

5

. As much fun as it is to tweak the variables and settings of a system, the mundane must never be overlooked, for it can affect performance as well. The mundane referred to is the true physical environment of the server, and an administrator should carefully examine the ambient environment for potential problems that can be avoided.

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OBJECTIVES
4.5 Perform hardware verification

OUTLINE
Introduction 286

. It is all too often the case that you think the old machine in the corner is just what you need to add to the network to meet minimum system requirements when a new service must be added to the network, but is it really what you think it is? How can you be certain that the processor you vaguely remember being a 233 isn’t really a 133?
4.6 Establish remote notification

Understanding Backups
Defining “Regular” Different Types of Backups Mixing and Matching Backup Types Backup Media Multiple Tape Sets Backup Common Sense Operating System Notes Backups Within Windows NT Backups Within Windows 2000 Backups with Linux

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287 288 290 291 292 293 294 294 295 296

. Remote notification enables the administrator to leave the server room for a while and work elsewhere. Closely tied to SNMP, it is important to understand the theory behind remote notification for the Server+ exam.

Working with Baselines

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Working with SNMP
SNMP Agents and Management The SNMP Management System The SNMP Agent Management Information Base MIB Structure SNMP Communities Security SNMP Security Parameters SNMP Agent What SNMP Is Really Doing

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301 301 302 303 303 304 304 305 305 306

The Physical Environment

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Verifying Hardware
Checking Values Outside the Operating System

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OUTLINE
Establishing Remote Notification 313

S T U DY S T R AT E G I E S
To prepare for the Proactive Maintenance objectives of the Server+ exam, do the following: . Read the objectives at the beginning of this chapter. . Study the information in this chapter. . Review the objectives again. . Answer the Review and Exam Questions at the end of the chapter and check your results . Use the ExamGear test engine on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book for additional Exam Questions concerning this material. . Review the Exam Tips available in various places in this chapter. Make certain that you understand the information in the Exams Tip. If you don’t fully understand the tip, review the information in the chapter related to this topic. . Recognize the importance of doing backups on a regular basis. . Understand the different types of backups, including

Chapter Summary

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Apply Your Knowledge

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• • •

Full Incremental Differential

. Create a baseline of performance on a system and note how it changes over time and with modifications to the system. . Utilize SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) to monitor TCP/IP performance on your network. . Be cognizant of physical issues regarding your network and server(s). Pay attention to ambient issues that can negatively affect performance, such as air temperature. . Understand how to verify the hardware installed within a system. . Realize the possibilities that exist for remotely notifying an administrator when problems occur.

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INTRODUCTION
Proactive maintenance is one of the most overlooked aspects of any network. Too often an administrator must turn his attention to putting out brush fires—at the cost of ignoring issues that give the appearance of being less pressing. When users complain that they cannot access their files, or a manager needs to have a new printer added to the network immediately, you must respond. These actions, which solve an immediate problem, are reactive in nature. Often they are isolated incidents or issues that can be resolved expeditiously. Proactive maintenance can be summed up as everything you do to a network, not in response to a brush fire, to ensure the system will continue to perform in the future. This is the most important concept within this job domain. If you understand this, it will help you understand the objectives within the domain, and it will help you immensely in your job. It also will help you in answering the practice questions that appear at the end of this chapter and the questions on the actual exam.

UNDERSTANDING BACKUPS
. 4.1 Perform regular backup An old joke has it that everyone always had plans to do a full backup the very day a system crashed; it just crashed a bit too early. As sad a fact as it may be, every system has the potential to crash; therefore, you should perform backups regularly on all your systems. One could argue that the importance of backups has diminished over the years as other technologies such as RAID have been added to the server. RAID is a wonderful technology that allows the server to continue operating even in the event of a hard drive failure. What RAID cannot do, however, is enable you to bring up another system to continue operations after a tornado completely destroys the server. Likewise, RAID is of little use when lightning strikes outside your office building, traverses the ground, and fries all the hard drives within the system. Page after page could be filled with

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NOTE

examples of similar incidents, but the point should be abundantly clear by now: Backups provide an insurance that goes beyond most other technologies. Before going any further, it is important to understand what a backup is truly intended for. Assume the hard drives on a server crash. You can always bring the machine up again by replacing the hard drives and reinstalling the operating system and related service packs. You also can modify the configuration files and have the machine back up on the network within a relatively short time. What you cannot do so easily, however, is recreate the data that was stored on the server. Although a backup is often thought of as being a representation of all the files on the system—including operating system and configuration files—its real purpose should be to save the unique data that your associates have created. If a network driver file gets lost, you can grab an exact copy from another system, web site, and so on. If the file was a bid to do business with your largest customer, however, you cannot copy that back from anywhere else other than a backup copy. It is this data that has real (monetary) value and that you should be most concerned about backing up to be able to recover it should it get lost or corrupted.

What Else RAID Doesn’t Do A worthwhile point to consider: RAID doesn’t help when a user accidentally deletes a crucial file. It isn’t just system crashes that make backups so worthwhile.

Defining “Regular”
The objective states that you should know how to perform backups on a regular basis. “Regular” is a relative word, based on the importance/value of the data the backup holds. If you do backups only once a week, you are accepting the possibility of losing up to one week’s worth of data—a cost that most businesses cannot afford. If you do backups once a night, the maximum data loss that can occur is equal to one day’s work. Many businesses are comfortable at this level, and it can be considered the norm. For some businesses, however, nightly backups represent too high a cost. Instead, such businesses measure the span between backups in hours. You should always consider the value of the data being created and the type of business the enterprise you are working with is in when computing a backup frequency and defining “regular.”

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Different Types of Backups
Not all backups are created equal. Almost every operating system marketed today includes utilities and tools that enable you to back up your data. Many of these tools differ somewhat in the names they call their different backup types, but they tend to fall within the following categories: á Full á Incremental á Differential Crucial to understanding how each of these types of backups works is the knowledge that in many operating systems there is a file descriptor known as the archive bit. This is just a flag that has two states: on and off. Figure 5.1 shows a command-line window with three files listed: FROZEN1.JPG, FROZEN2.JPG, and FROZEN_ TREE.JPG. The archive bit for the first two files is off: whereas for the latter it is on, as indicated by the “A” appearing as an attribute in the leftmost column. You can ascertain the value of this attribute in many different ways, including graphically. Figure 5.2 shows the same file and the attribute for it within the graphical interface used by Windows 2000 Server. A full backup backs up every file on the system—regardless of the initial value of the archive bit—and turns the archive bit off when it completes. Full backups are always the best type of backup to perform, because they get every file. They also are the most time consuming of any type, however, and can bring a network to its knees rather easily.

FIGURE 5.1
Only the last file of these three has the archive bit on.

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FIGURE 5.2
You can ascertain the value of the archive bit through the graphical interface.

An incremental backup backs up every file on the system that has its archive bit on, and then turns off that bit when it completes. By sheer virtue of backing up only those files that have this bit on, an incremental backup is getting only a subset of all the files on the system and can finish more quickly than a full backup. A differential backup backs up every file on the system that has its archive bit on, and does not change the value of the bit. In other words, if the bit was on when the backup started (which it would need to be to be included in the backup), it will continue to be on when the backup completes. Again, by backing up only those files that have the bit turned on, a differential backup is getting only a subset of all the files on the system and is thus able to complete operation in a shorter time than a full backup. Table 5.1 summarizes the differences among these three backup types.
NOTE
Other Forms of Backup Many backup utilities include different choices as well, which are modified versions of these three. A daily backup, for example, is a backup of all the files created or changed during a one-day period. A copy backup is just a copy of a file to media. (Think of copying one file to a floppy.) A partial backup is just a copy of all the files within specified directories. For this exam, you should concentrate only on the three major backup types.

TABLE 5.1

BACKUP TYPES
Type Includes Only Files with Archive Bit On No Yes Yes Turns Archive Bit Off upon Completion Yes Yes No Typical Running Time (1=Longest) 1 2 3

Full Incremental Differential

Monday night. an administrator can choose to run a full backup every Saturday night. is whether your network can withstand the load created by running full backups regularly. you just grab the full backup from Thursday night and copy all the files over. Don’t Mix Incremental and Differential Backups Full backups can be mixed with either incremental or differential backups but not with incremental and differential backups. however. Tuesday night the files changed/created Sunday. If you have the liberty to do so. and so forth. and create a nightmare to recover. only the files changed/created during the day (Monday) will be backed up. This strategy provides for one very long backup. and Tuesday are backed up. and the archive bits on them turned off. however. full backups are often mixed with one of the two other types. To offset this. you should run a full backup every night. and so forth.290 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Mixing and Matching Backup Types It can never be argued that full backups are anything but the best type to run. Sunday night. all files will be backed up. only the files changed/created during the day Sunday are backed up. Saturday night. Because the incremental backup is getting only the files that changed each day. Another strategy is to run a full backup every Saturday night. Monday night. and an incremental backup every other night of the week. and you have done full backups every night. Because an incremental backup turns off the archive bit. If it takes 10 hours to run a full backup. and six very short backups throughout the week. it would make the next differential backup not get all the files it should. starting out short and getting longer each night. you also must consider restoration scenarios for when the server crashes. Monday. Because the number of files included in the differential backup increases each night. the amount of time each differential takes to run will increase every night. For example. and the archive bits on them turned off. the amount of time each incremental takes to run is roughly the same every night. On the surface. EXAM TIP . What can be argued. the files changed/created Sunday and Monday are backed up. To be fair. and a differential backup every other night of the week. Saturday night. This strategy provides for one very long backup and six backups throughout the week. One operation and you’re back in business again. Sunday night. the odds of your users not complaining on a regular basis that it is still slowing the system down when they arrive in the morning is pretty slim. due to their all-inclusive nature. all files are backed up. only the files changed/created during the day (Sunday) will be backed up. If the server crashes on Friday morning. this can make it look as if the full/incremental combination is the best strategy.

Even backup to a different fixed drive in the same server could turn out to be useless in the event of a lightning strike or some other calamity affecting the whole machine. backups were always synonymous with tape media. First you must restore the full backup from Saturday night. Follow this with a restore for the incremental backup for Wednesday night. You restore the two backups in order. Until somewhat recently. With compression. you grab the full backup from Saturday and the differential backup from Thursday night. If you are using a full/incremental combination. By implication. you must restore the incremental backup from Monday night. Tapes are a removable media ideal for backups by virtue of having the following characteristics: á They have a large capacity. TABLE 5. Table 5. the location of the backup must be other than the drives that could fail. When it finishes running.2 summarizes the number of tapes/restores that must be done to bring the system back up. . a backup is intended to enable you to recover your data in the event of hard drive failure(s).0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 291 If you are using a full/differential combination. Then you must restore the incremental backup from Sunday night. Creating a backup of the data on a disk to another partition on the same disk is a waste of time and does not truly constitute a backup at all. it takes a while longer. the amount of data they can contain increases.2 RESTORING Type of Backup Full only Incremental Differential FROM A F R I D AY C R A S H Typical Restoration Time (1=Longest) 3 1 2 Number of Tapes Needed 1 6 2 Backup Media By definition. and end by restoring the backup from Thursday night.Chapter 5 4. and you are back in business once more. and then the one from Tuesday night.

á They are reusable. if one set of tapes goes bad. Some other possibilities include CD-RW discs. and go to restore it—only to find that it is damaged. it should offer as many of the features of tapes as possible. True. If you have only seven tapes in your entire possession (one for the full backup. you can’t go wrong with using tapes as your backup medium. To illustrate the importance of this. . The days of tapes being bulky and unwieldy have passed. now they take up very little physical space. Zip disks. Although tapes continue to be a common backup medium. put in the full backup. you can turn to the full backup from the preceding Saturday. and the 6 for this week. Regardless of the other type of medium used. if you own 14 tapes (2 sets). even though the second machine has a different type of tape drive. á They are relatively inexpensive. restoring 13 tapes is very time-consuming. it is not unusual to use other media as well. Adhering to standards. On the other hand. you are looking at the loss of a considerable amount of data. assume that you are using a full/incremental backup combination and the system crashes on Friday morning. and removable hard drives.292 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION á They are easily transported. You gather your set of tapes. á They can withstand a broad range of climate conditions. á They are based on proven. you have another to turn to. and six for the incremental backups throughout the week). thus providing an extra level of insurance. You would then follow it up with the 6 incremental backups for the previous week. DVD-RW. A backup tape can be overwritten or appended to many times before degradation becomes a factor. reliable technology. This makes it possible to buy several sets of tapes for rotation. it is possible for data on a tape created on one system to be restored on another. TIP You Can’t Go Wrong with Tapes Although all the other possibilities exist and offer some nice features. EXAM Multiple Tape Sets An administrator should always have multiple sets of backup media that are rotated on a regular basis. but at least you have the option of doing so and getting your data back—an option you do not have with only 1 tape set.

á Replace the media on a regular basis. you should have three complete sets of tapes: the one you are currently using. á Consider adding additional layers of security to the tapes. á Guard the backup media carefully. You should store this set in a safe location that you can access when necessary. If you are using tapes over and over. write-protect tabs. and so on.Chapter 5 4. one from the preceding batch. or so on). . á Regularly verify that the backups running are good and can be restored if the need arises. completely away from the site (not just in a different room. don’t leave the tapes within the reach of those who should not be able to access them. or the tornado. The tapes hold files that can help your competition if they fall into the wrong hands. it becomes the only way to get your data back when the fire comes. Never underestimate the importance of this latter set. they are going to wear. drawer. such as passwords to the data. Check the logs regularly and practice restoring files. common sense can go a long way toward helping you craft a backup routine. as they represent amounts of data that you are willing to lose. Backup Common Sense As with much of a system administrator’s responsibilities. you should have a plan in place to routinely rotate a set to the trash in place of a new set of tapes. and one stored offsite. If you value the data enough to back it up. or whatever other catastrophe lurks around the bend. Don’t just assume that you can recover the data only to find that you have several bad tapes in your set. The following bullets fall into the common sense category and should be considered by every administrator when evaluating such a policy: á Make certain that you can live with the time gaps between backups. as well as the files on the server.0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 293 At a bare minimum. and the files on the tapes should be protected.

1. Windows 2000. follow the steps outlined in Step by Step 5. it represents current data— data you would restore if the system crashed. depending on the operating system—can include the kernel. so verify that a tape device is connected. á Know the difference between a backup and an archive. Administrative Tools. Some entities that may not be in the backup—or that may need to be rebuilt. Although it is important to know what is there. you also must know what you will have to manually restore in the event of a crash. STEP BY STEP 5.EXE. Operating System Notes The Server+ exam expects you to be familiar with a few operating systems.0 Server 1. and Linux. Files that are always open (such as printers) are notorious for needing to be recreated after a restore. Registry. Click Start. you will always be ready. Backups Within Windows NT To perform a backup in Windows NT. and so forth. Backup.294 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION á Know what you are not backing up.) 2.1 Backing Up Windows NT 4. but represents old data that is no longer needed on the server. á Expect and prepare for the worst disaster that could happen. When something lesser happens. Windows NT 4. .0 can back up only to tape. Click the Backup button on the toolbar. The following sections discuss how to perform backups within Windows NT. Backup. A backup is a copy of the data that you need to have on the server for users to interact with. (You also can start it from the command line with NTBACKUP. as well. Programs. An archive can be to tape or removable media. or choose Operations.

This disk is referred to as the Emergency Repair Disk (ERD). No longer confined to only tapes as output media. including information to log from the operation.0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 295 3. Make any desired choices (the defaults are typically sufficient).3 The backup utility from Windows NT has been greatly enhanced with Windows 2000. the backup utility that existed with Windows NT was greatly enhanced. The Backup Information dialog box offers a set of options. Figure 5.3 shows the possibilities available for backups within Windows 2000. To perform a backup in Windows 2000. . FIGURE 5. follow the steps outlined in Step by Step 5. Backups Within Windows 2000 With the release of Windows 2000. it now offers a number of other possibilities as well. It is now the tool used (rather than RDISK) to back up the Registry. This compresses the hives that constitute the Registry to where they will fit on a floppy disk. and then click OK. Windows NT also enables you to make a backup of the Registry that will fit on a floppy disk (and only on a floppy disk) using a utility named RDISK.Chapter 5 4.EXE.2. and enables you to recover only the Registry should it become corrupted.

Accessories. Choose the Backup tab and select the files/directories that you want to back up. Programs.2 Backing Up Windows 2000 Server 1. Backup. and then click Start Backup. The syntax for tar is as follows: tar {options} {target_file} {source_files} Both the target file and source files can be paths (such as /dev/tape).296 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION STEP BY STEP 5. 3. Specify a backup media (destination) for the backup. Click Start. The tar utility (tape archiver) combines multiple files into a single file that can be copied to the media. System Tools. The options include á c To create a new file á d To compare contents and display the differences between the target and source á f To specify a file á p To keep the permissions á r To append to an existing file á t To show the names of the files in the tar file á u To add only files that are new á v To run in Verbose mode á x To extract files á z To compresses files Examples of common commands include tar cvf /dev/tape {files} . Backups with Linux Linux includes two utilities that you can use to perform backups: tar and cpio. 2.

2 Create baselines and compare performance A baseline is a snapshot in time of how a server is running. When you create a baseline.0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 297 to create a new tar file on the tape and do so in verbose mode. WORKING WITH BASELINES .TAR backup file. An established baseline . Then you can compare all future actions against the baseline to see trends that are happening. you determine relevant factors (such as processor utilization). if necessary á f To specify a file á t To show the contents á u To overwrite existing files á v To run in Verbose mode Examples of common commands include cpio -iv < /dev/tape to read in files from a tape and display them as it is operating (Verbose mode). creating all the needed subdirectories in the process.Chapter 5 4.tar to extract/restore the files from the FEB. one of which must be specified: á -i To extract from an archive á -o á -p To make a new archive To print/pass (through the files) You can use following options with the cpio utility: á d To create directories. 4. It can perform three basic actions. and find / -name kad* | cpio -pdv /home/kad to find all files on the system starting with “kad” and copy them beneath the /home/kad directory. and tar xf feb. The cpio utility is used to copy in/out.

298 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION enables you to compare system performance and note the deviations whenever any changes are made to the system. writing down the numbers. as soon as you exit. and then want to add them later. To be accurate. NOTE Performance Monitor in Windows NT 4. and exiting. because it shows too small a moment in time. Performance Monitor in Windows 2000 is identical to its counterpart in Windows NT 4. . and then click the + button in the toolbar to add a counter. Click Start. you should never create a baseline just by opening a logging tool. Administrative Tools. a user can start requesting large graphic files that bring the system to its knees while your numbers showed next to no activity. you can only guess at the results changes make. and tools for doing so. seeing what is happening.0 and Window 2000 For all practical purposes. Performance. In the absence of this baseline. Choose all the resources that are relevant now and expected to be in the future when choosing how to create the baseline.3 Monitor Performance in Windows 2000 Server 1. but you should always oversee the following: á Memory á Processor á Disk á Network To monitor system performance in Windows 2000. To be accurate. Choose System Monitor in the left frame. STEP BY STEP 5. Programs. A system’s baseline should always be a collection of utilization data on a wide range of resources. you lack the historical data against which to compare the new results. Every operating system has its own objects that can be monitored.0. 2. you can use the Performance tool and follow the steps outlined in Step by Step 5. If you fail to choose key objects in the baseline. you must create the baseline by sampling activity at intervals and creating a snapshot of normal behavior over time.3. This can be an inaccurate baseline.

4. and plan proactively for problems that can be slowly creeping up. 5. Has the system become slower? Has it become more responsive? Are there fewer/more lost packets? With a good set of data. use the same settings and capture data on a regular basis to compare against it.4 The System Monitor tool in Performance enables you to monitor system resources in Windows 2000. You are now monitoring the processor utilization. choose Processor.Chapter 5 4. and so on. . Choose a counter that would relate to the object. FIGURE 5. Click the Close button. such as Cache. To create log files.0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 299 3. Click the Add button. Memory. The display will resemble Figure 5. Choose a performance object. Place this information in a database and analyze possible changes that can be extrapolated from your findings. If you have multiple processors. For processor. isolate trends. 6. you can choose which one (known as an instance) to monitor. This can be one of dozens of entities. click on Performance Logs and Alerts in the left frame and choose to save data to files instead of viewing in real-time. For illustrative purposes. a good choice is %Processor Time. 7. After you have created the initial baseline.4. you can analyze performance.

SNMP enables network administrators to remotely troubleshoot and monitor hubs and routers.3 Set SNMP thresholds SNMP is the Simple Network Management Protocol. Much of SNMP is defined within RFCs 1157 and 1212. the focus here will supplement. This can be a very useful tool if understood and used properly. TIP WORKING WITH SNMP EXAM .internic.net. WINS. on just Ethernet and SNMP. although many more RFCs discuss SNMP. of course. Whenever you make significant changes. Running at port 161 by default. Using SNMP. You also can perform a search on SNMP or RFC and find more specific information related to a specific part of SNMP—for example. you need to toss away the old baseline and create a new one for the new configuration. on various web sites. 4. Some examples include the following: á IP address of a router á Number of open files á Amount of hard drive space available á Version number of a host (such as Windows NT) Before you set up SNMP. for example. depending on the device itself. you need the IP address or host names of the systems that will either be the initiators or those that will respond to the requests. and LMHOSTS. The types of systems on which you can find data include the following: á Mainframes á Gateways and routers . uses the regular Windows NT host name resolution. SNMP can be found. if you are using one of these resolution methods. “1. You can find a wide variety of information about these devices. Therefore. Installation and configuration of SNMP was discussed in Chapter 2. you can find out information about these remote devices without having to physically be at the device itself. it is the only way to obtain true statistics of network usage under TCP/IP.300 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Update Your Baselines When you make significant changes to the system—such as adding faster hard drives or more RAM—you are making the old baseline no longer reflective of the system. rather than repeat. along with other RFCs. DNS. such as HOSTS. that information. Microsoft’s SNMP Service. including http://rs. add the correct host name to IP address resolution for the computers that you are setting up with SNMP.0—Installation”.

á The agent station is the piece of equipment from which you are trying to extract data.0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 301 á Hubs and bridges á Windows NT servers á LAN Manager servers á SNMP agents SNMP uses a distributed architecture design to facilitate its properties. However. Various third-party management utilities are available. including the following: á IBM NetView á Sun Net Manager á Hewlett-Packard OpenView Load Balance SNMP Because SNMP is a distributed system. it can ask each device a certain number of questions. and for multiple management functionality. depending on the EXAM TIP .Chapter 5 4. The following sections discuss each part. this is only the agent side. not the management tools. SNMP Agents and Management There are two main parts to SNMP: the management side and the agent .” As mentioned earlier. The management system is responsible for “asking the questions. you can spread out the management of it in different locations so as not to overtax any one PC. á The management station is the centralized location from which you can manage SNMP. An SNMP Service by Microsoft enables a machine running Windows NT to be able to transfer its current condition to a computer running an SNMP management system. This means that various parts of SNMP are spread throughout the network to complete the task of collecting and processing data to provide remote management. The SNMP Management System The management system is the key component for obtaining information from the client. You need at least one management system to even be able to use the SNMP Service.

Usually. you can issue certain commands specifically at the management system. however. however. or hub. you can query a client’s Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache and then ask for each subsequent value. In one particular instance. the agent is a router. Requests a specific value. acting on its own without a direct query.302 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION type of device. it can query how many active sessions are open. The SNMP agent. and the fact that the majority of objects have a read-only attribute. For example. The following list identifies reasons why you might want to have more: á You may want to have multiple management systems make different queries to the same agents. For the most part. on the other hand. A . In addition. The agent is usually a passive component only responding to a direct query. you have only one management system running the SNMP Service per group of hosts. Generally. you may want to have more. the management side is the active component for getting information. Requests the next object’s value. á As the network grows and becomes more complex. The SNMP Agent You have seen so far what the SNMP management side is responsible for and can specifically do. The management system is a computer running one of the various software components mentioned earlier. This group is known as a community. server. This command is not often used due to security. is responsible for complying with the requests and responding to the SNMP manager accordingly. Sometimes. Changes the value on an object that has the properties of read-write. For example. á get–next. á set. á There might be different management sites for one community. These are generic commands not specific to any type of management system directly: á get. you may need to help differentiate certain aspects of your community. the agent is the initiator. This special case is called a trap.

A variety of MIB databases can be established. The MIB is the database of information that can be queried against. you can delve into the different types of query databases. for example. the agent is passive except in this one occasion. It is structured in this manner so that each manageable object can be assigned a globally unique name.0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 303 trap is set up from the management side on the agent. The list of questions depends on what type of device it is asking about. These MIBs are available to both the agent and management systems as a reference from which both can pull information.Chapter 5 4. supports the following MIB databases: á Internet MIB II á LAN Manager MIB II á DHCP MIB á WINS MIB MIB Structure The namespace for MIB objects is hierarchical. Certain organizations have the authority to assign the namespace for parts of the tree design. The agent sends an alert to the management system telling it that the event has occurred. The Microsoft SNMP Service. But the management does not need to go to the agent to find out whether the trap information has been tripped. The MIB is stored on the SNMP agent and is similar to the Windows NT Registry in its hierarchical structure. The type of system it is determines what specifically can be queried. The MIB defines what type of objects can be queried and what type of information is available about the network device. The data that the management system requests from an agent is contained in a Management Information Base (MIB). Most of the time. This is a list of questions that the management system can ask. Management Information Base Now that you have learned a little about the management system and agents. .

Communities are called by a community name. You also might set up traps that let you know whether the agents receive requests from communities or addresses not specified. SNMP Communities A community is a group of hosts running the SNMP Service to which they all belong. . Agents can be members of multiple communities simultaneously. The best security you can have is to use unique community names. discovering the community names and addresses used. These usually consist of at least one management system and multiple agents. The idea is to logically organize systems into organizational units for better network management. A major reason most MIBs are read-only is so that unauthorized changes cannot be made. you can provide limited security and segregation of hosts.304 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION The MIB structure is similar to TCP/IP addresses. The same applies here.” By using unique community names. You do not have to contact them to inquire about each address assignment. Agents do not accept requests nor respond to hosts that are not from their configured community. all SNMP agents respond to any request using the community name “public. Also by default. but they must be explicitly configured as such. Organizations can assign names without consulting an Internet authority for every specific assignment. This enables them to respond to different SNMP managers from various communities. The data is not encrypted. and stipulate Only Accept SNMP Packets from These Hosts. This name is case sensitive. You get only one address from the InterNIC and then subnet it according to your needs. however. The default community name is “public” and generally all hosts belong to it. This way. and there is no setup to stop someone from accessing the network. you can track down unauthorized SNMP activity. and sending fake requests to agents. Security There really is no established security with SNMP. Choose Send Authentication Trap and specify a Trap Destination.

Chapter 5 4. Accepted Community Names Accept SNMP Packets from Any Host Only Accept SNMP Packets from These Hosts SNMP Agent In some cases you will configure other aspects of the SNMP agent. The options available on this screen are as follows: á The contact name of the person you want to be alerted about conditions on this station—generally. By default the agent responds to any manager using the community name “public. TABLE 5. this is the user of the computer.0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 305 SNMP Security Parameters You can set several options that affect the security of the SNMP agent. Responds only to the hosts listed. this is a list of community names that the agent will respond to. Table 5.3 SECURITY OPTIONS Parameter Send Authentication Trap FOR THE SNMP A G E N T Description Sends information back to the trap initiator responding that the trap failed. This could be because of an incorrect community name or because the host is not specified for service.3 describes the available options. Responds to any query from any management system in any community.” Because this can be inside or outside your organization. you should at very least change the community name. a community name is included. When a manager sends a query. These set the type of devices that you will monitor and who is responsible for the system. . á The location is a descriptive field for the computer to help keep track of the system sending the alert.

as you are most likely an IP host. Any errors with SNMP are recorded in the system log. • Internet. The command for the objects: get. broadcast. Causes the Windows NT computer to act as an IP host. Request sent by the application to UDP port 161. The community name and any other specified data. • Applications. The log records any SNMP activity. The SNMP management system makes a request of an agent using the agent’s IP address or host name. What SNMP Is Really Doing The following example tracks a sample of SNMP traffic between a manager and an agent. such as HP’s OpenView. • End-to-End. DNS. get-next. . as just by using SNMP you should have TCP/IP set up. if host name was used. For managing a bridge. WINS. using host name resolution methods: localhost. or router. set. Use Event Viewer to look at the errors and to find the problem and possible solutions. Set if the Windows NT computer uses an application that uses TCP/IP. and routes the packet on the agent’s UDP port 161: a. a. 1. You should check this box every time. • Datalink/Subnetwork. SNMP packet gets set up with the listed information inside. Remember in real life you will use management software. You should check this box every time. 2. These include • Physical. Causes the Windows NT computer to act as an IP gateway. Host name resolved to an IP address. HOSTS file. b.306 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION á The last part of the screen identifies the types of connections/devices this agent will monitor. You are managing physical devices such as repeaters or hubs. LMHOSTS file. b. that enables you to see the MIBs and query without knowing all the numbers.

e. The community name is checked for validity. jostled. The DLL sends the data to the agent. Any computer will work best in a pristine environment that is temperature/humidity controlled and free of dust. The inquiry is then passed to the correct dynamic link library (DLL) as described in the preceding section on MIBs. The object identifier gets mapped to the specific application programming interface (API) and that call gets made. d. it is thrown out. Be wary of items that can cause interference with electrical pull (motors. next to the air conditioner. Pay attention to ambient factors such as the heat. Alas not many networks can afford such an environment. An SNMP agent gets the packet and puts it into its buffer. and so on. and the like) or EMI (electromagnetic interference). the more clean air the server can pull through it. THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT .0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 307 3. and try to utilize only isolated grounding circuits. c. a. or otherwise disturbed by non-administrators. If it is not correct or is corrupted. This space (called the plenum) . Keep the area around the server as free of debris and clutter as possible. so an administrator must make the best of the environment he has. accessed directly. never put the server against ductwork.Chapter 5 4. the agent checks to see whether the originating host name or IP address is correct as well. The SNMP packet is given to the SNMP manager with the requested information. 4. the server should be locked in a closet with limited access and no likelihood of being bumped. the better chance it has of running longer. One last note: The space above a drop ceiling (between the ceiling and the floor of a building’s next level) is extremely significant to both network administrators and fire marshals. Ideally.4 Perform physical housekeeping This is another category where a little common sense can carry you a long way. 4. If not. b. the packet is rejected. If the community name checks out. microwaves.

for example. Plenum-grade cabling is less flexible and more expensive than PVC cabling. . “5. is typically an open space in which air circulates freely. Plenum-grade coaxial cabling is especially designed to be used without conduit in plenums. To get more detailed information. The plenum. walls. hardware verification merely implies identifying the hardware that you have. you can identify that the processor is at least a Pentium (Family 6) and there is 128MB of RAM.5 shows an example of the System Properties dialog box in Windows 2000 Server. you can resort to the Device Manager.4 details how to see how many COM ports are in the system on a machine running Windows 2000 Server and what resources they are using. The most common outer covering for coaxial cabling is polyvinyl chloride (PVC).6. But how can you verify that before using it? Many operating systems can provide information through the tools within them to help with this. PVC cabling gives off poisonous fumes when it burns. fire marshals pay special attention to it. Your memory tells you that it is a Pentium 233 with 64MB of RAM. so it is used primarily where PVC cabling cannot be used. Step by Step 5.” VERIFYING HARDWARE . For that reason. however. that there is an old server sitting in the closet and you are considering using it as a print server.5 Perform hardware verification One of the simplest objectives within the exam. 4. as shown in Figure 5.0—Environment. Suppose. fire codes prohibit PVC cabling in the plenum because poisonous fumes in the plenum can circulate freely throughout the building. Additional coverage of these issues appears in Chapter 6. and other areas where fire codes prohibit PVC cabling. and consequently.308 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION is a convenient place to run network cables around a building. Figure 5. Using the General tab.

FIGURE 5.6 The Device Manager provides specific information about resources and associated drivers in Windows 2000.5 The General tab of the System Properties dialog box offers some identification information in Windows 2000. .Chapter 5 4.0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 309 FIGURE 5.

the proc filesystem structure can provide you with information about your system. [root@localhost /proc]# CPU0 1025278 496 0 1303 1 41 3588 1 110060 0 cat /proc/interrupts 0: 1: 2: 3: 8: 11: 12: 13: 14: NMI: XT-PIC XT-PIC XT-PIC XT-PIC XT-PIC XT-PIC XT-PIC XT-PIC XT-PIC timer keyboard cascade 3c589_cs rtc aha152x PS/2 Mouse fpu ide0 [root@localhost /proc]# FIGURE 5.310 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION STEP BY STEP 5. /proc/interrupts identifies the currently used interrupt request lines on your system. The ports installed in the machine display. as shown in Figure 5.7. 5. Select the Resources tab and you can see the IRQ and I/O resources associated with the port. Within Linux. 2. Select the Hardware tab in the System Properties dialog box. Click the plus sign (+) beside Ports (COM & LPT) to expand the list. Click the Device Manager button. 4.7 The /proc files in Linux can identify hardware resources.4 Verify COM Ports in Windows 2000 Server 1. 6. Right-click Communications Port (COM1) and choose Properties from the pop-up menu. For example. . 3. Right-click the My Computer icon on the desktop and choose Properties from the pop-up menu.

The most wonderful thing about this utility is that it was self-contained: Because you were booting on the floppy disk.8 The BIOS holds much information about the hardware within the system.8 shows an example of the hard drive information found in the BIOS. which stood for NT Hardware Query. Nov 12 2000 Time (hh:mm:ss) : 17 : 41 : 35 HARD DISKS Primary Master Primary Slave Secondary Master Secondary Slave Drive A : 1. an option is always available to access the system BIOS. and related parameters under which the system operates.0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 311 Checking Values Outside the Operating System Although you can find some hardware identifiers within the operating system.Chapter 5 4. When a machine is booted. Date (mm:dd:yy) : Sun. You also can create a boot disk that you can use to identify hardware components.44M. 3. . you must find others outside of the operating system (such as through the BIOS). To use it.5 in. Drive B : None Video : EGA/VGA Halt On : All Errors Base Memory: 648K Extended Memory: 64512K Other Memory: 384K Total Memory: 65536K TYPE : User : None : Auto : None SIZE 3166 0 0 0 CYLS HEADPRECOMP LANDZSECTOR MODE 767 0 0 0 128 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6135 0 0 0 63 0 0 0 LBA ----LBA ----- FIGURE 5. this utility was first installed to a floppy disk and then the machine had to be booted on that floppy disk. Windows NT 4. you could use it to identify hardware on any machine. usually by pressing a key on the keyboard. The information that appears can identify such values as the installed hard drives. When booted.0 included an excellent utility on the operating system CD named NTHQ. Figure 5. the utility checked the hardware within the machine for any identifying characteristics that it could find and wrote back to the floppy disk a large log file of identified devices. it did not matter what operating system was on the machine.

90 BIOS Date: 10/17/96 Bus Type: ISA Device: Communications Port Hardware ID (for Legacy Devices): *PNP0500 Friendly Port Name: COM1 I/O: 3f8 .312 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A truncated example of its output follows: Hardware Detection Tool For Windows NT 4.0 Beta 2 Master Boot Sector Virus Protection Check Machine Revision: 00 Microprocessor: Pentium Conventional memory: 653312 Available memory: >=48 BIOS Name: Phoenix BIOS Version: EPP revision 1.3ff IRQ: 4 Enumerate all IDE devices IDE Devices Detection Summary Report Primary Channel: master drive detected Model Number: Maxtor 90845U2 Firmware Revision: FA550480 Serial Number: E2051MCC Type of Drive: Fixed Drive Number of Cylinders: 16383 Number of Heads: 16 Number of Sectors Per Track: 63 Number of unformatted bytes per sector Per Track: 0 LBA Support: Yes DMA Support: Yes Drive Supports PIO Transfer Cycle Time Mode: Drive Supports Fast PIO Mode: 3 Drive Supports Fast PIO Mode: 4 1 .

The boot disk is now created. choose the Browse this CD button. Insert the Windows NT Workstation CD into the drive. Insert the disk into the machine and boot it. SNMP is an application of TCP/IP and available for any network utilizing TCP/IP as its network protocol. ESTABLISHING REMOTE NOTIFICATION . Windows NT. 2. Linux. formatted disk in the system and doubleclick the MAKEDISK. 5. Insert a blank. After all the querying is done.0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 313 Step by Step 5. 4. 4. Shut down the machine on which you want to query the hardware. . 3.5 Using the Windows NT Hardware Query Tool 1. Open the Support folder.Chapter 5 4. and so on. STEP BY STEP 5. This makes it available for Windows 2000. 6. all the information is written to a file named NTHQ. OS/2. When the installation pop-up menu appears. the resources identified are shown within the tool.BAT icon.5 outlines how to use this tool to create the log file and identify resources on a machine.6 Establish remote notification The single best way to be notified of situations when they arise is through SNMP (discussed earlier).TXT (on the floppy disk) that you can reference at any time. When you exit the tool. Open the Hqtool folder.

Such notifications are sent via the Messenger Service.9. you can establish thresholds to notify you when conditions exist (such as when the available memory on a machine drops below a specified level). Similar features exist within other network operating systems as well.9 The Messenger Service in Windows NT and 2000 can send alerts. but the impetus of the Server+ exam is that you understand that remote notification is possible through the use of SNMP. as shown in Figure 5. Within Windows 2000. FIGURE 5. notification is possible on an operating system–by–operating system basis.314 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Aside from SNMP. . for instance.

KEY TERMS • Ambient conditions • Archive bit • Baseline • Differential backup • Full backup • Incremental backup • Proactive maintenance • SNMP trap . and baselines give you a starting point against which you can gauge system performance. Most importantly. it involves taking steps to ensure that when a problem does occur you will know about it and have the resources in place to correct it. however.Chapter 5 4. SNMP thresholds can send remote verification and alerts.0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 315 CHAPTER SUMMARY Proactive maintenance is not a difficult process. letting you know what is going on with your network. It amounts to using a good deal of common sense and looking for the possibilities for problems to occur before they do. Physical housekeeping and hardware verification are used to identify what you have and keep it operating under the best conditions possible. Backups enable you to recover data in the event of a hard drive or system failure.

use the command net stop messenger Two messages should display. Open a command-line window. is automatically started upon boot. To stop the service. and a second indicating that it has successfully started. 1. by default. To start the service. 2. The Messenger Service. you look to see whether the service is currently running. and enter cmd. use the command net start messenger Review Questions 1. Programs. Enter the command net start The same exercises done in 5. in alphabetic order. In Windows 2000. 3. What is the most complete type of backup that you can create? Why is it the most complete? Two messages should display. and then stop and start it. This will show. 4. To stop the service. the progress bar disappears and there is no entry in the Status column for this service. so it should appear in the list. 4. and the second indicating when it has stopped. 2. When it is no longer running. Run. right-click it and choose Start from the pop-up menu. all services currently running. To start the service. Estimated Time: 10 minutes.1 is repeated using the graphical interface rather than the command line. A progress bar appears as the service is being started. the progress bar disappears and the word “Started” displays in the Status column for this service. right-click it and choose Stop from the pop-up menu. In this exercise. In this exercise. you look to see whether the service is currently running. the first indicating that the service is starting (with a series of periods that tick off as seconds pass). When it is running. select Start. and then stop and start it (all from the command line). . Estimated Time: 10 minutes.2 Interacting with the Messenger service Through the Graphical Interface The Windows-based operating systems require the Messenger Service to be running for remote notification to even be a possibility.316 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Exercises 5. 1. the first indicating that the service is stopping. A progress bar appears as the service is being stopped. 3. To do so in Windows NT and 2000. Services. Move down the list until you see Messenger. An alphabetic list of services appears. select Start. It should be have a status of Started and a startup type of Automatic. Administrative Tools.1 Interacting with the Messenger Service from the Command Line 5.

He has the server do a full backup every Sunday and Wednesday night.0 to be able to receive remote notifications? 2. Which type of backup will take the longest to run tonight? A. in the middle of the backup. Plenum-grade. Non-plenum-grade. In Windows 2000. Which TCP/IP service can be used for remote notification? A. 5. and an incremental backup every other night of the week. Incremental C. Device Manager D. What does the abbreviation EMI stand for? 5.Chapter 5 4. He wants to safely store the file for two months and then use it to compare against the performance of the system at that time. Kristin needs to run cabling from the server to another room and wants to go above the drop ceiling in her office. proc B. 3 D. John did a full backup on the server on Tuesday morning and it is now Thursday evening.0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 317 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 2. What service must be running in Windows NT Server 4. Within Windows 2000. SMTP C. 7 . B. Query Exam Questions 1. PVC. The server crashed on Wednesday night. Which protocol is used in TCP/IP to enable you to monitor network operations using agents? 4. POP D. Full B. C. Messenger B. 6 G. 4 E. the System Properties dialog box can be used to identify the processor from which tab? 6. What is Martin said to be making? 3. She cannot run cabling in this space. Jeff is the network administrator for Mercury Technical Solutions. What type of cabling should she use? A. SNMP 3. Martin is creating a log file of the performance of key operating system parameters on the server. Differential D. 1 B. Servers should be kept away from other devices that could generate EMI. Daily 4. D. 5 F. NTHQ C. How many tapes does he need to do a restore? A. 2 C. what tool can be used to identify what resources a sound card is utilizing? A.

