S.

Boyd EE102
Lecture 7
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform
• analysis of general LRC circuits
• impedance and admittance descriptions
• natural and forced response
• circuit analysis with impedances
• natural frequencies and stability
7–1
Circuit analysis example
PSfrag replacements
i
u
y
L
R
initial current: i(0)
KCL, KVL, and branch relations yield: −u +Li

+y = 0, y = Ri
take Laplace transforms to get
−U +L(sI −i(0)) +Y = 0, Y = RI
solve for Y to get
Y =
U +Li(0)
1 +sL/R
=
1
1 +sL/R
U +
L
1 +sL/R
i(0)
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–2
in the time domain:
y(t) =
1
T

t
0
e
−τ/T
u(t −τ) dτ +Ri(0)e
−t/T
where T = L/R
two terms in y (or Y ):
• first term corresponds to solution with zero initial condition
• first term is convolution of source with a function
• second term corresponds to solution with zero source
we’ll see these are general properties . . .
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–3
Analysis of general LRC circuits
consider a circuit with n nodes and b branches, containing
• independent sources
• linear elements (resistors, op-amps, dep. sources, . . . )
• inductors & capacitors
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–4
such a circuit is described by three sets of equations:
• KCL: Ai(t) = 0 (n −1 equations)
• KVL: v(t) = A
T
e(t) (b equations)
• branch relations (b equations)
where
• A ∈ R
(n−1)×b
is the reduced node incidence matrix
• i ∈ R
b
is the vector of branch currents
• v ∈ R
b
is the vector of branch voltages
• e ∈ R
n−1
is the vector of node potentials
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–5
Branch relations
• independent voltage source: v
k
(t) = u
k
(t)
• resistor: v
k
= Ri
k
• capacitor: i
k
= Cv

k
• inductor: v
k
= Li

k
• VCVS: v
k
= av
j
• and so on (current source, VCCS, op-amp, . . . )
thus:
circuit equations are a set of 2b +n −1 (linear) algebraic and/or
differential equations in 2b +n −1 variables
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–6
Laplace transform of circuit equations
most of the equations are the same, e.g.,
• KCL, KVL become AI = 0, V = A
T
E
• independent sources, e.g., v
k
= u
k
becomes V
k
= U
k
• linear static branch relations, e.g., v
k
= Ri
k
becomes V
k
= RI
k
the differential equations become algebraic equations:
• capacitor: I
k
= sCV
k
−Cv
k
(0)
• inductor: V
k
= sLI
k
−Li
k
(0)
thus, in frequency domain,
circuit equations are a set of 2b +n −1 (linear) algebraic equations
in 2b +n −1 variables
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–7
thus, LRC circuits can be solved exactly like static circuits, except
• all variables are Laplace transforms, not real numbers
• capacitors and inductors have branch relations I
k
= sCV
k
−Cv
k
(0),
V
k
= sLI
k
−Li
k
(0)
interpretation: an inductor is like a “resistance” sL, in series with an
independent voltage source −Li
k
(0)
a capacitor is like a “resistance” 1/(sC), in parallel with an independent
current source −Cv
k
(0)
• these “resistances” are called impedances
• these sources are impulses in the time domain which set up the initial
conditions
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–8
Impedance and admittance
circuit element or device with voltage v, current i
PSfrag replacements
i
v
the relation V (s) = Z(s)I(s) is called an impedance description of the
device
• Z is called the (s-domain) impedance of the device
• in the time domain, v and i are related by convolution: v = z ∗ i
similarly, I(s) = Y (s)V (s) is called an admittance description
(Y = 1/Z)
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–9
Examples
• a resistor has an impedance R
• an inductor with zero initial current has an impedance Z(s) = sL
(admittance 1/(sL))
• a capacitor with zero initial voltage has an impedance Z(s) = 1/(sC)
(admittance sC)
cf. impedance in SSS analysis with phasors:
• resistor: V = RI
• inductor: V = (jωL)I
• capacitor: V = (1/jωC)I
s-domain and phasor impedance agree for s = jω, but are not the same
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–10
we can express the branch relations as
M(s)I(s) +N(s)V (s) = U(s) +W
where
• U is the independent sources
• W includes the terms associated with initial conditions
• M and N give the impedance or admittance of the branches
for example, if branch 13 is an inductor,
(sL)I
13
(s) + (−1)V
13
(s) = Li
13
(0)
(this gives the 13th row of M, N, U, and W)
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–11
we can write circuit equations as one big matrix equation:


A 0 0
0 I −A
T
M(s) N(s) 0




I(s)
V (s)
E(s)


=


0
0
U(s) +W


Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–12
hence,


I(s)
V (s)
E(s)


=


A 0 0
0 I −A
T
M(s) N(s) 0


−1


0
0
U(s) +W


in the time domain,

i(t)
v(t)
e(t)
¸
¸
= L
−1

¸
¸

A 0 0
0 I −A
T
M(s) N(s) 0
¸
¸
−1

0
0
U(s) +W
¸
¸

• this gives a explicit solution of the circuit
• these equations are identical to those for a linear static circuit
(except instead of real numbers we have Laplace transforms, i.e.,
complex-valued functions of s)
• hence, much of what you know extends to this case
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–13
Natural and forced response
let’s express solution as

i(t)
v(t)
e(t)
¸
¸
= L
−1

¸
¸

A 0 0
0 I −A
T
M(s) N(s) 0
¸
¸
−1

0
0
U(s)
¸
¸

+ L
−1

¸
¸

A 0 0
0 I −A
T
M(s) N(s) 0
¸
¸
−1

0
0
W
¸
¸

thus circuit response is equal to:
• the natural response, i.e., solution with independent sources off, plus
• the forced response, i.e., solution with zero initial conditions
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–14
• the forced response is linear in U(s), i.e., the independent source signals
• the natural response is linear in W, i.e., the inductor & capacitor initial
conditions
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–15
Back to the example
PSfrag replacements
i
u
y
L
R
initial current: i(0)
natural response: set source to zero, get LR circuit with solution
y
nat
(t) = Ri(0)e
−t/T
, T = L/R
forced response: assume zero initial current, replace inductor with
impedance Z = sL:
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–16
PSfrag replacements
U
Y
frc
Z = sL
R
by voltage divider rule (for impedances), Y
frc
= U
R
R +sL
(as if they were
simple resistors!)
so y
frc
= L
−1
(R/(R +sL)) ∗ u, i.e.,
y
frc
(t) =
1
T

t
0
e
−τ/T
u(t −τ) dτ
all together, the voltage is y(t) = y
nat
(t) +y
frc
(t) (same as before)
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–17
Circuit analysis with impedances
for a circuit with
• linear static elements (resistors, op-amps, dependent sources, . . . )
• independent sources
• elements described by impedances (inductors & capacitors with zero
initial conditions, . . . )
we can manipulate
• Laplace transforms of voltages, currents
• impedances
as if they were (real, constant) voltages, currents, and resistances,
respectively
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–18
reason: they both satisfy the same equations
examples:
• series, parallel combinations
• voltage & current divider rules
• Thevenin, Norton equivalents
• nodal analysis
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–19
example:
PSfrag replacements
I
in
V
in
3Ω
4H
2F
1Ω
let’s find input impedance, i.e., Z
in
= V
in
/I
in
by series/parallel combination rules,
Z
in
= 1/(2s) + (14s) + 3 =
1
2s
+
4s
1 + 4s
+ 3
we have
V
in
(s) =

1
2s
+
4s
1 + 4s
+ 3

I
in
(s)
provided the capacitor & inductor have zero initial conditions
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–20
example: nodal analysis
PSfrag replacements
I
in
E
1
E
2
3Ω
1Ω 4Ω 5H
2F
nodal equations are GE = I
src
where
• I
src
is total of current sources flowing into nodes
• G
ii
is sum of admittances tied to node i
• G
ij
is minus the sum of all admittances between nodes i and j
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–21
for this example we have:
¸
1 + 2s +
1
3
−(2s +
1
3
)
−(2s +
1
3
)
1
3
+ 2s +
1
4
+
1
5s
¸
E
1
(s)
E
2
(s)

=
¸
I
in
(s)
0

(which we could solve . . . )
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–22
example: Thevenin equivalent
PSfrag replacements
1 −e
−t
2H
1Ω
A
B
voltage source is
1
s

1
s+1
=
1
s(s+1)
in s-domain
Thevenin voltage is open-circuit voltage, i.e.,
V
th
=
1
s(s + 1)
1
1 + 2s
Thevenin impedance is impedance looking into terminals with source off,
i.e.,
Z
th
= 12s =
2s
1 + 2s
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–23
Thevenin equivalent circuit is:
PSfrag replacements
V
th
(s) =
1
s(s + 1)(1 + 2s)
Z
th
(s) =
2s
1 + 2s
A
B
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–24
Natural frequencies and stability
we say a circuit is stable if its natural response decays (i.e., converges to
zero as t → ∞) for all initial conditions
in this case the circuit “forgets” its initial conditions as t increases; the
natural response contributes less and less to the solution as t increases, i.e.,
y(t) → y
frc
(t) as t → ∞
circuit is stable when poles of the natural response, called natural
frequencies, have negative real part
these are given by the zeros of
det