Backup C.” 2. For more information. SNMP is the Simple Network Management Protocol. industrial air compressor motors. SYS D.0 enables you to compress the Registry to where it will fit on one disk and be stored offsite. 21 10. Which filesystem within Linux can tell you what resources are currently in use? A. Martin is said to be making a baseline. At what port does the SNMP Service run by default? A. Backup C. For more information. Windows NT 4. see the section “Working with SNMP. proc B. etc C. and the like.” 5.” 4.” 3. 80 B. see the section “Working with Baselines. The General tab of the System application will show information about the processor and RAM in Windows 2000.318 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 6. A full backup is the most complete backup that can be made on a system because it includes every file. boot D. see the section “Verifying Hardware. What tool is used in this operating system for creating such? A. It can be caused by any device using electricity but is common with such things as fluorescent lights. see the section “Understanding Backups. Windows 2000 enables you to create the same compression of the Registry onto a single floppy disk. 110 C. and it is used to monitor performance on a TCP/IP network. tmp 9. RDISK D. Which tool was included with Windows NT to enable you to verify hardware in a machine before installing the operating system? A. COM Answers to Review Questions 1. FDISK B. 161 D. What tool is used to create this disk? A. For more information. see the section “The Physical Environment. Services 7. ERD B.” . Services 8. EMI is an abbreviation for electromagnetic interference. A baseline is a gauge of present performance that can be compared against future performance. For more information. RDISK D. For more information. ERD B. NTHQ C.

A is incorrect as PVC is the most common cable. All other choices are incorrect because they misstate the number of tapes needed for this operation. B. For more information.” 2.” 5. but is a feature of Linux. but given the scenario outlined. the RDISK utility (choice C ) was used for this purpose. a full backup will always take longer than any other type to run because it copies every file. Device Manager can be used to identify resources in use in Windows 2000. D is incorrect because it would get only the files changed one day and be the shortest of those choices offered here. C. For more information. D.” 7. For more information. and then the incremental done on Monday and Tuesday nights. the utility was removed and the ability to create the disk was moved to the Backup utility (choice B). B is incorrect because SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is used to route mail. C is incorrect because any nonplenum-grade cable would be strictly prohibited from being run in this place. For more information. see the section “Backups Within Windows 2000. A is incorrect because the Messenger Service exists within Windows-based operating systems but not across all platforms capable of running TCP/IP. To receive remote notifications “Establishing Remote Notification. it is created using the Backup utility in Windows 2000. In Windows 2000. Regardless of when any backup has been done last. Known as the Error Recovery Disk (presented as choice A). C. For more information. they would take an equal amount of time because they both would backup all files created or changed since the full backup was completed. B. B is incorrect because NTHQ makes a bootable disk but the question asks for a way to do so within Windows 2000. the proc filesystem does not exist in Windows 2000. see the section “Understanding Backups. The reason plenum-grade cable exists is to run it within this space. B and C are both incorrect. In Windows NT. see the section “Establishing Remote Notification.” Answers to Exam Questions 1. A is incorrect.EXE utility in Windows NT. see the section “The Physical Environment. The Services utility enables you to start and stop services. D is incorrect as plenum-grade cable can be run in this space. For more information.0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE 319 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 6. He must first restore the full backup done on Sunday night.” 6. it is created using the RDISK. see the section “Backups Within Windows NT. A.Chapter 5 4. the Messenger Service must be running. The Services utility enables you to start and stop services. Known as the Error Recovery Disk (presented as choice A).” 4.” . For more information. and specifically cannot be run in this space. C is incorrect because POP (Post Office Protocol) is used to receive mail and nothing more. but has no bearing on the creation of the ERD disk. To receive remote notifications. for a total of three tapes.” 3. but has no bearing on the creation of the ERD disk. see the section “Understanding Backups. The SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is a service available for TCP/IP to monitor the network and alert you to problems. C. D is incorrect because it is a nonexistent command/tool. see the section “Verifying Hardware.

Martin and Emmett Dulaney. Performance Monitor. Dulaney. 4.320 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 8. The NTHQ (NT Hardware Query) tool was included with Windows NT to enable you to query all components of your system and verify that NT will run correctly before doing an installation. B is incorrect because this is the port used by the email service POP3. Includes coverage of TCP/IP ports and their relationship to the operating system(s). 3. Discusses the Linux operating system and hardware verification. New Riders Publishing. see the section “Working with SNMP.” 10. but none of them would hold any information relevant to the question. D is incorrect because it is the port used by FTP. Weiss. 2000. Emmett and Chris Hare. A is incorrect because this is the port used for the WWW service. 1999. 2. D is incorrect because this is not the name of a valid utility (but represents a commonly used extension on many utilities). B. The SNMP Service runs at UDP port 161 by default. see the section “Checking Values Outside the Operating System. A. Dennis.” Suggested Readings and Resources 1. C is incorrect because this utility is used to place an operating system on a hard drive. The Coriolis Group. 2000. The proc filesystem is dynamically created to report the devices in existence on a particular host within Linux. Includes discussion of backups. The other filesystems listed as choices are all valid directories under Linux. Maione. Includes discussion of backups. C. Dennis. The Coriolis Group. Performance Monitor. and so on. For more information. see the section “Verifying Hardware. 2001. New Riders Publishing. and so on. MCSE Training Guide: Windows 2000 Server. A is incorrect because FDISK is used to partition a hard drive. For more information. For more information. MCSE Training Guide: Windows NT Server 4. LPI General Linux II Exam Cram. . i-Net+ Exam Cram.” 9. Maione.

or the other issues related to the physical security of the server. 5.1 Recognize and report on physical security issues • Limit access to server room and backup tapes • Ensure physical locks exist on doors • Establish anti-theft devices for hardware (lock server racks) . C H A P T E R 6 5. both for this exam as well as in his or her day to day duties on the job. It is hard to pick up a technical magazine and not read something about the latest virus or latest web site hacked.OBJECTIVES This chapter covers the following CompTIA-specified objectives for the Environment section of the Server+ Certification exam. Every server hardware specialist should be able to recognize and report issues with the physical security of the network server. Information security is rapidly becoming one of the most talked about topics in the computer field. the servers that are vandalized.0—Environment . What you don’t see discussed are the backup tapes that are stolen. One of the commonly overlooked aspects of server management is the physical security of the server.

how much RAM to put in the server. back-up generator/fire suppression/flood considerations) OUTLINE Introduction Open-Office Environment Server Room Computer Data Center 324 324 324 325 . and is the air conditioning going to keep the server room cool when it’s 105 degrees outside for the third consecutive week? Every server hardware specialist should be able to recognize and report on environmental conditions that might adversely affect the network server. What is frequently overlooked is what sort of environment will the server be running in? Is there adequate power. Environmental Issues Temperature Humidity Air Quality Power-Line Issues Fire Suppression Flooding Electrostatic Discharge Monitoring Server State 325 328 331 332 332 335 336 337 338 Physical Security Issues Physically Securing the Data Center/Computer Room Limiting Access to Removable Media 339 340 346 Establish Anti-Theft Devices for Hardware 344 Chapter Summary Apply your Knowledge 348 350 . is the fire-protection system going to make things better or worse in the event of a fire (imagine a production server under a sprinkler if you can). and what operating system it should run. humidity/ESD/power surges.2 Recognize and report on server room environmental issues (temperature.OBJECTIVES 5. as well as provide environmental planning prior to a server being installed. When companies look into buying a server. they generally consider what vendor to buy the hardware from.

review the information in the chapter related to this topic. If you don’t work in a place where you have access to a server environment. a high school or college computing facility is another place to apply some of the concepts surrounding physical security and environmental factors. Study the information in this chapter. . do the following: . . . Review the Exam Tips available in various places in this chapter. and think about the other factors discussed in the chapter. . Review the objectives again. Answer the Review and Exam Questions at the end of the chapter and check your results. Look for sprinklers. If you are a student. Make certain that you understand the information in the Exam Tip. . Complete the exercises at the end of the chapter. .S T U DY S T R AT E G I E S To prepare for the Environment objectives of the Server+ exam. go to a library and check the security associated with the walk-up machines. Look around your work environment for some of the physical security and environmental conditions. . and see how the concepts discussed in this chapter apply. Read the objectives at the beginning of this chapter. If you don’t fully understand the Exam Tip. Use the ExamGear test engine on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book for additional Exam Questions concerning this material. .

the state of the server itself and ways to measure it. and finally. network equipment. the discussion moves outside the server box. Open-Office Environment The open-office environment is probably the most common environment for small business and workgroup servers. While reading about each of the components of the computing environment. It can also make supporting a server more convenient for a busy administrator.324 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION INTRODUCTION In this chapter. and cabling (sometimes even phone equipment will share this room). Although certainly not an ideal environment. flood. static discharge. This chapter also discusses the physical security considerations you need to take into account as you architect your computing environment. this environment is useful for businesses without the resources or space to provide a dedicated server room. you also will learn how they apply to the three most common environments in which you will find servers. In this environment you typically find servers in either a cube or maybe under a desk in someone’s office. power. To fully appreciate the environmental factors. you need be familiar with these three environments: á Open-office environment á Server room á Computer data center The following sections take a closer look at each of these environments. humidity. . Server Room The server room is generally a room dedicated to computing equipment. The environmental factors discussed in this chapter include temperature. and starts looking at some of the other important things about maintaining a production server: the environment in which the server is placed. fire. allowing easy access while application development is underway. Often overlooked. You will frequently find the server. the operating environment is a critical factor frequently left out of the planning when a server is deployed. In larger companies it is not uncommon to find development servers in the developer’s cube.

with extensive environmental controls to ensure the health of the servers. You will generally find rack-mounted servers used widely in this environment. It is an environmentally controlled.0—ENVIRONMENT 325 Generally this is a locked area. Various sections of the server specifications document are discussed throughout the chapter. This should be your guide while designing or verifying an operating environment for your server. . you need to learn the environmental factors you must be concerned about when installing and maintaining a server.Chapter 6 5. In this environment it is not unusual to find the servers located on the floor or on a table or desk that is not in use. and they are generally used for centralized operations and enterprise application servers. and staff. humidity/ESD/power surges. minicomputers. and it provides a more secure area for storing a server than under someone’s desk as discussed with regard to the preceding environment. back-up generator/fire suppression/flood considerations) Now that you know the basic types of environments you may find your servers in. raised-floor area specifically designed for storing large numbers of servers. and mainframes. secure.2 Recognize and report on server room environmental issues (temperature. These are expensive areas to build. with references to the specifics for each of the environmental sections. as well as in the documentation that comes with the server. Computer Data Center A computer data center is the ideal place to store your server. there are generally a limited number of data centers even in the largest companies. The first piece of information you need is the operating parameters of your server. 5. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES . maintain. You will generally find dedicated server rooms in branch offices of larger companies or in companies where there are enough people to require network cabling and phone wiring. This information can generally be found on the server vendor’s web site. The next page presents a sample server specifications document. As a result.

36GB Fibre Channel (10.0” or eight 1.25” half-height bays Up to 60 × max. You can generally accomplish this by getting the specifications for each of the components used to build the server and aggregating them into a single document. or 2MB level 2 cache Memory Up to 8GB ECC SDRAM DIMM memory 24 DIMM sockets Storage Hard drives: 9GB. SCSI CD-RW ROM Standard 3.000rpm) hard drives 9GB. Processors Up to 4 Intel Pentium III processors. 550MHz and 800MHz 100MHz front side bus 32KB level 1 cache (16KB instruction cache and 16KB two-way write-back data cache) 512KB. 18GB.200 and 10.5” 1.000rpm) hard drives (external only) Integrated Ultra/Narrow SCSI Adaptec AIC-7880 Drive Bays Hot-pluggable hard drive bays: Six 2. 36GB. 73GB Ultra3 SCSI (7. 1MB. you will need to make sure you can come up with your own server specifications.0” hard drive bays Removable media bays: two 5. 18GB.44MB disk drive I/O Ports PS/2 keyboard port PS/2 mouse port 2 serial ports 2 parallel ports 2 video ports 3 Universal Serial Bus ports Communications Intel PRO/100+ Server Adapter Intel PRO/100+ Dual-Port Server Adapter .326 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Server Specifications Document NOTE What If I Didn’t Buy My Server from a Major Vendor? If you use “white box” computers or build your own for your production servers.

000 ft. Storage altitude: –250 ft to 35.000 ft. don’t bother. and the server is a product of the author’s imagination. fan.3 Environmental NOTE Operating Temperature: 50º F to 95º F Storage Temperature: – 40º F to 105º F 10. Power Four standard 420W redundant hot-pluggable power supplies Redundant hot-pluggable cooling fans 110/220 volts 200VAC single-phase @ 16A 3. What Model Server Is This? If you are trying to figure out what kind of server is referenced in the example.0—ENVIRONMENT 327 Intel PRO/100S Server Adapter (with IP SEC Encryption) Intel PRO/1000 Gigabit Server Adapter 3Com EtherLink Server 10/100 PCI NIC (3C980C-TXM) 56K external modem Chassis Tower chassis: 18.75G at 1Hz to 400Hz for 45 minutes Storage vibration: 1.5G at 1Hz to 400Hz for 45 minutes Operating shock: 6 shock pulses of 75G for up to 20ms Storage shock: 6 shock pulses of 190G for up to 20ms Operating altitude: –50 ft to 10.000 BTU/hour max heat dissipation Relative humidity: 10% to 80% (non-condensing) Operating vibration: 0. . and thermal conditions available Tracks memory errors that have been corrected by the ECC memory Automatic Server Recovery will reboot and restart the server if the OS hangs without user intervention Remote Assistant Card Version 4. This is a sample only.95” (h) × 11.Chapter 6 5.25” (w) × 25.1 kVA max consumption Management Fault monitoring of voltage.75” (d)9U rack height Weight 95 lbs.

due to the heat generated by the equipment. First. you have a problem. One thing you should be very aware of is the designed operating temperature for your equipment. as they are the industry leader in data center cooling systems. Whenever you are implementing a new server.328 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Why Do I Need to Worry About This When I Install the Server? There are two reasons you need to take these factors into account before you install the server. you should also check to make sure the rack is well ventilated and if possible. If you install the server and it appears to be working fine. The Liebert web site is an excellent place to find more information on data center environmental controls. during cold weather.liebert.com) is a leading manufacturer of precision air conditioning systems for use in critical environments such as data centers. Even small holes in drywall can put an unbelievable amount of dust into an enclosed area such as an office or server room. Now it’s time to discuss the specific factors you should understand as you install your server. Temperature Just like many homes. one of the things you should check is the number of BTUs (British Thermal Units) that your server puts out (this is sometimes difficult to determine. This is applicable to the open-office and server room environments. If your air conditioning is not adequate. contains some sort of airflow management (such as a fan) to ensure the server stays cool when in a closed rack enclosure. If your management happens to have a technical background it may not be as large an issue. Liebert’s enterprise air conditioners actually measure their cooling capacity based on the volume of air in the data center. You also have a potential problem if you try to add air conditioning after the server is installed to correct the issue. if you (or the contractors) are not careful you can end up with a server full of drywall dust. but the “If it’s not broken. First. During hot weather. the heating system maintains the temperature at a comfortable level. offering systems ranging from 6 tons to 60 tons.000 BTU/hour max heat dissipation . you run the risk of burning up the server due to lack of cooling. and holes need to be cut for vents. A typical server would operate in the following ranges: Operating temperature: 50º F to 95º F Storage temperature: – 40º F to 105º F 10. you run the risk of damaging the server either before you are able to correct the issues. justifying the costs of correcting environmental deficiencies to management becomes that much more difficult. potentially shortening the useful life of the server. Liebert (www. if your environment is not up to standard at the time of installation. If you walk into your computer room and it is really hot. One example is air conditioning. In this case a thermometer on the wall can be your best friend. Enterprise data centers are usually air conditioned year round. If your environment needs air conditioning added. or sometimes while you are correcting the issues. The second reason will probably not be mentioned on the Server+ exam. because the BTUs are frequently left off the server specifications) and make sure that the aggregate number of BTUs can be cooled by your air conditioning unit. One of the easiest environmental issues to identify is the temperature. If you will be rack mounting the server. don’t fix it” mentality still persists in many companies. but is equally valid. you need to use air conditioning to ensure the server remains under the maximum operating temperature. two things control the temperature of the computing environment. NOTE By now you should have a good understanding of what the term computing environment means.

The machine in question burnt itself up about five days before the air conditioning came on. but you won’t need to start memorizing statistics. you have identified a temperature problem with your computing environment. In many server room environments. What do you do? Let’s start with the easiest and work our way down. It is good information to have. and in general the air conditioner will give an alarm if the temperature rises too far out of the set range. with all the PCs and other computers. If you notice your data center is getting warm. and the reports were never generated again. was in excess of 100 degrees during the middle of the day. Okay. One of these was an old machine used to gather and process a series of reports on system accesses. In a data center. How Much of This Do You Need to Know for the Exam? Because configuring and installing enterprise environmental conditioning equipment is almost always done after a lot of consulting with the vendor. and there was nothing he could do. All the data and programming was lost. We had some fans. the cabling can get so thick that you cannot even access the servers to work on them. The year we were in the building summer came early to New York with temperatures in the 90s in mid-May. you will probably have a serious problem. continues EXAM IN THE FIELD TIP In this example you can see that if the area your computer is stored in exceeds 95 degrees. the temperature is controlled very closely. The temperature in our office. the details of the Liebert offerings (or comparable competitor offerings) are beyond the scope for the exam. IN THE FIELD RAISED FLOORS One of the key components in the air conditioning in a data center is the use of a raised floor. It was a very old machine and could not be repaired or replaced. The facilities manager informed us that it didn’t get hot enough in New York for the air conditioning until June 10th. it is time to service or upgrade your air conditioner. opening the windows was not an option. or is done by someone with an extensive background in data center design. You also have the corollary benefits of a place to run cabling easily and without interfering with the ability to service the computers.Chapter 6 5. The advantage of a raised floor in air conditioning is that the raised floor provides a mechanism for evenly distributing cold air throughout the environment.0—ENVIRONMENT 329 MELTING DOWN COMPUTERS I once worked in a government building in an office area that also housed some special-purpose computers. And because this was a controlled environment building. . but we really needed the air conditioning turned up.

It is also important to note that any rapid change in temperature can have an impact on your server hardware. You cannot just stick the floor under your equipment. Make sure that the raised floor you select will support the weight of the servers you are installing as well as any servers you may install in the future. .330 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION continued NOTE It’s Not Just the Operating Temperature If you look at server specifications. leaving the server in the trunk of your car in July is probably a bad idea. Although the installation of a raised floor is well beyond the scope of this exam. This means you may encounter intermittent or permanent hardware problems with your server long before you ordinarily would. be sure that you verify one fact before starting the installation. But you will have weakened the electronic components and probably shortened their operating life. In a server room environment. In large environments you can end up moving everything in the data center three or four times as you juggle to free up large sections of flooring to be replaced. a fan will do wonders for reducing the system’s temperature. Will the server boot after spending an afternoon in your 120-degree trunk? It probably will. you have two basic choices: You can either cool down the entire office to an acceptable level. The same types of issues can occur by storing a server in the extreme cold for long periods of time. a good rack system will include fans for additional cooling for the equipment contained in the rack. In the absence of an air conditioner. you generally don’t have as much control over the temperature as you would in a data center. You must remove your equipment. or this book (because it is better left to experts in the field). but also a storage temperature. you will usually see not only an operating temperature. If this is the case. install the floor. If you live in Florida. there are few things as disruptive to a production computing environment as an attempt to install a new raised floor when the one you have has buckled under the weight of your equipment. You also can install portable air conditioners (either free standing or something like the window air conditioner you might see in an apartment or house) to control room temperature. Given the temperatures that generally impact the usability of a system. or you can try placing fans or portable air conditioners strategically to contribute to the cooling. allow at least 24 hours for the cement to dry. but you should be able to turn down the thermostat in the room to keep it cool on a hot day. In the open office environment. you will undoubtedly have other employees complaining about a 95 degree Fahrenheit office environment. you can also damage components. and then you can reinstall the equipment. In fact. If your server goes from 65 degrees within your data center to 90 degrees in a moving van. Speaking from experience. although electronic components are generally more tolerant of cold than they are of extreme heat. you will probably have no problem getting the air conditioning serviced or upgraded. This is very important to pay attention to.

trays. and ankle straps. floor tiles. boxes. tape. Operating temperature: 50º F to 95º F Storage temperature: – 40º F to 105º F 10. you will probably want to investigate using a humidifier to bring the humidity up into the server’s operating specifications. the relative humidity is another metric that is usually included in the server specifications. If you are in an environment where humidity is not controlled. As you can see in Table 6. and cabinets. Too dry and your environment can be subject to electrostatic discharge (ESD) which will be discussed later in this chapter in the “Electrostatic Discharge” section of the chapter. Too much humidity in the air and the moisture can damage your server’s electronic components. sole grounders. bench and shelf mats. TABLE 6.Chapter 6 5. Foot grounders. Wrist straps. How Big an Issue Is Humidity? It is very rare for humidity to be an issue in a standard office setting. If your server is located in a greenhouse. Bags. If your server is in any sort of a controlled environment (air conditioned office area. arid environment where you notice a lot of static. These devices are used to test the ESD devices to ensure they are discharging appropriately. If you are in a very dry.1. server room or data center).0—ENVIRONMENT 331 NOTE Humidity Humidity is another environmental quality that is critical to the proper functioning of your server. you probably need to keep a close eye on the humidity. coil cords.1 C O M M O N E L E C T R O S TAT I C D I S C H A R G E PREVENTION DEVICES Device Mats and flooring Wearable protection Floor grounding ESD packing materials Monitors and testers Description Floor mats.000 BTU/hour max heat dissipation Relative humidity: 10% to 80% (non-condensing) . Where you need to be very careful about humidity is in areas where the environment either has a very high or very low humidity. the control of the humidity is usually a function on the air conditioning and heating units. mat tape. ESD watches. you should invest in a dehumidifier (or humidifier) for the immediate server area.

place the thermometer directly in the duct. The second method is more empirical. A power outage occurs when there is no power being delivered to the server. it’s time to cover some of the issues surrounding the power that the server is receiving. You don’t want to be waiting for your new air conditioner while your servers are cooking like eggs in the server room. Some of these methods are as follows: . Air Quality No discussion of a server’s operating environment would be complete without a discussion of the air quality. You might want to baseline this if you suspect cooling may be an issue in the future. and they will overheat and fail in a much shorter time than they should. this condition is considered a spike. Power-Line Issues Now that you have a better understanding of the physical server environment. “Disaster Recovery. If you see the temperature routinely approaching the maximum operating temperature. Get an accurate thermometer and place it close to your servers. A low-voltage condition exists if the line is not delivering enough power. These can vary from an instant to an extended period of time. the fans from the server can turn the server into a really expensive vacuum cleaner by pulling all the dust in the air through the system and depositing them on components. Monitor the temperature. it is time to upgrade. and make sure that you are getting the level of cooling you expect. If you suspect you are not getting the cooling you should. and compare them to the operating parameters for all the computers in your computer room/area. Over time this can cause components to become caked in dust. A transient is a condition where the line voltage is too high. If an over-voltage condition can be measured in nanoseconds. This is generally not an issue in a data center environment. check the specifications for your air conditioner. Brownouts can last for extended periods of time. you should try to get the air conditioning upgrade justified to management in advance of reaching capacity for the existing system. if measured in milliseconds. Because heat can be particularly damaging.” you need to be aware of how to deal with transients and low-voltage conditions. If you think about it. á Low voltage (sags and brownouts). Power issues come in essentially the following three varieties: á Transients (spikes and surges). Be sure you know where your air conditioning enters the area. First. you should schedule weekly or monthly maintenance to clean out the system using a computer vacuum cleaner or some canned air. If your equipment is in an area where the air quality is questionable. but can be an issue when servers are placed in areas with a lot of dust and debris in the air. á Outage (blackout). If you have more heat than you have capacity to cool. it is considered a surge. An undervoltage condition is considered a sag if it is corrected in a few milliseconds.332 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION NOTE How Can You Tell Whether You Have Reached the Capacity on Your Air Conditioning? There are two common methods for determining whether you are due for an air conditioning upgrade. it is time to investigate a new air conditioning solution for your servers. Although you will learn some of the disaster recovery options in the event of a total power outage in Chapter 8. One thing you should also be ready to check is whether your air conditioning is working at all.

You should avoid exposing your equipment to tobacco smoke whenever possible. In this case there is not cutover time involved. such as a lightning strike. or a server with a potentially faulty power supply. check the VA (volt-ampere) rating. When considering purchasing a UPS. converting the direct current power stored in the battery to an alternating current voltage like the line power in use. The worst time to discover the battery in your UPS is bad is after lightning hits the pole out in front of the office and your lights go off. The particles in tobacco smoke are just as dangerous (and in some cases more dangerous) than other environmental particle hazards. you may find that the amount of time it takes to cutover to the battery system can cause the system to reboot. There are two basic types of UPS: • Standby power system. It is generally better to replace a $25 surge suppressor than a $5. The speed at which a surge suppressor reacts to a power spike or surge. Be sure to test this prior to putting the server into production. You should also be sure to schedule monthly tests of your UPSs.Chapter 6 5. Although this is the ideal circumstance. and the switch can take up to 10 minutes. A surge suppressor is an inexpensive power-line filter.000 server. á Uninterruptible power supply (UPS). • Clamping voltage. In the event of an interruption of power. the better the surge suppressor. if you have equipment in an area where smoking is permitted. the UPS switches from line power to battery power. The battery in this model is not part of the power line and draws current only to remain charged. The voltage at which the surge suppressor reacts to a spike or surge.0—ENVIRONMENT 333 á Surge suppressors. these can be very effective against spikes and surges and can be a lifesaver in the event of catastrophic power surge. Watch the Cutover Time If you have an older server. •Uninterruptible power-supply system. or otherwise fail. which will filter an incoming power signal to smooth out variations. because the batteries are already delivering the power. You should NOTE NOTE NOTE What if Your Equipment Is in a Smoking Area? Although smoking in offices is becoming less of an issue as the anti-smoking laws become more wide spread. A standby power system monitors the power line for an unacceptable power variation to occur. This rating should be less than the aggregate rating for all the equipment you will be plugging into it. A true uninterruptible power system keeps the batteries and converter as part of the power-delivery system. This is done using an inverter circuit. the better the surge suppressor. . After the Strike Keep in mind that you can see just as much damage done by the surge that occurs when power is restored after an outage as you see caused by an outage. á VA rating. You should always be sure to power off and/or unplug any systems that have lost power due to an outage to avoid damage (or additional damage) being done when the power comes back on. The faster the clamping speed. Uninterruptible power supplies are battery-based systems designed to monitor incoming power and then take over when an unacceptable voltage is measured on the line. You should evaluate two factors when selecting a surge suppressor: • Clamping speed. expect problems. You can see a sample rating in the following list. these systems are typically much more expensive than their standby counterparts. Although not effective against sags. The lower the clamping voltage.

Usually 15 to 30 minutes of operation are adequate. This UPS provides power to the facility until the generator is running and is able to provide power. the power capacity of the generator. Because the battery and cutover circuits are not in line with the power. to a UPS. Not only are these nonessential pieces of equipment. also consider the amount of time the UPS can supply that power. and works very well in the event of a hard outage. Make sure you test this process thoroughly. Due to the amount of time involved with starting a backup generator. and the amount of fuel on hand for the generator. however. . but their high initial amperage requirements at power up can overload a UPS. A good minimum is usually 36 hours for a backup generator to handle major outages. If you have the facilities to store more fuel. Things to consider when dealing with backup generators include the amount of time it takes for the generator to begin delivering power. but only discussed line conditioning briefly. 72 hours or even more will make sure you are prepared for anything. IN THE FIELD LINE CONDITIONING This chapter has discussed the various types of protection for your server power. Four standard 420W redundant hot-pluggable power supplies Redundant hot-pluggable cooling fans 110/220 volts 200VAC single-phase @ 16A 3. you should ensure the server will operate long enough for you to shut it down manually. the power-conditioning capabilities of this WA R N I N G NOTE What About My Printer? Never connect high-amperage devices.1 kVA max consumption á Backup generator. Usually the answer for a server in an office or a server room is to connect the server to a standby UPS. This is the most cost-effective solution. Ideally you should have an automated shutdown set to occur in the event of a power outage. This topic is usually considered only when implementing a large-scale server installation. The worst thing to find out the day after an outage is that your UPS ran out of battery power one minute before the software completed the shutdown.334 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION What if the Power Goes Out When No One Is in the Office? Most business-quality UPSs can be purchased with software and cabling to allow them to automatically shut down your server in the event of an outage. but if you do not. such as printers or copiers. they are generally installed in conjunction with a battery-powered UPS. A backup generator is used to provide power to large data centers and mission-critical offices in the event of a power outage.

Now that you know more about the important topic of power.0—ENVIRONMENT 335 type of UPS are limited. If your environment is not sealed. you will generally have an inert gasbased fire-suppression system that works by driving all the oxygen out of the air. including Kidde. and they will not be effective. consider some of the other environmental factors you should take into account when you are installing a server. You need to be aware of fire-suppression considerations in these areas.2 HALON REPLACEMENTS Chemical Name FC-3-1-10 HFC-23 HFC-27ea IG-541 CO2 Trade Name CEA-410 FE 13 FM-200 Inergen — Be Sure to Close the Door on Your Way out of the Burning Data Center. They will usually have circuits for handling surges and spikes. The key to using the latest generation of environmentally friendly firesuppression chemicals is to make sure your data center is a sealed environment. and Ansul Fire Protection TABLE 6. . but their capability to supplement power during a brownout is limited. has the capability to supplement power from the batteries during periods of sags or brownouts. These chemicals rely on the capability to reach a specific concentration in the data center atmosphere to put out the fire. If you have a facility using a backup generator. the odds are pretty good that you have additional line-conditioning equipment designed specifically to supply your data center with a clean line voltage. NOTE Manufacturer 3M Specialty Chemicals DuPont Great Lakes Chemical Ansul Fire Protection Various. A true UPS.2 includes a list of some of the more common clean replacement chemicals for Halon.Chapter 6 5. Fire Suppression You may be asked to install servers in several different environments. In a data center environment. with its batteries in line. the chemicals cannot reach the necessary concentration. Table 6. Halon was a favorite for many years but is being phased out in favor of more environmentally friendly gases such as carbon dioxide. Fike Protection Systems.

and it suppresses fire by absorbing heat from a fire until the atmosphere can no longer support the fire. but what if the fire is in a wastebasket on the other end of the floor? Suddenly the sprinklers go off and your server resembles the Fourth of July with all the sparks shooting out of it. enclosing the server in some sort of sealed rack. or by suppressing the release of flammable vapors that can mix with the air and burn. In a shared office environment. and paper are burning. cloth. you should have ready access to a fire extinguisher rated for electrical fires. oils.336 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION What Do the Letters on the Fire Extinguisher Mean? The letters have the following meanings: A indicates fires where ordinary combustibles such as wood.) D indicates fires containing combustible metals such as magnesium. C indicates fires where live electrical equipment. this can be done by using the foam to blanket the fuel surface. it is generally not practical to disable the sprinklers. Another type of fire suppression is the use of foam to extinguish the fire. NOTE Flooding You should sincerely hope that you never have to deal with a flooding situation with regard to your servers. In most cases if you are unable to save the equipment before the flood. In the event of impending flooding. If there is a fire in the server room. potassium. This can mean placing the server under a desk. (This is the one you want. Your best bet in this instance is to try to shield the server from any possible water from the sprinklers. This is generally a remarkably bad idea. Not only is water one of the worst things you can pour on an electrical fire. How do these chemicals work? Carbon dioxide extinguishes a fire by reducing the oxygen content of the protected area below the point where it can support combustion.) Mount this prominently either directly inside or on the wall outside the door to your server room. smothering the fire by cooling the fuel with the water content of the foam. and sodium. it will be damaged or completely unrecoverable. Depending on the type of foam system. The next step should be to buy a good ABC or BC fire extinguisher. DuPont originally developed FE13 as a chemical refrigerant. You should keep an ABC or BC fire extinguisher handy in this case as well. (See the sidebar for details on the lettering code. you can do a few things: . Foam fire-suppression systems work by separating the fire from the oxygen in the air. B indicates fires where flammable liquids. and grease are burning. Step one in a server room should be to have maintenance disable the sprinkler. In a server room you generally have the same sprinkler system you would find out in the office space. or otherwise shielding it from moisture. however.

ESD can change the electrical characteristics of a computer component. If you work in a known flood plain.0—ENVIRONMENT 337 á Remove all removable media and backup tapes from the premises prior to the flooding. you will want to limit the amount of time they are exposed to moisture. a charge of as little 10 volts can do the trick. the amperage is very low. á In the event of flooding. Humans start to feel a static shock at about 3. immediately remove any hot-swap drives from your servers and move them to a dry location. If possible remove them from the building entirely and store them on high ground. In many instances the power will shut down before the flooding has time to damage your servers. Corrosion is one area of concern and moisture on the components is another. If you apply electric current to a motherboard that still has a couple droplets of water on it.000 volts are not uncommon and can be generated by the simple act of walking across a carpeted floor. á If your servers have been completely flooded.000 volts. Electrostatic Discharge Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is defined as the transfer of charge between bodies at different electrical potentials. In the event you need to recover the data from these drives. If you want to try to recover them. you should completely remove all components and dry them as quickly as possible. Allow the components to air dry for at least 48 hours before cleaning and testing them. What Should You Know About ESD? Be sure you know that an ESD of as little as 10 volts can damage sensitive components. ESD can also upset the normal operation of a server. Ensure they are stored in waterproof containers in case you have to recover the data as part of a disaster-recovery program. Static charges of up to 30. causing the server to malfunction or fail. degrading or destroying it. which is why ESD is does not injure people. make sure your flood insurance is paid up.Chapter 6 5. NOTE EXAM TIP How Big a Jolt Can You Get from ESD? The actual voltage involved with ESD varies widely. . á Power off all servers and move them to the highest location in the building. It is important to remember that although the voltage is high. you could experience some “shocking” results. To damage a piece of sensitive electronics. or at least have an excellent disaster-recovery plan in place in case of floods. You should also be aware of the environmental factors to reduce or eliminate ESD in your environment. they are probably not going to be dependable. You may be more familiar with it as the shock you get after walking on a carpet and touching a doorknob.

The best way to monitor your servers is to add a hardware remote management card. set it on a static mat. Each vendor has his own flavor of this card. including the following: á Use a static discharge device (static strap. You can usually get information on the hardware components (for example. mat. You can also have the carpet treated periodically with chemicals to help keep the static electricity to a minimum. ground yourself and your tools. The key from an environmental perspective is that you can also get information such as system temperature and line voltage. and other environmental operating statistics of your server. There are ways to measure the server’s temperature.338 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION You can do several things to your environment to help control ESD. In addition. To keep them from affecting the server. a new generation of add-on server cards can give you detailed information on the environmental state of your server. Monitoring the Server State The final topic discussed is the server’s state in relation to its environment. á Avoid deploying servers in carpeted areas. This can be done by touching a metal object (not the server) and discharging any built-up potential. . In fact with many of these remote management cards you can set temperature thresholds that will shut down the server if the temperature is out of the operating range. and so forth) whenever servicing your server. line voltage. including the old fashioned thermometer. you need to monitor the temperature. á Always store spare parts in static bags. but what it provides is detailed information on the internal environment of your server. If you must put your server in a carpeted environment. active hard drives and processor utilization) and sometimes OS statistics as well. You have already learned about the environmental factors that might adversely affect the server. á Before you touch a piece of equipment.

5. The following section discusses how you should physically secure your servers. Suddenly people started noticing they had been knocked off the server. now it’s time to discuss the other often-neglected portion of server installations: making sure that your server is physically secure. and other computer-related tasks. They started rebooting PCs and checking network connections.1 Recognize and report on physical security issues • Limit access to server room and backup tapes • Ensure physical locks exist on doors • Establish anti-theft devices for hardware (lock server racks) All right.0—ENVIRONMENT 339 Now that you are familiar with the environmental factors you should consider when installing a server. and ensure such media are secured as well. it’s time to discuss securing your server. about 20 people were working busily in their cubes and offices on a variety of reports. Some user’s PCs locked up. The culprits were never found. email. where he discovered that someone had walked in through the loading dock and left with their very expensive file server. It was about 1:00 p. spreadsheets. . You also need to be aware that removable media are vulnerable.Chapter 6 5. PHYSICAL SECURITY ISSUES . IN THE FIELD A TRUE STORY FROM THE FIELD In a branch office for a company. that they couldn’t print. Finally someone stuck his head in the server room. or couldn’t save files.m.

If you want to protect your computing resources. including the following: á Lock and key. the following seven steps will help you manage your keys effectively and securely: 1. That said. This model works great if there are a limited number of people who need access. Giving a secretary a key to the phone/server room so you don’t have to let the phone technicians in is not effective key control. a padlock. a key to a server rack. you should make sure that there is a locked door and four walls between your server and the rest of the world. but key management is a real issue in larger environments. or in extreme cases. If you have key control responsibilities for a high-security access area. The odds of a secret remaining a secret are inversely proportional to how many people know it. although once you’ve had the lock rekeyed two or three times and new keys issued. The best way to institute a key-based physical security model is if you have only two keys made for the server room. IN THE FIELD NOTE How Do I Control My Keys? The biggest drawback to locking up anything using keys is key control. how do you retrieve keys when people leave the team and rekey locks when keys are lost? These are all issues involved in maintaining effective security using a lockand-key method. you should have a plan for annual replacement of the locking mechanism. How do you keep track of who has keys. The venerable lock and key is a tried and true method for physically securing your server environment. you should follow these steps: . unless the tracking and access to keys is very closely managed. In circumstances where keys are maintained centrally and are issued to access an area or device (this could be a cabinet key.340 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Physically Securing the Data Center/Computer Room The best place to start this discussion is with the perimeter. there are a variety of ways to permit access to that area after it has been secured. the lock on the door. Her job does not include a requirement for access to the phone/server room. This is frequently the most cost-effective mechanism. Keys are not quite as bad. Issue of keys to secure areas should be kept to an absolute minimum. This can be a cabinet lock. This sounds very obvious until you find out how many people in your organization have keys because it is convenient for them rather than because their job requires it. 3. One should be for you and one for your backup in case you are hit by a bus on your way to work. 2. the cost savings become less compelling a reason not to implement a more expensive solution. or the key to a secure area). Keys are like secrets. They say two people can keep a secret as long as one of them is dead. SEVEN STEPS TO EFFECTIVE KEY CONTROL If you are responsible for key control in your organization. who needs keys. but it’s also not a bad philosophy to follow. This is especially important in an area with high employee turnover. Keys should be accessible only to people whose official duties require them.

duplicate. You also need to ensure you know who has access to that key.0—ENVIRONMENT 341 • Secure all keys in a locked. . This prevents unauthorized copying of the keys. Using a combination locking mechanism is just like locking up your high school locker. where the spares are stored. fireproof container when not in use. 4. he should check the authorization list once the key control container is opened. keys should not be issued to people.” or keeping them in your pocket are not good methods for maintaining key control. This authorization should always be in writing. Hanging the keys on the wall. You can also reset the combination when your administrators leave.Chapter 6 5. Inventory your keys at least once a year. to whom they have been issued. and whether the lock is on a building master key. • Whenever possible. and to dispose of keys. • You should maintain an access list of users who are authorized to possess keys. sticking them in a desk drawer where “no one knows they’re there. The “Do Not Copy” imprint on many keys is not effective in preventing the copying of the key. 7. This list should be stored in the key control container to prevent alteration or misplacement. The advantage to this method is that you no longer have to distribute keys or maintain key control lists. á Combination locking mechanisms. as well as ensure that there are effective key control measures in effect for the building master keys. 5. When the person responsible for key control is asked to provide a key. You should know how many keys have been made for each lock. It is also an excellent idea to make users sign for keys. 6. Make sure returning keys is on every exit checklist for departing employees. and make sure that the list of keys issued to an employee matches the list of keys returned. and should not be allowed to leave the building. to order new keys and locks. Only one person should be authorized to create new. or replacement keys. The one drawback to this model is that it is very easy to share a combination with someone who isn’t on the authorized users list. Keep track of your keys.

5. but also so that you know who to tell when you change the password.342 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION IN THE FIELD FIVE STEPS TO EFFECTIVE USE OF COMBINATIONS If you are using combination locks to secure access to rooms. If it is an easy combination for you to remember. A good combination should not be made up of repeated numbers (for example. 3. Combinations of locks should be given only to people whose official duties require access to them. have the person sign the policy and have the document stored in his or her HR records. 1111). servers. Make sure you change the passwords whenever someone leaves. Although the trusty Masterlock was great for a high school locker. This should be documented. your sensitive data should be secured by a configurable combination lock. . If you cannot use a configurable lock. not only so that you know who has access to an area. 1234 or 8765). Keep track of who has been given combinations. be made up of multiples (for example. 4. change the lock frequently. or be a known number such as a phone number or birth date. If possible. or media cabinets in your organization. Fixed combination locks should never be used to secure sensitive systems or data. Choose good combinations. Giving a secretary the combination to the phone/server room so that you don’t have to let the phone technicians in is not effective security. and not because their job requires it. it is probably an easy combination for someone to guess. 2. the following five steps will help you manage your keys effectively and securely: 1. not only if that person has the combination(s) but also even if you suspect that he or she might have learned the combination while working for the company. Her job does not include a requirement for access to the phone/server room. This sounds very obvious until you find out how many people in your organization have the combination because it is convenient for them. You should also have a written policy concerning disclosure of a combination without authorization. 2468). ascending or descending numbers (for example.

á Biometrics. these readers work by reading a magnetic signature off an access card or token. with his shiny new access card. and 5 minutes later badged himself into the data center. also make sure that cards are returned by departing employees. review usage. If you see someone on the day shift is in the data center from 3:00 a.m. check and make sure that he or she is supposed to be there. First. you would be able to tell who was in stealing your servers. Although the field is still in What About Effective Card Control? The most effective way to ensure security using card readers is threefold. Examples of biometrics that might be used to authenticate a user include fingerprints. As an adjunct to that. Probably the most common of the access control mechanisms. The next day the same consultant arrived in HR and requested card access. The secretary. asked who had authorized his access. This yields a much more secure environment than the previous mechanisms. he followed the signs and told the secretary in HR he was working on a project and needed access to the building. Finally. In fact some of these products are available today. The first thing the security consultant did was ask someone in the hall who he needed to see to get a card for access to the building. retinal patterns. and as the cost comes down you will see more and more of these systems in place. periodically review who has been issued cards. or at least ensure their cards are deleted from the system after they leave.Chapter 6 5. Biometrics is the most promising access control technology on the horizon for future use. NOTE NOTE Who Was Sleeping in My Computer Room? You would think that with the ability to tell which card was used to access the computer room. IN THE FIELD ANOTHER TRUE STORY FROM THE FIELD One company I used to work for paid an external security firm to perform a security audit of one of their facilities. An uproar ensued.m. The secretary asked what parts of the building. make sure no cards are issued without written authorization. When told HR. and what areas they have access to. you have no way of telling who was holding the card at the time. and procedures were promptly put in place to ensure that people would be authorized before receiving a card. You can tell what token was used to access an area. he told her the entire building. So instead of having to rekey a lock and redistribute keys. The advantage of this system over a key system is you can authorize and remove access from the central authentication server. Unfortunately that is not the case. until 5:00 a. You also have the added benefit of being able to track access based on access token. There have even been some discussions about using DNA or scent as the biometric key for these systems in the future. Make sure they are still appropriate. He gave her the name of the security officer who had engaged him. every night for a week. .0—ENVIRONMENT 343 á Card readers and proximity readers. A biometricsbased access control system uses measurable physical characteristics to authenticate users into an environment. being aware of the new policy. or speech. or reset a combination and redistribute the combination. Although you can tell whose card was used to gain access. you just need to turn off the access card or token. Five minutes later he badged himself into the data center again. Second.

It is always a good idea to keep your production servers locked with a good key management program in place so that you can find the key you need when the time comes to get into the server. and the server applications didn’t appear to be misbehaving. . now that you have learned the best way to keep the general public away from your equipment. and in this server I knew I had followed the standard because I had provisioned the hardware and performed the installation. Having cameras on key access points such as entries. There are some concerns from privacy advocacy groups that these types of authentication systems are an invasion of privacy. I was doing a physical inspection of the server and I noticed something odd. á Server security (inherent). Some of the server-specific precautions won’t hurt. All right. and in many cases to lock the drives into the server chassis. but you should at least video tape the accesses and change the tape once a day. consider some of the security measures you can take in case an intruder sneaks in through a window. and data center doors is an excellent mechanism for discouraging people from theft or malicious acts. Most high-end servers enable you to lock the case. Somehow it had two network interface cards in it. It is very difficult to secure the space under your desk. it’s time to discuss some of the other things you should be doing to physically secure your server. . and especially in electronic commerce. . One of the most common security measures is the locking mechanisms included as part of the server itself. NOTE Lights . . We had standardized on a specific network interface card for new servers. I arrived onsite and started checking out the server. the server was crashing regularly. IN THE FIELD WHY SHOULD I LOCK MY SERVER? This is another true story. many people believe that biometrics will play a critical role in future computers. NOTE Establish Anti-Theft Devices for Hardware Now that you have secured the perimeter. Action Although not strictly a physical security mechanism. As it turned out. but you should be aware that your server just isn’t secure until there is a locked door between it and the rest of the world. all the hard drives were spinning. although a month is an even better idea if practical. elevators. That’s because you really can’t secure a server in that environment. Memory utilization was fine. I knew I had only installed one. Camera . You should save at least one week’s worth of video. you should investigate adding a video component to your physical security plan. its infancy. I was working in a NetWare environment back in the days before Windows NT had been released.344 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION What About the Server under My Desk? You may have noticed that this discussion does not cover how to secure a server in a shared office environment. These cameras don’t need to be monitored around the clock. I had installed a server about a month before I got the call. . You may not be aware of a theft for 10 days and being able to go back to the tape to see who has been in the area is invaluable in recovering your assets and prosecuting the guilty party.

The customer had to purchase another network interface card to replace the one that had been stolen. In addition to the built-in security of the server itself. . it is sometimes worth the money to invest in the cabling security products that will enable you to tie the server physically to a desk.kensington. You don’t want to have a server down and not be able to fix it because the person with the keys took the day off and forgot to take her pager home.com. • Additional server case locks. This is another instance where good key control is critical. Where people will tend to get into trouble is when they decide to save some money and not order the back door for the rack. but forgetting to actually build the back wall of the house.Chapter 6 5. Information can’t be loaded or copied without bypassing this additional hardware. He even loaded the correct drivers so that no one would be able to tell that he had performed a fivefinger upgrade to his own system. This is akin to putting a deadbolt on the front door of your new house. Kensington makes a product for securing floppy drives called FloppyLock. and CD-ROM drive to prevent unauthorized access. which can be found at www. so he removed them from their servers and put them in this one. In an office environment. These are locking devices that fit over the floppy drive. including the following: • Removable media drive locks.0—ENVIRONMENT 345 someone in one of the other departments was having problems with his network adapters. Not a good idea. or they skip the side panels. á Add-on server security. Zip drive. you might want to use some additional devices to ensure your server remains secure. Some servers ship with holes in the case predrilled for a padlock. á Server racks. and there are also third-party products that can be added to secure a server. similar to the way bike locks work. Almost all rack systems include locking front and back doors. As an example. The logical follow-up to securing the server is securing the rack in which the server is mounted.

and is really a paranoid adaptation of a notebook security product. devices are available to secure the drives for this media. The final add-on is really best suited for the shared office environment. CD-RW) á Removable hard drives á Backup media (tapes) As discussed in the preceding section. Limiting Access to Removable Media The final subject with regard to physical security is the security of your removable media. This is only a recommendation for extremely open environments with a history of thefts. LS120. you can add a motion-sensitive alarm to the server to alert you when the server is moved. which includes the following: á Removable disks (floppy. But what about the media itself? . Jaz. It is not needed in most environments.346 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION • Alarms. If you are concerned that someone is going to physically remove your server. Zip.

á Place the media in a safe. Several methods are typically used to ensure the security of your removable media. . or even better. Mysteriously the hard drives in the server crashed that evening. Much of it had to be rewritten from printouts and memory.Chapter 6 5. but the department spent the better part of a month re-creating all the data on the server. the data could be restored immediately. á Place the media in a locked cabinet with strict key control. On Friday a decision was made to let one of the developers go. a firesafe. á Engage a third-party firm to store the tapes in their secure facility. including the following: á Lock the media in an office. and they had a server with a RAID array that they backed up religiously. These events were never proven to have been the result of this individual’s actions. He wasn’t performing his job adequately. The backup tapes were stored right next to the server. and all the backup tapes disappeared.0—ENVIRONMENT 347 IN THE FIELD FOR WANT OF A TAPE. THE DEPARTMENT WAS LOST One of my customers in the early 1990s was using the open-office environment for their workgroup server. so that in the event of a problem. They were a product development organization. Unfortunately he discovered he was going to be let go the day before he was supposed to.

or in companies where there are enough people to require network cabling and phone wiring. For this exercise. raised-floor area specifically designed for storing large numbers of servers. The server room is a room dedicated to computing equipment. or adding a new server to an existing environment. and is common in smaller companies. á Server room. The important thing to understand when you are designing your server environment. is what the operating requirements for that server are. If you don’t understand what type of environment your server needs to function. You will generally find dedicated server rooms in branch offices of larger companies. the server’s specifications are your best friend. . This environment typically has servers in either a cube or someone’s office. you will not be able to complete your installation and ongoing support successfully. or for development servers. and mainframes—these are expensive areas generally limited to larger companies. An environmentally controlled. á Computer data center. secure. including the following: á Temperature á Humidity á Air quality á Power-line issues á Fire suppression á Flooding á Electrostatic discharge á Server state This chapter discussed these environmental factors with an eye toward three different types of server environments: á Open-office environment.348 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS • Biometrics • Blackout • British thermal unit (BTU) • Brownout • Clamping speed • Clamping voltage • Electrostatic discharge (ESD) • Sag • Spike • Surge • Transients • Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) • VA (volt-ampere) This chapter has discussed a number of environmental factors that could impact the heath and well being of your server. minicomputers. A computer data center is the ideal place to store your server.

additional server case locks. All the security in the world won’t help if someone can just pull your drives and walk out. Always use the locking mechanisms included as part of the server. you can also use additional devices such as removable media drive locks. and you should ensure any removable hard drives (hot-swap drives) are locked in the chassis.0—ENVIRONMENT 349 CHAPTER SUMMARY Next you learned some of the aspects of physical security.Chapter 6 5. safe. but also for any removable media that might have server information on it. such as removable disks or backup media. á Server racks. Be sure to use a rack system with locking front and back doors. or otherwise secured. Now that you have a thorough understanding of the environmental and physical security issues associated with deploying a server. If the security of the server and the rack are not sufficient. The first important concept dealt with securing the computing environment. á Add-on server security. This is not only for the server itself. test your understanding of these issues with some review questions. The key methods include the following: á Lock and key á Combination locking mechanisms á Card readers and proximity readers á Biometrics The discussion then turned to some of the anti-theft measures you can take in your server environment. in a locked cabinet. or in an outside storage location. The chapter concluded with a discussion of the importance of securing the removable media itself. You should always secure removable media. á Server security (inherent). . or alarms.

350 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Exercises 6. complete the following checklist concerning the computing environment. complete the following checklist concerning the physical security of the facility. proximity readers)? 4. If you do not have access to a computing environment. Are all production servers secured within a controlled access area? The purpose of this exercise is to get you thinking about the factors involved in checking for environmental issues. how often is usage monitored? By whom? 6. How is access to sensitive areas within the building maintained (keys. semi-annually. In your computing environment. Are the cases on all production servers locked. security. air conditioned server room)? 2. Are key control/card control measures in place for departing employees? 8. Are all servers on uninterruptible power supplies? Do these UPSs provide enough power to ensure the controlled shutdown of the server? . This checklist is a good basis for a physical security review. This checklist is a good basis for an environmental review. next to the server. If a card reader system is being used.2 Complete an Environmental Review Checklist The purpose of this exercise is to get you thinking about the factors involved in reviewing physical security issues. building firewalls. Is removable media kept secured at all times? Where is this media secured (desk. or other public area that contains computers. How frequently is access to sensitive areas reviewed (monthly. 1. university. and is access to the keys controlled? 11. locked/barred windows. IT)? 5. cameras. Estimated Time: 30 minutes. annually. combination locks. Is there a security alarm on the building? On the sensitive areas within the building? 6. university. but should in no way be considered exhaustive. fences. How recently have the physical security measures been audited? Was it an internal or external audit? Were deficiencies revealed corrected? 13. never)? 7. Are all production servers secured within a locked rack? 10. locked cabinet. 1. but should in no way be considered exhaustive. How are the premises protected against external intruders (guards. Are all your servers located in an environmentally controlled space (data center. Who controls access to the sensitive areas of the building (facilities. you can use a public library. In your computing environment. How is the building protected (security doors. or other public area that contains computers. building guards)? 3. fireproof doors)? 3. If you do not have access to a computing environment. you can use a public library. offsite)? 12. secure parking area)? 2. Estimated Time: 30 minutes. Is adequate fire protection in place for the computing environment (fire suppression.1 Complete a Physical Security Review Checklist 9.

and how should you correct it? Exam Questions 1. i only D. You have noticed that that the server backup tapes for your department’s server are stored in a cardboard box under the table the server is on. or both? 6. iii. static straps)? 9. Why is this a problem. Are measures in place to reduce or prevent ESD (mats. A. What are the advantages and drawbacks to each of the remaining access control mechanisms discussed in the chapter? Which is the most appropriate for your environment? . iii. line voltage) monitored? Are alerts generated on an error condition (sag. i and iv C. You are the network administrator for Wild Widgets Inc. You’re the administrator of Little Faith Enterprise’s network. 8. Where can you find the information you need to determine whether your operating environment will support the server you want to deploy? 5. Eliminates the need for key control. Enables you to track who accesses a specific area. Are fire extinguishers of the correct type available for fire outbreaks outside of the computer room? Is this a building sprinkler system. What environmental factors should you consider before installing these servers? 4. and have been asked to install a badge reader system to secure your computer data center. Is the server’s operating state (temperature. Low cost. iv. You’re a LAN administrator for Think About IT Consulting Services Company. Are the computers stored in a facility with good air quality? Areas of concern include office environments where a lot of printing occurs. iv only Review Questions 1. ii. Which of the following are advantages of a badge reader system? i. ii. What are the benefits and drawbacks to this security method? 2. Badges are easier to distribute and maintain than keys. Is the temperature monitored? How often? 10. temperature exceeds operating limits)? 3. and v B.Chapter 6 5. v. static bags. and smoking areas. Your manager has asked you to install three mission-critical mail servers in your location. fire extinguishers. You are the network administrator for Exponent Mathematicians and your manager has asked you to “lock up those servers!” He recommends that you have a lock installed on the server room and distribute keys to the rest of your team. Allows for more flexible access management. manufacturing floors. construction areas. If the servers are located in a rack.0—ENVIRONMENT 351 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 4. are there fans in the rack to provide sufficient cooling? 5. Is the facility on a flood plain? 7.

You are the network administrator for the Hittem Boxing Glove Corporation. What features should you be looking for in a rack system to ensure the adequate cooling and good physical security? . i and iv D. Power off unused or unnecessary equipment. You are the LAN administrator for Little Faith Enterprises Meat Packing. and your server just caught on fire. What are some ways of cooling the system? i. As part of your responsibilities you have been asked to add surge suppressors to all the servers to prevent an outage in the event of a lightning strike or power surge. A. iv. You are the system administrator for Phil’s Phill-up Stations. You notice that the data center is getting very hot. and you need to keep your systems cool. Combination lock C. Rent a portable air conditioner. Remove the cover of the server. Amperage iv. A bucket of water A. It appears the air conditioner is failing. Open a window or door. a chain of gas stations. i and iii 6. Surge capacity A. i and ii C. ii and iii C. Which technology do you choose? A. Clamping voltage iii. iii and iv D. An AD-type fire extinguisher iii. i and iii B. i and ii B. You are installing a server in your data center. Which of the following would be appropriate for putting out the fire? i. iii. ii and iii C. Number of outlets v. ii. An ABD-type fire extinguisher iv. Lock and key B. You are installing three new servers in your data center. i and ii B. Clamping speed ii. Biometric system 5. A BC-type fire extinguisher ii. ii and iv D. Badge reader D. and want to rack mount them. You are using a phone closet as your computer room. Your manager wants to be able to track who goes in and out of the meat refrigerators to prevent theft. An ABC-type fire extinguisher v. What two factors should you consider when selecting your surge suppressor? i. You are the lead engineer for Little Faith Enterprises. iv and v 3. iv and v 4. You are the LAN administrator for the OUI Find-em detective agency.352 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 2.

i. and v . Copier A. Outage A. ii. Backup generator 9. ii. and iii D. Wrong amperage ii. Router iv. Low voltage v. iv.0—ENVIRONMENT 353 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E i. ii.Chapter 6 5. iii. Printer v. iv and v C. iii. iii. Monitor iii. i. Fans v. and v D. iii. Too many watts iii. Server ii. i. and iv C. ii. and v C. ii. Surge suppressor B. You manage the servers for the Bang Bang Hammer Corporation. Uninterruptible power supply D. You are the LAN administrator for UR Write Publishing. A KVM switch iv. You have been tasked with providing power fault tolerance for your mission-critical data center. iv. What is the best solution for providing power fault tolerance in a data center? A. and v 7. iii. and v 8. You are the collaborative computing administrator for the Call-me Telephone Company. and iii B. You have just installed your first UPS and are plugging in devices. iv. Front and rear locking doors ii. a publishing company. You are responsible for maintaining the data center environment. Your director is very concerned about protecting the system from power problems since his neighbor’s house was hit by lightning. i and v B. and v B. and iv D. Side panels iii. i. iv. Cable management A. Which of the following should you plug into the UPS? i. iii. Line transients iv. What are the three types of power-line conditions he needs to worry about? i. i. Battery backup C.

Your data center is in danger of filling with water. and you can reset the password periodically. air quality. powerline issues.” 5. the manufacturer or vendor should be able to provide the information you need. This is a very new technology. . If your backup media is stored in the data center. What is the first thing you should do to protect your equipment? A. • Biometrics. Using a lock and key has the following advantages. The tapes should be secured in a cabinet. Those tapes hold a copy of every byte of data on your server. all he needs to do is take that cardboard box. tested security model that is generally cost effective. For more information.” Answers to Review Questions 1. If someone wants to get a look at your confidential marketing plans. • Card readers and proximity readers.” 4. C.” 3. The advantage of this system over a key system is you can authorize and remove access from the central authentication server. For more information. The remaining methods for access control are as follows: • Combination locking mechanisms. B. or ideally by an offsite data repository service. You can usually find all the answers to the server’s operating requirements in the server specification sheet. For more information. and the server state. and do some reading. humidity. move it to a dry location. flooding. Unplug all the servers. because you are using a person’s characteristics (fingerprints and so forth) for access control. see the section “Environmental Issues. a safe.” 2. and is still very expensive. If you cannot find this sheet. fire suppression. and you have to deal with lost tokens. You can also track access based on access token. For more information. D. You are the server administrator for Jim’s House of Wrenches. The advantage to biometrics is there is no key control. see the section “Physically Securing the Data Center/Computer Room. The environmental factors you need to be aware of include temperature. Remove all the hard drives from the servers. The advantage to this method is that you no longer have to worry about key control. Call your insurance company. The main drawback is maintaining key control. Your main data center just had a pipe burst in the hallway outside your data center.354 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 10. see the section “Limiting Access to Removable Media. For more information. The one drawback to this model is the fact that it is very easy to share a combination with someone who isn’t on the authorized users list. It is a familiar. This is generally a more expensive solution. see the section “Physically Securing the Data Center/Computer Room. restore the data from tape. see the section “Environmental Issues. electrostatic discharge.

the backup generator is the best solution for a data center environment.Chapter 6 5. For more information. You need a biometric system. D. they don’t contribute to the environment or security of the rack. see the sections “Temperature” and “Establish Anti-Theft Devices for Hardware. For more information. iv is incorrect because all you can tell is what badge was used to enter the area. enables you to be more flexible in what areas people can access. Transients. and the number of outlets won’t help prevent an outage. For more information. and you weren’t in a hot part of the country. see the section “Temperature. For more information. To secure the rack.0—ENVIRONMENT 355 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Answers to Exam Questions 1.” 9. and because badges can be disabled if lost or stolen. Adding additional cooling capabilities and reducing the number of heat-generating devices are both excellent ideas. D. see the section “Power-Line Issues.” 7. and a fan will help keep the systems cool. they are also easier to distribute than keys. A server. Although all these provide some type of fault tolerance for power. Removing the cover of the server actually can make the heat a bigger problem. and it would really only help cool the room if it were winter. see the section “Physically Securing the Data Center/Computer Room. and outage are the three conditions to worry about. you really want to look at the clamping speed and voltage. Most data centers don’t have windows. because many servers incorporate the cover into the cooling mechanism of the server. Although a KVM switch and cable management are nice features. For more information. A.” 5. and router are all relatively low-power. BC or ABC are the types of fire extinguishers that should be used in the event of a fire in your server. Water is always a bad idea with electrical equipment. C. C.” 6. low voltage. because that is the only technology that enables you to track the individual based on his/her physical characteristics. For more information. D. see the section “Fire Suppression. mission-critical devices. For more information. C. and the clamping voltage tells you how much voltage it will take to trigger the suppressor. you need locking front and rear doors. see the section “Power-Line Issues.” 3. The amperage is not really a function of the surge suppression. see the section “Power-Line Issues. monitor. Using a badge reader removes the need for key control. Devices such as printers and copiers have such high power requirements that they will burn out a UPS. For more information. see the section “Power-Line Issues. For more information. Wrong amperage and too many watts are not problems that occur.” 8. due to the security issues. see the section “Physically Securing the Data Center/Computer Room. The speed tells you how quickly the suppressor will respond to a voltage spike.” 2. B. and not who physically used the badge. It is not a low-cost solution. It is certainly not the least expensive. When you are looking for a surge suppressor. C. The surge capacity is a meaningless term.” 4. you can’t track the actual person who accessed an area. An AD or ABD wouldn’t have the proper chemicals for combating an electrical fire.” . so i is not the correct answer.

2. Then save whatever servers you can. Butterworth-Heinemann. Jon William. see the section “Flooding. and Lawrence J. 2000. D.” Suggested Readings and Resources 1. .356 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 10. and C are all possible answers. 2000. keeping in mind electricity and water is a dangerous combination. Although A. Prentice Hall PRT. Disaster Recovery Planning. Toigo. Tyska. Fennelly. your first concern should be protecting the data. Physical Security: 150 Things You Should Know. Louis A. B. For more information. Get your tapes out of there.

1 Perform problem determination • Use questioning techniques to determine what. Linux. IBM OS/2 • Select the appropriate tool • Use the selected tool effectively • Replace defective hardware components as appropriate C H A P T E R 7 6. 6. how. etc. UNIX. Every server hardware specialist should be able to determine the problem with a network server by using questioning techniques. Novell NetWare. IBM OS/2 • Perform shutdown across the following OSs: Microsoft Windows NT/2000. Novell NetWare.g.0—Troubleshooting and Problem Determination .2 Use diagnostic hardware and software tools and utilities • Identify common diagnostic tools across the following OSs: Microsoft Windows NT/2000.. 6. observation of unhooked cable. smell of smoke. UNIX. Linux. when • Identify contact(s) responsible for problem resolution • Use senses to observe problem (e.OBJECTIVES This chapter covers the CompTIA-specified objectives for the Troubleshooting and Problem Determination section of the Server+ Certification exam. A server hardware specialist should know the proper contact people who can aid in problem resolution.) . as well as his or her personal senses.

OS updates. operating system errors. software or virus related . .. .4 Identify and correct misconfigurations and/or upgrades .. memory) OUTLINE Introduction Performing Problem Determination Using Questioning Techniques Identifying Contacts Using Your Senses 361 361 362 362 363 Using Diagnostic Hardware and Software Tools and Utilities 364 Diagnostic Tools by Operating System Microsoft Windows NT Server System Tools for Microsoft Windows NT Server Task Manager Windows NT Diagnostics 365 365 365 365 367 Event Viewer 369 Network Diagnostic Tools for Microsoft Windows NT 371 Ipconfig 371 Nbtstat 372 Netstat 374 Nslookup 376 Ping 377 Tracert 378 Microsoft Windows 2000 Server System Tools for Microsoft Windows 2000 Task Manager Computer Management Event Viewer Network Diagnostic Tools for Microsoft Windows 2000 Ipconfig Nbtstat Netdiag Netstat Nslookup Ping Tracert Pathping 379 379 379 381 382 385 385 387 388 392 394 395 397 398 . web pages. processor.g. disk I/O. 6. bus transfer. Every server hardware specialist should be able to determine which network server component is causing a performance bottleneck and be able to take corrective action to eliminate the bottleneck. fixes. E-support. software.5 Determine if problem is hardware. 6. and critical events • Use documentation from previous technician successfully • Locate and effectively use hot tips (e.OBJECTIVES • Identify defective FRUs and replace with correct part • Interpret error logs. 6. Every server hardware specialist should be able to use diagnostic hardware and software tools and utilities to diagnose problems with a network server. I/O. health logs. or a computer virus. Every server hardware specialist should be able to identify and correct network server problems that are caused by misconfigurations and/or upgrades. Every server hardware specialist should be able to determine whether a problem with a network server is caused by hardware. CDs) • Gather resources to get problem solved: • Identify situations requiring call for assistance • Acquire appropriate documentation • Describe how to perform remote troubleshooting for a Wake-On-LAN • Describe how to perform remote troubleshooting for a remote alert. network I/O.g.3 Identify bottlenecks (e.

OUTLINE Novell NetWare 399 System Tools for Novel NetWare 400 Network Diagnostic Tools for Novell NetWare 401 UNIX/Linux 401 System Tools for UNIX/Linux 401 Network Diagnostic Tools for UNIX/Linux 402 Ifconfig 402 Netstat 402 Ping 405 Traceroute 406 IBM OS/2 Warp Server 407 System Tools for IBM OS/2 Warp Server 407 Network Diagnostic Tools for IBM OS/2 Warp Server 407 Tcpcfg 407 Ping 407 Netstat 408 Ifconfig 408 Tracerte 409 System Shutdown 409 Microsoft Windows NT Server Shutdown 410 Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Shutdown 411 Novell NetWare Shutdown 411 UNIX Shutdown 412 Linux Shutdown 413 IBM OS/2 Shutdown 414 Selecting the Appropriate Tool and Using it Effectively 414 Replacing Defective Hardware Components 415 Identifying and Replacing Defective Field Replaceable Units 415 Interpreting Error logs. Health Logs. and Critical Events 416 Using Documentation 417 Locating and Using Support Resources 417 Newsgroups 418 Microsoft Windows NT/2000 Newsgroups IBM OS/2 Newsgroups Novell NetWare Newsgroups UNIX Newsgroups Linux Newsgroups Network Server Hardware Vendor Web Sites Server Vendors Network Operating System Vendor Web Sites Gathering Resources Remote Troubleshooting for a Wake-On-LAN Remote Troubleshooting for a Remote Alert 418 418 419 419 419 419 419 420 420 421 421 Identifying Bottlenecks Processor Bottlenecks Memory Bottlenecks Disk Subsystem Bottlenecks Network Subsystem Bottlenecks 422 427 428 429 430 Identifying and Correcting Misconfigurations and/or Upgrades Troubleshooting Disk Drives Troubleshooting a SCSI Subsystem Troubleshooting an ATA Subsystem Troubleshooting an Ultra ATA Subsystem General Network Troubleshooting Troubleshooting TCP/IP Network Problems Troubleshooting Boot Failure 431 431 432 433 434 434 434 438 Determining Whether a Problem is Hardware. Operating System Errors. Software. or Virus Related Chapter Summary Apply Your Knowledge 438 439 440 .

Answer the Review and Exam Questions at the end of the chapter and check your results . review the information in the chapter related to this topic. If you don’t fully understand the exam tip. Study the information in this chapter. . Use the ExamGear test on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book for additional Exam Questions concerning this material. Read the objectives at the beginning of this chapter. . Make certain that you understand the information in the Exam Tip. do the following: . Review the objectives again. .S T U DY S T R AT E G I E S To prepare for the Troubleshooting and Problem Determination objectives of the Server+ exam. . . Review the Exam Tips available in various places in this chapter.

Not only does this chapter cover troubleshooting techniques. There are way too many people whose approach to troubleshooting is more like firing a shotgun than a rifle. it also discusses ways to find network server bottlenecks. where there is only one change made at a time.g.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 361 INTRODUCTION This chapter covers the Troubleshooting and Problem Determination (hardware and software) section of the Server+ exam.1 Perform problem determination • • • Use questioning techniques to determine what. smell of smoke. when Identify contact(s) responsible for problem resolution Use senses to observe problem (e. This job dimension is the topic of approximately 27% of the exam questions. The same applies here. how. With the shotgun approach to troubleshooting. many solutions are tried at one time in the hope that one of them will solve the problem. knowledge of how the system works proves very useful in finding and eliminating the problem. As with any troubleshooting task. PERFORMING PROBLEM DETERMINATION . etc.. The ability to be a good troubleshooter is frequently found in people who always break everything into very small logical steps and then follow those steps to a very logical conclusion. 6. You will also learn various ways to eliminate network server bottlenecks. observation of unhooked cable. Effective troubleshooting is a methodical process.) Troubleshooting is often more of an art than a science. . knowledge from the other chapters of this book is very useful in troubleshooting problems with a network server.Chapter 7 6. This is not the correct approach to troubleshooting.

ventilation. for example. Another example: The UPS log shows that at 6 a.362 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Using Questioning Techniques The first of the troubleshooting arts is the ability to figure out exactly what the problem is. the server hardware specialist should maintain a list of contact people who can offer assistance for specific problems. every day for the past 5 days. a power loss to the network server has occurred (each loss lasting exactly 5 minutes). why. In this case. and how) a good troubleshooter seeks answers to the same six questions related to network server problems. Typical questions about a problem with a network server include: When was the last time that the network server was operational? What has changed since the last time the network server was operational? What hardware has been recently added to the network server? What software has been recently added to the network server? Who first reported the problem with the network server? Where is the network server logbook? How is the failure of the network server affecting the operation of the corporation? Of course. To reach this goal. the server hardware . you can certainly benefit from talking to other contacts as well. If the server room is too hot or too humid. what. you need to ask and answer many questions. and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment. you may also ask other questions. where. Have that information on hand and readily available. In addition to asking questions of those directly connected to the server’s operation. EXAM Contacts Know the correct person to contact for specific information. when. Just like a good newspaper article answers the six questions (who. but this group should cover most of the ground. Know who that person is before this happens. TIP Identifying Contacts To aid in troubleshooting some problems.m. the server hardware specialist will need to contact the people responsible for the heating.

Also important are hardware and software tools and utilities. probably the building superintendent. Other contact names that the server hardware specialist should have available include the network administrator. the network server administrator. any service agreement contracts. NOTE NOTE Using Your Senses A good troubleshooter uses his or her senses to help find problems. A server hardware specialist should also have contact information for a more experienced server hardware specialist. and a network specialist. Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a hygrometer (humidity meter). The digital thermometer can be used to get an exact temperature reading for the server room. The hygrometer can be used to get an exact humidity reading for the server room. Information on the network server should be available to provide to the vendor’s technical support people include the serial number of the network server. and the Information Technology (IT) director. . warranty information. the Internet service provider (ISP). and account numbers.Chapter 7 6. Other information that the server hardware specialist should have handy is contact information for the hardware vendor’s technical support hotline. a network operating system specialist. Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a digital thermometer. Questions that can be answered by senses include: Is the server room too hot? Is the server room too humid (above the maximum operating humidity for the equipment)? Is there the smell of something burning in the server room? Is smoke visible in the server room? Are server alarms sounding? Are UPS alarms sounding? Are error lights flashing on disk drives? Are any of the network server components hot to the touch? Are power cords disconnected from any of the components? Are network cables disconnected from any of the network devices. including the servers? Are all external SCSI cables properly connected? Using your senses to answer these basic questions is an integral part of troubleshooting.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 363 specialist will need to contact the people responsible for electrical power to the server room.

E-support.2 Use diagnostic hardware and software tools and utilities • Identify common diagnostic tools across the following OS: Microsoft Windows NT/2000. operating system errors.g. health logs. • • • • • • • • • Most network server operating systems include some diagnostic software tools. These built-in tools almost always include the ability to test the memory in the network server. UNIX. CDs) Gather resources to get problem solved: • Identify situations requiring call for assistance • Acquire appropriate documentation • • Describe how to perform remote troubleshooting for a wake-On-LAN Describe how to perform remote troubleshooting for a remote alert. Novell NetWare. and critical events Use documentation from previous technician successfully Locate and effectively use hot tips (e. Linux. . UNIX. IBM OS/2 Perform shut down across the following OS: Microsoft Windows NT/2000.364 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION USING DIAGNOSTIC HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE TOOLS AND UTILITIES . Linux. Novell NetWare.. IBM OS/2 Select the appropriate tool Use the selected tool effectively Replace defective hardware components as appropriate Identify defective FRUs and replace with correct part Interpret error logs. OS updates. These diagnostics are used to configure and test the hardware in the network server. web pages. 6. some network server vendors include diagnostics that are not operating system dependent on the diagnostic partition of the network server’s disk drives. fixes. In addition.

1). Diagnostic software tools are also available from third-party vendors. It also enables you to see what processes are running on the network server by looking FIGURE 7. System Tools for Microsoft Windows NT Server Task Manager. . The various types of tools are discussed in the following sections. and Event Viewer are each useful in its own way for troubleshooting system resources. Windows NT Diagnostics.Chapter 7 6. Task Manager enables you to see the current processor and memory utilization on the Performance tab (see Figure 7. Some are more central to the operating system itself. Task Manager The Windows NT Task Manager has three basic functions. Diagnostic Tools by Operating System The following sections address general troubleshooting tools and network diagnostic tools for a number of different operating systems. whereas others are more network-centered.1 Windows NT Task Manager Performance tab.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 365 Other diagnostic software tools are a standard part of the network server operating system. Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft’s Windows NT Server includes several tools that are very useful for troubleshooting.

the applications or programs running on the network server. FIGURE 7.2).3 Windows NT Task Manager Applications tab. You can end or kill applications from the Applications tab of Task Manager (see Figure 7. You can also view. . Processes can also be “ended” or “killed” from this tab in Task Manager (see Figure 7.2 Windows NT Task Manager Processes tab.366 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION at the Processes tab. on the Applications tab.3). FIGURE 7.

0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 367 To start the Windows NT Server Task Manager. each of which provides information about the network server: á Version tab.Chapter 7 6. and the registered owner of the software. . select Run. The Version tab contains information on the version of Windows NT Server running on the network server. You should generate and save this report after every new network server installation. The Windows NT Diagnostics window contains the following nine tabs. you can press Ctrl+Alt+Del and select Task Manager from the dialog box that appears.4). Windows NT Diagnostics is an enhanced version of the old Microsoft Diagnostics (MSD.1. Perhaps the most useful enhancement is the addition of a Print button (see Figure 7. The Print button will print a detailed report about the hardware and software installed in the network server. FIGURE 7. right-click any unoccupied space on the taskbar and select Task Manager.EXE) from Windows 3. Windows NT Diagnostics The Windows NT Diagnostics program provides a huge amount of information about the network server.4 Windows NT Diagnostics. Yet another way to start Task Manager is to click the Start menu. Alternatively. the service pack level that has been installed. and enter taskman in the run dialog box.

network settings. á Network tab. and information about the processor(s) installed in the network server. á Drives tab. The Resources tab has multiple displays. and current network statistics. just selecting a drive and click Properties. the transports (protocols and hardware addresses of NICs). The Drives tab displays information about the drives in the network service. memory used. direct memory access channels (DMA) used. These can be displayed either by drive type (floppy. just Select the Devices button on this tab to display the device drives currently installed on the network server. I/O ports used. and then select any single service or device driver and click Properties. The Environment tab can display the names and values of the current system or local user environment variables. and devices. . The Display tab contains information about the video adapter that is in the network server and the version of the software driver for the video adapter. á Services tab. Information about the location and size of the paging file(s) also displays on this tab. á Memory tab. It can display interrupts (IRQ) used. the HAL (hardware abstraction layer) being used. To display information about the disk drive and the file system that it contains. The Memory tab displays information about the actual memory installed in the network server and its current utilization. The Network tab can display general information about the network to which the network server is attached. To get detailed information about the service or device driver.368 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION á System tab. á Environment tab. local hard drives. and CD-ROM) or ordered by drive letter. á Display tab. The Services tab displays the name and status of all services currently installed on the network server. The System tab contains information about the network server itself (such as the BIOS date and system name). á Resources tab.

Figure 7. entries appear in the Security log each time an audited event is performed. The System log contains entries about services starting. Windows NT Diagnostics. The Security log is empty unless Auditing has been enabled on the network server. Administrative Tools. Run.5 Windows NT Event Viewer System log. the Security log. Event Viewer The Windows NT Event Viewer is used to view the three logs that are generated by Windows NT: the System log.Chapter 7 6. . or failing to load or start. The first log is the System log. Alternatively. To start the Windows NT Diagnostics program.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 369 As you can imagine. Program. and type winmsd in the Run dialog box. The second log is the Security log.5 shows an example of the Event Viewer displaying the System log. stopping. click Start. select Start. Figure 7. If Auditing is enabled. This is the first place to look if the message One or More Services Failed to Start appears on the network server monitor. and the Application log. FIGURE 7.6 shows an example of the Event Viewer displaying the Security log. the Windows NT Diagnostics program can provide a wealth of information that can be utilized to help troubleshoot a problem with the network server.

370 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION The third log is the Application log.6 Windows NT Event Viewer Security log.7 Windows NT Event Viewer Application log. . FIGURE 7.7 shows an example of the Event Viewer displaying the Application log. This log is used by such services as the Windows NT WINS service and the Windows NT DHCP service to record their activity reading and writing their databases. It is used by various services or applications on the network server to record their activity. Other services and programs use the Application log to record significant events. FIGURE 7. Figure 7.

Event Viewer. The ipconfig command is accessed from the Windows NT command prompt. Display full configuration information. The following listing shows example of output from a Windows NT Server ipconfig command: C:\>ipconfig Windows NT IP Configuration . The default is to display only the IP address. The flags available for the Windows NT Server ipconfig command are as follows: C:\>ipconfig /? Windows NT IP Configuration usage: ipconfig [/? | /all | /release [adapter] | /renew ➥[adapter]] /? /all /release /renew Display this help message. subnet mask. if no adapter name is specified. and type eventvwr in the Run dialog Box.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 371 To run the Windows NT Server Event Viewer. click Start. Renew the IP address for the specified ➥adapter. and default gateway for each adapter bound to TCP/IP. ipconfig The Windows NT Server ipconfig command enables you to display the TCP/IP protocol configuration for the network server. Network Diagnostic Tools for Microsoft Windows NT Microsoft’s Windows NT includes several tools used specifically to troubleshoot Windows NT networking problems. including Ipconfig. Run. Alternatively. Programs. Nslookup. Administrative Tools. Release the IP address for the ➥specified adapter. the IP address leases for all adapters bound to TCP/IP will be released or renewed. and Tracert.Chapter 7 6. Ping. For release and renew. click Start. Netstat. Nbtstat.

. : No IP Address. . . : IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . : 10. . . .255. . . . NOTE . . . : Compaq NetFlex-3 ➥Driver. . . . : 255. : Hybrid NetBIOS Scope ID. . . : No WINS Proxy Enabled. . .0 Default Gateway . . . . . : 10. . . . .30. . . . : 01-88-5F-12-D1-99 DHCP Enabled. . . .20. . . . .20. . . .30. . Version 4.30. .18 nbtstat Flags Are Case Sensitive Note that the –r flag and the –R flag on the Windows NT Server nbtstat command have different meanings. . . . . . . .103 Node Type . . . .372 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Ethernet adapter CpqNF31: IP Address. .mysite.20. : 10.255. . .20. .20. . . . The flags have different meaning based on whether they are uppercase or lowercase. . . .1 Primary WINS Server . . . . .40 Subnet Mask . The flags available for the Windows NT Server nbtstat command are C:\>nbtstat Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections ➥using NBT (NetBIOS over TCP/IP). : 10. .40 Subnet Mask . .20. . . . . : 255. .9 Secondary WINS Server . . . .30. .30. . . . The Windows NT Server nbtstat command enables you to display information about sessions that are using NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT). . . .255.20. . : No NetBIOS Resolution Uses DNS : No Ethernet adapter CpqNF31: Description . . : 10. .0 Default Gateway . . .13 Physical Address. . : nt-pdc. .255. . .30. . : 10.com DNS Servers . . . .30. : 10.1 The following listing shows an example of the output using the Windows NT Server ipconfig /all switch: C:\>ipconfig /all Windows NT IP Configuration Host Name .

Dotted-decimal representation of the IP address. Lists local NetBIOS names. RemoteName IP address interval Remote host machine name. Lists sessions table with the destination IP addresses. Lists the remote machine’s name table given its ➥IP address. An example of Windows NT Server nbtstat command would look something like this: C:\>nbtstat -n NetBIOS Local Name Table Name NT-PDC MYSITE MYSITE HR MARKETING NT-PDC MYSITE NT-PDC MYSITE MYSITE <00> <00> <1C> <00> <00> <20> <1B> <03> <1E> <1D> Type UNIQUE GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP UNIQUE UNIQUE UNIQUE GROUP UNIQUE GROUP Status Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered ——————————————————————- . Lists the remote name cache with IP addresses on a ➥per-device basis. Sends Name Release packets to WINs and then. Lists names resolved by broadcast and via WINS.. pausing interval seconds ➥between each display. Redisplays selected statistics.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 373 nbtstat [-a RemoteName] [-A IP address] [-c] [-n] [-r] [-R] [-RR] [-s] [-S] [interval] ] -a -A -c -C -n -r -R -S -s -RR (adapter status) (Adapter status) (cache) (cache) (names) (resolved) (Reload) (Sessions) (sessions) (ReleaseRefresh) Lists the remote machine’s name table given its name. Lists the global remote name cache including the IP ➥addresses.<01> . starts ➥Refresh. Purges and reloads the remote cache name table. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying ➥statistics.__MSBROWSE__. Lists sessions table converting destination IP ➥addresses to host names via the HOSTS file.Chapter 7 6.

and IP. This may be combined with the -s ➥option. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying ➥statistics.) Displays Ethernet statistics. The flags for the Windows NT Server netstat command are as follows: C:\>netstat /? Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections. pausing interval seconds ➥between each display. udp. -r -s Displays the contents of the routing table. netstat [-a] [-e] [-n] [-s] [-p proto] [-r] [interval] -a -e -n -p proto Displays all connections and listening ports. proto may be tcp. the -p option may be used to specify ➥a subset of the default. The following listing shows an example of Windows NT Server netstat –s: C:\>netstat -s IP Statistics Packets Received Received Header Errors Received Address Errors Datagrams Forwarded Unknown Protocols Received Received Packets Discarded Received Packets Delivered = 8198071 = 0 = 1073 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 8197430 . Displays addresses and port numbers in numeric form. netstat will print the current ➥configuration information once. By default.374 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION netstat The Windows NT Server netstat command enables you to display information about current TCP/IP connections to the network server. If used with the -s option to display ➥per-protocol statistics. If omitted. statistics are ➥shown for TCP. Displays per-protocol statistics. UDP. interval Redisplays selected statistics. Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto. (Server-side ➥connections are normally not shown. proto ➥may be tcp or udp. or ip.