A 0 0
0 I −A
T
M(s) N(s) 0


Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–25

Circuit analysis example
PSfrag replacements i L

u

R

y

initial current: i(0) KCL, KVL, and branch relations yield: −u + Li + y = 0, y = Ri take Laplace transforms to get −U + L(sI − i(0)) + Y = 0, solve for Y to get 1 L U + Li(0) = U+ i(0) Y = 1 + sL/R 1 + sL/R 1 + sL/R
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–2

Y = RI

.in the time domain: 1 y(t) = T where T = L/R two terms in y (or Y ): • first term corresponds to solution with zero initial condition • first term is convolution of source with a function • second term corresponds to solution with zero source t e−τ /T u(t − τ ) dτ + Ri(0)e−t/T 0 we’ll see these are general properties . . Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–3 .

sources.Analysis of general LRC circuits consider a circuit with n nodes and b branches. dep. . op-amps. containing • independent sources • linear elements (resistors. . . ) • inductors & capacitors Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–4 .

such a circuit is described by three sets of equations: • KCL: Ai(t) = 0 • KVL: v(t) = AT e(t) • branch relations where • A ∈ R(n−1)×b is the reduced node incidence matrix • i ∈ Rb is the vector of branch currents • v ∈ Rb is the vector of branch voltages • e ∈ Rn−1 is the vector of node potentials (n − 1 equations) (b equations) (b equations) Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–5 .

) thus: circuit equations are a set of 2b + n − 1 (linear) algebraic and/or differential equations in 2b + n − 1 variables Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–6 .Branch relations • independent voltage source: vk (t) = uk (t) • resistor: vk = Rik • capacitor: ik = Cvk • inductor: vk = Lik • VCVS: vk = avj • and so on (current source. VCCS. . . . op-amp.

V = AT E • independent sources.g. e..g.. vk = Rik becomes Vk = RIk the differential equations become algebraic equations: • capacitor: Ik = sCVk − Cvk (0) • inductor: Vk = sLIk − Lik (0) thus. vk = uk becomes Vk = Uk • linear static branch relations. e. • KCL.Laplace transform of circuit equations most of the equations are the same.g. circuit equations are a set of 2b + n − 1 (linear) algebraic equations in 2b + n − 1 variables Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–7 .. KVL become AI = 0. in frequency domain. e.

in series with an independent voltage source −Lik (0) a capacitor is like a “resistance” 1/(sC).thus. not real numbers • capacitors and inductors have branch relations Ik = sCVk − Cvk (0). except • all variables are Laplace transforms. LRC circuits can be solved exactly like static circuits. in parallel with an independent current source −Cvk (0) • these “resistances” are called impedances • these sources are impulses in the time domain which set up the initial conditions Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–8 . Vk = sLIk − Lik (0) interpretation: an inductor is like a “resistance” sL.

v and i are related by convolution: v = z ∗ i similarly.Impedance and admittance circuit element or device with voltage v. current i i PSfrag replacements v the relation V (s) = Z(s)I(s) is called an impedance description of the device • Z is called the (s-domain) impedance of the device • in the time domain. I(s) = Y (s)V (s) is called an admittance description (Y = 1/Z) Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–9 .

but are not the same Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–10 .Examples • a resistor has an impedance R • an inductor with zero initial current has an impedance Z(s) = sL (admittance 1/(sL)) • a capacitor with zero initial voltage has an impedance Z(s) = 1/(sC) (admittance sC) cf. impedance in SSS analysis with phasors: • resistor: V = RI • inductor: V = (jωL)I • capacitor: V = (1/jωC)I s-domain and phasor impedance agree for s = jω.

if branch 13 is an inductor. and W ) Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–11 .we can express the branch relations as M (s)I(s) + N (s)V (s) = U (s) + W where • U is the independent sources • W includes the terms associated with initial conditions • M and N give the impedance or admittance of the branches for example. (sL)I13(s) + (−1)V13(s) = Li13(0) (this gives the 13th row of M . U . N .