Chapter 7 6.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 375 Output Requests Routing Discards Discarded Output Packets Output Packet No Route Reassembly Required Reassembly Successful Reassembly Failures Datagrams Successfully Fragmented Datagrams Failing Fragmentation Fragments Created ICMP Statistics Received Messages Errors Destination Unreachable Time Exceeded Parameter Problems Source Quenchs Redirects Echos Echo Replies Timestamps Timestamp Replies Address Masks Address Mask Replies TCP Statistics Active Opens Passive Opens Failed Connection Attempts Reset Connections Current Connections Segments Received Segments Sent Segments Retransmitted UDP Statistics Datagrams Received No Ports Receive Errors Datagrams Sent = 7815681 = 55008 = 0 = 4099055 34566 0 34560 5 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 = 4426115 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 Sent 176 0 175 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 = 3100 = 7137 = 8 = 2412 = 18 = 326743 = 326406 = 485 .

ask for recursive answer to query [no]search .set default domain name to NAME srchlist=N1[/N2/..set root server to NAME . [] means optional) .103 [no]defname .set current default server to the root .CNAME.as above.set query type (ex.print info about the host/domain NAME using default server . ANY) .set default server to NAME.set number of retries to X .always use a virtual circuit .) sort an ‘ls’ output file and view it with pg querytype=X . current server and host .NS. IN (Internet).CNAME.print options.list canonical names and aliases .PTR etc.use domain search list [no]vc .N2.list addresses in DOMAIN optional: output to FILE) . The nslookup command can be used in two ways: command line or interactively.376 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION nslookup The Windows NT Server nslookup command enables you to test host name resolution by using a DNS server. etc.set domain to N1 and search list to N1.print info on common commands . The commands available in nslookup when it is used interactively are as follows: C:\>nslookup Default Server: Address: > help Commands: NAME NAME1 NAME2 help or ? set OPTION all [no]debug [no]d2 (identifiers are shown in uppercase.set initial time-out interval to X seconds . using current default server .NS.SOA.set query class (ex.same as type ls [opt] DOMAIN [> FILE] exit the program . domain=NAME .MX.current version to use in IXFR transfer request . but use NAME2 as server ..set an option .18.g.append domain name to each query [no]recurse .MX.print exhaustive debugging information dsn.use MS fast zone transfer .print debugging information . A./N6] root=NAME retry=X timeout=X type=X class=X [no]msxfr ixfrver=X server NAME lserver NAME finger [USER] root -a -d -t TYPE view FILE exit .ANY.set default server to NAME.6.SRV) .list all records list records of the given type (e.PTR.myisp.finger the optional NAME at the current default host .com 10. A. using initial server .

Type Of Service.69.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 377 The following example shows a Windows NT Server nslookup command executed on www. Send buffer size. Loose source route along host-list. Number of echo requests to send.103 newriders. Time To Live.com: C:\>nslookup www.6.110. Strict source route along host-list.220 www.18. Record route for count hops. The flags for the Windows NT Server ping command are as follows: C:\>ping Usage: ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]] [-w timeout] destination-list Options: -t -a -n count -l size -f -i TTL -v TOS -r count -s count -j host-list -k host-list -w timeout Ping the specified host until interrupted.newriders. Resolve addresses to host names. Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.Chapter 7 6. Time stamp for count hops. Set Don’t Fragment flag in packet.com Server: Address: Name: Address: Aliases: dns.myisp.com 10.newriders.com ping The Windows NT Server ping command is used to test communications between two network devices such as the current network server and another server on the network.com 63. .newriders.

110.69.220: bytes=32 time=31ms TTL=243 Reply from 63.69. but it provides information about the routers that the communications passes through going from the current network server to another server on the network.69.110.220: bytes=32 time=31ms TTL=243 Reply from 63.com [63.69.220] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 63.69. Maximum number of hops to search for target.110.110.110.220: bytes=32 time=31ms TTL=243 Reply from 63.110.com Pinging newriders.69.220: bytes=32 time=32ms TTL=243 tracert The Windows NT Server tracert command is similar to the ping command.220: bytes=32 time=32ms TTL=243 Here is an example Windows NT Server ping command using an IP name: C:\>ping www.220: bytes=32 time=31ms TTL=243 Reply from 63.newriders.110. Loose source route along host-list.69.110.69.220 Pinging 63.378 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION The following listing is an example Windows NT Server ping command using an IP address: C:\>ping 63.110.110.220 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 63. Wait timeout milliseconds for each reply .69.69.220: bytes=32 time=32ms TTL=243 Reply from 63.110.69.220: bytes=32 time=47ms TTL=243 Reply from 63. The flags available for the Windows NT Server tracert command are as follows: C:\>tracert Usage: tracert [-d] [-h maximum_hops] [-j host-list] [-w timeout] target_name Options: -d -h maximum_hops -j host-list -w timeout Do not resolve addresses to host names.

ALTER.TR1.NET [152. It also displays the processes that are running on the network server .205] headland-media-gw.com [63.Chapter 7 6.XR1.NET [157.110. The following sections discuss these tools.130. System Tools for Microsoft Windows 2000 Like Windows NT.ALTER. Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Microsoft Windows 2000 Server includes several programs that are useful for troubleshooting.at-2-1-0.68.ALTER.220 Trace complete.10.newriders.NET [152.69.253] 193.NYC9.1] [172.24.173] 153.ALTER.19.TR1.194.8 shows an example of a Windows 2000 Server Task Manager Performance tab.141.customer.33.ATL1.69] 109.39. Windows 2000 has several tools that enable you to assess system resources and services.34.ATL1. Task Manager displays the current processor and memory utilization on the Performance tab.JAX1.250.110.ALTER.63.69.EWR1.220] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 31 ms 32 ms 31 ms 31 ms 31 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 15 ms 16 ms 31 ms 31 ms 31 ms 31 ms 31 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 15 ms 16 ms 16 ms 31 ms 31 ms 47 ms 47 ms 47 ms [172.16.ALTER.XR1.9] 204.84.254] [172.63.NET [157.63.157 Serial5-1-0.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 379 Here is an example Windows NT Server tracert: C:\>tracert www.63.NET [146.16.so-3-0-0.16.ALTER.ATM6-0.26] [172.250.EWR1.188.20. Figure 7.130.34] 0.16.74] 287. Task Manager The Windows 2000 Server Task Manager has three basic functions and is very similar in function and appearance to the Windows NT Server Task Manager.GW7.GW1.NET [152.com Tracing route to newriders.94] 63.NET [152.at-5-0-0.ATM6-0.

You can end or kill applications from the Applications tab of Task Manager.380 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION by looking at the Processes tab. On the Applications tab.8 Windows 2000 Task Manager Performance tab. .10 shows an example of a Windows 2000 Server Task Manager Applications tab. FIGURE 7. Processes can also be “ended” or “killed” from this tab in Task Manager. FIGURE 7. you can view the applications or programs running on the network server.9 Windows 2000 Task Manager Processes tab. Figure 7.9 shows an example of a Windows 2000 Server Task Manager Processes tab. Figure 7.

the system name.10 Windows 2000 Task Manager Applications tab. The Windows 2000 Computer Management snap-in contains several nodes that can prove useful in providing information about the configuration of the network server. the information is arranged very differently. á System Summary node. hardware interrupts (IRQs).0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 381 FIGURE 7. the location of the Windows system directory. However. This node displays information about the Windows 2000 configuration. It is useful in determining information about device drivers and networking.11 shows an example of the Windows 2000 Computer Management snap-in. Figure 7. This node displays general information about the network server. the system type. á Hardware Resources node. such as direct memory access (DMA) channels.Chapter 7 6. I/O addresses. and memory addresses of hardware components installed in the network server. . and statistics about both physical and virtual memory. including the version of Windows 2000 installed. This node displays all the hardware settings in the network server. This includes the history of drivers installed on the network server. Computer Management The Windows 2000 Server System Information function is a replacement for the Windows NT Server NT Diagnostics program. á Components node.

. including the resources being used by these devices.382 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 7. and the Applications log. the Security log.11 Windows 2000 Computer Management snap-in. there will be a DNS log listed in Event Viewer. You can view at least three logs with the Windows 2000 Event Viewer: the System log. This node is very similar to the Device Manager in Windows 98. It displays information about all the devices in the network server. you can view several other logs depending on the services installed on the Windows 2000 Server. but is very different in appearance. The appearance differs because the Windows 2000 Event Viewer has been rewritten and it is now a snap-in to the Microsoft Management Console (MMC). á Device Manager node. For example. if the Domain Name System (DNS) service is installed on the Windows 2000 Server. In addition. Event Viewer The Windows 2000 Server Event Viewer is similar in function to the Windows NT Server Event Viewer.

Figure 7.12 Windows 2000 Event Viewer System log. and folder access. or failing to start up. The Windows 2000 System log contains messages about device drivers and services starting up. The Windows 2000 Security log contains auditing information. user logoff.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 383 FIGURE 7.12 shows an example of a Windows 2000 System log.Chapter 7 6. . file access. Figure 7.14 shows an example of a Windows 2000 Applications log. including user logon. Figure 7. The System log should be checked on a daily basis to make sure that no major negative events have occurred. Many different events can be audited on a Windows 2000 Server.13 shows an example of a Windows 2000 Security log. The Windows 2000 Applications log contains information that has been written by different services or programs (such as a database server) running on the Windows 2000 Server. if Auditing has been enabled on the Windows 2000 Server.

14 Windows 2000 Event Viewer Applications log. .384 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 7. FIGURE 7.13 Windows 2000 Event Viewer Security log.

. Refreshes all DHCP leases and re-registers DNS names Display the contents of the DNS Resolver cache. Windows 2000 Server also includes the Netdiag and Pathping commands. Modifies the DHCP class id. and /setclassid are new to the Windows 2000 Server ping command. Release the IP address for the specified adapter. and Tracert. Ping. The flags /flushdns.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 385 Network Diagnostic Tools for Microsoft Windows 2000 The network diagnostic tools for Microsoft Windows 2000 Server include Ipconfig. Renew the IP address for the specified adapter. The ipconfig command is accessed from the Windows NT command prompt. Nslookup. * matches any character. Netstat. Displays all the DHCP class IDs allowed for adapter. Purges the DNS Resolver cache. Full name or pattern with ‘*’ and ‘?’ to ‘match’. ? matches one character. Display full configuration information. which are similar to their Windows NT counterparts. ipconfig The Windows 2000 Server ipconfig command enables you to display the TCP/IP protocol configuration for the network server. which were not available in Windows NT Server. /displaydns. /showclassid. The flags available for the Windows 2000 Server ipconfig command are as follows: Windows 2000 IP Configuration USAGE: ipconfig [/? | /all | /release [adapter] | /renew [adapter] | /flushdns | /registerdns | /showclassid adapter | /setclassid adapter [classidtoset] ] adapter Options /? /all /release /renew /flushdns /registerdns /displaydns /showclassid /setclassid Display this help message. Nbtstat.Chapter 7 6. /registerdns.

. Show information. . . . . . eg. The following listing is an example of the Windows 2000 Server ipconfig command: C:\>ipconfig IP Address. . . . ... . . release all matching adapters. . .255.0 Default Gateway . . . . .. . . . . . For setclassid. : africa1.. the class ID is removed. . . . . .. the IP address leases for all adapters bound to TCP/IP will be released or renewed. . . . : tunis Primary DNS Suffix . .msft Node Type . . : 192. : The following listing is an example of the Windows 2000 Server ipconfig /all command: C:\>ipconfig /all Windows 2000 IP Configuration Host Name .. . . . renew adapters named EL.. . . . .nwtraders. . . . . : africa1. . : Broadcast IP Routing Enabled. myELELINKi21adapter. ..msft nwtraders. if no adapter name is specified. . .. . . . . .168. . . renew all adapters .. Examples include the following: > ipconfig > ipconfig /all > ipconfig /renew > ipconfig /renew EL* > ipconfig /release *ELINK?21* . if no class ID is specified. . . : 255. . Show detailed information . For release and renew. . . : No WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . .nwtraders. . .. ELINK-21.1.. .130 Subnet Mask . subnet mask.386 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION The default is to display only the IP address. . . . .255. .msft Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: .. . and default gateway for each adapter bound to TCP/IP. : No DNS Suffix Search List. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 2001 6:10:49 PM nbtstat The Windows 2000 Server nbtstat command enables you to display information about sessions that are using NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT). .1. . . : 3Com 3C920 Integrated Fast Ethernet Controller Physical Address. . . RemoteName IP address interval .0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 387 Connection-specific DNS Suffix . . . . . : DHCP Server . . . : Yes Autoconfiguration Enabled . : 00-B0-D0-71-B6-0A DHCP Enabled. Lists NBT’s cache of remote [machine] names and their IP addresses. . . Lists local NetBIOS names. . . . . . . . 2001 5:10:49 PM Lease Expires . . Lists the remote machine’s name table given its IP address.168.1. . : Sunday. . . . . .168. . : Yes IP Address. . . The flags available for the Windows 2000 Server nbtstat command are as follows: C:\>nbtstat /? Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NBT (NetBIOS over TCP/IP).130 Subnet Mask . : (3C905C-TX Compatible) Description . . . . . . . . : 255. Lists sessions table converting destination IP ➥addresses to computer NETBIOS names. . .168. . . . . Remote host machine name. . . . Redisplays selected statistics. . . . . . .255.0 Default Gateway . April 22. . : 192. Dotted-decimal representation of the IP address. pausing interval seconds between each ➥display. . . .200 Lease Obtained. . : 192. . . Lists sessions table with the destination IP addresses. . . . . : Sunday. . Lists names resolved by broadcast and via WINS. . . . . . nbtstat [ [-a RemoteName] [-A IP address] [-c] [-n] [-r] [-R] [-RR] [-s] [-S] [interval] ] -a -A -c -n -r -R -S -s -RR (adapter status) (Adapter status) (cache) (names) (resolved) (Reload) (Sessions) (sessions) (ReleaseRefresh) Lists the remote machine’s name table given its name.1. . Sends Name Release packets to WINs and then starts Refresh. . . . . .255. . . . . . Purges and reloads the remote cache name table. . April 22. . . . : 192. . . . .200 DNS Servers . Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying statistics. .Chapter 7 6.

<01> netdiag The Windows 2000 Server netdiag command runs a standard set of network tests and generates a report of the results.32] Scope Id: [] NetBIOS Local Name Table Name PROLIANT5000 WORKGROUP PROLIANT5000 WORKGROUP PROLIANT5000 WORKGROUP ADMINISTRATOR PROLIANT5000 <00> <00> <20> <1E> <03> <1D> <03> <01> Type UNIQUE GROUP UNIQUE GROUP UNIQUE UNIQUE GROUP UNIQUE UNIQUE Status Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered ——————————————————————- . the address was assigned by APIPA.0 network. The Windows 2000 Server netdiag command is not part of a standard Windows 2000 Server installation. and the address was assigned by APIPA. A server hardware specialist just needs to analyze the output from the netdiag command looking for the word Failed to find possible network problems.Verbose output .Quiet output (errors only) /v .254. It is time to begin network troubleshooting! The following listing shows an example of Windows 2000 Server nbtstat command: C:\>nbtstat -n Local Area Connection: Node IpAddress: [169. several are available. The flags that can be used with the Windows 2000 Server netdiag command are as follows: C:\>netdiag /? Usage: netdiag [/Options]> /q . Even though the netdiag command can be used without any flags.__MSBROWSE__. it indicates that the client computer was not able to communicate with a DHCP server. If IPCONFIG reports that the IP address is on the 169. It must be installed from the Windows 2000 Server CD-ROM from the Support Tools folder. If the client was configured to use a DHCP server to obtain its IP address.0. The Windows 2000 netdiag command has one very nice feature: It can be used without any flags at all and it will perform a complete set of network tests.254.238. however..388 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION NOTE Watch Out for APIPA Windows 2000 supports Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) as does Windows 98 and Windows ME.

. .skippable tests will still be run The following listing is an example of Windows 2000 Server netdiag command: C:\>netdiag . . /d:<DomainName> . . . .. .... : Passed Per interface results: Adapter : Local Area Connection Netcard queries test ... : Passed Default gateway test . : Skipped [WARNING] No gateways defined for this adapter.. . . /test:<test name> . .. .msft IP Address . .168. . .. . . GenuineIntel List of installed hotfixes : Q147222 Netcard queries test . .255. . : 255... . .Chapter 7 6. .. . . .Log output to NetDiag. .. . . : london..255. .. Non . Computer Name: LONDON DNS Host Name: london..Even more verbose. : Passed Host Name.. . . .. .200 Subnet Mask.. . . .1.200 AutoConfiguration results. . /DcAccountEnum .Enumerate DC machine accounts. .0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 389 /l . . : 192. . . .. .tests only this test. : Dns Servers.nwtraders.msft System info : Windows 2000 Server (Build 2195) Processor : x86 Family 6 Model 8 Stepping 3. . ...Find a DC in the specified domain.fix trivial problems. /fix . ..nwtraders.. ....0 Default Gateway.. : 192. ....1. .log /debug . ...168.. ...

. . . . . . . . . : Passed IP loopback ping test. Global results: Domain membership test . If you configured the IP protocol manually then you need to add at least one valid gateway. . . : Passed List of NetBt transports currently configured: NetBT_Tcpip_{3D7725D9-B03F-4250-983E-F9F1BF0B69FB} 1 NetBt transport currently configured. . . . : Skipped There are no WINS servers configured for this interface. . . .390 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION NetBT name test. . . . : Passed Default gateway test . . . . . . . . : Failed [FATAL] NO GATEWAYS ARE REACHABLE. . . . Autonet address test . : Passed . . . . : Passed NetBT transports test. . . : Passed No remote names have been found. NetBT name test. WINS service test. . . : Passed Winsock test . . . . . . . . You have no connectivity to other network segments. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .Chapter 7 6.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 391 DNS test . . . : Passed List of NetBt transports currently bound to the Redir NetBT_Tcpip_{3D7725D9-B03F-4250-983E-F9F1BF0B69FB} The redir is bound to 1 NetBt transport. . . . . . . . . . . List of NetBt transports currently bound to the browser NetBT_Tcpip_{3D7725D9-B03F-4250-983E-F9F1BF0B69FB} The browser is bound to 1 NetBt transport. . . . . . . DC discovery test. . . . . .200’. . . . . . . . . but no policy is assigned. : Skipped Kerberos test. . The command completed successfully . . Modem diagnostics test . . : Passed DC list test . . . . . : Passed IPSec policy service is active. . . : Passed IP Security test . .All the DNS entries for DC are registered on DNS server ‘192. . . . . Redir and Browser test . . . . . . . . . . . : Passed Trust relationship test. : Passed WAN configuration test . . . : Passed LDAP test. . . : Skipped No active remote access connections. . . : Passed Bindings test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .168. . : Passed PASS . . .

If omitted. The flags for the Windows 2000 Server netstat command are as follows: C:\>netstat /? Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections. interval Redisplays selected statistics. By default. or IP. The following listing is an example of the Windows 2000 Server netstat command: C:\>netstat -s IP Statistics Packets Received Received Header Errors Received Address Errors = 2411554 = 0 = 318 . UDP and IP.392 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Note that in the output of this netdiag command that the default gateway test failed. the -p option may be used to specify ➥a subset of the default. netstat The Windows 2000 Server netstat command enables you to display information about current TCP/IP connections to the network server. Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto. Displays addresses and port numbers in numerical form. proto ➥may be TCP or UDP. UDP. netstat [-a] [-e] [-n] [-s] [-p proto] [-r] [interval] -a -e -n -p proto Displays all connections and listening ports. because no default gateway address is defined on this particular network server. -r -s Displays the routing table. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying ➥statistics. proto may be TCP. If used with the-s option to display ➥per-protocol statistics. This may be combined with the –s option. statistics are ➥shown for TCP. Displays per-protocol statistics. NETSTAT will print the current ➥configuration information once. pausing interval seconds ➥between each display. Displays Ethernet statistics.

0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 393 Datagrams Forwarded Unknown Protocols Received Received Packets Discarded Received Packets Delivered Output Requests Routing Discards Discarded Output Packets Output Packet No Route Reassembly Required Reassembly Successful Reassembly Failures Datagrams Successfully Fragmented Datagrams Failing Fragmentation Fragments Created ICMP Statistics = 0 = 0 = 0 = 2411236 = 137224 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 Received Messages Errors Destination Unreachable Time Exceeded Parameter Problems Source Quenches Redirects Echos Echo Replies Timestamps Timestamp Replies Address Masks Address Mask Replies TCP Statistics Active Opens Passive Opens Failed Connection Attempts Reset Connections Current Connections Segments Received Segments Sent Segments Retransmitted 43 0 5 0 0 0 0 38 0 0 0 0 0 Sent 72 0 34 0 0 0 0 0 38 0 0 0 0 = 4015 = 7 = 136 = 1025 = 1 = 93566 = 105512 = 743 .Chapter 7 6.

use MS fast zone transfer .SOA.same as type .SRV) .always use a virtual circuit .set number of retries to X . The commands available in the interactive version of the Windows 2000 nslookup command are as follows: > help Commands: NAME NAME1 NAME2 help or ? set OPTION all [no]debug [no]d2 [no]defname [no]recurse [no]search [no]vc domain=NAME root=NAME retry=X timeout=X type=X querytype=X class=X [no]msxfr ixfrver=X server NAME lserver NAME finger [USER] root -a (identifiers are shown in uppercase.set current default server to the root list canonical names and aliases srchlist=N1[/N2/.set an option .ask for recursive answer to query .print options. The Windows 2000 Server nslookup command can be used in two different modes: command line and interactive./N6] .MX.set default domain name to NAME . ls [opt] DOMAIN [> FILE] .set query type (ex.. IN (Internet). etc.print debugging information .CNAME.finger the optional NAME at the current default host .append domain name to each query . current server and host .NS.set query class (ex.394 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION UDP Statistics Datagrams Received No Ports Receive Errors Datagrams Sent = 2292417 = 25216 = 0 = 30570 nslookup The Windows 2000 Server nslookup command tests DNS service IP name resolution..N2. but use NAME2 as server .as above. [] means optional) . using initial server .list addresses in DOMAIN (optional: output to FILE) . ANY) . A.print exhaustive debugging information .set default server to NAME.set default server to NAME.PTR.ANY.set initial time-out interval to X seconds .set root server to NAME .current version to use in IXFR transfer request .set domain to N1 and search list to N1.use domain search list .print info about the host/domain NAME using default server . using current default server .print info on common commands .

akadns.6. 207. 207.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 395 -d -t TYPE view FILE exit - list all records list records of the given type (e.exit the program The following listing is an example of a Windows 2000 Server nslookup command: C:\>nslookup www.168.sort an ‘ls’ output file and view it with pg .com Addresses: This example shows another Windows 2000 Server nslookup: C:\>nslookup newriders.229 www.46.46.103 Non-authoritative answer: Name: Aliases: www.91.MX.46.46.131. .microsoft.myisp.230.net 192.46.g.net 192.myisp.131.168. A.230.103 Non-authoritative answer: Name: Address: newriders.PTR etc. 207.com Server: Address: dns.6.110.microsoft.218. To see statistics and continue –type Control-Break.CNAME.Chapter 7 6.220 ping The Windows 2000 Server ping command enables you to test communications between the current network server and another server on the network.com 63.69.219.230. The flags for the Windows 2000 Server ping command are as follows: C:\>ping /? Usage: ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] |[-k host-list]] [-w timeout] destination-list Options: -t Ping the specified host until stopped.net 207.NS.com Server: Address: dns.) . ➥To stop – type Control-C.microsoft.199 207.

1.1.168. Number of echo requests to send.168.168.1.1. Type Of Service.1.200: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.200: Packets: Sent = 4. Time To Live.msft [192.nwtraders. Send buffer size.168.200: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.200: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.200: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.200: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1.1.1.396 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION -a -n count -l size -f -i TTL -v TOS -r count -s count -j host-list -k host-list -w timeout Resolve addresses to host names. Timestamp for count hops.1.168.168.168.nwtraders.200 Pinging 192.200: bytes=32 time=10ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.168.1. Maximum = 10ms. Received = 4. Set Don’t Fragment flag in packet.168. Received = 4.200: Packets: Sent = 4.msft Pinging london. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Average = 2ms This example shows a Windows 2000 Server ping command using an IP name: C:\>ping london.200 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. This following example shows a Windows 2000 Server ping using an IP address: C:\>ping 192. Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.200: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 192. Record route for count hops.168. Loose source route along host-list. Lost = 0 (0% loss).1.200] with 32 bytes Reply from 192.1.168.168. of data: .200: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 192. Strict source route along host-list.1.

39.194. Both the IP name and IP address are listed in the Ping output.NET [152.220] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 281 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 310 ms <10 ms 20 ms 20 ms 40 ms [172.141.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 397 Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.newriders. Wait timeout milliseconds for each reply.9] 204.188.157 Serial5-1-0.msft has been resolved to the IP address 192.16.34.at-1-0-0.ALTER.ALTER.1] [172.10.GW1.ATL1.68.250.26] 0.nwtraders.173] 153. Loose source route along host-list.110.com Tracing route to newriders.NET [157.26] [172.69. The following example illustrates the use of Windows 2000 Server tracert command: C:\>tracert www. Maximum number of hops to search for target.so-3-0-0.74] . but it provides information about the routers that the communications passes through going from the current network server to another server on the network.TR1.ALTER.Chapter 7 6.at-5-0-0.168.TR1.69] 109.1.16. Average = 0ms Note that in this ping example the IP name london. Maximum = 0ms.130.JAX1.NET [146. The flags that can be used with the Windows 2000 Server tracert command are as follows: C:\>tracert Usage: tracert [-d] [-h maximum_hops] [-j host-list] [-w timeout] target_name Options: -d -h maximum_hops -j host-list -w timeout Do not resolve addresses to host names.200.ATL1.63.16.ALTER.NET [152. tracert The Windows 2000 Server tracert command is similar to the ping command.84.XR1.33.250.16.com [63.254] [172.NYC9.63.

GW1.ATM7-0. Test connectivity to each hop with Layer 2 priority tags.173] 153.TR1.84.16.220 Trace complete.26] [172.ALTER.ATL1.NET [152.68.com [63.24.39.XR1.NET [157.ATL1.ATM6-0.19.20. Wait period milliseconds between pings.XR1.com Tracing route to newriders.at-1-0-0.250.132] [172.newriders. pathping The Windows 2000 Server pathping command is a combination of the ping command and the tracert command.34.94] 63.26] 0.220] over a maximum of 30 hops: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 [172.1] [172.197] headland-media-gw.NET [157.NET [152.16.33.so-3-0-0.16.69.130. Number of queries per hop.ALTER.ALTER. Wait timeout milliseconds for each reply.253] 193.ALTER.63.69] . Test whether each hop is RSVP aware. Loose source route along host-list.NET [152.customer.EWR1.16.GW7.194.130.398 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION 10 11 12 13 30 ms 31 ms 30 ms 30 ms 40 ms 40 ms 40 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 40 ms 40 ms 287. The flags that can be used with the Windows 2000 pathping command are as follows: C:\>pathping Usage: pathping [-n] [-h maximum_hops] [-g host-list] [-p period] [-q num_queries] [-w timeout] [-t] [-R] [-r] target_name Options: -n -h maximum_hops -g host-list -p period -q num_queries -w timeout -T -R Do not resolve addresses to host names.10. The following listing shows an example of Windows 2000 Server pathping command: C:\>pathping www.ALTER.16. Maximum number of hops to search for target.110.34.69.63.ALTER.NET [152.9] 204.254] [172.157 Serial5-1-0.63.63.110.250.JAX1.EWR1.

c7507.ATL1.rsm.customer.130.63.NET [157.254] | vlan333.ALTER.ATM6-0.fsu. Source to Here Hop 0 0/ 100 = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 0ms 0ms 0ms 5ms 5ms 0ms 10ms 10ms 30ms 30ms 30ms 36ms 30ms 0/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 1/ 100 = 1/ 100 = 2/ 100 = 2/ 100 = 1/ 100 = 2/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 3/ 100 = 1/ 100 = 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 2% 2% 1% 2% 0% 3% 1% 0/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 1/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 1/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 2/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 2/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 1/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 2/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 1/ 100 = 2/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 0/ 100 = 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 0% 2% 0% 2% 0% 1% 0% 2% 0% 0% 1% 2% 0% 0% RTT Lost/Sent = Pct This Node/Link Lost/Sent = Pct Address proliant5000 [128.110.EWR1.220 Trace complete.NET [152.194.110.157 | Serial5-1-0.220 Computing statistics for 325 seconds.ALTER.EWR1.NET [146.Chapter 7 6.186.20.edu [128.cob.ALTER.186.74] | 287.26] | 0.TR1.XR1.NET [152.253] | 193.74] 287.69.EWR1.130.edu [128.ATM7-0.10.at-5-0-0.132] 0% | fe400.9] | 204.c7507.26] | vlan908.197] | headland-media-gw..EWR1.fsu.19.141.250.edu [128.TR1.186.NYC9.34.69] | 109.68.173] | 153.186.ALTER.ATM7-0..69.63.NET [152. Novell NetWare Novell NetWare includes useful system and network diagnostic tools.63.186.GW1.GW7.NET [157.ALTER.c7507.63.ALTER.1] | fe6101.19.rsb.94] | 63.NET [146.63.ATL1.188.34.ALTER.ALTER.250.84.130. .so-3-0-0.fsu.dsl.GW7.141.188.24.NET [152.edu [128.63.at-1-0-0.fsu.24.NET [157.39.customer.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 399 9 10 11 12 13 109.ATM6-0.JAX1.XR1.at-5-0-0.197] headland-media-gw.XR1.ALTER.ALTER.94] .NET [152.33.NYC9.dsl.63.TR1.NET [152.20.253] 193.ALTER.

ERR. the slower the file access on the NetWare server. The monitor program displays a great deal of information about the Novell NetWare server. This number should not be constantly over 70%. If it is constantly over 70%. The most important information on the General Information page is as follows: á Utilization. If this number is large. The logs include the following: á SYS$LOG. the problem may be a disk subsystem that is too slow and in need of being upgraded. The lower this number. á VOL$LOG. This shows the percentage of processor utilization on the NetWare server. You need a faster processor and an additional processor. This log file contains server error messages and general server status information. A very low number of cache buffers indicates that it is time to add more memory to the NetWare server. If there are plenty of cache buffers. you have a processor bottleneck. This indicates how well the NetWare server is handling network traffic. Novell NetWare 5 also has a great new management tool that can be used to aid in troubleshooting problems with the Novell NetWare server and with the NetWare Management Portal. All three of these logs are text files and can be used with any editor.NLM). These handle read requests. á Current Service Processes.ERR. Besides the normal . á Total Cache Buffers. á Packet Receive Buffers.400 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION System Tools for Novel NetWare The primary Novell NetWare diagnostic tool is monitor (MONITOR. á TSS$LOG. A Novell NetWare server also contains several log files that contain information that might be useful in troubleshooting.ERR. which is a webbased management tool for NetWare servers. These logs (one per volume that has the Transaction Tracking System (TSS) enabled) contain information about TSS. there may be too few cache buffers on the NetWare server. These logs (one per volume) contain volume error and status information.

the standard TCP/IP troubleshooting utilities. ps. memory utilization. and sar) in the “Identifying Bottlenecks” section later in this chapter. Novell also sells a network analysis product known as LANalyzer. The IPXCON command provides general statistics and other information about the IPX/SPX protocols running on the NetWare server. such as Ping and Tracert can be used from a client computer to test TCP/IP connectivity on the Novell NetWare server. which captures network traffic for analysis. and PCI device information. System Tools for UNIX/Linux Some of the software tools used for performance monitoring (discussed later in this chapter) can also be used for diagnostic purposes. processor information. and disk utilization to name just a few. The Health Monitor provides a great deal of real-time information about processor utilization. Hardware Management provides network statistics. The TCPCON command provides general statistics and other information about the TCP/IP protocols running on the NetWare server. Network Diagnostic Tools for Novell NetWare The Novell NetWare config command displays information about the network configuration on the Novell NetWare network server. Novell NetWare servers also have a couple of utilities that can be used from the NetWare console: the IPXCON command and the TCPCON command. vmstat. both of which are useful troubleshooting tools. See descriptions of the UNIX/Linux performance monitoring tools (iostat. hardware resource utilization. If the NetWare server is running TCP/IP. the NMP includes Hardware Management and Health Monitor.Chapter 7 6. UNIX/Linux The various versions of UNIX/Linux have their own (usually unique) software tools that you can use for diagnostic purposes.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 401 information that you would expect to see in any management tool. .

enter the following command at a UNIX/Linux prompt: man ifconfig.BROADCAST.168.255.197. The various versions of UNIX/Linux have slightly different implementations of these commands.1 netmask 0xff000000 broadcast 127. The information displayed by the man command also tells how to interpret the output generated by the command.GROUPRT.2.NOTRAILERS.LOOPBACK. For specifics on the netstat command. ifconfig The ifconfig (interface configuration) utility is used to configure the TCP/IP configuration for a specific NIC.BROADCAST.RUNNING.RUNNING. It can also be used to display the TCP/IP configuration.255 netstat The netstat utility is used to display TCP/IP network statistics.168.64BIT> inet 192.168.0. The following listing is an example of UNIX/Linux netstat output: >netstat -s ip: 1071952632 total packets received 0 bad header checksums 0 with size smaller than minimum 0 with data size < data length .168.2. The following listing is an example of UNIX/Linux ifconfig output: >ifconfig -a lo0: flags=e08084b<UP.64BIT > inet 127. For specifics on the ipconfig command.23 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.255 en1: flags=e080863<UP.255 inet6 ::1/0 fi0: flags=e0a0843<UP.ALLCAST.MULTICAST.SIMPLEX.RUNNING.BROADCAST. The information displayed by the man command also tells how to interpret the output generated by the command. enter the following command at the UNIX/Linux prompt: man netstat.SIMPLEX.3 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.SIMPLEX.64BIT> inet 192.197.GROUPRT.GROUPRT.402 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Network Diagnostic Tools for UNIX/Linux The various UNIX/Linux operating systems have several utilities that you can use to diagnose network performance.MULTICAST.MULTICAST. Use the UNIX/Linux man command to display specific information about the flags or switches used with these commands on the different versions of UNIX/Linux.255.0.

Chapter 7 6.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 403 0 with header length < data size 0 with data length < header length 0 with bad options 0 with incorrect version number 218 fragments received 1 fragment dropped (dup or out of space) 5 fragments dropped after timeout 106 packets reassembled ok 1071764722 packets for this host 187795 packets for unknown/unsupported protocol 0 packets forwarded 5 packets not forwardable 0 redirects sent 985853653 packets sent from this host 3035 packets sent with fabricated ip header 0 output packets dropped due to no bufs. 0 output packets discarded due to no route 958 output datagrams fragmented 0 fragments created 958 datagrams that can’t be fragmented 0 IP Multicast packets dropped due to no receiver 0 successful path MTU discovery cycles 0 path MTU rediscovery cycles attempted 0 path MTU discovery no-response estimates 0 path MTU discovery response timeouts 0 path MTU discovery decreases detected 0 path MTU discovery packets sent 0 path MTU discovery memory allocation failures 0 ipintrq overflows 0 with illegal source icmp: 87435 calls to icmp_error 0 errors not generated because old message was icmp Output histogram: echo reply: 475341 destination unreachable: 87433 2741 messages with bad code fields 0 messages < minimum length 0 bad checksums 14 messages with bad length Input histogram: echo reply: 508 destination unreachable: 41409 source quench: 328 routing redirect: 26 . etc.

404 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION echo: 475341 #10: 2 time exceeded: 10835 parameter problem: 2 475341 message responses generated igmp: 128264 messages received 0 messages received with too few bytes 0 messages received with bad checksum 128247 membership queries received 0 membership queries received with invalid field(s) 17 membership reports received 0 membership reports received with invalid field(s) 17 membership reports received for groups to which we belong 3 membership reports sent tcp: 969995197 packets sent 829617186 data packets (3708222803 bytes) 3802849 data packets (1840909853 bytes) retransmitted 42344148 ack-only packets (31663214 delayed) 388 URG only packets 43394 window probe packets 89208904 window update packets 4978328 control packets 1056319126 packets received 365380856 acks (for 3429378578 bytes) 9787520 duplicate acks 5 acks for unsent data 877867036 packets (3622795012 bytes) received in-sequence 1108797 completely duplicate packets (184293621 bytes) 199773 packets with some dup. data (4072561 bytes duped) 5051682 out-of-order packets (751752818 bytes) 2507 packets (331001 bytes) of data after window 1514 window probes 2358506 window update packets 184753 packets received after close 0 packets with bad hardware assisted checksum 13521 discarded for bad checksums 48 discarded for bad header offset fields 1487 connection request 549677 connection requests 4595174 connection accepts 4933946 connections established (including accepts) 6188958 connections closed (including 682010 drops) 1190931 embryonic connections dropped .

The following listing is an example of UNIX/Linux ping output: >ping -c 10 www.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 405 329719854 segments updated rtt (of 258942471 attempts) 0 resends due to path MTU discovery 0 path MTU discovery terminations due to retransmits 1458815 retransmit timeouts 3802 connections dropped by rexmit timeout 45683 persist timeouts 24887 keepalive timeouts 2790 keepalive probes sent 20365 connections dropped by keepalive 189 connections in timewait reused 0 delayed ACKs for SYN 0 delayed ACKs for FIN 0 send_and_disconnects udp: 14968028 datagrams received 0 incomplete headers 0 bad data length fields 0 bad checksums 87435 dropped due to no socket 81632 broadcast/multicast datagrams dropped due to ➥no socket 0 socket buffer overflows 14798961 delivered 14909194 datagrams output 0 message response generated ping The ping command enables you to test TCP/IP communications between two devices on the network.220: icmp_seq=3 ttl=244 time=38 ms . such as two network servers.newriders.com PING newriders. For specifics on the ping command.220: icmp_seq=2 ttl=244 time=37 ms 64 bytes from 63.220: icmp_seq=0 ttl=244 time=38 ms 64 bytes from 63.com: (63.110.220: icmp_seq=1 ttl=244 time=37 ms 64 bytes from 63.110. enter the following command at the UNIX/Linux prompt: man ping.110.110.69.69.110.69.69.Chapter 7 6.69.220): 56 data bytes 64 bytes from 63. The information displayed by the man command also tells how to interpret the output generated by the command.

19.110.94) 38 ms .bfs.so-3-0-0. but it also reports the routers that the communications packets travel through going from one network device.67) 56 ms * 109. such as a network server.220: icmp_seq=5 ttl=244 time=38 ms 64 bytes from 63.NET (152.54) 204.NET (157.ALTER.rsm.EWR1.34) 0.168.63.at-5-0-0.130.18) atm5001.ot.EWR1.220: icmp_seq=6 ttl=244 time=39 ms 64 bytes from 63.188.ATM6-0.ALTER.bfs.2.GW7.130.10.fsu.edu (192.hdmss.TR1.XR1.194.23.2.168.com (63.63.168.TR1.com trying to get source for www.edu (192.ALTER.69. The following listing is an example of UNIX/Linux traceroute output: >traceroute www.63.110.69.220: icmp_seq=4 ttl=244 time=38 ms 64 bytes from 63.JAX1.newriders.39.173) 153.68.1) 4 ms 1 ms 2 ms 4 ms 7 ms 7 ms 16 ms 38 ms 37 ms 39 ms 7 ms 15 ms 36 ms 39 ms 37 ms 39 ms 39 ms 16 ms * * 15 ms 38 ms 37 ms 36 ms 35 ms 1 ms 2 ms 2 ms 2 ms fe600.fsu.168.157 (204.110.edu (192.141. 10 packets received.ALTER.NET (152.2.110.XR1.110.168.NYC9.220) from 192.69) 287.220: icmp_seq=9 ttl=244 time=38 ms ——newriders.NET (152.newriders.74) headland-media-gw.63.com source should be 192.at-2-1-0.c7507.net (63.69.205) web05.20. The information displayed by the man command also tells how to interpret the output generated by the command. 30 hops max outgoing MTU = 1500 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 vlan602.NET (157.NET (152.69.220: icmp_seq=8 ttl=244 time=38 ms 64 bytes from 63.69.ALTER.110.69. For specifics on the traceroute command.23 traceroute to newriders.110.220: icmp_seq=7 ttl=244 time=37 ms 64 bytes from 63.157) 4 ms 4 ms 1 ms 1 ms Serial5-1-0. enter the following command at the UNIX/Linux prompt: man traceroute.39.ATM6-0.253) 193.24.NET (146.fsu.ALTER.com PING Statistics—— 10 packets transmitted.69.customer. 0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max = 37/37/39 ms traceroute The traceroute command is also used to test TCP/IP communications between two network servers.GW1.ALTER.406 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION 64 bytes from 63.110.ATL1.250.dsl.ATL1. to another network device.250.69.194.84.c7507.

The format of the OS/2 ping command is as follows: ping ipaddress .2 as the system management tool. Once issued it brings up the same window as shown in Figure 7. These include the following: á Process Manager. Network Diagnostic Tools for IBM OS/2 Warp Server IBM’s OS/2 Warp Server includes a set of diagnostic software tools that you can use to troubleshoot TCP/IP problems.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 407 IBM OS/2 Warp Server IBM’s OS/2 Warp Server includes a number of diagnostic tools. The System Information enables you to show the hardware and software configuration of the OS/2 network server. To view the current TCP/IP configuration. Both OS/2 SystemView and Netfinity Service Manager have similar capabilities that can be used to aid in troubleshooting. The Process Manager enables you to examine. and terminate processes running on the OS/2 network server. Figure 7.Chapter 7 6. á System Information. System Tools for IBM OS/2 Warp Server The primary system management tool for OS/2 Warp Server version 4 is OS/2 SystemView. tcpcfg The tcpcfg command will display the current TCP/IP configuration for OS/2 Warp Server.15. initiate. ping The ping command in OS/2 Warp Server is similar in function to the ping command in other network server operating systems. start TCP/IP Configuration Local from the TCP/IP folder.15 shows a sample window displaying the TCP/IP configuration. The System Monitor enables you to monitor the performance of the OS/2 network server. Later versions of OS/2 Warp Server (OS/2 Warp Server SMP feature and OS/2 Warp Server for e-business) use Netfinity version 5. á System Monitor.

netstat The OS/2 netstat command is similar to the netstat command in Microsoft’s Windows NT Server. Shows characteristics of IP interfaces. The flags for the OS/2 netstat command are as follows: netstat [-a] [-r] [-s] [-n] [-p] [-t] [-u] [-i] [-c] [-m] -a -r -s -n -p -t -u -i -c -m Lists IP addresses in use. Shows memory buffer usage. ifconfig The OS/2 ifconfig command is similar to the ifconfig command found in UNIX/Linux systems. and UNIX/Linux systems. Lists the ARP table. Shows the TCP status. Shows the ICMP status. Lists TCP/IP connections. . Shows the UDP status.408 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 7.15 OS/2 TCP/IP configuration. Lists TCP/IP routing tables. Shows the IP status. Windows 2000 Server. It displays the TCP/IP configuration information for a particular NIC.

1. Always inform the users that you are going to shut down the system. by broadcasting a message to all users letting them know that the network server is going to be shut down.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 409 The format of the OS/2 ifconfig command is as follows: ifconfig interface Where interface can be any of the following: Interface lo lan0 thru lan7 Description loopback LAN interfaces (Ethernet. Allow enough time for the users to save their work and to log off of the network server.Chapter 7 6.NOTRAILERS. some general steps should always be followed when shutting down the network server.255 tracerte The OS/2 tracerte command is similar in function to the Windows NT Server and the Windows 2000 Server Tracert command and the UNIX/Linux traceroute command.BRIDGE.168.1. That said. The different network server operating systems have different procedures or commands to shut down the system.SNAP> inet 192. you must shut down the network server. Typically a message such as . It provides a list of routers that a packet travels through as it goes from the network server that issued the tracerte command to the destination network device.202 netmask ffffff00x broadcast 192. The format of the OS/2 tracerte command is as follows: tracerte ipaddress System Shutdown To perform some troubleshooting activities.168.RUNNING.BROADCAST. Token Ring) The following listing is an example of ifconfig command on OS/2 output: [C:tcpipbin]ifconfig lan0 lan0: flags=3030<UP.

Log off now ! should be sent right before you start the shutdown process. Follow the shutdown procedure for the network operating system that is running on the network server. Open a command prompt and use the NET SEND command. Administrative Tools (Common). 3. Programs. B. Microsoft Windows NT Server Shutdown To shut down a Microsoft Windows NT network server. type the net “message” command. Programs. Please log off. Select Start. Enter the message in the dialog box.410 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Network server will be shut down in 5 minutes. follow these steps: 1. Click Start. In the command-prompt window. Command Prompt. 2. or 1. send TIP To shut down Microsoft Windows NT. similar to Network server shutdown imminent. EXAM Shut ’em Down Know how to shut down the different network server operating systems. Select Start. Server Manager. Another message. . For example. and then click Yes. use either of the following methods: 1. Click OK. 2. Microsoft’s Exchange should be shut down before the network server operating system is shut down. Select Shut Down the Computer?. Shut Down. Select Send Message. Inform users of network server shutdown by using either of the following methods: A. Select the network server from the list of servers in Server Manager. Click the Computer menu. Some applications or services should be shut down before the network server operating system itself is shut down. should be sent about 5 minutes before the actually shutdown.

Command Prompt.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 411 or 1. or 1. or 1. Administrative Tools. Click OK. use either of the following methods: 1. and then click OK. Inform users that the network server is going to be shut down using either of the following methods: 1. and then select Send Console Message. 2. right-click Shared Folders. Shut Down. Accessories. Click Start. and then select Shut Down from the drop-down box. 2. In the command-prompt window. you must issue the down command at the system console. Click Start. and press Send. Select Shut Down from the drop-down box. . Programs. 2. click the Shut Down button. click Shut Down. Computer Management. Press Ctrl+Alt+Del. follow the steps outlined in this section. Novell NetWare Shutdown To shut down a Novell NetWare server. type the net “message” command. to whom it is to be sent. and then click OK. Click Start. send To shut down Microsoft Windows 2000 Server. Open System Tools. 3. Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Shutdown To shut down a Microsoft Windows 2000 network server. In the message box enter the message.Chapter 7 6. select All Tasks. Press Ctrl+Alt+Del. Programs.

Specifies the message that is sent to the users notifying them that the system is going to shut down. users are notified of the impending system shutdown with a message. The following are some typical flags and parameters for the shutdown command for a version of UNIX: shutdown -F -h -k -r +Time [ -F ] [ -h ] [ -k ] [ -r ] [ +Time [ Message ] ] Message Does a fast shutdown. All commands are always entered using lowercase characters. The first form brings the system down in the specified number of minutes and the second brings the system down at the time of day indicated (as a 24-hour clock). .412 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION UNIX Shutdown Remember that all commands and their flags in UNIX are case sensitive. the Time parameter must also be specified. Only a user with root user (administrator) authority can run shutdown. The man shutdown command will provide information about the flags and switches of the shutdown command. To send a message to all users who are logged in to the UNIX network server. A future time can be specified in one of two formats: +number or hour:minute. bypassing the messages to other users and bringing the system down as quickly as possible. If the Message parameter is specified. use the UNIX wall command. Halts the operating system completely. Specifies the time at which the shutdown command stops the system. The UNIX man command provides online documentation (known as man pages) for UNIX commands. named shutdown. However. type man shutdown at a UNIX command prompt. Restarts the system after being shutdown with the reboot command. An immediate shutdown is indicated by the word now displayed onscreen. as follows: wall message All versions of UNIX have a command to shut down the system. Avoids shutting down the system. To determine the flags or switches available for the shutdown command on the version of UNIX that is being used on the network server. the flags or switches that are available differ with each version of UNIX. During the default shutdown.

Linux Shutdown Like other versions of UNIX. aterm. First. all logged-in users are sent a message that the server is shutting down. unmounts all file systems. Finally. The Linux shutdown command operates much the same way that the shutdown command works in other operating systems. The format of the Linux shutdown command is as follows: /sbin/shutdown [–h | –r | –c] time [shutdown message] . To use the shutdown command. However. Next.Chapter 7 6. it unmounts the file systems. Linux includes a wall command that can be used to notify all logged-in users that the network server is going to be shutdown. or eterm). and calls the halt command. however. the Linux wall command uses a file to contain the message. a terminal console must be started (using Xterm. all processes on the Linux server are notified that the system is shutting down. the shutdown command stops all processes. the message for the wall command could be created this way: wall server shutdown message line 1 server shutdown message line 2 ctrl+d The Linux shutdown command has several combinations of flags or switches. New user logins are not processed.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 413 After the specified number of seconds (60 by default). If you request a complete halt to the operating system. The shutdown command then ends any remaining processes and flushes all memory-resident disk blocks. The format for the Linux wall command is as follows: wall [file] Because in both UNIX and Linux a file can be standard input. the system stops the accounting and error logging processes and writes an entry to the Error log.

” The implication of this expression is that you need to use the right tool for the job at hand.m. select the desktop. press Shift+F10. . IBM OS/2 Shutdown To send a message to all logged-in users to warn them that the OS/2 network server is going to be shut down. and will send the message “server shutting down at 5:00pm” to all the users. you can press Ctrl+Esc. you tend to treat everything like it is a nail.. Use a hammer for a nail. but use a screwdriver for a screw. Example 3: /sbin/shutdown –c The preceding command cancels a previously scheduled shutdown. Here are several examples of Linux shutdowns: Example 1: /sbin/shutdown –r 17:00 server shutting down at 5:00pm The preceding command restarts (shutdown and reboot) the server at 5 p. The word now may be used to indicate immediate shutdown. Selecting the Appropriate Tool and Using It Effectively There is an old expression that goes something like this: “If the only tool that you know how to use is a hammer. and select Shutdown..m. and will send the message “server shutting down at 5:00pm” to all the users. open a command prompt and use the following command: net send “message” To shut down IBM OS/2 use the following command from a command prompt: shutdown Alternatively.414 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION The time parameter is required. Example 2: /sbin/shutdown –h 17:00 server shutting down at 5:00pm The preceding command halts (shuts down) the server at 5 p.

Chapter 7 6. The following list identifies typical FRUs: á Keyboard á Monitor á Mouse á Power supply . Make sure you understand the system and network analysis tools discussed in this chapter and which tools you can use to successfully investigate problems.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 415 An experienced server hardware specialist should have a variety of tools available to troubleshoot and solve problems and know how to use all the tools and what situations call for which tools.” discusses many of the specific strategies that a server hardware specialist can use to prepare for dealing with this eventuality. it is the job of the server hardware specialist to replace the defective component. Once the appropriate tool is selected. Chapter 8. If there is a network performance problem. Replacing Defective Hardware Components If the problem with the network server turns out to be a defective hardware component.0—Disaster Recovery. a network analysis tool needs to be run to determine why the network is slow. Identifying and Replacing Defective Field Replaceable Units Field replaceable units (FRUs) are network server components that can be easily replaced in the field (on the client’s site). If no spare hardware components are on hand. the appropriate replacement must be acquired as quickly as possible. the replacement can take place immediately. If spare components are on hand. for instance. the experienced server hardware specialist should know how to use the tool effectively to troubleshoot and solve the problem with the network server. “7.

or on the vendor’s web site. Operating System Errors. Experience with the network server operating system will make the interpretation of these error messages relatively easy. The typical logs and error messages available on most network server operating systems include the following: á Error logs. . or applications running on the network operating system. These messages generally display on the network server console. and Critical Events A server hardware specialist should be able to use logs and error messages generated by the network server operating system as aids in troubleshooting. á Operating system errors. Health Logs. Unfamiliar operating system error messages can generally be interpreted by looking at documentation supplied by the network operating system vendor in print.416 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION á CD-ROM drive á DVD-ROM drive á Floppy disk drive á Hard disk drive á System Board á SCSI bus controller á Video controller á Network interface card á Processor á Cooling fans á Memory Interpreting Error logs. These logs contain errors that have been generated by the network operating system itself. electronically.

reading the last few pages of the log can provide a valuable clue that can aid in troubleshooting. knowledge bases of reported problems and their solutions. and utilities. Major network server operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) offer through an annual subscription service a set of technical support CDs that are updated on a monthly basis. Both of these services are extremely valuable to the server hardware specialist. A server hardware specialist should be aware of these sources and should know how to make use of them. These logs are generally maintained by software provided by the network server hardware vendor. These CDs contain not only recent patches to the operating system. Using Documentation The network server logbook can be a most useful tool in troubleshooting. The logbook proves it value when it holds a clue that helps solve a problem with the network server. . resource kits. NOTE Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a technical support subscription service for the network operating system most often en-countered by the server hardware specialist. Locating and Using Support Resources Sources of information about how to fix problems are available in many forms. á Critical events. These health logs record failure of specific hardware on the network server.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 417 á Health logs. Perhaps a new software package has recently been installed on the network server. Assuming that the logbook has been kept up-to-date. This is another form of log that records events as they occur on the network server.Chapter 7 6. Microsoft’s technical support subscription service is called TechNet. such as a service starting up. but they also contain many articles or white papers with technical details of the operating system. These events are not necessarily errors. Novell calls their technical support subscription service the Novell Support Connection CD. Or maybe a new hardware component was recently added to the network server. but they are significant events on the network server.

ms-windows.os.software.418 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Other sources of information to aid in troubleshooting include the following: á Newsgroups á Network server hardware vendor web sites á Network operating system vendor web sites Newsgroups Newsgroups are accessed by using a newsreader such as Microsoft Outlook Express or the newsreader option in NetScape.nt.os.os.admin.nt.admin.networking. The following sections list some of the more useful newsgroups for the major operating systems.os2.os2.ms-windows.networking.os2.services IBM OS/2 Newsgroups comp.tcp-ip .os. Microsoft Windows NT/2000 Newsgroups comp.os.ms-windows.security comp.networking.os.nt.misc comp.ms-windows.misc comp.os.ms-windows.misc comp.setup.nt.os.os.os.os.os2.nt.setup.ms-windows.ms-windows.tcp-ip comp.hardware comp.os.os2.os2.nt.bugs comp.os2.misc comp.admin.setup.ms-windows.os.misc comp.os.networking comp.comm comp.nt.utilities comp.misc comp.

os.linux.misc comp.os.unix.security UNIX Newsgroups comp.com www.pc-clone.netware.unisys.os. Server Vendors Compaq Dell Hewlett-Packard IBM Unisys www.os.netware.com www.linux.16bit comp.os.linux.pc-clone.compaq.misc comp.linux.unix.security comp.questions comp.os.unix.os.misc comp. The following sections list sites for server vendors and network operating system vendors.linux.sco.connectivity comp.com www.unix.unixware.32bit comp.hp.ibm.com .dell.unix.admin comp.unix.os.unix.misc Linux Newsgroups comp.netware.answers comp.unix.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 419 Novell NetWare Newsgroups comp.solaris comp.misc comp.os.networking comp.com www.linux.hardware comp.setup Network Server Hardware Vendor Web Sites Another invaluable source of information is vendor web sites.Chapter 7 6.

There is always the possibility that you might not be able to solve the problem with the network server. As a standard part of the troubleshooting process. Remember the goal is get the network server back in operation as quickly as possible. event logs. The first step is to gather all the information about the problem and the resources that will be needed to help troubleshoot the problem. An apparent disk failure will require the ability to check whether the disk drive has actually failed (using senses to check for loose cables.redhat.com Gathering Resources When a problem has been reported with the network server. errors logs.sun. The resources to be gathered depend on the apparent source of the problem. answers to the questioning process. the server hardware specialist should make sure that he or she has all the available documentation. and support CDs. it is time to call in the network specialist. checking for error LEDs on the disk drive.sco.com www. touching the failed drive to feel whether it is spinning.caldera.com www.420 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Network Operating System Vendor Web Sites Microsoft Novell UNIX Linux www. the network server logbook.microsoft. make the phone calls.ibm. Failure of the network server to power up will probably require the use of a POST Diagnostics Board. If that means making a few phone calls. If the problem is beyond your ability to solve. and so on).suse. checking for lack of power.com IBM www.com www. If you suspect .com www. call for help from a senior server hardware specialist.” Many things need to be done to effectively troubleshoot the problem. it is time to shift into “troubleshooting mode.novell. Or if you suspect that the problem is actually a network problem and not a problem with the network server or its NIC.com www.com www. That spare external SCSI cable might come in handy in this situation. A network performance problem will probably need a network analysis tool.

it is possible to select the computer that you would like to see information about. looking for references to cautions that were not heeded before the upgrade was performed. The signal is called a magic packet. Remote Troubleshooting for a Remote Alert A remote alert is usually generated by a Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent that resides on a network device. you cannot perform the examination. you can run NT Diagnostics on that computer. however. When fully powered up. The alert is sent to an SNMP management console. If the computer that you want to examine using NT Diagnostics is not powered up. In the Windows NT Server 4 NT Diagnostics.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 421 that a recent upgrade to the network server operating system or a driver for one of its components is the cause of the current problem. When the magic packet is received by the NIC. It is likely that the problem has been reported by others and that there is a fix or patch available on the support CD. for example. Be sure to search any operating system support CDs for references to a similar problem. The purpose of WOL technology is to enable a network administrator to power up a computer by sending a signal to the NIC with WOL technology. be sure to find all the information related to the upgrade. The . Remote Troubleshooting for a Wake-On-LAN Some network interface cards support a technology known as WakeOn-LAN (WOL). the remote computer can be accessed through normal remote diagnostic software. After the computer is powered up. Also check the newsgroups for the operating system in question for references to a similar problem. If that computer has a NIC with WOL technology. you can power it up remotely by sending the WOL magic packet to that NIC.Chapter 7 6. The WOL technology also enables you to power up a computer so that it can have the data on its hard disk drives backed up to tape over the network. Read the information thoroughly. it will power up the computer in which it is installed.

422 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION software that runs on the SNMP management console will enable the network administrator to use SNMP to troubleshoot the problem with the network device. Third-party vendors also have performance-monitoring software tools available for most network server operating systems. For Microsoft Windows NT Server á Performance.. For UNIX/Linux á System Performance Monitor/2 (SPM/2). processor. .16). The log file can be analyzed by using Performance Monitor. memory) To be able to diagnose which network server component is causing a system bottleneck. disk I/O. bus transfer. the server hardware specialist must have access to performance-monitoring software tools specific to the network server operating system. For Microsoft Windows 2000 Server á ManageWise. network I/O. Most network server operating systems have at least a basic performance-monitoring software package included with the operating system. Examples of performance-monitoring software tools for various network server operating systems include the following: á Performance Monitor. The monitoring can take the form of creating a real-time chart of resource utilization or it can take the form of a log file for later analysis. For IBM OS/2 The primary performance-monitoring tool for Microsoft’s Windows NT Server is Performance Monitor (see Figure 7. such as a standard statistics software package for analysis or Microsoft Excel to generate charts or statistics. I/O.3 Identify bottlenecks (e. For Novell NetWare á sar. IDENTIFYING BOTTLENECKS . vmstat. or the log file can be exported in a format that can be used by other software. 6.g. iostat. ps. Performance Monitor can monitor nearly all hardware and software components on a Windows NT Server.

but the basic functionality is nearly identical to the Windows NT Server Performance Monitor. . Use the UNIX/Linux man command to get specifics about the use of these commands. The flags used by these commands can vary among the different versions of UNIX/Linux. vmstat. iostat.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 423 FIGURE 7. The primary difference between the Windows 2000 Server Performance tool and the Windows NT Server Performance Monitor is that the Windows 2000 Server tool is a snap-in to the Microsoft Management Console. The primary performance-monitoring tool for Microsoft’s Windows 2000 Server is just called Performance (see Figure 7. The primary tools are sar.17). and ps.16 Windows NT Server Performance Monitor. The appearance is a little different.Chapter 7 6. The various versions of the UNIX/Linux operating systems have command-line utilities that you can use to monitor performance of the UNIX/Linux network server. The information displayed by the man command also tells you how to interpret the output generated by the command.

Output from a typical UNIX/Linux sar command looks something like this: >sar 3 3 4 000078638900 00:00:01 00:00:11 00:00:21 00:00:31 00:00:41 00:00:51 00:10:01 00:10:11 00:10:21 00:10:31 00:10:41 00:10:51 00:20:00 00:20:10 %usr 53 67 68 79 52 64 77 89 68 81 66 72 74 %sys 47 33 32 21 48 36 23 11 32 19 34 28 26 04/23/01 %wio 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 %idle 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . or sar command. and so forth) for the UNIX/Linux network server. buffer utilization. collects and reports system activity (processor utilization.17 Windows 2000 Server Performance.424 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 7. The UNIX/Linux System Activity Reporter.

provides information about disk subsystem input/output on the UNIX/Linux network server. or iostat command.Chapter 7 6. .0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 425 00:20:20 00:20:30 00:20:40 00:20:50 00:30:01 00:30:11 00:30:21 00:30:31 00:30:41 00:30:51 00:40:01 00:40:11 00:40:21 00:40:32 00:40:42 00:40:52 00:50:01 00:50:11 00:50:21 68 51 78 83 76 86 76 75 87 79 70 57 67 46 63 76 66 80 76 32 49 22 16 24 14 24 25 13 21 29 43 33 54 37 24 34 20 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Average 78 22 0 0 The UNIX/Linux Virtual Memory Statistics. provides information about the virtual memory system on the UNIX/Linux network server. Output from a typical UNIX/Linux vmstat command looks like this: >vmstat kthr r 1 b memory avm fre re 0 pi 0 page po 0 fr 2 sr 9 cy in 0 344 faults sy cpu cs us sy id wa 23 46 4 ——.———————————— —————— —————0 31888 144430 197 312 27 The UNIX/Linux Input/Output Statistics.—————. or vmstat command.

64493:11 kproc 2:58 kproc 0:00 kproc 0:09 errdemon 0:00 srcmstr 0:00 lpd 0:06 xntpd 0:23 pine 0:00 portmap 0:06 kproc 0:00 biod 1:01 sshd2 0:00 rpc.5 % iowait 3.9 8.9 0.5 27.0 Kbps 14.78:41 inetd .1 Disks: hdisk0 hdisk1 hdisk2 cd0 tout 163.lockd 0:00 ksh 0:00 sleep 0:00 telnetd . Output from a typical UNIX/Linux ps command looks like this: >ps -A PID 0 1 516 774 1032 1860 2234 2364 2648 3396 3642 3904 4388 4644 4918 5160 8002 8260 9038 9806 11172 11954 TTY TIME CMD .9 2.5 0.0 8.46:02 swapper .0 tps 2.2 % sys 22.558:09 syncd .statd 0:27 rpc.118:31 init .426 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Output from a typical UNIX/Linux iostat command looks like this: >iostat tty: tin 2.0 avg-cpu: % user 27.1 % tm_act 1.3395:21 kproc 10776 pts/11 .794:35 kproc .5 Kb_read 36007861 36566322 31974140 0 Kb_wrtn 75913088 175307653 1757195716 0 The UNIX/Linux Processes (ps) command lists all the processes that are running on the UNIX/Linux network server.5 2.33:04 syslogd 4180 pts/12 .9 0.5 231.8 % idle 46.

0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 427 12398 12650 13194 13424 13680 13938 14466 14970 15264 16368 17034 19098 19616 19902 20388 21678 22450 22710 23742 24072 24768 25038 26318 27814 31716 31930 33806 34604 35012 35606 36454 38162 39916 - 0:46 lmgrd 0:00 logdaemon 5:58 httpd 2:07 HLM_SPSS 0:04 nqsdaemon 0:00 netdaemon 0:00 sh 4:43 cron 2:06 sh 0:00 telnetd 1:15 httpd 2:40 ksh .rstatd 0 pts/8 pts/0 pts/6 0:05 uprintfd 0:19 qdaemon 0:01 i4llmd 0:00 writesrv 0:00 getty 1:11 httpd 0:00 diagd 0:00 ksh 0:00 ksh 0:00 ksh 0:00 telnetd 0:00 telnetd 1:10 httpd 1:21 httpd 1:11 httpd 0:06 pine 0:04 klogind 1:02 httpd 0:00 menu. The two counters to watch most closely are the percent processor EXAM Indicators of Processor Bottleneck Know which statistics indicate that the processor is the bottleneck in a network server.23:49 sh .65:13 i4llmd 28130 pts/12 39384 pts/12 Processor Bottlenecks Using the performance-monitoring tools available for the network server operating system.475:09 rpc.Chapter 7 6. TIP . the server hardware specialist should be able to monitor the utilization of the processor(s) in the network server.bin 4:39 sendmail .

several indicators or counters should be monitored. The number of pages per second that is acceptable depends on the speed of the processor. Memory shortages manifest themselves on these systems as the inability to load additional software or the lack of “buffers” (temporary storage between the system and its disk drives). If the processor utilization percentage is constantly greater than 70%. . To totally prevent paging or swapping of memory pages to disk. the processor is the bottleneck in the network server. The processor queue length is the number of processes waiting for the processor. utilization and the processor queue length. If the processor queue length is constantly greater than 2. The solution to a memory shortage is to add more memory. just have more actual or physical memory than is needed by all the software running on the network server.000 per second. because the memory pages are written to disk when the memory is needed by another program. á Move applications or services from this network server to another network server. Heavy paging often manifests itself as high disk utilization. the processor is the bottleneck in the network server. which are easily detected using standard server management software. The first counter is the amount of available memory (memory that is not being used) after all the network server software has been loaded.428 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION EXAM Eliminate Processor Bottleneck Know the options for eliminating a processor bottleneck. Generally the number should be less than 2. Novell NetWare 4 and below). You can alleviate the processor bottleneck by doing any of the following: á Upgrade the existing processor to a faster processor. The other counter that should be monitored to check for memory bottlenecks is the number of pages that are read from or written to the paging file on the disk in 1 second. On network servers with operating systems that do support virtual memory. á Add an additional processor to the network server. TIP Memory Bottlenecks On network servers with operating systems that do not support virtual memory (for instance. The percent processor utilization is the percentage of the time that the processor is busy. memory bottlenecks are rather easy to detect.

The disk subsystem queue length indicates how many items are waiting to be written to the disk subsystem. A disk subsystem utilization percentage should not be constantly greater than 90%. Several things might improve disk subsystem performance: á Defragment the disk drive. add more memory to the network server. but it must be retrieved from disk. á Move the application causing high disk utilization to another network server. TIP Eliminate Memory Bottleneck Know the options for eliminating a memory bottleneck. This very high disk subsystem utilization rate indicates that the disk subsystem is the bottleneck. The disk subsystem counters that should be monitored are disk subsystem utilization and disk queue length.Chapter 7 6.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 429 Another indicator of lack of memory is the number of page faults generated per second. Indicators of a Disk Subsystem Bottleneck Know which statistics indicate that the disk subsystem is the bottleneck in a network server. a database server). and off of the disk drive where the network server operating system is located. especially when the network server has the role of a network server requiring a fast disk subsystem (for instance. To alleviate a memory bottleneck. Paging performance can often be improved by placing the paging file (or the swap file) on the fastest disk in the network server and on a disk that doesn’t contain the network server operating system or the data files used by the major application running on the network server. . EXAM EXAM EXAM TIP TIP Indicators of a Memory Bottleneck Know which statistics indicate that memory is the bottleneck in a network server. á Move the network server operating system paging file to the fastest disk drive in the network server. A page fault is the condition encountered when there is an attempt to access a program page and the page is no longer in memory. A page fault problem is indicated if the number of page faults per second is more than double the number of page faults recorded on the server baseline measurements taken under a normal workload. Having fragmented files on the disk drive can drastically reduce disk performance. A disk subsystem queue length that is constantly greater than 2 indicates that the disk subsystem is too slow. Disk Subsystem Bottlenecks The disk subsystem can cause system bottlenecks.

TIP EXAM Indicators of a Network Subsystem Bottleneck Know which statistics indicate that the network subsystem is the bottleneck. Using an Ethernet switch instead provides each port a full amount of bandwidth (no sharing of the bandwidth). all the available network bandwidth is shared. The percent network utilization. A network analyzer can also determine the type of network packets (for instance. multicasts. To analyze network performance. EXAM Eliminating a Network Subsystem Bottleneck Know the options for eliminating a network subsystem bottleneck. a network analyzer (hardware or software) is needed. or unicasts) and the protocols that are consuming the most network bandwidth. TIP Network Subsystem Bottlenecks Network subsystem bottlenecks are perhaps the most difficult to detect and solve. If defragmenting the disk subsystem and moving the paging file to another disk drive doesn’t improve performance. and can constitute a bottleneck. broadcasts. á Replace the disk drives with disk drives with a higher rotational speed (and therefore faster access time). more drastic (and costly) measures must be taken to improve disk performance: á Replace the disk controller with a disk controller that has a built-in memory cache. á Replace the entire disk subsystem (controller and disk drives) with a faster disk subsystem. Typical performance-monitoring software can supply counts of packets sent and received and little else. á Replace Ethernet hubs with Ethernet switches. TIP Solutions to a network subsystem bottleneck are generally expensive and include the following: á Replace the network subsystem with a faster network subsystem. Replacing a 10Mbps Ethernet network with a 100Mbps Fast Ethernet network will likely eliminate the network subsystem as a bottleneck. A network utilization percentage that is constantly greater than 65% is generally considered to be high utilization. a very valuable indicator of network performance. can be determined easily.430 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION EXAM Eliminate Disk Subsystem Bottleneck Know the options for eliminating a disk subsystem bottleneck. . A network analyzer can actually capture packets on the network for later analysis. In an Ethernet hub.

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á If the bottleneck appears to be caused by too many clients trying to get to the network server, consider using adapter teaming to increase the network bandwidth available to the network server. This requires multiple NICs to be installed in the network server and a Fast Ethernet switch that supports bandwidth aggregation to be installed. (See the section “Adapter Teaming” in Chapter 1, “0.0—Planning and Specifications,” for more details.) á Eliminate unnecessary protocols from the network. When multiple protocols are installed on a network server, announcements sent from the network server are sent once for each installed protocol (thus increasing network traffic). The following are a couple of well-known network monitoring and analysis tools: á Microsoft Network Monitor á Novell LANalyzer for Windows

NOTE NOTE

Two Versions of Microsoft Network Monitor There are two different versions of Microsoft’s Network Monitor software. A cut-down version is included with Microsoft Windows NT Server and Microsoft Windows 2000 Server operating systems. This version can monitor only network traffic leaving or entering the network server on which it is running. The full version of Network Monitor is a component of the Microsoft System Management Server 2.0 BackOffice Product. The full version of Network Monitor can capture and analyze all packets on the network.

IDENTIFYING AND CORRECTING MISCONFIGURATIONS AND/OR UPGRADES
. 6.4 Identify and correct misconfigurations and/or upgrades There are various ways to detect and correct misconfigurations and upgrades. The following sections discuss troubleshooting tips for various subsystems.

Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a network monitor software package running on a laptop computer. This is an expensive, but invaluable tool for diagnosing network traffic problems.

Troubleshooting Disk Drives
Because disk drives are practically the only mechanical devices in a network server (with the exception of cooling fans), they are the components most prone to failure. Fortunately, disk drive failures are usually easy to diagnose.

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Here is the short list of things to check if you suspect a disk drive failure in the network server: á Check to make sure that the data cable is firmly attached to the disk drive. á Check to make sure the disk drive is getting power. Check to make sure that the power plug is plugged into the disk drive.
Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a stethoscope for listening to hard disk drives. Can a Server Hardware Specialist who uses a stethoscope to listen to hard disks be referred to as a “spin doctor”?

á By touching a disk drive, an experienced server hardware specialist can actually feel the disk drive spinning. In a non-noisy environment, an experienced server hardware specialist can also hear the disk drive spinning. However, very few network servers are located in non-noisy environments. By using a stethoscope, a server hardware specialist can easily hear whether a hard disk drive is functioning normally. á Any “clicking” noise coming from a hard disk drive is definitely a bad sign. It usually indicates a catastrophic failure of the disk drive.

NOTE

Troubleshooting a SCSI Subsystem
Troubleshooting a SCSI subsystem is also very straightforward. First you should check to make sure that the disk drives themselves are functioning normally, by performing the hard disk troubleshooting suggestions listed earlier. Some SCSI subsystems have disk drives in cabinets that are external to the network server chassis. These external components should be powered on before the network server itself is powered on. If the external cabinets are not powered, the SCSI adapter in the network server chassis will not be able to locate devices in the external cabinet. The short list of items to check when troubleshooting SCSI subsystems includes the following: á Make sure that the SCSI controller is firmly seated in the network server chassis. á Check to make sure that the SCSI connectors are firmly attached to the SCSI controller and the SCSI disk drives. á Make sure that the power connectors are firmly attached to the SCSI disk drives.

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á Check to make sure that there are no duplicate SCSI IDs among the devices on a single SCSI channel. á Check to make sure both ends of the SCSI channel are terminated properly. á Make sure that the total length of the SCSI channel (cable) does not exceed the maximum allowed for the SCSI signaling system (single-ended, high-voltage differential, or low-voltage differential) being used. á Remember that to achieve their high data-transfer speeds, some high-speed SCSI systems (such as Ultra 160) do not allow the maximum number of devices to be attached to the SCSI bus. (Usually the maximum is seven.) Some high-speed SCSI systems limit the number of disk drives to three. á Make sure that the SCSI cables are top quality. Quality cables are needed to support high data-transfer speeds.
NOTE NOTE
Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a known good external SCSI cable with 68-pin HD connectors, a known good external SCSI cable with 68-pin VHDCI connectors, and a known good external SCSI cable with 50-pin connectors.

Troubleshooting an ATA Subsystem
Troubleshooting an ATA subsystem is also very straightforward. First you should check to make sure that the disk drives themselves are functioning normally, by performing the hard disk troubleshooting suggestions listed earlier. The short list of items to check when troubleshooting an ATA subsystems includes the following: á Make sure that the ATA controller is firmly seated in the network server chassis. á Check to make sure that the ATA connectors are firmly attached to the ATA controller and the ATA disk drives. á Make sure that the power connectors are firmly attached to the ATA disk drives. á Check to make sure that when there are two ATA disks on a single ATA channel (ribbon cable) that one of the disk drives is set to the master role and that the other is set to the slave role. Alternatively, both disk drives may be set to cable select (CSEL). á Make sure that the ATA cable does not exceed the maximum ATA cable length (usually 18 inches).
Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a known good IDE/ATA cable and extra IDE/ATA jumpers.

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Troubleshooting an Ultra ATA Subsystem
Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a known good Ultra ATA 80-conductor cable.

Troubleshooting an Ultra ATA subsystem is exactly the same as troubleshooting an ATA subsystem, except that Ultra ATA systems require an ATA cable that differs from regular ATA system cables. The Ultra ATA systems require an 80-conductor cable with a 40-pin connector rather than the 40-conductor cable with a 40-pin connector used by regular ATA system.

NOTE

General Network Troubleshooting
When troubleshooting network problems, first make sure that the network cable is plugged into the NIC. Most NICs have a “link” LED on the NIC near where the network cable is attached. The link light should be on when the other end of the network cable is plugged into a hub or switch. The power for this LED comes from the hub or cable, so it should be on even if the network server is powered down.
NOTE
Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a Category 5 UTP path cable that is at least 10 feet long and is known to be in good working condition.

Ethernet NICs that can operate at either 10Mbps or 100Mbps (known as 10/100 Ethernet NICs) generally have an LED to indicate the speed at which the NIC is communicating. If the network cable is attached to both the NIC and a hub or switch and there is still a problem with the network communication, replace the network patch cable with a cable that is known to work. If the network still does not communicate, the problem is either with the NIC (which should be replaced with a known working NIC) or with the port on the hub/switch. Try using a different port on the hub/switch. If none of these changes clear up the network problem, it is time to call the network expert on your contact list.

Troubleshooting TCP/IP Network Problems
This is the preferred order in which to run tests on TCP/IP: 1. hostname. Prints the name of the network server. Note the host name for future reference.

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2.

ipconfig. Prints the current TCP/IP configuration. (On UNIX/Linux systems use the ifconfig command rather than ipconfig.) Note the IP address and subnet mask of the network server for future reference. If the IP address of the default gateway displays, note it also.

3. Ping 127.0.0.1. Ping the loopback address to see whether TCP/IP is installed correctly. If any error message appears, it is time to remove and reinstall the TCP/IP protocol on the network server. 4. Ping own IP address. This tests that TCP/IP can communicate with the network adapter in the network server. The IP address of the network server displays in the output of the IPCONFIG command. 5. Ping default gateway. This tests that the network server can communicate from the network to another system on the network, in this case the router. The IP address of the default gateway (router) displays in the output of the ipconfig command. 6. Ping remote host. A remote host is a computer on the other side of the default gateway (router). This tests that the router is doing its job and forwards the TCP/IP packet to a computer system on the other side of the router. 7. Ping own IP name. This tests that the network server can resolve its own IP name. 8. Ping remote host IP name. This tests that the DNS server is working and resolving the host IP name of a remote computer. What follows are examples of running Ping and the messages that result. A successful ping command using a TCP/IP address should look something like this:
C:\>ping 192.168.1.200 Pinging 192.168.1.200 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.1.200: bytes=32 time=10ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.1.200: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128

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Reply from 192.168.1.200: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.1.200: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 192.168.1.200: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 10ms, Average = 2ms

A successful Ping command using the IP name should look something like this:
C:\>ping london.nwtraders.msft Pinging london.nwtraders.msft [192.168.1.200] with 32 bytes ➥of data: Reply from 192.168.1.200: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.1.200: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.1.200: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.1.200: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 192.168.1.200: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

Notice that the IP name london.nwtraders.msft has been resolved to IP address 192.168.1.200 and both the IP name and IP address display in the output of the Ping command. An unsuccessful Ping command using the IP name would look like this:
C:\>ping seattle.namerica1.nwtraders.msft Unknown host seattle.namerica1.nwtraders.msft.

The message Unknown

namerica1.nwtraders.msft

indicates that the IP name seattle. could not be resolved to an IP address by a DNS server. This is either a name resolution problem (bad IP name) or the IP address of the DNS server is incorrect in the TCP/IP configuration of the computer issuing the Ping command.
host

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An unsuccessful ping command using an IP address would look like this:
C:\>ping 10.2.3.12 Pinging 10.2.3.12 with 32 bytes of data: Destination host unreachable. Destination host unreachable. Destination host unreachable. Destination host unreachable. Ping statistics for 10.2.3.12: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

The message Destination host unreachable indicates that there is not a route from the computer issuing the ping command to the computer being pinged. The most likely cause is that there is not a valid default gateway configured in the TCP/IP configuration of the computer issuing the ping command. In other words, “you can’t get there from here.” An unsuccessful ping command using an IP name would look like this:
C:\>ping vancouver.namerica1.nwtraders.msft Pinging vancouver.namerica1.nwtraders.msft [192.168.1.112] ➥with 32 bytes of data:

Request timed out. Request timed out. Request timed out. Request timed out. Ping statistics for 192.168.1.112: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

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Add to Tool Kit A server hardware specialist’s tool kit should include a POST Diagnostics Board designed for a PCI bus.

The Request timed out message indicates that the pinged computer did not reply to the ping command. This usually means that the computer being pinged is not currently running. On the plus side, the name vancouver.namerica1.nwtraders.msft was resolved to the address 192.168.1.112 as shown in the output of the ping command. Also because the message is Request timed out rather than Destination host unreachable, the default gateway was properly configured on the computer issuing the ping command.

NOTE

NOTE

POST Diagnostic Boards for Other Buses There are POST Diagnostic Boards for ISA and EISA buses as well as the popular PCI bus.

Troubleshooting Boot Failure
Failure of the network server to boot up at all can be particularly difficult to resolve. Several manufacturers build a Power-On Self-Test (POST) Diagnostics Board that is invaluable in diagnosing boot up problems. Figure 7.18 shows a diagram of a typical POST Diagnostics Board. A POST Diagnostics Board is a diagnostic device that plugs into any available PCI expansion slot in the network server and tests the operation of the system as it powers up. Any error condition displays on a set of LEDs or LCDs mounted on the POST Diagnostics Board. The meaning of the error code and the action to take to resolve the boot failure are included with the documentation of the POST Diagnostics Board.

EXAM

POST Diagnostics Board Know the purpose of a POST Diagnostics Board.

TIP

DETERMINING WHETHER A PROBLEM IS HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, OR VIRUS RELATED
. 6.5 Determine if problem is hardware, software, or virus related Network server problems can be caused by faulty hardware, misconfigured or poorly written software, or computer viruses. Computer viruses cause strange behavior in a network server. Some viruses might act like a hardware or software failure. If after checking all the hardware components using normal troubleshooting techniques, there still appears to be a problem with the hardware, it could very easily be a computer virus causing the problem.

FIGURE 7.18
A typical POST Diagnostics Board.

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Good troubleshooting techniques dictate that you should update the virus signature file and run virus-scan software as a standard part of troubleshooting.

CHAPTER SUMMARY
This chapter covered troubleshooting. You learned about the uses of questioning techniques and the use of your senses as aids in troubleshooting network server problems. The value of knowing whom to contact for specific problems and failures was discussed. The names and examples of common troubleshooting and diagnostic tools for various network server operating systems were presented. The proper commands used to shut down various network server operating systems were also documented. The ways to determine network server bottlenecks were presented and solutions to the various bottlenecks were discussed. Various troubleshooting techniques for different hardware components were explained.

KEY TERMS • APIPA • Event Viewer • FRU • hostname • ifconfig • iostat • ipconfig • Magic packet • man • nbtstat • netstat • nslookup • pathping • ping • POST Diagnostics Board • ps • sar • shutdown • Task Manager • traceroute • tracert • tracerte • vmstat • Wake-On-LAN • wall • Windows NT Diagnostics

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A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E

Exercises
7.1 Using Network Tools and Utilities

3. Ping the IP address of the default gateway and note the results. 4. Ping the IP address of any remote computer (a computer on the other side of the router) and note the results. 5. Perform a Tracert to the same IP address that you used in step 4 and note the results.
7.3 Using Other TCP/IP Utilities

It’s time to try some of these network utilities. Windows 2000 Server is used as the example in this exercise, but you can use any network server operating system, although some of the actual commands will have to be changed (for example, Windows 2000 server uses ipconfig to obtain TCP/IP configuration information and UNIX/Linux uses ifconfig). Estimated Time: 15 minutes. Use the network troubleshooting tools you have available to answer the following questions about the TCP/IP configuration: What is the host name of the network server? (Hint: Use the hostname command.) What is the TCP/IP address of the network server? (Hint: Use ipconfig /all.) What is the TCP/IP subnet mask? What is the IP address of default gateway? What is the IP address of the DNS server?
7.2 Testing the Network

Now try a few of the other TCP/IP utilities to see how they work. Estimated Time: 20 minutes. 1. Try the netstat command to get TCP/IP statistics. The Windows 2000 netstat command to do this is netstat –s. 2. Try the nslookup command to look up the IP address of the following IP names:
www.microsoft.com www.newriders.com www.comptia.org

The format of the nslookup command to do these is:
nslookup ipname

Now that you have gathered information about the TCP/IP configuration, use this information to test the network. Estimated Time: 15 minutes. 1. Ping the loopback address (127.0.0.1) and note the results. 2. Ping the IP address of the network server and note the results.

Review Questions
1. You’ve just arrived at a client site and when you enter the server room you notice that it seems to be rather warm. Who should you contact to discuss the temperature of the server room?

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2. What processor utilization percentage indicates that the processor is the bottleneck in the network server? 3. When analyzing network server bottlenecks, a lack of memory when you are using an operating system that supports virtual memory may manifest itself as what? 4. How are memory bottlenecks eliminated? 5. What disk subsystem utilization percentage indicates that the disk subsystem is the bottleneck in the network server? 6. What piece of equipment is used to troubleshoot a network server boot failure? 7. What is the purpose of Wake-On-LAN technology? 8. What is the Windows NT Server command-line utility that will display the current TCP/IP configuration? 9. What is the UNIX/Linux command-line utility that will display the current TCP/IP configuration? 10. What is the name of the TCP/IP utility used to test communications between the current network server and another server on the network? 11. What is the name of the TCP/IP utility used to test name resolution from a DNS server? 12. What is the UNIX/Linux command that will send a message to all users logged in to the network server? 13. What is the proper way to shut down a Windows NT/Windows 2000 network server? 14. What is the name of the performance-monitoring tool built in to Microsoft Windows NT Server 4? 15. What is the name of the utility in Microsoft Windows NT Server and Microsoft Windows 2000 that will display the processes running on the network server?