we can write circuit equations as one big matrix equation:  0 I(s) A 0 0   0 0 I −AT   V (s)  =  U (s) + W E(s) M (s) N (s) 0     Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–12 .

i. complex-valued functions of s) • hence.  A 0 0 I(s)  V (s)  =  0 I −AT  E(s) M (s) N (s) 0 in the time domain.hence. much of what you know extends to this case Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–13 ..e.   −1  0   0 U (s) + W   A i(t) −1   v(t)  = L  0 e(t) M (s)   0 I N (s) 0 −AT  0 −1  0  0 U (s) + W    • this gives a explicit solution of the circuit • these equations are identical to those for a linear static circuit (except instead of real numbers we have Laplace transforms.

e.e.. i..Natural and forced response let’s express solution as  i(t)  v(t)  e(t)  = L −1       A 0 M (s) A 0 M (s) 0 I N (s) 0 I N (s) 0 −AT  0 0 −AT  0 −1  −1  0  0 U (s)    + L −1  0  0   W thus circuit response is equal to: • the natural response. solution with independent sources off. plus • the forced response. solution with zero initial conditions Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–14 . i.

the inductor & capacitor initial conditions Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–15 .e.• the forced response is linear in U (s).e. i.. the independent source signals • the natural response is linear in W . i..

get LR circuit with solution ynat(t) = Ri(0)e−t/T .Back to the example PSfrag replacements i L u R y initial current: i(0) natural response: set source to zero. replace inductor with impedance Z = sL: Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–16 . T = L/R forced response: assume zero initial current.

the voltage is y(t) = ynat(t) + yfrc(t) (same as before) Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–17 . Yfrc simple resistors!) so yfrc = L−1(R/(R + sL)) ∗ u. 1 yfrc(t) = T t R =U (as if they were R + sL e−τ /T u(t − τ ) dτ 0 all together.e.PSfrag replacements Z = sL U R Yfrc by voltage divider rule (for impedances). i..

constant) voltages. respectively Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–18 . . ) • independent sources • elements described by impedances (inductors & capacitors with zero initial conditions. ) we can manipulate • Laplace transforms of voltages. and resistances. dependent sources. . currents • impedances as if they were (real. .Circuit analysis with impedances for a circuit with • linear static elements (resistors. op-amps. . currents. . .

parallel combinations • voltage & current divider rules • Thevenin.reason: they both satisfy the same equations examples: • series. Norton equivalents • nodal analysis Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–19 .

Zin = 1/(2s) + (1 4s) + 3 = 4s 1 + +3 2s 1 + 4s 1Ω 4H we have 4s 1 + + 3 Iin(s) 2s 1 + 4s provided the capacitor & inductor have zero initial conditions Vin(s) = Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–20 . Zin = Vin/Iin by series/parallel combination rules. i.example: PSfrag replacements Iin 2F Vin 3Ω let’s find input impedance.e..

example:replacements PSfrag nodal analysis 3Ω E1 Iin 2F E2 5H 1Ω 4Ω nodal equations are GE = Isrc where • Isrc is total of current sources flowing into nodes • Gii is sum of admittances tied to node i • Gij is minus the sum of all admittances between nodes i and j Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–21 .

) Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–22 .for this example we have: 1 + 2s + 1 3 1 −(2s + 3 ) 1 3 −(2s + 1 ) 3 1 + 2s + 4 + 1 5s E1(s) E2(s) = Iin(s) 0 (which we could solve . . .

i..e.. Vth = 1 1 s(s + 1) 1 + 2s Thevenin impedance is impedance looking into terminals with source off.e.example: Thevenin equivalent 2H PSfrag replacements A 1 − e−t 1Ω B voltage source is 1 s 1 − s+1 = 1 s(s+1) in s-domain Thevenin voltage is open-circuit voltage. i. 2s Zth = 1 2s = 1 + 2s Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–23 .

Thevenin equivalent circuit is: Zth(s) = PSfrag replacements 2s 1 + 2s A Vth(s) = 1 s(s + 1)(1 + 2s) B Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–24 .

e. the natural response contributes less and less to the solution as t increases.. converges to zero as t → ∞) for all initial conditions in this case the circuit “forgets” its initial conditions as t increases. have negative real part these are given by the zeros of A 0 0 I −AT  det  0 M (s) N (s) 0 Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–25   . y(t) → yfrc(t) as t → ∞ circuit is stable when poles of the natural response.. called natural frequencies.Natural frequencies and stability we say a circuit is stable if its natural response decays (i. i.e.

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