Exam Questions
1. A network interface card’s Wake-On-LAN technology is activated when the NIC receives a special TCP/IP packet. What is the special TCP/IP packet called? A. A power-up packet B. A magic packet C. A cookie packet D. A startup packet 2. You have just run a performance test on a network server and obtained the following results: Processor: Percent Utilization Processor: Processor Queue Length Memory: Pages per second 97% 1 20

Disk Subsystem: Percent Disk Utilization 15% Disk Subsystem: Disk Queue Length Network: Percent Network Utilization 1 20%

Based on this information, what is the network server bottleneck? A. Processor B. Memory C. Disk subsystem D. Network subsystem

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3. Which of the following commands is used to shut down a Novell NetWare network server? A. shutdown B. down C. stop D. exit 4. Which indicators (statistics) should be monitored to determine whether the processor is the bottleneck in the network server? i. Percent processor utilization ii. Percent disk utilization iii. Processor queue length iv. Disk queue length A. i and ii B. i, ii, and iv C. i and iii D. iii and iv 5. Which TCP/IP utility is used to test network communications from the network server to another server on the network? A. IPCONFIG B. NETSTAT C. Ping D. NETDIAG 6. Under what conditions should you consider the use of a POST Diagnostics Board? A. When the network server is performing poorly B. When the network server will not boot C. When the network server will not connect to the network D. When the network server services file to load 7. You have just run a performance test on a network server and obtained the following results: Processor: Percent Utilization Processor: Processor Queue Length Memory: Pages per second Disk Subsystem: Percent Disk Utilization Disk Subsystem: Disk Queue Length Network: Percent Network Utilization 30% 1 15020 99% 5 15%

Based on this information, what is the network server bottleneck? A. Processor B. Memory C. Disk subsystem D. Network subsystem

Notify logged-in users that the network server will be shut down shortly. Upgrade the existing processor to a faster processor. i. Which of the following methods can be used to eliminate a memory bottleneck on a network server? i. Add more memory iii. Install a slower processor iv. .Chapter 7 6. iii. and iv B. i only 10. iii. ii. ping C. Processor queue length A. iv. Issue the shutdown command (or equivalent) for the network server operating system. Percent disk utilization ii. Which of the following are acceptable ways to eliminate processor bottlenecks? i. C. Replace SIMMs with DIMMs A. i. Turn the network server power switch off. route 12. i only 9. Percent processor utilization iii. Add another processor to the network server. and iv B. What is the TCP/IP utility that will report the routers that a communications packet passes through when traveling from one network server to another network server? A. B. and iii D. iii. D. netstat B.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 443 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 8. i and ii C. ii. ii only C. iii and iv D. i. Disk queue length iv. Install faster memory ii. Move applications or services to another network server. iv only D. Which indicators (statistics) should be monitored to help determine whether the disk subsystem is the bottleneck in the network server? i. ii. Add more memory to the network server. i and iii 11. Press Ctrl+Alt+Del and stand back. ii. What is the very first step that should be taken as part of the process of shutting down a network server? A. i and iv C. A. i and iii B. tracert D.

20. What is the most likely cause of the problem? A. C. The ATA disk drives are misconfigured. the disk subsystem is the bottleneck in the network server.” 4. The ATA disk drive ID number of the new disk drive conflicts with the ATA disk drive ID number of the existing disk drive. the network server now fails to boot. C. The lack of memory in a network operating system that supports virtual memory causes much paging activity. The DNS server could not resolve the name of the host computer being pinged. If the processor utilization percentage is constantly over 70%. A new hard disk drive has been added to a SCSI channel. see the section “Memory Bottlenecks. A memory bottleneck is eliminated by adding more memory to the network server. The pinged computer did not reply to the ping. The new SCSI disk drive has the same SCSI ID as the SCSI device already attached to the SCSI channel. If the disk subsystem utilization is constantly over 90%. The ATA disk channel is not terminated correctly.” And you receive the following message: Destination host unreachable What does this message indicate? . and the other must be set to the slave role. 14. For more information.40 A. D.” 5. D. The SCSI disk drive is set to master rather than slave. see the section “Identify Contacts. A second disk drive has been installed on an ATA disk channel that already had a disk drive attached to it. D. For more information. However. For more information. see the section “Disk Subsystem Bottlenecks. one disk drive must be set to the master role.444 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 13. There is no default gateway configured on the network server that issued the Ping command. the high utilization of the disk is caused by lack of memory. For more information.” 3. This increases disk subsystem utilization. C. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the problem? A. B.” 2. see the section “Processor Bottlenecks. Answers to Review Questions 1. The ATA disk channel is too long. The SCSI bus is not terminated at both ends. The Ping service is not running on the destination computer. 15. when the network server boots the SCSI controller not only doesn’t it see the new disk drive. You issue the following Ping command: ping 10. see the section “Memory Bottlenecks. For more information. B. B. The SCSI channel is too long. but one of the disk drives that it previously saw no longer appears in the list of devices attached to the SCSI controller. Even though it may look like the disk subsystem is too slow.30. You should contact the person responsible for HVAC for the building where the server room is located about the temperature in the server room. However. the processor is the bottleneck in the network server.

” 14. The UNIX/Linux command-line utility that will display the current TCP/IP configuration is ifconfig. Use the Start menu.” 12.” 15. For more information. see the section “Remote Troubleshooting for a Wake-On-LAN.” 10.” 7. see the section. click the Shutdown button. see the sections “Network Diagnostic Tools for Windows NT” or “Network Diagnostic Tools for Windows 2000. For more information. click Shutdown. Wake-On-LAN (WOL) technology allows a network interface card to power up the computer in which it is installed upon receiving a special packet (known as the WOL Magic packet). For more information. see the sections “Network Diagnostic Tools for UNIX” or “Network Diagnostic Tools for Linux.” 13. see the section “Remote Troubleshooting for a Wake-On-LAN. The performance-monitoring tool built in to Microsoft Windows NT Server is called Performance Monitor. A Windows NT/Windows 2000 network server can be shut down in several ways. For more information.” Answers to Exam Questions 1.Chapter 7 6. For more information.” . see the sections “UNIX Shutdown” or “Linux Shutdown. The TCP/IP utility used to test communications between the current network server and another server on the network is ping. For more information. “Diagnostic Tools by Operating System. select Shut Down. see the section “Identifying Bottlenecks. and then select Shut Down the Server. The name of the TCP/IP utility used to test name resolution from a DNS server is nslookup. B.” 9. A NIC with Wake-On-LAN technology powers up the computer when it receives a magic packet. see the sections “Windows NT Server Shutdown” or “Windows 2000 Server Shutdown.” 8. and then click OK or Yes. The UNIX/Linux command that will send a message to all users logged in to the network server is the wall (write all) command. see the section “Troubleshooting Boot Failure. see the sections “Network Diagnostic Tools for Windows NT” or “Network Diagnostic Tools for Windows 2000. For more information. The Windows NT Server command-line utility that will display the current TCP/IP configuration is ipconfig. The utility in Microsoft Windows NT Server and Microsoft Windows 2000 Server that will display the processes currently running on the network server is called Task Manager. For more information. For more information. see the section “Network Diagnostic Tools for Microsoft Windows NT. For more information. Press Ctrl+Alt+Del. For more information. A POST Diagnostics Board is used to help troubleshoot network server boot problems.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 445 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 6.” 11.

C. see the section “Processor Bottlenecks. B. For more information. see the section “Disk Subsystems Bottlenecks. The Tracert command is the TCP/IP utility that reports the routers that a network packet passes through going from one network server to another network server. however. see the section “Troubleshooting TCP/IP Network Problems. see the section “Processor Bottlenecks.” 6. the high disk utilization is caused by the paging. adding another processor to the network server. The Ping command is the TCP/IP utility used to test network communications from one network server to another network server. For more information.” 11. The high percentage on disk subsystem utilization could indicate that the disk subsystem is the network server bottleneck. D.” .” 8.” 7. C.” 12. The command used to shut down a Novell NetWare network server is down. A. For more information. and by moving applications on the network server to a different network server. For more information. The indicators (statistics) that should be monitored to determine whether the processor is the bottleneck in the network server are percent processor utilization and processor queue length. C. The performance tests indicate a very high paging rate. see the section “Memory Bottlenecks. A. A POST Diagnostics Board is used when the network server will not boot.” 3. The way to eliminate a memory bottleneck is to install additional memory into the network server. For more information. The indicators (statistics) that should be monitored to determine whether the disk subsystem is the bottleneck in the network server are percent disk utilization and disk queue length. which indicates high memory utilization. see the section “System Shutdown.” 5.” 10. see the section “Memory Bottlenecks. The processor utilization is greater than 70%. For more information. B. which is caused by a shortage of memory in the network server. see the section “Processor Bottlenecks. see the section “Troubleshooting Boot Failures. B.” 9. see the section “Novell NetWare Shutdown. C.446 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 2. For more information.” 4. For more information. indicating that the processor is the network server bottleneck. For more information. The UNIX/Linux version of Tracert is traceroute. A processor bottleneck can be eliminated by upgrading the existing processor to a faster processor. B. For more information. The very first thing to do as part of the network server shutdown process is to notify the logged-on users that the network server is going to be shut down shortly. see the section “Network Diagnostic Tools for Microsoft Windows NT” or “Network Diagnostic Tools for Microsoft Windows 2000. For more information.

Answer D is totally wrong. Benchmarking. 12th Edition. New Rider’s Publishing. 3. 4. For more information. see the section “Troubleshooting TCP/IP Network Problems. and Tuning.htm 5. Mueller. 3rd Edition. Windows NT Performance Monitoring. The Destination host unreachable message from a Ping command indicates that there is no way to get to the IP address of the Ping command. 1998.com/trbshoot/02fs_trouble. Upgrading and Repairing PCs.” Suggested Readings and Resources 1.kingston.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION 447 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 13. A+ Certification Training Guide. The SCSI bus being too long would cause the system to be “flaky” in performance.ibm. The SCSI bus being not correctly terminated would cause all SCSI devices to be unrecognized. A. 2. The ATA disk drives are not configured properly.asp . Paul. because SCSI disk drives do not have master and slave settings. Granite Digital SCSI Troubleshooting www. Scott.scsipro. Que Publishing.com/techsup/hddtech/ rma/fascsi. Memory Troubleshooting From Kingston www.storage.” 15. B. The new SCSI disk drive has duplicated the SCSI ID of another device on the SCSI channel. 2000. see the section “Troubleshooting an ATA Subsystem. see the section “Troubleshooting a SCSI Subsystem. New Riders Publishing. For more information. For more information. 2001.com/tools/umg/newumg08. Brooks. and Hinsberg.Chapter 7 6.htm 6. Mark T. Charles J. One of the disk drives must be set to the master role and the other must be set to the slave role because they are on the same ATA disk channel. IBM SCSI Troubleshooting www. This indicates that the default gateway is not configured on the computer issuing the Ping command. Edmead. C.” 14. thus making both not appear on the list of recognized SCSI devices.

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processors. NICs. 7. you want to be absolutely sure you have your disaster-recovery plan ready to go. UPS) • Use the techniques of hot swap. hard drives. power supplies.g.OBJECTIVES This chapter deals with the planning and implementation of a disaster-recovery process for your production servers. and update as needed C H A P T E R 8 7. but when you are standing on the curb looking at the big dent in the door. warm swap and hot spare to ensure availability • Use the concepts of fault tolerance/fault recovery to create a disaster recovery plan • Develop disaster recovery plan • Identify types of backup hardware • Identify types of backup and restoration schemes • Confirm and use off site storage for backup • Document and test disaster recovery plan regularly. This will include everything from redundant hardware components to hot-site capabilities for the restoring of critical business processes. A disaster-recovery plan is a lot like car insurance.0—Disaster Recovery . You hope you will never need it.1 Plan for disaster recovery • Plan for redundancy (e. This chapter covers the following CompTIA-specified objectives for the Disaster Recovery section of the Server+ Certification exam. you’re sure glad you spent all that money. In the event of a server outage.. fans.

Scalability. It’s the one you hope you’ll never need. 7. This objective tests your understanding of the disaster-recovery concepts related to the ability to recover from a disaster. and the other facets of a disaster-recovery plan. but in the event of disaster you will need to recover from the outage.2 Restoring OUTLINE Introduction 452 Creating a Disaster-Recovery Plan Risk Analysis Understanding Redundancy. you also will find this will be a key component of most jobs involving servers. Clustering. A good server implementation not only needs to incorporate high availability and disaster recovery as part of its design.OBJECTIVES . After you have completed all your disasterrecovery planning. and High Availability Redundancy RAID types Hardware Versus Software RAID Redundancy of Other System Components Introduction to Clustering Introduction to Scalability Introduction to High Availability Understanding Hot Swapping. This objective covers all the facets of disaster-recovery planning. to backup hardware and methods. but you also are providing many of the building blocks of the disaster-recovery plan. Warm Swapping and Hot Spares Creating a Disaster-Recovery Plan Based on Fault Tolerance/Recovery Backing Up Your Data Testing the Plan 452 453 455 455 456 461 463 464 466 467 468 470 471 477 • Identify hardware replacements • Identify hot and cold sites • Implement disaster recovery plan . using replacement equipment. to testing your disaster-recovery plan after it has been developed. Beyond the requirements for this objective on the exam. there is only one other piece of the disaster–recovery plan that you may encounter. Restoring Your Server 480 Chapter Summary 482 Apply Your Knowledge 486 . have put all the components and backup strategies into place. hot and cold sites. from the configuration of the server for the appropriate redundancy.

What if the hard drive fails? What if there is a flood? What if your office/house is hit by lightning and your computer is damaged? How would you continue to do business? It doesn’t even need to be business systems. Play the “what if?” game. If you have access to a server with a RAID controller and hot-swap drives. . you can do the same exercise with appliances. . Make certain that you understand the information in the Exam Tip. . . How would you watch the Super Bowl if your TV is broken? What would you do with your food if your refrigerator stops working? The object of this exercise is to put yourself in a disaster-recovery frame of mind and get you thinking about not only what is covered in this chapter. review the information in the chapter related to this topic. . Review the objectives again. If you are working for a company that has servers deployed. . . think about the different types of things that could go wrong with them. . Answer the Review and Exam Questions at the end of the chapter and check your results. If you don’t fully understand the Exam Tip.S T U DY S T R AT E G I E S To prepare for the Disaster Recovery objectives of the Server+ exam. Read the objectives at the beginning of this chapter. set up the different types of RAID arrays and experiment with drive failures by pulling a drive from the array. but also the thousands of things that there is no way for us to cover here. do the following: . Review the Exam Tips available in various places in this chapter. . Review your company’s disaster-recovery procedure if available. Use the ExamGear test engine on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book for additional Exam Questions concerning this material. Look around at the computers that you have access to and figure out what you would do if something went wrong. Study the information in this chapter. What if your PC hard drive crashes? How would you use the ExamGear CD included with this book to prepare for this exam? If you have no access to computers at this time. and then think about what you would do in the event of a failure.

the correct answer is the testing of the plan. or even bringing a cold or hot site online when your facility suffers a catastrophic failure. UPS) Use the techniques of hot swap. In a server environment. warm swap and hot spare to ensure availability Use the concepts of fault tolerance/fault recovery to create a disaster recovery plan Develop disaster recovery plan Identify types of backup hardware Identify types of backup and restoration schemes .1 Plan for disaster recovery Plan for redundancy (e. Here’s where some people get confused. fans. hard drives.. This includes everything from the initial configuration of the server to determining what equipment to put at a hot site in the event of a major disaster. or earthquake. Disaster recovery can be defined as a set of activities designed to reduce the likelihood. fire. The worst time to find out your disaster-recovery plan doesn’t work is when the water is three inches from the server room and you need to provide uninterrupted services to your customers. 7. EXAM CREATING PLAN • • • • • • A DISASTER-RECOVERY .452 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Test. power supplies. processors. although those are certainly major disasters. and impact of a disaster. or a deleted mailbox on a mail server. a bad Ethernet adapter. The first facet is the planning for the disaster. TIP INTRODUCTION Probably the best place to start a discussion of disaster recovery is with a definition of what is meant by disaster recovery. NICs. flood. The second facet is the actual recovery process. duration. This includes the restoring of data. This chapter covers the two facets of disaster recovery. Test Your DisasterRecovery Plan! If you are ever asked what is the most important part of a disaster-recovery plan. The difficult part of disaster-recovery planning is that you have to take into account all these factors during your plan. hurricane. A disaster is not just a tornado.g. replacement of failed hardware. a disaster can be something as simple as a failed hard drive. Test.

a spare steering wheel. But My Risk Analysis Book Says There Are Three Parts! One thing is very important to remember when you do a risk analysis—and it’s not how many steps are in your process. Everyone has his or her own ways to perform a risk analysis. So in addition to the spare tire. but you also need to understand what the value of the information is. In your car. and gives you results you can work from. isn’t that what the business people are for? If you’re a technical person. you should also have a spare rear-view mirror. . In fact. It is very tempting to jump right in and start designing your disk arrays for maximum availability and ordering spare parts. or can be dealt with by using high-availability techniques. As far as why a risk analysis is important.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 453 • • Confirm and use off site storage for backup Document and test disaster recovery plan regularly.Chapter 8 7. Make sure you use the same process for all your analysis to ensure you get consistent results. The four-step breakdown is just suggested as a guideline. a lot of this chapter focuses on the discussion of how to design highly available servers. And a risk analysis is not usually something a technical person can complete without some input from the business people. and as long as your method works for you. and paperwork involved in doing a risk analysis. With your server. After all. so why do I have to go through all this analysis?” Besides. It’s be consistent. a lot of time the last thing you want to be doing is dealing with the processes. and update as needed NOTE Okay. as part of your disaster-recovery plan. If you were to do a complete disasterrecovery plan for your car. So your first response is probably something along the lines of “Well I already know what’s important. it is a great tool. you know that a tire is the most likely thing to fail that you might have a chance to repair. Let’s take a look at what a risk analysis really is. are repairable. Risk Analysis “Why do I need to do a risk analysis?” is a common question asked by technical staff. no one really understands this risk analysis stuff anyway. you need a disaster-recovery plan. You need to perform a risk analysis. procedures. But there is one thing you need to do before you start putting your disaster-recovery plan on paper. you would want to stock spare parts for any component that might fail. and discuss why you really need this. think about driving your car. This is an extreme example to illustrate the point. and a spare windshield. not only do you need to know what components are most likely to fail.

Remote access is a process that might involve modems. Define the level of risk associated with each threat. Rank the risks based on severity and likelihood. a RAS server. This will make justifying your disaster-recovery plan much easier. Identify the threats associated with each of the business processes and associated infrastructure. where 1 is minor impact to the business and 5 is major impact to the business. associate costs with each threat. You can do this by ranking the threats on a scale of 1 to 5. and a network connection. where 1 is unlikely and 5 is very likely. In many cases the risk analysis will be the first time anyone thought to place a value on processes and services. . 3. as well as the severity of the threat. the value of the business processes is generally not well understood. For example. 4. If possible. 2. The severity scale would also be from 1 to 5. This includes the likelihood of the threat occurring. the more important that risk is to avoid. This could be anything from a hard drive in the mail server to a failed modem line on your RAS server to a network cable going bad. but is not completely sure how the business is using it.454 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A good risk analysis can be broken into the following four parts: 1. Identify your business processes and their associated infrastructure. The reality is frequently that the IT department builds the infrastructure. modem lines. Be sure to list all the threats. The higher the score. a network connection. the IT department would be fully cognizant of all the processes and procedures used by the business. One method that works fairly well is to add the scores of the two levels. It is absolutely critical that you involve someone from the business in this part of the analysis. And even if you do know what the infrastructure is being used for. and not just the ones that you know you can address. and the enduser workstation. Low scores can generally be placed at the end of the list and are usually the last risks to be planned for. communications is a business process that involves a mail server. In a perfect world. Try to be specific and thorough.

Redundancy Most of this discussion of redundancy focuses on hard drives. When the risk that management decided wasn’t worth the cost actually happens (and they inevitably do) and they start looking for someone to blame it on. But following the sections on RAID. Clustering. one of the best places to start discussing some of the mechanisms for ensuring high availability is to look at some of the server components that can fail from time to time. clustering. . the discussion focuses on some other components that are candidates for redundancy. Now you need to determine how you can avoid these threats. You also now have a valuable tool for justifying the costs of your disasterrecovery plan. think about this. If you still have any question about why to invest your time and effort in a risk analysis. the odds are pretty good that there are things on your list that you wouldn’t have thought of if you just started with issues that you knew about. particularly RAID implementation. It is much easier to justify that server cluster for the company’s web server when you can show management that a 4-hour outage will cost the company $100.000 in lost business. Scalability.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 455 Now comes the fun part. and High Availability Because the topic of this book is servers. If you have done a thorough job. The most common component to be implemented in a redundant fashion is that of the server hard drives. scalability. and high availability.Chapter 8 7. Let’s start by talking about some of the more basic building blocks of disaster recovery: the use of redundant components. it will not be the person who has the risk analysis documentation and management’s refusal to make the necessary investment. Understanding Redundancy. You have now gotten a list of your potential threats. and provide the kind of availability your company needs.

there is no redundancy. RAID 0 .1 RAID 0 uses data striping across all disks with no parity. TIP This section starts by diving right into the most common redundant technology you will encounter. There is also a reduced overhead with this configuration because there is no overhead for redundancy. because although RAID 0 provides very high performance. The most common types of RAID include the following: á RAID 0. and what the benefits and drawbacks of each type of RAID technology are.456 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION RAID Types An Easy Place to Ask Questions This chapter spends a lot of time discussing RAID technologies because RAID is an excellent topic from which to generate test questions. This is the highest performing RAID configuration because the I/O (input/output) load is spread across many channels and drives. This is also the drawback. Be sure you understand how RAID works. NOTE EXAM Additional RAID Levels Additional RAID Levels are discussed in detail in Chapter 1. for example. RAID 0 requires N drives to implement. the data is broken down into blocks and each block is written to a separate disk drive (see Figure 8.0—Planning and Specifications. In a RAID 0 array. where N is the number of drives. In fact you are more likely to lose data in this configuration than you are with a group of standalone drives. If you have 5 drives in a RAID 0 configuration. You can use up to 32 drives.1). you need 2 × 5GB drives. RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks) technology enables you to configure your drive arrays to balance performance and redundancy.Disk Striping . To get 10GB of storage. you have increased your vulnerability by a factor of 5. If you really want to crank up the performance you can place each drive in the striped array on its own controller. “0. striped disk array. because the failure of any single drive destroys all the data in the array.” Data 1 Data 4 Data 7 Data 10 Data 2 Data 5 Data 8 Data 11 Data 3 Data 6 Data 9 Data 12 Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 Disk Controller FIGURE 8.

due to the need to re-create data using the parity information before it can be read. but for each block of data the parity information is stored on a different drive. you need 2 × 10GB drives. The information is just copied to the replacement disk. you can survive a drive failure.Chapter 8 7. much like RAID 0.2). with duplexing. RAID 5 requires a minimum of 3 drives to implement. and medium write performance. RAID 5 is also the most complex RAID configuration to design.Mirroring FIGURE 8. which makes RAID 1 a very expensive proposition. Write performance in this configuration suffers due to the requirement to write parity information for each block of data written. because both drives can be written to concurrently. But there is one major drawback to this configuration.2 RAID 1 writes the same data to each disk in the mirror set. there is a performance advantage over a mirrored configuration.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 457 á RAID 1. you can survive the loss of a drive or the loss of a controller. á RAID 5. This also means there is no rebuild overhead when a drive is replaced. but each block of data has a parity bit written to a parity drive (see Figure 8.3). because you don’t need to read the same data from both disks. where N is the number of drives needed to make up the requisite storage capacity. RAID 5 needs N + 1 drives to implement. RAID 1 has the additional benefit of being the simplest RAID design. It is possible to perform two reads at a time per mirrored pair. It’s 100% of the available storage. First. This requires 2N drives to implement. the data is striped across the disks. mirrored pair. RAID 1 requires the highest disk overhead of all RAID types. for example. In a mirrored configuration. because you can perform only one write to the array at a time. In a duplexed configuration. The second advantage to duplexing is the increased redundancy. There is not a specific drive dedicated to parity. Data 1 Data 2 Data 3 Data 4 Data 1 Data 2 Data 3 Data 4 Disk 1 Disk 2 Drive Controller RAID 1 . To get 10GB of storage. In a RAID 5 array. You will need a minimum of 2 drives to implement RAID 1. NOTE What’s the Difference Between Mirroring and Duplexing? There are two main differences between mirroring and duplexing (see Figure 8.4). In a RAID 1 array. a striped array with parity. you need 3 × 5GB drives. This means that a mirrored pair (RAID 1) has twice the read transaction rate of a single disk. and the drives will need to be added in increments of 2 to continue mirroring. RAID 5 will also add considerable overhead on the system when it needs to recover from a failed drive. The major benefit of this configuration is that it provides 100% redundancy of data. but not a controller failure. To get 10GB of storage. but has the same write transaction rate. for example. This configuration will not perform as well as a RAID 0 configuration. . but provides very fast read performance. each drive is completely mirrored to another drive (see Figure 8. This is because each piece of information has to be written to the drives at the same time.

) You can have up to 32 drives.Striping with Parity RAID 5 does lose some of its effectiveness in instances where all the drives are on a single controller.3 With duplexing.4 RAID 5 is a good compromise between the redundancy of mirroring and the cost of striping. Disk Controller RAID 5 . a 1GB. each drive in the RAID 1 set is connected to a different controller. Also. if you have a 500MB. (That is. you must stripe across the 500MB for a total of 1GB of usable space. if the drives are differing sizes. Data 1 Data 2 Data 3 Data 4 Data 1 Data 2 Data 3 Data 4 Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk Controller 1 Disk Controller 2 RAID 1 . and 2GB drive.Duplexing Data 1 Data 3 Parity Data 7 Data 2 Parity Data 5 Data 8 Parity Data 4 Data 6 Parity Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 FIGURE 8. . Lose the controller and you lose the entire array.458 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION FIGURE 8. you can stripe only across the smallest drive.

It also suffers from the fact that if one drive fails you have essentially created a single RAID 0 stripe set.5 In RAID 0/1 you get the performance of a striped set combined with the redundancy of mirroring. a mirrored striped array. This is a fairly uncommon configuration.Chapter 8 7. RAID 0/1 requires a minimum of 4 drives to implement. In a RAID 0/1 array. making it extremely inefficient. This RAID configuration requires 4N drives to implement. Stripe Set 2 RAID 0/1 . Stripe Set 1 Data 1 Data 4 Data 7 Data 10 Data 2 Data 5 Data 8 Data 11 Data 3 Data 6 Data 9 Data 12 Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 Disk Controller Data 1 Data 4 Data 7 Data 10 Data 2 Data 5 Data 8 Data 11 Data 3 Data 6 Data 9 Data 12 Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 FIGURE 8. you have 2 RAID 0 arrays that are mirrored (see Figure 8. This is an expensive solution in terms of the number of drives required. you need 4 × 10GB drives.5). but yields the same fault tolerance as RAID 5.Mirrored Stripe Sets . reserved for systems that are very disk I/O intensive. It is very expensive because it has the same overhead for fault tolerance as mirroring alone.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 459 á RAID 0/1. This configuration combines the performance advantages of the RAID 0 array with the redundancy of a RAID 1 array. for example. To get 20GB of storage.

1 drive 1 Duplexing 2 2 Yes. High I/O due to data striping. 1 drive 0/1 Mirrored stripe sets 4 32 Yes.# of Drives 2 Max. Striping Min. which compares the different RAID levels discussed in this chapter. Highest read data transaction rate. same write transaction rate as single disks. TABLE 8.1 RAID L E V E L S RAID Level 0 Desc.460 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION R E V I E W B R E A K Just to help get these RAID levels straight in your head. Fault Tolerant No 1 Mirroring 2 2 Yes. 1 drive. 1 drive . take a look at Table 8.1. Write performance slower than striping due to parity calculation.# of Drives 32 Performance IO performance is very high due to IO being spread across multiple drives. No parity calculation. 1 controller 5 Striping with parity 3 32 Yes. same write transaction rate as single disks. Twice the read transaction rate of single disks. Twice the read transaction rate of single disks.

the more efficient a RAID 5 array is. whereas the application/storage drives are in a RAID 5 configuration. depending on where you work. Hardware Versus Software RAID This is a topic that can reach the level of a religious discussion in some departments.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 461 IN THE FIELD WHICH RAID IS RIGHT FOR YOU? Now let’s talk about what you will generally see in the field. EXAM TIP . You will generally not see RAID 0 or RAID 0/1. On the one side are the people who don’t want to spend the money for a hardware RAID controller because the operating system can handle the RAID stuff without having to spend the additional money. The other side thinks that the benefits of a hardware controller outweigh the marginal cost savings of not buying the controller. your overhead is 33%. You may also encounter mixed RAID implementations. where N is the number of drives needed for the array. due to the lack of fault tolerance in the former. It is also the most efficient of the redundant configurations. With 3 drives. and the expense of the latter. but with 5 drives it drops to 20%.and software-based arrays for the exam. The more drives in your array.Chapter 8 7. It is possible that you will see all these RAID configurations in the field. and then using the N + 1 drive cost. requiring only 3 drives. This is very attractive to cost-conscious companies. but some are used more often than others. RAID 5 is probably the most common configuration. Now that you are familiar with the different types of RAID. where the system volume is mirrored on a couple of small drives (RAID 1). because it gives you the best trade off between fault tolerance and performance. This is an excellent configuration for a mail server or a web server. because it balances the performance and costs with the requirements of the operating system and the application. Be sure you know what the pros and cons for both hardware. Know the Advantages and Disadvantages of Hardware Versus Software Implementations One of the areas that it is very easy to get confused about when talking about the pros and cons of RAID implementations is the differences between the two ways to support your array. it’s time to take a look at how to implement the RAID array—using hardware or software.

it is important to understand the pros and cons of each implementation. You will most frequently see operating system–based implementations in new server installs. and your RAID options are limited to whatever the operating system supports. Software RAID also uses host memory. You may find you need to add additional processors to support the RAID array. you need to define exactly what is meant by both: á Software RAID. Although this requires you to add an additional drive to your configuration. and to a lesser extent RAID 5 (striping with parity). especially during data-intensive operations.462 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION NOTE A Special Note for Windows NT Users If you are using software RAID on a Windows NT server. it automatically brings the hot spare online and starts copying data to it. but may find RAID applications in use in older servers. á Hardware RAID. . Other RAID configurations such as RAID 0/1 and RAID 3 are supported based on the host controller’s capabilities. the cost of a software implementation in terms of the additional processor requirements is very difficult to measure. In a software implementation. This can be an issue if you need high availability and your operating system won’t support it. but most will support RAID 0. Software RAID implementations are either operating system–based. Different hardware RAID adapters offer different combinations of RAID support. RAID 1 (mirroring). all array configuration and management activities are controlled by a software application and utilize the host processor for processing. it does make recovering from a drive failure several orders of magnitude easier. This means all array configuration and management activities are controlled by the hardware controller and utilize the controller’s CPU for processing. However. When the RAID controller senses a drive has failed. NOTE Hot Spare Drives One feature available in some of the hardware RAID controllers is the ability to designate a hot spare disk. You can then replace the failed drive at your convenience. such as remirroring a hard drive or rebuilding a RAID 5 array after a drive failure. Significant overhead is added to the operating system in a software RAID system. Most recent operating systems will support RAID 0 (striping). For you to make an informed decision and duck the endless battles over software versus hardware RAID. Hardware RAID implementations are generally implemented using a host-based RAID adapter and ties the array functions directly to the disk interface. the system and boot partitions cannot be part of a stripe set. Before getting too much further into discussing why to select hardware or software RAID. or they are RAID applications that run on the server. There is no additional cost for the hardware controller. and RAID 5. RAID 1. The main benefit to a software-based RAID implementation is the fact that these are typically the least expensive to implement. á Software RAID.

Not only does this allow the server to avoid overheating in the event of a fan failure. including the following: á Power supplies. Hardware controllers also have the additional benefit of being operating system independent. the result is a much higher performance implementation. Redundancy of Other System Components A number of other components in your server can be configured in a redundant manner. you may find you need a separate boot drive. This adds another failure point to the server drives. Because the array software is in the controller hardware. Unlike the software RAID. In a software RAID. . you can access the software or work on the array even if you can’t get the operating system up and running. This is especially true during processor-intensive operations such as rebuilding an array. take a look at some of the other components in a server that are commonly used in redundant configurations.Chapter 8 7. but your server also benefits from the additional cooling while all the fans are running. Because the server processor can execute applications while the array controller’s processor is executing the array functions. Most high-end servers will come with an option to install additional power supplies. which is not part of the array. Now that you have a good understanding of the intricacies of implementing a RAID solution to ensure drive redundancy. This allows the server to shift the power load when a power supply fails. you should look for a server that utilizes redundant cooling fans. there can be a problem if the server can’t load the array software when the disk that contains the array software has failed.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 463 á Hardware RAID. Additional cooling fans are usually part of the server configuration. Have you ever noticed how hot a server can get after it has been running for a while? If you want to ensure your server stays cool. hardware arrays do not use server resources such as memory or processor cycles. and are not usually ordered as an option for the server. á Cooling fans. Except for the fact that both are used for creating and maintaining arrays. If you are implementing a software RAID. NOTE Hardware Arrays Have Another Advantage Hardware RAID implementations don’t need an operating system to boot. hardware RAID implementations have little in common with their software counterpart.

And if your data is so critical that you think you need an additional motherboard. á Processors. Because each NIC (particularly in a TCP/IP environment) has its own address.0—Installation. Introduction to Clustering A cluster is a group of independent computers working together as a single system. they are only as good as the power available. in large part due to the challenges with many operating systems in configuring them in a truly redundant form. Processors are a relatively easy component to implement in a fault tolerant way. If you buy a multiprocessor server from most of the major vendors. Be sure you order the correct type of NIC if you want redundant network interface cards. (High . For example. Even if you have four power supplies in your server. and the duration you need it for. 3Com Corporation makes an EtherLink Server 10/100 PCI Dual Port network interface card specifically for load balancing and resiliency in a server environment. See Chapter 2. The main point to take out of this section is that with the exception of the system board. If you want truly redundant NICs.464 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION á Network interface adapters. it is usually difficult to configure a reliable failover method for NICs. This system is used to ensure that mission-critical applications and resources are as highly available as possible. To add an additional layer of redundancy to your power supplies. and make sure your UPS can accommodate your requirements.” for directions on how to estimate these needs. “1. Network interface cards (NICs) are something that are frequently not installed in a redundant manner. it’s time to think about clustering. any critical components in your server can generally be configured in a redundant manner. You need to be sure to calculate the amount of power needed. á UPS. an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) can continue to provide power in the event of a power outage. you need to buy cards with drivers specifically designed for redundant use. the server will continue to run (albeit with a degradation in performance) with a failed processor.

a correctly configured cluster will come very close. . These computers are managed as a single system and are specifically configured to tolerate component failures. á High availability. clustering is generally more complex than setting up a server. upgrades.Chapter 8 7. One step up from fault tolerant is high availability. á Scalability. The advantages to running a clustered configuration include the following: á Fault tolerance.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 465 availability is discussed in a minute). as well as to support the transparent addition or removal of components. What high availability indicates is that not only can the system remain running in the event of a fault. Although 100% availability is not always possible. á Easier manageability. clusters can be significantly more expensive than the equivalent standalone servers. Second. the number and amount of management tasks are dramatically reduced when compared to an equivalent number of standalone servers. but it is still very different from setting up a single server. The latest generation of clustering software has done a lot to reduce this complexity. Because the servers can be managed as a group. resources can be added to the cluster transparently to the system users. or configuration changes. Windows 2000. A cluster is considered scalable because as additional resources become necessary. First. but also the cluster won’t be unavailable for other reasons such as maintenance. Novell NetWare. A cluster of computers is very fault tolerant because it can support the failure of components up to a complete computer without impacting the capability of the cluster to support the mission-critical applications. and the need (in some cases) for specialized hardware. If you have configured your cluster correctly. There are a couple of downsides to using clusters. and most types of UNIX all support some form of clustering. you can literally drop a bowling ball on one of the servers in the cluster and not see any difference in user performance. due to the additional software costs.

which handles the arbitration of resources in the event of a conflict. a scalable email server can start with 10 mailboxes. each node has ownership of a resource. á Nothing-shared model. because of the amount of coordination required between nodes. as well as making it much more complex to design.000 mailboxes. because it is a critical concept for implementing a server or cluster in a production environment. and maintain. NOTE Wow. The coordination of the access adds significant overhead to the cluster. dropped users. however. To ensure your server is scalable. In this model. so there is no competition for the resources.466 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION There are two different types of cluster models in the industry: the shared-device model and the nothing-shared model. When you are dealing with a standalone server. and mandatory disconnects became common for AOL users because the network couldn’t handle the load of users who wanted to get on. Busy signals. it’s relatively easy. In the shared-device model. clustering has been available in the enterprise server market for almost 20 years. In the mid-1990s when America Online was gaining popularity. access to the data must be carefully coordinated. á Shared-device model. This model can also suffer issues with scalability. First. This function is coordinated by a distributed lock manager (DLM). What is new is the amount of the clustering technology that is now available in the Intel server space. but it needs to be covered in a little greater detail. you need to do two things. applications running within a cluster can access any hardware resource connected to any node/server in the cluster. and the other server takes ownership of the resource only if the primary server fails. but can easily expand to accommodate an additional 1. two servers share a disk resource. In the nothing-shared model. Digital Equipment Corporation was one of the pioneers of the technology. it becomes a little more complex. but one of the servers owns the resource. because you can add additional nodes to add capacity. In other words. its dial-in network was an example of a system that was not scalable. Introduction to Scalability Scalability refers to how well a hardware or software system can adapt to increased demands. Is This Clustering Technology New? Actually. you need to ensure that you configure . As a result. How do you design a system to be scalable? In the case of most clusters. configure. This section briefly mentioned the concept of scalability.

If you know you need 5GB of disk space today.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 467 the server with excess capacity. you can plan on needing more in the future. put in 10GB. regardless of planned or unplanned interruption. Leave yourself the ability to add a couple of 72GB drives if you need more storage in the future. and taking out hardware to upgrade it is an order of magnitude more difficult that just adding additional capacity. for example. The question is how much extra capacity should you build in. The final concept covered relating to clustering and fault tolerance is the concept of high availability. it is usually a good idea to add an additional 25% to any new server configurations to ensure scalability. So be sure to put the additional storage in the server at the outset. That said. the second thing you need to do to ensure your server is scalable is to make sure that you can add additional resources if necessary. If you do the math for a 24 × 7 × 365 installation. It is easy to get scalability. so you can add an additional CPU if you need it. or dual processors. It is not uncommon for mission-critical applications to have an availability requirement of 99. it is a good idea to purchase a server that can handle multiple processors. that means you can have no more than EXAM TIP . Know Your Concepts Be sure you understand the definition of scalability for the exam. Don’t fill every drive bay in the server if you can help it. If you need 5GB today. Introduction to High Availability High availability is by definition the designing and configuring of a server to provide continuous use of critical data and applications.Chapter 8 7. You should also try to leave some capacity for each of the components in the system.999%. you are discussing systems that are available nearly 100% of the time. and how much additional capacity should you be able to add once the server is installed? Although capacity planning is frequently more of an art than a science until you can get some historical numbers to plan from. You never know when you might need to add additional capacity. and fault tolerance mixed up in an exam environment. Don’t fill all the card slots. memory slots. high availability. In the long run spending the money at the outset is far cheaper that trying to add components later. Highly available systems are required to provide access to the enterprise applications that keep businesses up and running. drive bays. put in a GHz processor. or CPU slots if you can help it. If you are putting a single Pentium III processor in your server. If your application will need a single Pentium III 850MHz processor. When you discuss high availability.

For example. However.5% 99% Allowable Downtime Per Year 5 minutes 53 minutes 2 hours. so that means you would have time for one maintenance reboot in the course of a year for a system that requires 99.999% availability. Table 8.99% 99. a customer service desk at an electronics firm might need access to their knowledge base during normal business hours but not after hours.2 C O M M O N A VA I L A B I L I T Y N U M B E R S Availability Requirement 99. In many companies.468 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION 5 minutes of downtime in that year. Warm Swapping. consider some of the types of components you might use to ensure that high availability. and Hot Spares The types of components that you might want to keep on hand in case of a problem they break into the following three basic categories: á Hot swap (also known as hot pluggable).95% 99. the availability requirements might pertain to business hours only. Some organizations will even include scheduled maintenance in those calculations. 23 minutes 8 hours.2 contains some of the calculations for common availability numbers. TABLE 8. when the system can be taken down as needed.999% 99. Now that you understand the concept of high availability. This occurs . a system outage during the required hours might be catastrophic. 45 minutes 44 hours 88 hours The need for high availability is not limited to 365 × 24 × 7 environments. A hot-swap component has the capability to be added and removed from a computer while the computer is running and have the operating system automatically recognize the change.9% 99. Understanding Hot Swapping.

In some mission-critical environments. How can you use them as part of your disaster-recovery process? As part of your risk analysis. Great. This is referred to as a warm swap because the server does not have to be powered down to replace the drive. entire servers are designated hot spares. you should have identified components in your server that are at risk of failure. A hot-spare component is a component you keep on hand in case of an equipment failure. you need to identify replacement parts. but can be brought back online faster than shutting down the server and using a hot-spare part. All I/O for that array will stop until you replace the drive and restart the drive array.Chapter 8 7. (This is particularly useful in conjunction with a hardware RAID controller. From a user’s perspective. and are used to bring a server back online quickly in the event of a failure. NICs. á Hot spare/redundant components.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 469 with no disruption to I/O requests and transactions on the system and no powering down of any part of the system except the failed component. and is normally available only in conjunction with a hardware RAID controller. In other words. warm swap falls between hot swap and hot spare. RAID controllers. Warm swaps are generally done in conjunction with the failure of a hard drive. In this case. An example of components that are frequently capable of hot swap in a server is hard drives. now you know about these components. you have to shut down the disk array before you can replace the drive.) á Warm swap. Warm swap is a compromise between hot swap and using a hot spare. Some examples of this you may recognize for your PC are PCMCIA adapters and Universal Serial Bus peripherals. The server is down. You also need to make sure you understand the underlying technologies involved. This eliminates the delays associated with powering up the system after the replacement. Examples of this include disk drives. As part of the mitigation process for providing steps to recover from this potential threat. and any other critical component that could be used to replace a failed component. Do you need hot-swap hard drives . and operations (outside of the failed component) are never interrupted. While the drive array is offline. the server is never down. users cannot access the system.

This section shows you how you can turn that information into a disaster-recovery plan. here’s where it’s all put together. These should include the possibility of the failure of any of the components of the server. List approximate costs for each solution. If you lose the data. 2. Remember. identify the hardware failure-related threats. you want the best hot-swap drives on the market. you can save a few dollars by having the ability to buy spare parts that can be used in many servers in case of an outage. You will be filling in the remaining pieces of your plan throughout the rest of the chapter. If the server is a backup DNS server. The odds of the same component failing on two different servers are astronomical. To create the fault-tolerance portion of your disaster-recovery plan. and you can save money by not having to buy hot spares for each of your servers. for that server. your users are inconvenienced. .470 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION Standards Are the Key You know. From your risk analysis. From your list of components. you can probably get away with a spare drive. you could be out of luck. Keep in mind that clustering or other server high-availability solutions should be considered at this time. identify the components that place your data at the most risk if they were to fail.000 for every hour the server is down. But this is the first piece of your plan. You want to be sure to have some spare parts on hand for your criticalapplication servers. and the estimated outage time in the event of a failure for each component. The first thing to recognize is that just using fault-tolerant configurations is not the complete picture from a disaster-recovery plan perspective. Hot-plug components are great if you need to keep the server up and running while a fault is corrected. if you lose access to data. If you determine that your company loses $40. 3. but just having parts on hand when one fails can reduce your downtime by hours. NOTE Creating a Disaster-Recovery Plan Based on Fault Tolerance/Recovery All right. follow these steps: 1. Take each component and make a list of the methods you could use to implement it in a fault-tolerant configuration. if you implement a standard server platform. or can it be down for an hour while you replace the drive from stock? This is where the cost-versus-benefit calculations come into effect. as well as a number of ways to ensure that you can recover from an outage using anything from fault-tolerant technologies to keeping spare parts on hand. You have learned many of the different ways you can ensure that your system is fault tolerant.

It will be part of your disaster-recovery plan. if you are not available in the event of an outage. If the answer is no. You are ready to deal with a hardware failure. You should also ensure that you are not the only person with access to these parts.m. or making sure you know where to get a new part. here comes the fun part: documentation of the plan. After all this information has been documented. You also need to consider the environmental factors associated with storing your parts. it gives management a warm. you need to place your orders and get ready to start configuring the server. prepare a list with part numbers and costs for those components. now that you have gotten your server configured so that it is fault tolerant. right now as you document all this. So I Don’t Need a Backup. This is an excellent time to figure out what you’ll need to do in the event of an outage so that when the day comes that you are paged at 2 a.” I’ve Got RAID 5. This should be a secure location ideally located in close proximity to the server. just in case? . The purpose of this is threefold. but it is a mistake. Take any components that either cannot be implemented in a fault-tolerant configuration or that for which a fault-tolerant configuration would be cost-prohibitive. Now that you have dealt with the potential hardware problems. away from static electricity or moisture. try to plan what you would do in the event that part fails. take a look at how to keep your data safe in the event of a disaster. “5. 6. Take any components that can be implemented in a costeffective manner (this varies from server to server. Second. If the answer is yes. you aren’t trying to remember that command to rebuild the RAID array. how do you protect the data. 7. making sure the server and its components remain under warranty. These factors include keeping the parts stored at a safe temperature. Third. This could be something like using a hot-spare server. and any of the other environmental factors covered in Chapter 6. There are always those people who think they can save the cost and administration of a tape backup by putting in redundant disks. Your disaster-recovery plan should include documented contingencies for any of the threats you identified as part of the risk analysis.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 471 4. and determine whether a spare part should be kept on hand in the event of an outage. First. someone else can get the process started. 5.0—Environment. which they generally discover when the server crashes and they can’t get to those highly redundant disks. you should be sure to identify a location for the storage of spare parts. Now that you have identified the hardware needed for your disaster-recovery plan. but you also don’t want to be flying back from Aruba to open the parts cabinet when the server crashes. there are no alarms going off and no VPs screaming at you to get the server fixed. fuzzy feeling when they realize you have your disaster-recovery plan in a folder next to the server and are ready to go in the event of a problem.Chapter 8 7. You should always back up your data to a media that can be stored in a location that is physically separate from the server itself. and depends on the cost of an outage) and start documenting the configuration. Backing Up Your Data All right. NOTE WA R N I N G Where Should the Spare Parts Go? As part of this process. Right? Wrong. You don’t want them stolen.

DDS is the industry standard for digital audio tape (DAT) formats. Other technologies build their indexes as the tapes are loaded. This allows for reduced load times. . for your reference. DLT was a technology originally developed by Digital Equipment Corporation but which is now available from a variety of vendors. which acts as a data index. and this is the technology that the other manufacturers are competing against in highend installations.472 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION The following list identifies some of the tape technologies you will encounter in the industry. á DLT (Digital Linear Tape). Their limited capacity compared to that of newer technologies have prevented them from being used heavily in an enterprise role. DAT tape backup drives were very popular several years ago. Expect to pay a premium for the new technology. Its higher capacity and higher speed made it popular for larger installations. highspeed tape backup technology. Mammoth drives are not as popular as the more widely used DLT drive. as the drives have a built-in index. Like the Ultrium technologies. á Ultrium LTO (Linear Tape Open). Mammoth drives were to be the competitor to DLT from a perspective of capacity and performance. higher-capacity drives. and Seagate to provide a next-generation tape technology to compete in the high end of the backup market. Although optimized for superior reliability and exceptional price/performance. Developed in 1996 by the Exabyte Corporation. relative to the other. á AIT (Advanced Intelligent Tape). and is available from a number of vendors.3 contains the storage and throughput statistics for some of the more popular technologies. DDS drives tend to be inexpensive. DLT was the technology seen as the successor to DDS drives toward the end of the 1990s. AIT was originally developed by Sony. AIT offers a high-capacity. Ultrium’s high capacity and throughput performance make it a solid selection if you need the horsepower. Although there hasn’t been wide adoption of this high-end technology yet. and remain popular in smaller servers. á Mammoth. Ultrium LTO technology was developed jointly by HP. NOTE More on Tapes Additional information about tape technology can be found in Chapter 1. as well as some that are a little less well known. á DDS (Digital Data Storage). AIT tape drives are known for their unique MIC (Memory in Cassette) feature. IBM. Table 8.

3 TA P E B A C K U P H A R D W A R E Format Native Capacity (GB) 4 25 50 40 100 60 Compressed Capacity (GB) 8 50 100 80 200 120 Throughput (Native) (MBps) . Fortunately today’s tape backup software does most of the work for you. . Travan-4 AIT-2 DDS-4 DLT 8000 LTO (Ultrium) Mammoth 2 As noted in Chapter 5. If you want to perform a restore on Wednesday. Because you are backing up all the files. so you should be able to find one to accommodate your requirements. you should determine how much data you will need to back up. You should also take the backup method into account while making these calculations. You should avoid running backups during production hours. and your performance will probably not be quite as high. A full backup will back up all the files marked for backup. however. and won’t allow you to overwrite a tape unless it is ready to be taken out of the rotation. Next. It took me forever to keep the difference between incremental and differential straight. so be sure to determine what your maintenance window will be for backups. Full backups have the advantage of requiring a single tape or tape set to do a restore. Some will even enable you to select rotation strategies. Use full backups whenever possible for this reason. “4. that’s a lot of data).Chapter 8 7. It’s in the Software All these different backup methods are pretty confusing. you just use the Tuesday tape set. you should investigate using a tape library. and after the file has been backed up will set the archive bit on the file to indicate it has been backed up. NOTE NOTE TABLE 8. and the amount of time you can allocate to the backup. A good backup product will enable you to select the backup method you want to use.0—Proactive Maintenance. With a single-tape restore capability. keeping in mind that the throughput numbers listed in the table are theoretical. this is the slowest of the backup methods.5 2 6 6 20 12 Throughput (Compressed) (MBps) 1 4 12 12 40 24 But My Data Won’t Fit on a Single Tape If you have more data than you can comfortably squeeze on a single tape (and with the new AIT and Ultrium drives. especially if you are new to some of the concepts.” there are three different types of backups.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 473 When you get ready to pick your tape drive. and will keep track of what tapes you will need when you do a restore. this is the best method for recovering. select a technology that will enable you to complete your backup within that window. as follows: á Full. These units can scale up to multiple terabytes of data. A tape library is a backup system that contains multiple tapes (and sometimes drives) along with the mechanics to allow it to automatically change tapes. however.

IN THE FIELD BEYOND BACKUP TYPES: TAPE ROTATION As important as the backup type is. and then Tuesday and Wednesday incremental tapes. you could need up to six tapes to restore the week’s data. Depending on when you need to restore. An incremental backup will back up all the files that have been modified since the last backup. Use incremental tapes only when a fast backup is an absolute necessity. and a yearly tape. One popular method for tape rotations is known as the G-F-S method. or the grandfather-father-son tape rotation scheme. If your tape rotation calls for a full backup on Monday. but carries the drawback of requiring all the tapes since the last full backup in order to perform a restore. something that is frequently overlooked is how to do a logical tape rotation method. A differential backup will back up any files that have not been backed up since the last full or incremental backup. This method requires 21 tapes. and should be used whenever a full backup is not an option. If your tape rotation calls for a full backup on Monday and then differential backups during the rest of the week. Monday through Thursday. You have 4 daily tapes. These tapes are reused every week. or gets lost. This means that you need two backup sets to restore. so that you can keep a maximum amount of information using the least amount of tapes. and then an incremental for the rest of the week. A differential backup does not set an archive bit after the backup. a restore on Thursday would require restoring the full backup from Monday. a restore on Thursday would require restoring Monday’s full backup. Here’s how it works. you will not be able to restore from that set of tapes. 4 weekly tapes. you use a daily tape. the most recent full backup and the latest differential backup. This is the fastest backup method. followed by the Wednesday tape.474 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION á Differential. you use . and then resets the archive bit. If one of those tapes goes bad. á Incremental. Incremental backups make a good compromise between the full and incremental backups. This is a faster method of backup than the full backup. On Friday. 12 monthly tapes. and ensures you can restore files from as far back as a year.

Go to the monthly tape that was used just before the file you want was deleted or modified. These tapes can be reused yearly. You will be able to be sure of restoring only all your data during the week the daily tapes are run. there is no way to restore from tape. IN THE FIELD WHERE IS THE TECHNOLOGY GOING? One of the biggest problems with having to do a complete restore of a server in the event of a complete disaster is all the work you have to do before you can start actually running the restore of your data. and when you went back in you accidentally deleted all your changes. get the SCSI ID set right. and make sure the software continues . So the G-F-S method gives you one of the better ways to keep your data archived. without the expense of 365 tapes a year.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 475 a weekly tape. then saved it. so you can get on the web to download all the drivers you should have copied to disk or CD but left on the server hard drive because it was more convenient. how do you go about restoring a file that is two months old? It’s simple. And on December 31st you use the yearly tape. These tapes are reused monthly. and perform a full backup. Because that file won’t be backed up until that evening. replace the tape that would ordinarily run with the monthly tape. The G-F-S method is great for keeping most of your data backed up. after you have all those tapes stored offsite. This theoretically gives you the ability to go back as far as a year to recover your data. this can take anywhere from 20 minutes to a couple hours. and you run your monthly tapes on the first of every month. But wait. but it won’t get all your data. there’s a catch! What if you created and deleted the file in January. First you have to load an operating system. In some cases you may also have to work with the system to get the tape drive recognized. When the operating system is up to par. Sounds horrible doesn’t it? But think about how many times you have created a file. and put it aside until the end of the following year. Now.Chapter 8 7. In many cases the first thing you do once the operating system is installed is to get TCP/IP running. Depending on the operating system and the configuration. you need the April tape to restore the file. made a lot of changes. On the first of the month. you need to load the tape backup software. If you want a file that was deleted on April 13. and you have a year’s worth of tapes. and now it’s June? How do you get the data back? The answer is you don’t.

This protects the tapes from fire or water damage. and many other variations on the same theme. The security. Although his service incurs a cost. Fortunately the industry has risen to the occasion with the introduction of one-button disaster recovery. When the tape can be recognized. Some other common methods for storing tapes include leaving them on top of the server. The easiest ways to store tapes is to place them in a fireproof box in the server room. configuration. If you need to restore from tape.476 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION continued NOTE One-Button Disaster Recovery (OBDR) For more information on OBDR. you can just insert the latest backup tape and push one button on your tape drive. and tape-integrity issues . Hewlett-Packard’s entire line of DAT drives and Ultrium drives support one-button disaster recovery. this can take upwards of 8 hours. When all this is done. flood. and load operating systems. here are several schools of thought on this matter. and perform your restore. reliability. and data files without requiring further intervention on your part. see Chapter 1. format drives. pull the tape(s) you need. recognizes the tape. Your tape drive will restore your operating system. this is the most secure way to store tapes. These facilities will come to your office once a day or once a week and take your backup tapes to a secure warehouse. That’s a long time for the CEO to not have mail. As discussed in Chapter 5. having one of the administrators take them home. Another way to store tapes is to have them picked up by an offsite storage facility. drivers. you can finally start moving data back to the server. or major fire. For something like a Microsoft Exchange server. you just unlock the box. the software generally needs to index the tape so that it can find the data it needs. and it’s what most major corporations do. applications. but keeps them close to the server for ease of tape management. You are at risk from a catastrophic failure in the event of a tornado. One vendor who is supporting this technology on their latest generation of drives is Hewlett-Packard. locking them in the manager’s desk. Instead of needing to find boot disks. The final piece of the backup and restore puzzle is what you should do with your tapes after you have data on them.

In any good disaster-recovery plan you should document who is to be notified in case of an outage. I know you didn’t fall for that one. it’s time to test it. á Test your notification processes. or has it been redeployed as a development server. For example. á Do a “dry run” of each of the components of your plan. and are they still in business? á Verify that any support contracts you have on equipment are still in effect. Do you have numbers for all your vendors. If the company’s e-commerce site crashes. Testing the Plan Okay! The plan is finished. right? Okay. and then you’ll perform a couple of step-by-step exercises to test specific areas of your plan. Make sure you can locate your spare drives (if applicable) and that you can order replacement parts from your vendor. did you? Now that you have a plan. there’s a good bet that your boss (and his boss. Are all your spares still in storage? Is the server identified as a hot spare still available. They just are not workable in a business environment. and possibly her boss) will want to know about it immediately.Chapter 8 7. Now it’s time to head out and grab a cold carrot juice and wait for something to fail. Avoid them at all costs. and any other information you’ll need to open a call with them is fully documented. . You need to not only make sure that your plan is workable. take the procedure for recovering from a hard drive failure and run through it. Some of the things you should test include the following: á Have someone check your documentation to ensure that it is understandable and that it is complete. but also ensure that everyone who has a role in a recovery understands what that role is.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 477 related to these types of tape storage methods make them very hazardous to your continued employment. this chapter covers some of the areas that you should review periodically. and that you have all the contact numbers. Because every disaster-recovery plan is different. á Check the locations of any hot-spare equipment or servers.

Retrieve a full backup tape from the preceding week’s backup rotation. to ensure the process is working. and if possible perform a full restore to a different machine quarterly. 2. to ensure that your results are not contaminated by existing files. open your backup software application. check for the following: • Was the data restored correctly? Is it all there. You should test your tape backups at least once a week. STEP BY STEP 8. the auditor will want to see that your tests have been successful. If all the data was restored correctly. Insert it in your drive and after it has completed loading. 1. and that your administrators understand the process. replace the tape in the rotation and start planning for next week’s test. and if you open a data file. are the files the correct size.478 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION The following couple of exercises can help you get an idea of how to test the pieces of your disaster-recovery plan.1 Testing Your Backups In preparation for this test. Be sure to document your results. . If your disaster-recovery plan is ever audited. 3. you should create a directory on your server with some test data in it. Make sure that it also has a directory structure and custom permissions. but all backup software has the same basic features). From the restore function of the tape backup software (this varies from site to site. is the information correct? • Was the directory structure restored correctly? • Are the file and directory permissions correct? 4. When the restore has completed. select the test directory and select restore. You should restore the data to a different location (different drive if possible) than it was backed up from.

After the alarm has been verified. You should never run a test of this type against a production system. open the case and remove the power cable from your drive. and any administrators on the system should perform the test at least once to ensure that they are familiar with the process and understand the documentation.2 Testing Your RAID Configuration Ideally this test should be done against a spare machine. ensure that the settings on the RAID controller are correct. and do whatever you would normally do on the system. The purpose of this test is to verify that your recovery procedure works. Note any performance changes. yearly full tests of disaster-recovery plans are done. Bring the “failed” drive back into the system. Verify the system’s alarms on the drive failure. Note any performance degradation. and verifying its RAID configuration. 1. Log in. 2. Then verify that your production systems are configured correctly. In a system with hot-plug drives. and that any software RAID-monitoring software is loaded on the system. 4. run some applications. This can include bringing hot sites (discussed later in the chapter) online and ensuring business continuity is maintained.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 479 STEP BY STEP 8. Follow your procedures for rebuilding the array. or a lab machine running a configuration similar to that of your production equipment. In some larger companies. This test should be done at least twice a year. . If the system does not give you an alarm of some type. perform the same tests you performed in step 3. After the array has been rebuilt. If you do not have hot-pluggable drives. Ensure that the RAID did its job and that all your data is available. test the system. this can be done by removing the drive. After identifying a test machine.Chapter 8 7. 3. remove a hard drive from the array.

You need to make sure that the replacement drive is the same type (SCSI in most cases. Each type of replacement has different parameters you need to check to ensure it will work in your system. is it error-correcting memory. because there are fewer variables. and basically tying up the IT staff for days of planning and execution to ensure that. Let’s talk about how you will implement your disaster-recovery plan. á Memory. You have developed your plan. .480 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION deploying replacement hardware. or possibly IDE). á Disk drives. and finally check the form factor. This is where the rubber hits the road. and so on). Disk drives are a little easier to replace than memory. Is it a DIMM (dual in-line memory module) or the older SIMM (single in-line memory module) type of memory? Also be aware of any restrictions the server has on the way memory is added. it’s time to figure out how to fix it. For memory. the first thing you need to do is determine the cause of the outage. now it’s show time. tested it. 60 nanosecond. After you have identified the outage. non-error-correcting. Some older servers required that memory be installed in pairs.200 or 10. the same speed (most drives on the market today are either 7. In the event of a failure. 7. parity. or in some cases sets of four. If you have a failed component. in the event of a catastrophic outage. RESTORING YOUR SERVER . the business systems will remain available. and the big day is at hand.2 Restoring • • • Identify hardware replacements Identify hot and cold sites Implement disaster recovery plan Okay. The size and speed are especially critical in a RAID array. you want to verify that the type of memory is correct. because all the drives should be the same size for the most efficient configuration. and so forth?) You should also check the speed of the memory (50 nanosecond. (That is. Your server just crashed.000 revolutions per minute). and the same capacity. you need to identify your hardware replacements.

software. NICs differ a little bit from the previous items. á Cold sites. however. Now that you understand all the facets of recovering from a server outage. these vendors provide a facility with server hardware. Hot and Cold For the exam. or even vendor if necessary. or even just an extended power outage. you need to consider one final topic: What do you do when your facility is down? This could be due to a natural disaster such as an earthquake or a flood. You just need to make sure that they match the media type (10BASE-T Ethernet. A hot site is a commercial facility available for systems backup. You should always replace CPUs with a like model (for example. This location could be an unused office facility. If it is a multiprocessor server. and so forth). or an unoccupied data center. and personnel to assist your company with restoring critical business applications and services in the event of an interruption in normal operations. There will probably not be any detailed questions on the makeup of a hot or cold site. Be sure to weigh the cost of the service against the risk and cost of a major outage. but relies on your ability to supply hardware. you need to keep the same speed and type as the rest of the processors in the server. EXAM TIP . 100BASE-T Ethernet. be sure to know the difference between a hot site and a cold site. but this level of recovery is very expensive. á Network interface cards. This solution is significantly less expensive than a hot site. you can replace a NIC with a different make. This is where disaster-recovery sites come into the picture. For a fee. because they interact with the operating system through drivers. Two types of disaster-recovery sites are commonly used in the industry: á Hot sites. because in a real business environment the parameters of either implementation vary dramatically from company to company. model. In a system with only one CPU.Chapter 8 7. If you don’t mind updating drivers. If you can manage it. Token Ring. you should try to replace your NIC with the same make and model.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 481 á CPUs. Pentium II for a Pentium II). These facilities provide an in-depth disaster-recovery capability. A cold site (also known as a shell site) is a facility that has been prepared to receive computer equipment in the event that the primary facility is destroyed or becomes unusable. telecommunications hardware. But you should know the basic distinction between the two. you can often upgrade the speed of the CPU without negatively affecting the system. sabotage such as the bomb that went off in the World Trade Center. a warehouse (if prepared suitably). and personnel in the event of an outage. You need to find a place to resume your critical business activities.

In summary. When you understand the risks. As with just about anything in the IT industry. The importance of performing a risk analysis before starting your disasterrecovery planning was discussed. Software RAID is less expensive. cooling fans. a good risk analysis contains the following steps: 1. 3. 2. The discussion moved from risk analysis into some of the configurations for high availability. and their pros and cons. You also learned the pros and cons of software versus hardware RAID. 4. Although hardware RAID is more expensive. you can do a much better job of making sure you can recover from the most likely or most critical outages. but for servers that contain mission-critical data. and UPSs. the key is good planning. These include power supplies. CPUs. this is an exercise that shouldn’t be skipped. Define the level of risk associated with each threat. network interface adapters. and doesn’t require the operating system to boot in order for it to be managed. but adds a lot of overhead to the system. starting with the different types of RAID technologies available. This step is frequently overlooked as people rush to start configuring servers. because it uses the server processor and memory to perform its RAID functions. is generally more flexible. Rank the risks based on severity and likelihood. . This chapter began by looking at disaster-recovery planning. it performs much better. You also learned about other components that can be configured for redundant operations. Identify your business processes and their associated infrastructure. Identify the threats associated with each of the business processes and associated infrastructure.482 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION CHAPTER SUMMARY KEY TERMS • Clustering • DIMM • Disaster-recovery plan • Distributed lock manager (DLM) • Hardware RAID • Hot spare • Hot swap • Network interface card • RAID • RAID 0 • RAID 0/1 • RAID 1 • RAID 5 • Redundancy • Risk analysis • Scalability • SIMM • Software RAID • Warm swap You should now have a good handle on how to plan for and recover from any disasters that might strike your server.

0—DISASTER RECOVERY 483 CHAPTER SUMMARY The discussion then turned to the advantages of using clustering technologies to ensure system high availability. due to the amount of coordination required between nodes. so there is no competition for the resources. All the concepts discussed in this chapter are directly related to providing a highly available solution.999% availability are mentioned as targets all the time. and you learned some ways to meet them. In the shared-device model. A scalable system can support an additional load either through unused capacity in the server. the discussion jumped to scalability. In the nothingshared model. or by accommodating upgrades to handle the increased load. Some of the advantages of clustering in general include the following: á Fault tolerance á High availability á Scalability á Easier manageability From clustering. but can be more expensive due to the lack of shared hardware. This model suffers from additional overhead and scalability issues. This chapter also discussed the types of components that can be used in the event of a failure. with different pros and cons. for which the load on the infrastructure can increase sharply over a short period of time. This model is more scalable and higher performing than the shared device model. This is especially important with fast-growing businesses. There are two types of clustering. numbers of 99. applications running within a cluster can access any hardware resource connected to any node/server in the cluster. You learned what these figures mean from an operational perspective. In the business.Chapter 8 7. including the following: á Hot swap (also known as hot pluggable) . each node has ownership of a resource. Scalability refers to how well a hardware or software system can adapt to increased demands.

the discussion turned to how to protect critical data on the system. This rounded out the development of a disaster-recovery plan. but recognized that detailed testing will vary from plan to plan.484 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION CHAPTER SUMMARY á Warm swap á Hot spare / redundant components You learned how to utilize the server components to make a server fault tolerant. and covered some of the tape backup technologies available to you for backing up your data. and incremental. this chapter showed you how to use this information to create a disaster-recovery plan. The key concepts for testing a disaster-recovery plan include the following: á Checking the recovery-plan documentation á Doing a “dry run” of each of the components of your plan á Testing your notification processes á Checking the locations of any hot-spare equipment or servers á Verifying your support contracts . This discussion dealt with some guidelines for testing. differential. It is important to note that this is just one part of your overall disaster-recovery plan. and from there the discussion focused on how to test a disaster-recovery plan. but it can be used to make sure that your server hardware is highly available. From the hardware. From there. including the following: á DDS (Digital Data Storage) á DLT (Digital Linear Tape) á Mammoth á Ultrium LTO (Linear Tape Open) á AIT (Advanced Intelligent Tape) You also learned about the different types of backups: full.

you can ensure that your servers will remain highly available. structured. In the event of a component failure in your server. A hot site is a commercial facility available for system backups. You have made it to the end of the discussions on disaster recovery. And the final section of the chapter dealt with what to do when disaster strikes.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 485 CHAPTER SUMMARY One other thing that you can add if applicable is to verify that your hot or cold site is ready to accept the transfer of operations. A cold site (also known as a shell site) is a facility that has been prepared to receive computer equipment in the event that the primary facility is destroyed or becomes unusable. Some components will allow you more flexibility in their replacement than others. If you don’t. you may find your job isn’t either. you need to make sure that you have a like component on hand. . The final topic covered was the use of alternative facilities in the event of a major outage. You can use two types of facilities in this event. and documented disaster-recovery plan. you may find that your server isn’t the only thing that isn’t highly available. This is an area of the business that is often neglected. and this section covered the parameters of the common replacement parts. and by having the ability to design and document a thorough.Chapter 8 7. or that you can get one quickly.

writing letters. Your “business process” may be email. it will be difficult to associate a direct cost for the threat. What would happen if your modem were to fail? Your hard drive? What if you caught a virus? Try to think of all the possible threats to your PC. 4. The severity scale would also be from 1 to 5. One method that works fairly well is to add the scores of the two levels. 2. Rank the risks based on severity and likelihood. spare parts. think about what you use your PC for. Estimated Time: 60 minutes. If your number one threat is a virus. 5. RAID. online chats. 6. How many are worth the investment? Include in your calculations things such as the cost of a resume that you submit to a potential employer that has a virus in it. and are usually the last risks to be planned for. In a true risk analysis. 1. The higher the score.2 Working with Tape Backup Methods The purpose of this exercise is to give you practice working with the different tape backup methods for backups and restores. as well as the severity of the threat. Think about how you could use some of the technologies in the chapter (redundancy. Document your findings. Low scores can generally be placed at the end of the list. 3. Identify the threats associated with each of the business processes and associated infrastructure. where 1 is minor impact to the business and 5 is major impact to the business. You can do this by ranking the threats on a scale of 1 to 5. preparing for the Server+ exam. Required Equipment: 3 × 5 index cards. Include things that you would consider low risk.1 Performing a Risk Analysis and Creating a Disaster-Recovery Plan The purpose of this exercise is to give you practice performing a risk analysis and creating a disaster-recovery plan for a relatively simple server: your home PC. in your decision as to whether it is a worthwhile investment. These are your tapes. the more important that risk is to avoid. and so on) to reduce the threats. In this case. as well as high-risk threats. Starting with the most critical risk. 7. 8. you should associate costs with each threat. or whatever you use your home PC for.486 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Exercises 8. 1. Associate costs with each disaster-recovery item. Required Equipment: Personal computer. Take 7 index cards and label them with the days of the week. . In this exercise (unless you use your home PC for a business). Identify your business processes and their associated infrastructure. and costs you the job. Estimated Time: 60 minutes. purchasing virus protection and updating the virus signatures weekly could be your counter. or the cost of failing the Server+ exam if your monitor fails. where 1 is unlikely and 5 is very likely. and working your way down through at least the first five risks (do more if you want the additional practice) devise a way to either counter or recover from the threat. Define the level of risk associated with each threat. This includes the likelihood of the threat occurring.

If you do not. Assume you have successful backups throughout the week. Using the same 4 drives. how much effective disk space will be available? 3. and it’s Wednesday evening. 5.m. you can perform this as a live exercise. The backups still run at 10 p.3 Creating RAID Configurations The purpose of this exercise is to give you practice creating RAID arrays.) 4. 3. and you need to do a full restore to a spare server. assume your backup rotation begins on Monday. Your server just crashed. If you have the correct equipment (a computer with four hard drives). Your server just crashed. What is the minimum number of drives needed? How much effective disk space will that array provide? If you use all 4 drives for this array. how much effective disk space will be available? (Hint: You can create 2 RAID 1 arrays for this step. around 11 a. and the Monday backup takes 2 hours. What is the minimum number of drives needed? How much effective disk space will that array provide? If you use all 4 drives for this array. around 10:15 p. create a RAID 0/1 array. and the Monday backup takes 2 hours. around 8 p. how much effective disk space will be available? (Hint: You can create 2 RAID 1 arrays for this step.m. 7. and label the rest of the cards Differential. It represents a disk drive for your RAID array.. and take 2 hours to complete. For the purpose of this exercise. 1. 2.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 487 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 2. and it’s Saturday morning. and label the rest of the cards with Incremental.m.Chapter 8 7. Your server just crashed.m. Take 4 index cards and label each 10GB. The backups run at 10 p. How many tapes will you need to complete the restore? Which tape(s) will you need? 8. How many tapes will you need to complete the restore? Which tape(s) will you need? 6.) . leave the Monday card labeled Full. The backups still run at 10 p. How many tapes will you need to complete the restore? Which tape(s) will you need? 4. Using the same 4 drives.m. use the index cards. Label each index card Full Backup. how much effective disk space will be available? 5. create a RAID 1 array.. Estimated Time: 60 minutes. Once again. create a RAID 5 array.m. What is the minimum number of drives needed? How much effective disk space will that array provide? If you use all 4 drives for this array. but the remaining backups take approximately 45 minutes. Assume you have successful backups throughout the week. You need to create a RAID 0 array with your drives. and it’s Thursday evening. Assume you have successful backups throughout the week. but the remaining backups take approximately 1 hour. Using the same 4 drives.. What is the minimum number of drives you will need? How much effective disk space will that provide? If you use all 4 drives for this array. and you need to do a full restore to a spare server. Now leave the Monday card labeled Full. Required Equipment: 3 × 5 index cards. and you need to do a full restore to a spare server.

You’re the LAN administrator for Jeff ’s Automotive Repair Ltd. Because it is part of a redundant cluster. What are the uses of each. RAID 5 D. Performance is critical. You have been asked to configure the backup software for backing up the customer database server. what type of backup should you use? How would you do it if the goal was to allow for the fastest backup time? What type of backup provides a good compromise between the two? Review Questions 1. What are the two types of clustering. RAID 0 B. This server will be part of a redundant cluster of servers. You are the network administrator for Wild Widgets Inc. What kind of disks should you use? What are your other options? Exam Questions 1. 5. and how do they differ? 4. You are the server administrator for Exponent Mathematicians and you have just taken over responsibility for a server running a RAID 1 drive configuration. and you need to design it so that it can deliver data from the disk as quickly as possible. and why would you select one over the other? 3. If you think you need additional practice with RAID arrays. You have been tasked to evaluate your company’s existing disaster-recovery plan. You are building a new file server for your corporate headquarters and want to make sure that you can recover from a disk failure as quickly as possible. and you need to build a front-end web server to provide transactional data for e-commerce customers. RAID 0/1 . What are the benefits and drawbacks to this RAID method? What are the benefits and drawbacks to using a different RAID configuration? 2.488 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 6. You are the administrator for John’s House of Tires. and you have been asked to evaluate the possibility of using clustering technologies for your mission-critical web site. If the goal of the backups is to allow for the fastest possible restore. Which RAID type should you select? A. and see whether adding a hot or cold site to the plan would make sense. RAID 1 C. the data integrity/availability of the server is not a main concern. try this exercise using different numbers of drives.

Which of the following are benefits to running a clustered environment? i. Because the application must be available 24 × 7 × 365. You are the network administrator for Wild Widgets Inc. and you need to build an e-commerce server for your company’s online store. You have been asked to deploy a clustered server as part of your job as Widgets. how much downtime enables you to still meet your availability numbers? A.99% availability for the server cluster that you just implemented.Chapter 8 7. You are the lead engineer for Little Faith Enterprises. RAID 1 C. and you have guaranteed 99. RAID 0/1 4. 5 minutes B. You are the network administrator for the Hittem Boxing Glove Corporation. so the need for redundancy is absolute. 30 minutes 6. RAID 0 B. You are installing a new server and want to configure it as redundantly as possible.’s server administrator. ii. Simple configuration v. and v D. Scalability iv. RAID 1 C. iii. ii. RAID 5 D. Inc. Because thousands of customers will be placing orders and viewing the catalog. i. i.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 489 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 2. High availability iii. Your manager has asked you to assist him in justifying the expense. and you need to build a database server for the accounting department. Fault tolerant ii. . RAID 0 B. You are the network administrator for Wild Widgets Inc. i only B. however. Which RAID type should you select? A. Easier manageability A. He wants to implement this as efficiently as possible. Which RAID type should you select? A. About an hour C. This application is absolutely critical to the company’s success. RAID 0/1 3. v only 5. but he is also very cost conscious. performance is equally important. The manager of the accounting department is concerned about the integrity of his data. and iv C. RAID 5 D. iii. More than 2 hours D.

More redundant than hardware RAID 10. You are the LAN administrator for UR Write Publishing. iv. You manage the servers for the ACME Screwdriver Corporation. to reduce the impact on users. This application will eventually have between 100 and 150GB of data. i and v B. You are the LAN administrator for UR Write Publishing. i. Inexpensive C. iv only 9. Network interface card E. CPU B. Motherboard C. and you have been asked to specify the backup media for the new data warehouse application. Power supply D. and iv C. Inexpensive iii. Ranking threats based on cost iv. iii. You are in the process of implementing a RAID configuration using software RAID and your manager wants to know why you selected software RAID. ii. a technical publishing company. Which of the following are advantages of hardware RAID? i. You are the data center manager for Mount Abora Consulting. and v 8. Flexible ii. You are in the process of implementing a RAID configuration using hardware RAID and your manager wants to know why you selected hardware RAID. i. Which of the following are part of a good risk analysis? i. a technical publishing company. Justifying costs ii. Deciding which RAID level to use A. an independent consulting company. and iv D. Which of the following are advantages of hardware RAID? A. ii. and needs to be backed up after hours. Flexible B. Identify business processes v. ii and v D. ii and iii C. Less impact to system performance iv. i and ii B. You are in the process of developing a disaster-recovery plan and you have just started your risk analysis. Less impact to system performance D. Hard drives 7. iii. iii.490 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E Which of the following are not redundant components in most servers? A. . Identifying threats iii. More redundant than software RAID A.

40 D. DDS-4 B. i and iv D. DLT iv. 20 B. iv. Which of the following are part of a good disasterrecovery test? i. ii. You are the lead engineer for Zanzibar Dream Ice Cream and you have just implemented mirroring on your primary production server. Which of the following tape technologies would not be appropriate in your situation? i.Chapter 8 7. ii and v 12. and v B. Have someone check your documentation for completeness. Mammoth v. Floppy disks A. You have just set up a tape backup rotation and are using the G-F-S method. i only 13. Very efficient use of hardware iii. and you have just completed your disaster-recovery plan. iii and iv B. you have five PCs and a small server that stores your accounting information. iv. i only C. No degradation in performance when a drive fails A. . Your manager wants to know why you selected mirroring for fault tolerance. Mammoth E. ii and iii C. You are the owner/operator for Phil’s Vacuum Cleaner Repair Service. LTO iii. iii. You are the lead administrator for the Got Bux Savings and Loan. 21 C. Cause one of your servers to fail and then recover from it.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 491 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E What tape technology should you recommend? A. DDS-4 ii. Which of the following statements about mirroring would not be accurate in your justification? i. In support of your business. How many tapes will you need if you want to have a full archive of tapes for two years? A. i and v D. Highly redundant ii. ii. DLT D. Floppy disks 11. Inventory your spare parts. Identify a cold site to relocate your servers to. LTO C. Highest performance RAID configuration iv. 42 14.

but is more efficient from a hardware perspective. Which of the following components could fit this description? i. but is more efficient and scalable. RAID 0 is very high performance. You would like the server to continue to run without intervention in the event of a component failure. For more information. but is very inefficient. For more information. so there is no competition for the resources.” . ii and iv 15. This model can also suffer issues with scalability and performance. You are the lead administrator for the Got Bux Savings and Loan. each node has ownership of a resource. This model requires more hardware to implement.” 3. In the shareddevice model. which you can add and remove from a computer while the computer is running. i and ii C. applications running within a cluster can access any hardware resource connected to any node/server in the cluster. but offers no redundancy. Motherboard iv. In the nothing-shared model. see the section “Introduction to Clustering. For more information. i and iii D. i and ii C. but if configured correctly offers high performance and complete redundancy. because there is not resource contention. RAID 0/1 is the most inefficient. i B.492 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E A.” 4. If you could handle a greater downtime. you could use either warm-swap or hot-spare drives. i and iii D.” Answers to Review Questions 1. Video adapter A. but requires more drives than the existing RAID 0 implementation. efficiency. Warm Swapping. RAID 5 offers the best combination of performance. i B. see the section “Restoring Your Server. It is the more expensive of the two possibilities. Fan iii. The cold site is just a facility that can hold your equipment in the event of an outage. The two clustering models are the shared-device and the nothing-shared models. and Hot Spares. RAID 1 provides excellent redundancy. and you are configuring your server with as much redundancy as possible. see the section “RAID Types. If speed is of the essence. Warmswap drives requires that processing be halted until the drive is replaced. see the section “Understanding Hot Swapping. it will take longer to resume operations. ii and iv 2. A hot-spare drive would require the system be shut down while it is replaced. A hot site is a facility provided by a outside vendor and contains all the facilities you need for business resumption. For more information. Power supply ii. you should use hotswap drives. and redundancy. Although this is a less expensive solution.

you would want to do a full backup on a non-business day and then incrementals for the rest of the week.” . Motherboards cannot be implemented redundantly.Chapter 8 7. For more information. power supplies. with a capacity of 200GB and a throughput of 32Mbps. see the section “Understanding Redundancy. DDS. see the section “Hardware Versus Software RAID. see the section “RAID Types. The AIT-2 technology. and Mammoth just don’t have the capacity for this much data.” 3. For more information. with a differential the rest of the week.99% availability guarantee allows you less than an hour of downtime per year. and you don’t have the additional overhead of a full backup every night. B. RAID 5 offers the best compromise between redundancy and efficiency.” 5. The Ultrium LTO.” 4. For more information. B. you should use RAID 0. see the section “RAID Types. D.” 6. is the only choice from this list. NICs. RAID 0 + 1 combines the performance of RAID 0 with the full redundancy of RAID 1. see the section “Risk Analysis. And you would need a lot of floppy disks to back up 150GB. For more information. For more information. 53 minutes to be more exact. and High Availability. Because this capability is part of the operating system. To restore you would need the full backup plus any subsequent incremental tapes. For more information.” 10. For more information. A. see the section “Backing Up Your Data. You can restore from just two tapes. B. see the section “Hardware Versus Software RAID. C. and greater redundancy than the software alternative. The only true benefit of software RAID over hardware RAID is the cost. Deciding which RAID level to use is part of your disaster-recovery planning.0—DISASTER RECOVERY 493 A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 5. For more information. Unfortunately a cluster can be very complex to configure. see the section “Redundancy of Other System Components. the failure of a disk will not impact the business.” 2. For the shortest backup times. For more information. For more information. see the section “Introduction to Clustering. For more information. As long as money is no object. and hard drives. DLT. All four answers are examples of benefits of clustering. this is the best implementation for the server. you would want to do full backups every night. not referenced in the question would provide the only other possible solution. For the fastest restore time. B. A 99. You will pay for those advantages with a higher cost. That would enable you to always restore from a single tape. In most servers you can get redundant CPUs.” 9. there is no additional cost for the RAID capability. And a good compromise would be a full backup one night. which is probably when you’ll be justifying the costs as well. see the section “RAID Types. B. higher performance. C. see the section “Backing Up Your Data. Hardware RAID offers flexibility.” 7. C. Scalability.” Answers to Exam Questions 1.” 8. If data integrity is not an issue. This offers the best performance and as long as the server is part of a cluster. Clustering.

D. 2. For more information. and 2 yearly tapes.htm www. C. you will need 24 monthly tapes. and your server is down for a week? For more information. www. What if it doesn’t work. .microsoft. although an additional video card could be installed and the cutover done manually. see the section “Redundancy of Other System Components. www. You should always have your documentation double-checked. 4. Mirroring is not an efficient way to use hardware.tekcentral.” 13. Motherboards and video adapters usually cannot.microsoft. see the section “Backing Up Your Data. Fans and power supplies can usually be configured redundantly.com/technet/win2000/ recovery. see the section “RAID Types.gedisasterrecovery. For more information. Floppy disks are not an appropriate backup technology anywhere.com/windows2000/library/ operations/fileandprint/recovery.com/index. 2000. 6. Disaster Recovery Planning.labmice. RAID 1 (mirroring) is highly redundant.” Suggested Readings and Resources 1.net/disaster.” 14. and you should never induce a problem in a production system just to see whether your process works. Identifying a cold site should be part of the planning process. see the section “Backing Up Your Data. 8 weekly tapes. B.” 12.novell.” 15.htm 7.com/research/ appnotes/1999/septembe/03/index.494 Par t I EXAM PREPARATION A P P LY Y O U R K N O W L E D G E 11.html http://developer. Toigo. To archive 2 years of data. 3. and there is no degradation in performance during an outage due to the lack of parity calculations found in RAID 5. due to the 100% overhead in disks.com/teknetwork/ Disaster_Recovery/ 5. For more information. A.asp www. totaling 42. and it does not perform as well as RAID 0.asp www. Jon William. For more information. 8 daily tapes. The Ultrium LTO and Mammoth technologies are overkill for the environment described. see the section “Testing the Plan. Prentice Hall PTR. and be sure you have the appropriate spare parts on hand. and would be prohibitively expensive for a small operation of this type. B.

P A R T II FINAL REVIEW Fast Facts Study and Exam Preparation Tips Practice Exam .

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However. Chapter 1 provided you with an overview of important server concepts and was intended to set you up for tackling the specific job dimensions and objectives for the Server+ exam outlined by CompTIA. you should be ready to take the exam. Fast Facts SERVER+ CERTIFICATION . It cannot serve as a substitute for knowing the material supplied in these chapters. its key points should refresh your memory on critical topics. remember to review the Glossary terms because they are intentionally not covered here. If you have a thorough understanding of the key points here. performed the designated hands-on procedures. In addition to the information located in this chapter. You should be able to review the Fast Facts in less than an hour.The Fast Facts listed in this chapter are designed as a refresher of key points and topics. and explored the ExamGear test engine (an electronic exam simulator) on the CD that accompanies this book. The chapter is organized like the test objectives. By using these summaries of key points. chances are good that you will pass the exam. you can spend an hour prior to your exam to refresh your understanding of key topics and ensure that you have a solid understanding of the objectives and the information required for you to succeed in each major area of the exam. Chapters 2 through 8 were designed to specifically address those seven job dimensions. and each job dimension that follows includes the key points from each chapter. Now that you have read those chapters. This chapter is designed as a quick study aid that you can use just prior to taking the exam. answered all the Review and Exam Questions at the ends of the chapters. knowledge of which is required to be successful on the Server+ Certification exam.

á 0. provides it to the client computer who requested it.0—PLANNING SPECIFICATIONS AND This job dimension is not one of the job dimensions listed on the Server+ Exam Blueprint from CompTIA. á A proxy server connects a corporate LAN to the Internet.0—Configuration á 3. and may also cache it on its own disk drives for future access by all the clients on the corporate LAN. These items are covered in the authorcreated Job Dimension 0. á A Network Address Translation (NAT) server connects a corporate LAN to the Internet. á A departmental server is a network server that can support up to 300 users. The main points are as follows: á There are two types of computer networks: peer to peer. such as an Ethernet LAN communicating with an IBM mainframe that is using SNA. á A gateway server provides a communications path between two systems that use a totally different communications system. á A firewall connects a corporate LAN to the Internet while restricting access from the Internet to the corporate LAN based on source IP address and/or protocol type.0—Disaster Recovery 0. All requests for Internet access are actually directed to the proxy server.0—Installation á 2. there are items on CompTIA’s “Server+ Concepts and Skills” document that aren’t included in any of the job dimensions of CompTIA’s Server+ Exam Blueprint. á Peer-to-peer networks are useful for only relatively small networks of 20 computers or fewer. Planning and Specifications. á A workgroup server is a network server that can support about 20 users.0—Environment á 6. .0—Proactive Maintenance á 5.0—Planning and Specifications á 1. á A bridge segregates data frames between two sections of the same network and passes packets from one section to another based on the hardware addresses of the source and destination computers.0—Troubleshooting and Problem Determination á 7.0—Upgrading á 4. The corporate network generally uses private IP addressing and the NAT server has a limited number of valid IP addresses that it uses to translate the private addresses to addresses that are valid on the Internet. á A router connects several network segments together and sends data packets from one segment to another based on the network address of the data packet.498 FAST FACTS The following list runs down the job dimensions discussed in this book and that CompTIA uses to arrange the objectives for the Server+ exam: á An enterprise server is a network server that can support a very large number of users or a very large application. such as a major database. á A server appliance is a network server that is designed to provide one service to the network and take a relatively small amount of space. However. and server centric (aka client/server). The proxy server retrieves the requested information. A proxy server is often the only computer in the corporation that is actually attached directly to the Internet.

á A CD-ROM library server provides access to the information stored on many CD-ROMs to clients on the network. and web servers. á A mail server provides electronic mail services to client computers on the network. á The Intel Pentium II Xeon processor supports up to 4 processors in a network server. printers.) á A fax server provides client computers on the network access to both incoming and outgoing facsimiles. á The Intel Pentium Pro processor supports up to 4 processors in a network server. Its Level 2 cache runs at the same speed as the processor. and so forth) on the network that can be used by client computers on the network. á An FTP server provides a repository of files that can be accessed by and copied to client computers on the network using the File Transfer Protocol. the database server processes the request and retrieves the data from the database on its hard disk drives. á A web server stores and provides web pages to client computer web browsers. á A client/server is actually a classification for a type of relationship between network servers and their clients. á A terminal server provides access to desktop applications to client computers on the network that don’t have the resources to run these desktop applications themselves. . Its Level 2 cache runs at one-half the speed of the processor. á The Intel Pentium II processor supports up to 2 processors in a network server. Good examples of application servers include email. This is the classic network server role. The database server stores databases on its hard disk drives. á A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server provides automated TCP/IP configuration for client computers on the network. Client computers send requests or queries to the database server. á A video server stores digitized video and provides it on demand to client computers on the network. á A Domain Name Service (DNS) server provides TCP/IP name resolution for computers on the TCP/IP network.FAST FACTS 499 á A database server runs an application known as a database management system. Its Level 2 cache runs at the same speed as the processor. The classic example of a client/server relationship is the database server. computers. á The Intel Pentium III processor supports up to 2 processors in the network server. database. á An application server is a server that provides a major service to the clients on the network. It is available in speeds from 233MHz to 450MHz. (These clients are often called thin clients. It is available in speeds from 150MHz to 200MHz. It is available in speeds from 450MHz to 1130MHz. á A Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) server provides NetBIOS name resolution for Microsoft computers on a TCP/IP network. á A directory services server provides a searchable database of objects (users. It is available in speeds of 400MHz and 450MHz. groups. Its Level 2 cache runs at the same speed as the processor. and then the database server sends the results to the query back to the client. á A remote access server enables client computers to access the network via modems attached to telephone lines. á A file and print server provides access to files and network printers to clients on the network. á An SNA server provides communications and character translation between a LAN and an IBM mainframe.

1996 AGP (x4). It will have both Level 2 and Level 3 caches available. 1987 VESA Local Bus. 1992 PCI. consists of SRAM. and so on) into slots on the bus. which is used as main system memory. 1987 Micro Channel. it also costs much more. disk controller. like Level 1 cache. á The future Intel Itanium processor is Intel’s first 64-bit processor and it will support up to 4 processors in a network server. 100MHz. Its Level 2 cache runs at the same speed as the processor. á The memory used in both Level 1 and Level 2 cache is static ram (SRAM). however. 1992 PCI. 1996 AGP (x2). Level 2 cache ranges in size from 128KB to 2MB. Level 2 cache. á Level 2 processor cache acts as a buffer between main memory and the processor. It will initially be available in speeds of 733MHz and 800MHz. á The system bus allows expansion of the input and output capabilities of the network server by insertion of expansion boards (video. á Level 1 processor cache is built on the chip with the processor. The memory bus is also called the front-side bus. á In the write back cache method. á Table 1 summarizes system buses that have been used in computers over the past few years. 1998 Bus Width (Bits) 8 16 32 16 32 32 32 64 64 64 32 32 32 Bus Speed Bandwidth (MHz) (MBps) 4.77 8 8 8 8 33 33 33 66 132 66 132 264 4. 1981 ISA (16-bit). 1992 PCI 2. and then the cache is written to main memory at later time.0. á In the write thru cache method. 1999 AGP. Each of these is usually 8KB or 16KB in size. It is available in speeds from 1300MHz to 1500MHz. Level 2 cache is on the chip with the processor. 1988 Micro Channel. á When writing to cache memory. 1995 PCI-X 1. On Pentium processors and higher. á Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) allows multiple processors to be used cooperatively in a network server. SUMMARY TABLE 1 SYSTEM BUSES Bus.77 16 32 16 32 132 132 264 528 1056 264 528 1056 . It is available in speeds from 500MHz to 1000MHz. there are two different methods that are used: write thru and write back. á The memory bus connects main memory to the processor of the network server.500 FAST FACTS á The Intel Pentium III Xeon processor supports up to 4 processors in the network server. data is written only to the cache. 1984 EISA. The memory bus operates at 66MHz. Year Introduced ISA (8-bit). network adapter.1. The relatively small Level 1 cache has two parts: the data cache and the instruction cache. á The Intel Pentium 4 processor supports only one processor in the network server. data is written back to cache and main memory at the same time. SRAM is much faster than dynamic RAM (DRAM). or 133MHz. Its Level 2 cache runs at the same speed as the processor.

also known as Ultra ATA 33. á Enhanced IDE (EIDE). á IDE/ATA disk drives can transfer data at a rate of 3. á Extended data out (EDO) RAM has access speeds measured in nanoseconds (typically fewer than 100 nanoseconds). á A single in-line memory module (SIMM) can transfer data 32 bits at a time. á Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) is a disk subsystem that supports up to two channels with up to two disk drives on each channel.3 to 16. á The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus is a local bus that was designed by Intel Corporation.FAST FACTS 501 á The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) bus. for a total of four disk drives. á Memory that does not have ECC capabilities is known as non-ECC memory. á Synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM) runs at bus speeds. á Registered SDRAM memory has better performance than regular SDRAM because of the amplified control signals provided by registering. or replaced without shutting down the network server. RAM that has ECC capabilities is known as ECC memory. which can be accessed simultaneously. which allows a PCI adapter to be installed. also known as ATA-2. á A dual in-line memory module (DIMM) can transfer data 64 bits at a time. . á The PCI-X (PCI Extended) bus is an enhancement to the PCI bus and has a higher bus transfer speed. and 133MHz. It is also designed to implement device driver independence from the operating system. which are measured in megahertz. 100MHz. á Memory interleaving is a technique used to speed up memory access by dividing memory in sections. á Error Correction Code (ECC) is a sophisticated method of memory data protection that can detect and correct single-bit errors. and they are usually installed in pairs (because most data buses are 64 bits wide). can transfer data at a rate of 11. removed. and hence they can be installed singly. á ATA 33. á Intelligent Input/Output (I2O) technology is designed to remove the burden of performing input and output operations from the network server processor. can transfer data at up to 33 megabytes per second. which is compatible with ISA adapter cards.3 megabytes per second.5 megabytes per second. á Buffered EDO memory has better performance than regular EDO memory because of the amplified control signals provided by buffering. Common speeds are 66MHz. á The AGP (Advanced Graphics Port) bus was designed by Intel Corporation as a high-speed local bus to be used primarily for video graphics.3 to 8. á IDE is also known as ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) by the American National Standards Institute. á The PCI bus can support a technology known as PCI hot swap. was designed by nine IBM competitors in response to IBM’s Micro Channel Architecture bus.

á SCSI-2 uses either the single-ended (SE) signaling system or the high-voltage differential (HVD) signaling system. á Table 2 summarizes the many versions of the SCSI standard. can transfer data at up to 66 megabytes per second. á Characteristics of the SCSI-2 standard include a bus speed of 5MHz (10MHz for Fast SCSI-2) and a bus width of 8 bits (16 bits for Wide SCSI-2). á Each end of a SCSI channel must be terminated. also known as Ultra DMA 66. including the low-voltage differential (LVD) signaling system. á There is a Wide SCSI channel standard. a bus width of 8 bits. and a data-transfer speed of 5MBps. á The standard SCSI channel width is 8 bits (1 byte or 1 character). The Fast Wide SCSI-2 standard has a bus speed of 10MHz and a bus width of 16 bits. higher speed SCSI buses. á The Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) is a bus controller that can have many devices attached to a single SCSI channel. á Table 3 summaries cable type and lengths. á The SCSI high-voltage differential (HVD) signaling system supports a cable length of 25 meters. number of devices per SCSI channel. á SCSI-1 uses the single-ended (SE) signaling system with a maximum cable length of 6 meters. á Each device on a SCSI channel must have a unique SCSI ID. and cable types for the various SCSI standards. SUMMARY TABLE 2 S M A L L C O M P U T E R S Y S T E M I N T E R FA C E (SCSI) V E R S I O N S SCSI Standard SCSI-1 SCSI-2 SCSI-2 SCSI-2 SCSI-3 SCSI-3 SCSI-3 SCSI-3 SCSI-3 SCSI-3 SCSI-3 SCSI-3 Fast Wide Fast Wide Ultra Ultra Wide Ultra2 Ultra2 Wide Ultra160 Ultra320 Fibre Channel IEEE 1394 Marketing Term Bus Speed (MHz) 5 10 5 10 20 20 40 40 40DT 80DT Bus Width Transfer Speed (MBps) 5 10 10 20 20 40 40 80 160 320 8 bits 8 bits 16 bits 16 bits 8 bits 16 bits 8 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 1 bit (serial) 100 1 bit (serial) 400 . and serial SCSI. á The SCSI low-voltage differential signaling system supports a cable length of 12 meters. á Ultra DMA 100 can transfer data at up to 100 megabytes per second. á SCSI-3 introduced many new standards. á Characteristics of the SCSI-1 standard include a bus speed of 5MHz. which is 16 bits wide (2 bytes or 2 characters).502 FAST FACTS á ATA 66.

C A B L E T Y P E . á 10BASE-T Ethernet uses unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable.3u) uses UTP cable. It has a data-transfer rate of 10Mbps. á 10BASE-5 Ethernet uses thick coaxial cable known as RG-8. and has a maximum cable length of 185 meters. and has a maximum cable length (from computer to hub) of 100 meters. DEVICES PER CHANNEL SCSI Standard SCSI-1 SCSI-2 Fast SCSI-2 Wide SCSI-2 Fast Wide SCSI-3 Ultra SCSI-3 Ultra Wide SCSI-3 Ultra2 SCSI-3 Ultra2 Wide SCSI-3 Ultra160 SCSI-3 Ultra320 Maximum Number of Devices 7 7 15 15 7 7 7 15 15 15 Cable Type 50-pin 50-pin 68-pin 68-pin 50-pin 68-pin 50-pin 68-pin 68-pin 68-pin SingleEnded Cable 6 3 6 3 3 3 - AND HVD Cable 25 25 25 25 25 - LVD Cable - á A storage area network is a group of storage devices that are accessed by using high-speed technology such as Fibre Channel or Serial Storage Architecture (SSA). á 10BASE-2 Ethernet uses thin coaxial cable known as RG-58. transfers data at a rate of 100 megabytes per second. . á Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) can use either fiber-optic cable or copper cable. uses baseband transmission. NAS uses the network protocol (for instance. á FC-AL can support a large number of disk drives configured in a storage area network (SAN).FAST FACTS 503 SUMMARY TABLE 3 SCSI C A B L E L E N G T H . and it has a maximum cable length of 500 meters. uses baseband transmission. á Network-attached storage (NAS) is similar to SAN. It has a data-transfer rate of 10Mbps. and can support up to 127 ports in a single-loop configuration. It has a data-transfer rate of 10Mbps. á Ethernet (IEEE 802. and has a maximum cable length (from computer to hub) of 100 meters. uses baseband transmission. Ethernet or Token Ring) rather than Fibre Channel or SSA. 12 12 12 12 á Fibre Channel is one of the SCSI-3 serial SCSI standards. It has a data-transfer rate of 100Mbps. but it has a data-transfer rate of 100Mbps. á Fast Ethernet (IEEE 802. uses baseband transmission. á 100BASE-T Ethernet uses Category 5 UTP cable.3) has a data-transfer rate of 10Mbps and it uses the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) media access method. however.

5 standard. It uses only fiber-optic cable. and has a maximum cable length of 2 kilometers. the second NIC is automatically activated. This requires an Ethernet switch that supports port aggregation. Token Ring was standardized by IEEE as the 802. á Later versions of Token Ring had data-transfer speeds of 16Mbps. á IBM created Token Ring network technology. and could use either STP or UTP cable. á 10 Gigabit Ethernet (802. It can use UTP cable for a distance of 100 meters. It can also use fiber-optic cable for a distance up to 2 kilometers. á Adapter load balancing is achieved when two or more NICs attached to the same network are installed in a network server. á Gigabit Ethernet has a data rate of 1000 megabits (1 gigabit) per second. adapter load balancing. all of them being utilized at the same time.3z) uses fiber-optic cable. uses baseband transmission. has a data-transfer rate of 1 gigabit per second and uses baseband transmission. .3ae) uses fiber-optic cable exclusively to transfer data at 10 gigabits per second. á 1000BASE-X (IEEE 802. If the active NIC fails. á Port aggregation allows multiple NICs to act together to increase the bandwidth available to the network server. The speed and width of the system bus determine the performance (datatransfer speed) of the NIC. á Adapter fault tolerance is achieved when two NICs are installed in a network server. á Network interface cards (NICs) are installed in network servers to give them the capability to attach to a network. uses baseband transmission. It has a data-transfer rate of 100Mbps. á Adapter teaming is a technique of using multiple NICs in a network server to provide adapter fault tolerance.3ab) uses Category 5 or higher UTP cable. The original Token Ring network had a datatransfer speed of 4Mbps and used shielded twisted-pair (STP) cable. but only one is active. It is anticipated that the new standard will allow data transmission speeds of 10 gigabits per second for distances of 100 meters using multimode fiber-optic cables and distances of at least 2 kilometers using single-mode fiber-optic cable. and has a maximum cable length (from computer to hub) of 100 meters.504 FAST FACTS á 100BASE-F Ethernet uses fiber-optic cable. á NICs with Wake-On-LAN (WOL) technology allow the NIC to power up the computer in which it is installed upon receipt of a special WOL magic packet. It has a data-transfer speed of 1 gigabit per second. á 1000BASE-T (IEEE 802. The maximum cable length is 2 kilometers. á A hub is a “repeater” with multiple ports. or port aggregation. á A repeater is a network device that extends the length of a network by attaching multiple network cable segments together and regenerating all data received from one cable segment and sending it to the other cable segment.

á Table 4 summarizes QIC tape standards.36GB Floppy Floppy Floppy. it is not routable and therefore cannot be used to build large networks. parallel. á NetBEUI is a protocol that is simple to implement. á Network protocols allow devices using the same protocol to communicate with each other. SUMMARY TABLE 4 QIC T A P E S TA N D A R D S QIC Standard QIC-40 QIC-40 QIC-80 QIC-80 QIC-80XL QIC-3020XL QIC Cartridge DC-2000 DC-2060 MC-2120 MC-2120Extra MC-2120XL MC-3020XL Storage Capacity Interface Native/Compressed 40MB/80MB 60MB/120MB 125MB/250MB 400MB/800MB 170MB/340MB 680MB/1. SCSI-2 SCSI-2 SCSI-2 SCSI-2 QIC-3020XL MC-3020Extra 1. parallel Floppy. á SAF-TE (SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosures) is a methodology for the management of external enclosures containing SCSI devices. á One of the most popular protocols is TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). however. Because it can make multiple connections at the same time. á The Desktop Management Interface (DMI) is a means to collect information about a computer’s operating environment and reporting it to a central information point. á Another popular protocol is IPX/SPX used in Novell NetWare networks. á The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a standard TCP/IP protocol that is used to manage network devices. IDE IDE. mostly because it is the protocol used on the Internet.FAST FACTS 505 á An Ethernet switch is a network device that creates temporary (one frame long) communications connections between devices attached to the switch. it achieves higher performance than a hub. parallel Floppy. á QIC (Quarter Inch Cartridge) tape drives are generally found in entry-level servers due to their relatively limited storage capacity. IDE Floppy. .2GB QIC-3095 QIC-3220 QIC-5010 QIC-5210 MC-3095 MC-3220 DC-5010 DC-5210 4GB/8GB 10GB/20GB 16GB/32GB 25GB/50GB á Travan cartridge tapes are an enhancement to QIC technology with some backward compatibility with QIC tapes.6GB/3. á The most popular backup hardware is magnetic tape drives. parallel. parallel Floppy. á Table 5 summarizes Travan tape drive standards.

á Table 7 summarizes 8mm tape technology. parallel Floppy. QIC-80. . SUMMARY TABLE 6 SUMMARY TABLE 8 QIC AND T R AVA N C O M PAT I B I L I T Y Can Read/Write QIC-80 TR-2.506 FAST FACTS SUMMARY TABLE 5 T R AVA N T A P E D R I V E S TA N D A R D S Travan Travan-1 Travan-2 Travan-3 Travan-4 Travan NS-8 Travan-5 Travan NS-20 Tape Cartridge TR-1 TR-2 TR-3 TR-4 NS-8 TR-5 NS-20 Storage Capacity Native/Compressed 400MB/800MB 800MB/1. parallel SCSI-2. QIC-3020. EIDE SCSI-2. which contains the tape log. parallel Floppy. EIDE SCSI-2. á Table 6 summarizes QIC and Travan compatibility. EIDE SCSI-2.6GB 1. much like a VCR. TR-1 QIC-3010.6GB/3.5GB 5GB 20GB/40GB 60GB/120GB Transfer Speed 246KBps 500KBps 3MBps 12MBps á Advanced Intelligent Tape (AIT) uses 8mm tape technology but also contains Memory-In-Cassette (MIC). QIC-3020. EIDE á 8mm tape technology uses helical scan recording. QIC-3010. QIC-3020 QIC-3095 Can Read QIC-40 QIC-80. TR-1 QIC-3010. SUMMARY TABLE 7 8 M M TA P E T E C H N O L O G Y 8mm Tape Technology 8200 8500 Mammoth-1 Mammoth-2 Storage Capacity Native/Compressed 2. QIC-80 TR-4. QIC-3095 AIT T A P E T E C H N O L O G Y AIT Standard AIT-1 AIT-1 AIT-2 AIT-2 AIT-3 Tape Media SDX125C SDX135C SDX236C SDX250C Prototype Storage Capacity Native/Compressed 25GB/50GB 35GB/70GB 36GB/72GB 50GB/100GB 100GB/200GB Transfer Speed 3MBps 3MBps 6MBps 6MBps 12MBps Travan Standard Travan-1 Travan-3 Travan-4 Travan NS-8 Travan NS-20 á Digital Audio Tape (DAT) uses 4mm tape and stores data in the Digital Data Storage (DSS) format. TR-3. á Table 8 summarizes AIT tape technology.2GB 4GB/8GB 4GB/8GB 10GB/20GB 10GB/20GB Interface Floppy.

The ability to add memory.25MBps 1. disk drives. á Tape autochangers will automatically remote one tape (when it is full) and insert a new blank tape into a tape drive. á Table 10 summarizes DLT tape technology. á Table 11 summarizes LTO tape technology. or RAIT). á To provide fault tolerance. á Server clustering is having multiple network servers perform as a single system. network servers often have redundant devices such as power supplies and cooling fans. á Hot swapping is the ability to replace components in a network server while the network server is running. SUMMARY TABLE 9 SUMMARY TABLE 11 WITH DAT T A P E T E C H N O L O G Y F O R M AT S DDS Format DDS-1 DDS-2 DDS-3 DDS-4 Storage Capacity Native/Compressed 2/4GB 4/8GB 12/24GB 20/40GB DSS AKA LTO T A P E T E C H N O L O G Y LTO Format Storage Capacity Native/Compressed 100GB/200GB 25GB/50GB Transfer Speed Native/Compressed 20MBps/40MBps 20MBps/40MBps Transfer Speed 1MBps 1MBps 2MBps 6MBps Ultrium Accelis DAT8 DAT24 DAT40 á A tape array is multiple tape drives that are used together to provide redundancy (called a redundant array of independent tapes. á Linear Tape-Open (LTO) technology offers two different formats (one designed for high-speed backup [Ultrium] and the other designed for fast access [Accelis] to data stored on the tape). CD-R (CD-Recordable).FAST FACTS 507 á Table 9 summarizes DAT tape technology. á Scalability is the ability to “grow” a network server. and processors to a network server are examples of scalability. and CD-RW (CDRewritable) devices. SUMMARY TABLE 10 DLT T A P E T E C H N O L O G Y DLT Standard DLT-2000 DLT-2000XT DLT-4000 DLT-7000 DLT-8000 Super DLT Storage Capacity Native/Compressed 10GB/20GB 15GB/30GB 20GB/40GB 35GB/70GB 40GB/80GB 110GB/220GB Transfer Speed 1.5MBps 5MBps 6MBps 11MBps á Backups can also be written to hard disk drives. á Digital Linear Tape offers high capacity and highspeed tape backup. . á Tape libraries can have hundreds of tapes in a library that can be automatically retrieved and inserted into one or more tape drives that are part of the library.25MBps 1.

This requires the use of the network server processor to support the RAID solution. and clustering. which requires a minimum of three disk drives to implement. á RAID 1 can be implemented in two different ways. uses a hamming code to implement disk fault tolerance. a disk controller that supports RAID is required. the RAID solution is known as disk duplexing. á IEEE 1394 (FireWire) is a serial implementation of SCSI-3. UPS. á Network servers usually include other devices. The parity information is stored across all the disk drives in the disk array. The parity information is stored on a single disk drive in the disk array. á An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a very necessary part of a network server. á RAID 4. uses block-level parity to implement disk fault tolerance.508 FAST FACTS á High availability is the goal of keeping the network server operational 24 hour per day.5-inch floppy disk drive. á Some network operating systems support the implementation of RAID solutions using software. In the event of one disk drive failure. fault tolerance. the RAID solution is known as disk mirroring. It supports up to 63 devices at a datatransfer rate of 400Mbps. á RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks) is a technique for providing fault tolerance in the event of a disk drive failure. á A video adapter and monitor that supports a video resolution of 1024 × 768 and 64K colors is adequate for most network server consoles. a keyboard. uses bit-level parity to implement disk fault tolerance. RAID 2 is not used in any commercial RAID hardware. á When both of the RAID 1 disk drives are attached to different disk controllers. 7 days per week. such as CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drives and a 3. which requires a minimum of three disk drives to implement. it does provide improved disk input and output performance. which requires a minimum of three disk drives to implement. á RAID 2. the data is still available on the second disk drive. This is accomplished by using methods such as redundancy. Most RAID disk controllers support the use of SCSI disk drives. However. Uses of the USB port on a network server include UPS monitoring. uses block-level parity to implement disk fault tolerance. á RAID 0 was not part of the original RAID specification and does not provide any fault tolerance. It provides temporary power to the network server when the electrical power fails. When both disk drives are attached to the same disk controller. á The Universal Serial Bus (USB) supports up to 127 devices at a data-transfer rate of 12Mbps. and the attachment of such devices as a mouse. Disk duplexing eliminates the single point of failure (the disk controller) that is the weak part of disk mirroring. . This provides the fault tolerance of RAID 1 with the disk input and output performance of RAID 0. which requires a minimum of three disk drives to implement. á RAID 3. á RAID 1 provides redundancy by copying data to two separate disk drives. á RAID 5. or a modem. but it requires a minimum of four disk drives to implement. RAID. á RAID 0/1 is a combination of RAID 0 (disk striping without parity) and RAID 1 (disk mirroring or duplexing). á To implement RAID using hardware.

can be acquired in special rack-mount configurations. á All the network server hardware should be on the hardware compatibility list (HCL) provided by the network server operating system vendor. á Network servers and other components. • Linux • • • • Caldera Linux Red Hat Linux SuSE Linux VA Linux • IBM OS/2 Warp Server á Many network server hardware vendors supply software to aid in the installation and configuration of the network operating system. they can be mounted into a server rack. and it is the topic of 17% of the exam questions.FAST FACTS 509 á To minimize the space required by multiple network servers.0—INSTALLATION This job dimension covers the pre-installation and installation of network server hardware. 1. á Many network server hardware vendors supply hardware and software to aid in the management of the network server hardware independent of the network operating system. such as a UPS. and what software (including the network operating system) should be installed. á A installation plan is a document that defines the role of the network server along with its hardware configuration. including the following: • Novell NetWare 4 • Novell NetWare 5 • Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 • Microsoft Windows 2000 Server • UNIX • • • SCO OpenServer 5 SCO UnixWare SUN Solaris á The installation. á The server hardware specialist should verify that the installation site for the network server has adequate power (and that it is of the correct voltage and amperage) and cooling to support the new network server. which should specify the role of the network server. where the network server will be installed. The main points follow: á The installation process starts with the installation plan. á The server hardware specialist should verify that the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is of adequate size to support the new network server and that the power plug on the UPS matches the power outlet at the installation site. á It is highly recommended that antivirus software be installed on the network server. . á The server hardware specialist should verify that there is a live network connection at the installation site for the new network server. and maintenance of the network server should be recorded (documented) in a logbook. á There are several network operating systems available for network servers. configuration.

á The server hardware specialist should verify that the processors to be installed in the network server are of the same speed. á SCSI has three different signaling systems: single ended (SE). á The 68-pin connectors (both internal and external versions) are used by Wide (16-bit) SCSI channels. EISA. FC-AL) and the number of channels and the bus type (PCI. 68-pin. Multiple buses can be either bridged or peer. á The server hardware specialist should verify that the network interface cards (NICs) are of the correct type (Ethernet. Fast Ethernet. including the SCSI controller itself. á The server hardware specialist should verify that the backup system is adequate to meet the needs of the network server backup strategy. á Each SCSI devices on a channel must have a unique SCSI ID number. á The server hardware specialist should follow ESD (electrostatic discharge) best practices during the installation of the network server and its components to prevent damage to them that can be caused by the buildup and discharge of static electricity. PCI-X) is as specified in the installation plan. á When two ATA (includes IDE. á A network server might have more than one system bus. NICs. SCSI-2. á The server hardware specialist should verify that the memory to be installed in the network server is the correct size and amount and that it is compatible with the memory slots available in the network server. but also supplies power to the SCSI device and SCSI ID configuration. á The 50-pin connectors (both internal and external versions) are used by Narrow (8-bit) SCSI channels. called cable select (CSEL). There are three types of SCSI termination: passive.510 FAST FACTS á If the network server is to be installed in a server rack. A third setting on some ATA disk drives. SCSI-3. automatically sets the role of the disk drive. EIDE. Gigabit Ethernet. ATA-2. . Token Ring) as specified in the installation plan. á The server hardware specialist should verify that the SCSI cables are of the correct length and have the correct number and type of connectors to attach the SCSI devices to the SCSI controller. active. á Bridged buses share the bus bandwidth. high-voltage differential (HVD). and stepping. á There are three different types of SCSI connectors: 50-pin. and 80-pin (SCA). and low-voltage differential (LVD). á Peer buses provide additional bandwidth because each can transfer data at full speed. the disk drive role must be set to master on one disk drive and slave on the other disk drive. and forced perfect. A single SCSI channel can have up to 7 devices attached (15 devices on a Wide SCSI channel). á The server hardware specialist should verify that the disk drives and controllers are of the size and type (ATA or SCSI) as specified by the installation plan. á The server hardware specialist should verify that the disk controller type (ATA. Ultra ATA) are attached to the same ATA channel. cache size. á The 80-pin SCA connector is a special-use connector that not only allows the transfer of data. The signaling system dictates the length of the SCSI channel. SCSI-1. á Both ends of the SCSI channel must be terminated. á Adapters (disk controllers. the server hardware specialist should verify that all the network server components are designed to fit into the rack. and so on) should be installed in such a manner as to balance the load on peer buses.

but only do so when absolutely necessary to fix a problem. The patch cable is terminated with an RJ-45 connector. á During power-up of the network server. á When installing a network server and its components into a server rack. the amount of memory in the network server. download and install the latest system BIOS. two 18GB disk drives configured as RAID 1 will provide 18GB of storage capacity. 2. The total storage capacity will be 72GB. For example. the heavier components (usually the UPS) should be installed near the bottom of the rack. á A special patch cable that attaches the transmit pair to the receive pair on the other end of the cable is called a cross-over cable.0—CONFIGURATION This job dimension covers the configuration of network server hardware and software. á Before upgrading the BIOS on a SCSI or RAID controller. á The RAID system configuration software allows the server hardware specialist to select which of the disk drives that are connected to the RAID controller are to be combined into a RAID configuration and which RAID configuration that they will be combined into. á External devices attached to the network server should be powered up before the network server is powered up. always back up the data on the network server’s disk drives. also have a BIOS. and it is used to attach two hubs together or to attach two computers together. the number of processors installed in the network server. The main points follow: . á A server hardware specialist should verify that the system BIOS on the network server is the latest available by checking the network server vendor web site. á Always document the network server installation in the server logbook. á Table 12 summarizes RAID Characteristics. five 18GB disk drives configured as RAID 5 will have a disk overhead of ((1/5) * 100)% or 20%.FAST FACTS 511 á When connecting an Ethernet NIC to an Ethernet hub. For example. These can also be upgraded. á Other network server hardware components. á The disk overhead for implemented RAID 5 is ((1/n) * 100)%. such as the SCSI controller and the RAID controller. If the current system BIOS is not the latest available. á A hardware RAID system must be configured using software provided by the RAID system manufacturer before the network operating system can be installed. and it is the topic of approximately 18% of the exam questions. and any devices attached to a SCSI controller should be displayed on the network server monitor. a standard Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable that contains 4-pair (8 wires) is used. á The disk overhead for implementing RAID 1 is 50%.

á IBM’s OS/2 Warp Server supports the FAT. and NSS file systems. Root of the file structure is / (root). HPFS. á The command that will display the TCP/IP configuration for Novell NetWare 4 and Novell NetWare 5 is inetcfg. á The minimum amount of configuration information for TCP/IP is the IP address and the subnet mask for the network server. . á SNMP clients must be configured with the SNMP community name and the address of the SNMP management computer. á Configuration of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and Microsoft NWLink (IPX/SPX-compatible protocol) requires that the frame type be selected. Root of the file structure is / (root). if the network server is going to communicate with computers other than those on the local network. á Most network server hardware vendors have software to assist in the installation of the network server operating system. and JFS file systems. RAID 1 RAID 0/1 RAID 5 2 4 3 á Microsoft’s Windows NT Server 4 supports the FAT and NTFS file systems.512 FAST FACTS SUMMARY TABLE 12 S U M M A R Y O F RAID L E V E L CHARACTERISTICS RAID Level RAID 0 Minimum Number of Drives 2 Read Performance Excellent (no fault tolerance) Very good Excellent Good Write Performance Very good (no fault) tolerance Good Very good Fair á In addition. á Antivirus software is a critical piece of software that should be installed on a network server and it should be configured to update its virus signature files frequently. á Microsoft’s Windows 2000 Server supports the FAT. á The command that will display the TCP/IP configuration for Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 and Microsoft Windows 2000 Server is IPCONFIG. Root of the file structure is C:\. NWFS. á The monitoring software for a UPS must be configured by the system administrator for it to shut down the network server as desired when an electrical power failure occurs. á UNIX supports its own unique file systems. Linux and OS/2 Warp Server is ifconfig. Root of the file structure is C:\. HPFS386. and NTFS version 5 file systems. á System monitoring agents are supplied by the manufacturer of the network server hardware and allow monitoring of the components of the network server independently of the network server operating system. FAT32. the IP address of the default gateway (router) must also be entered in the TCP/IP configuration. Root of the file structure is C:\. á The command used to test TCP/IP connectivity is Ping. á The command that will display the TCP/IP configuration for UNIX. á Novell NetWare 5 supports the FAT (for server booting). á Linux’s primary file system is the ext2 (the second extended file system). Root of file structure is the SYS volume.

á Document the upgrade in the network server logbook. á Always review the instructions and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) before installing a software upgrade. the disk subsystem. á Implement electrostatic discharge best practices while performing the upgrade. amount of Level 2 cache memory. installing additional processors is a way to upgrade the network server. In this case. á A swap file is used by network server operating systems that support virtual memory. á Some network servers have the capability to install multiple processors. á The swap file for IBM OS/2 Warp Server is C:\OS2\SYSTEM\SWAPPER. á Upgrading to a faster processor or installing an additional processor may require an upgrade to the system BIOS. The main points follow: á When a server hardware specialist performs an upgrade to the network server. á The latest patches for the network server operating system can be found at the operating system vendor’s web site. verify that it is recognized by the network server and the network operating system. á The swap file for Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 and Microsoft Windows 2000 Server is C:\PAGEFILE. á One way to upgrade the processor in a network server is to replace the existing processor with a faster processor.DAT. á Test the upgrade on a non-production system before it is installed on a production system. memory. á Time must be scheduled to take the network server out of production while the upgrade is installed. á Additional processors in a network server must match the existing processors in speed. á Always perform a full system backup before installing the upgrade. á The four major components of a network server that should be monitored for performance are processor(s). the upgrade checklist should be followed.0—UPGRADING This job dimension covers the upgrading of network server hardware and software and is the topic of approximately 12% of the exam questions.FAST FACTS 513 á Server log files often need to be configured to specify a maximum log file size and the action to take when the log file is full. . á Some configuration changes might be required in the network operating system when upgrading from one processor to multiple processors. á The network server configuration should be documented in the server logbook. 3. á Perform a new server baseline after the upgrade has been performed. á The swap file should be located on a disk drive that does not contain other frequently accessed files. and the network subsystem. á The latest drivers for a network server component can be found at the hardware component vendor’s web site.SYS . á After installing the upgrade. and stepping (within 1 number of the other processors).

á One set of backup tapes should be stored off site. and error correcting capability (ECC. or to correct errors in the existing BIOS. or faster processors. á UNIX/Linux system use tar and cpio to perform backups. which can be summed up as everything you do to a network to ensure the system will continue to perform in the future. á An incremental backup copies all the files on the network server that have changed or been created since the last backup to a backup device. or added without powering down the network server. it must be configured with a unique SCSI ID. á The SNMP management station queries the agents on the network devices for information about the device. The main points follow: á A full backup copies all the files on the network server to a backup system (usually a magnetic tape drive). á Microsoft Windows NT Server 4 and Microsoft Windows 2000 Server include a Backup utility.0—PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE This job dimension covers proactive maintenance. upgraded. non-ECC). á Additional memory must match the existing memory in type (EDO. form factor (SIMM. á The SNMP agent is a small program that runs on the device to be monitored. . speed. á Table 13 summarizes the differences among these three backup types. SDRAM. á When adding a disk drive to a SCSI channel. RIMM). RDRAM). á An differential backup copies all the files on the network server that have changed or been created since the last full backup to a backup device. verify that the network server and network operating system can recognize the additional memory. á Before adding memory to the network server.514 FAST FACTS á When adding a second disk drive to an ATA channel. SUMMARY TABLE 13 BACKUP TYPES Type Includes Only Files with Archive Bit On No Yes Yes Turns Archive Bit Off upon Completion Yes Yes No Typical Running Time (1=Longest) 1 2 3 Full Incremental Differential á Don’t mix incremental and differential backups. one disk drive must be configured in the master role and the other disk drive must be configured in the slave role. larger disk drives. 4. DIMM. This job dimension comprises approximately 9% of the exam questions. á PCI hot plug allows an adapter to be replaced. á When changes are made to the hardware or software on a network server. á The system BIOS might need to be upgraded to support larger memory modules. the server hardware specialist should perform a new set of baseline measurements. á The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a standard part of the TCP/IP protocol suite designed to allow management of network devices.

á The humidity of the server room should be within the range specified for the network server. why. á The temperature of the server room should be below the maximum operating temperature specified for the network server. á An SNMP community name is a primitive security system that defines which SNMP agents can communicate with which SNMP management stations. which is reported to the SNMP management station when the condition is met.0—TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DETERMINATION This job dimension covers the troubleshooting and problem determination of network server hardware and software.0—ENVIRONMENT This job dimension requires an understanding of the physical environment of the network server and is the topic of approximately 5% of the exam questions. are also stored in a secure location. 6. which contain copies of all the data on the network server. á A network server should be installed in an environmentally appropriate controlled room (temperature. The main points follow: á A network server should be installed in a secure room. where. á The server room should be located in a part of the building that is unlikely to flood. the building superintendent for electrical power or air-conditioning problems). á Some hardware verification can also be done using the system BIOS. á There should be a fire suppression system in the server room. The main points follow: á The same six questions used by a good reporter (who. and how). á If the network server is mounted in a server rack. when. as well as to provide protection to the network server from power surges.FAST FACTS 515 á The SNMP agent uses a Management Information Base (MIB). á A backup generator will keep the network server operational for long periods of electrical outage. humidity. á Verification of the hardware in a network server can be done using software that comes with the network server operating system. which is set on the SNMP agent. can be used by a server hardware specialist to determine the cause of a problem. á Make sure that the backup tapes. á The server room should be protected from electrostatic discharge (ESD). which defines the items to be monitored on the network device. make sure that the service rack doors are locked. dust free). Such things as antistatic carpet help reduce ESD. á A SNMP trap is a condition. á A server hardware specialist should have a list of contacts that are available to help with specific problems (for example. what. 5. This job dimension is the topic of approximately 27% of the exam questions. á An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) should be installed to provide power to the network server during electrical power failures. á Remote notification of problems can be done using SNMP or utilities that are available with some network server operating systems. .

and tracert. á The primary system diagnostic tools available in Microsoft Windows NT Server are Task Manager. á The primary network diagnostic tools available in UNIX/Linux are ifconfig. netd