# S.

Boyd EE102
Lecture 7
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform
• analysis of general LRC circuits
• natural and forced response
• circuit analysis with impedances
• natural frequencies and stability
7–1
Circuit analysis example
PSfrag replacements
i
u
y
L
R
initial current: i(0)
KCL, KVL, and branch relations yield: −u +Li

+y = 0, y = Ri
take Laplace transforms to get
−U +L(sI −i(0)) +Y = 0, Y = RI
solve for Y to get
Y =
U +Li(0)
1 +sL/R
=
1
1 +sL/R
U +
L
1 +sL/R
i(0)
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–2
in the time domain:
y(t) =
1
T

t
0
e
−τ/T
u(t −τ) dτ +Ri(0)e
−t/T
where T = L/R
two terms in y (or Y ):
• ﬁrst term corresponds to solution with zero initial condition
• ﬁrst term is convolution of source with a function
• second term corresponds to solution with zero source
we’ll see these are general properties . . .
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–3
Analysis of general LRC circuits
consider a circuit with n nodes and b branches, containing
• independent sources
• linear elements (resistors, op-amps, dep. sources, . . . )
• inductors & capacitors
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–4
such a circuit is described by three sets of equations:
• KCL: Ai(t) = 0 (n −1 equations)
• KVL: v(t) = A
T
e(t) (b equations)
• branch relations (b equations)
where
• A ∈ R
(n−1)×b
is the reduced node incidence matrix
• i ∈ R
b
is the vector of branch currents
• v ∈ R
b
is the vector of branch voltages
• e ∈ R
n−1
is the vector of node potentials
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–5
Branch relations
• independent voltage source: v
k
(t) = u
k
(t)
• resistor: v
k
= Ri
k
• capacitor: i
k
= Cv

k
• inductor: v
k
= Li

k
• VCVS: v
k
= av
j
• and so on (current source, VCCS, op-amp, . . . )
thus:
circuit equations are a set of 2b +n −1 (linear) algebraic and/or
diﬀerential equations in 2b +n −1 variables
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–6
Laplace transform of circuit equations
most of the equations are the same, e.g.,
• KCL, KVL become AI = 0, V = A
T
E
• independent sources, e.g., v
k
= u
k
becomes V
k
= U
k
• linear static branch relations, e.g., v
k
= Ri
k
becomes V
k
= RI
k
the diﬀerential equations become algebraic equations:
• capacitor: I
k
= sCV
k
−Cv
k
(0)
• inductor: V
k
= sLI
k
−Li
k
(0)
thus, in frequency domain,
circuit equations are a set of 2b +n −1 (linear) algebraic equations
in 2b +n −1 variables
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–7
thus, LRC circuits can be solved exactly like static circuits, except
• all variables are Laplace transforms, not real numbers
• capacitors and inductors have branch relations I
k
= sCV
k
−Cv
k
(0),
V
k
= sLI
k
−Li
k
(0)
interpretation: an inductor is like a “resistance” sL, in series with an
independent voltage source −Li
k
(0)
a capacitor is like a “resistance” 1/(sC), in parallel with an independent
current source −Cv
k
(0)
• these “resistances” are called impedances
• these sources are impulses in the time domain which set up the initial
conditions
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–8
circuit element or device with voltage v, current i
PSfrag replacements
i
v
the relation V (s) = Z(s)I(s) is called an impedance description of the
device
• Z is called the (s-domain) impedance of the device
• in the time domain, v and i are related by convolution: v = z ∗ i
similarly, I(s) = Y (s)V (s) is called an admittance description
(Y = 1/Z)
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–9
Examples
• a resistor has an impedance R
• an inductor with zero initial current has an impedance Z(s) = sL
• a capacitor with zero initial voltage has an impedance Z(s) = 1/(sC)
cf. impedance in SSS analysis with phasors:
• resistor: V = RI
• inductor: V = (jωL)I
• capacitor: V = (1/jωC)I
s-domain and phasor impedance agree for s = jω, but are not the same
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–10
we can express the branch relations as
M(s)I(s) +N(s)V (s) = U(s) +W
where
• U is the independent sources
• W includes the terms associated with initial conditions
• M and N give the impedance or admittance of the branches
for example, if branch 13 is an inductor,
(sL)I
13
(s) + (−1)V
13
(s) = Li
13
(0)
(this gives the 13th row of M, N, U, and W)
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–11
we can write circuit equations as one big matrix equation:

A 0 0
0 I −A
T
M(s) N(s) 0

I(s)
V (s)
E(s)

=

0
0
U(s) +W

Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–12
hence,

I(s)
V (s)
E(s)

=

A 0 0
0 I −A
T
M(s) N(s) 0

−1

0
0
U(s) +W

in the time domain,

i(t)
v(t)
e(t)
¸
¸
= L
−1

¸
¸

A 0 0
0 I −A
T
M(s) N(s) 0
¸
¸
−1

0
0
U(s) +W
¸
¸

• this gives a explicit solution of the circuit
• these equations are identical to those for a linear static circuit
(except instead of real numbers we have Laplace transforms, i.e.,
complex-valued functions of s)
• hence, much of what you know extends to this case
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–13
Natural and forced response
let’s express solution as

i(t)
v(t)
e(t)
¸
¸
= L
−1

¸
¸

A 0 0
0 I −A
T
M(s) N(s) 0
¸
¸
−1

0
0
U(s)
¸
¸

+ L
−1

¸
¸

A 0 0
0 I −A
T
M(s) N(s) 0
¸
¸
−1

0
0
W
¸
¸

thus circuit response is equal to:
• the natural response, i.e., solution with independent sources oﬀ, plus
• the forced response, i.e., solution with zero initial conditions
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–14
• the forced response is linear in U(s), i.e., the independent source signals
• the natural response is linear in W, i.e., the inductor & capacitor initial
conditions
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–15
Back to the example
PSfrag replacements
i
u
y
L
R
initial current: i(0)
natural response: set source to zero, get LR circuit with solution
y
nat
(t) = Ri(0)e
−t/T
, T = L/R
forced response: assume zero initial current, replace inductor with
impedance Z = sL:
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–16
PSfrag replacements
U
Y
frc
Z = sL
R
by voltage divider rule (for impedances), Y
frc
= U
R
R +sL
(as if they were
simple resistors!)
so y
frc
= L
−1
(R/(R +sL)) ∗ u, i.e.,
y
frc
(t) =
1
T

t
0
e
−τ/T
u(t −τ) dτ
all together, the voltage is y(t) = y
nat
(t) +y
frc
(t) (same as before)
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–17
Circuit analysis with impedances
for a circuit with
• linear static elements (resistors, op-amps, dependent sources, . . . )
• independent sources
• elements described by impedances (inductors & capacitors with zero
initial conditions, . . . )
we can manipulate
• Laplace transforms of voltages, currents
• impedances
as if they were (real, constant) voltages, currents, and resistances,
respectively
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–18
reason: they both satisfy the same equations
examples:
• series, parallel combinations
• voltage & current divider rules
• Thevenin, Norton equivalents
• nodal analysis
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–19
example:
PSfrag replacements
I
in
V
in
3Ω
4H
2F
1Ω
let’s ﬁnd input impedance, i.e., Z
in
= V
in
/I
in
by series/parallel combination rules,
Z
in
= 1/(2s) + (14s) + 3 =
1
2s
+
4s
1 + 4s
+ 3
we have
V
in
(s) =

1
2s
+
4s
1 + 4s
+ 3

I
in
(s)
provided the capacitor & inductor have zero initial conditions
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–20
example: nodal analysis
PSfrag replacements
I
in
E
1
E
2
3Ω
1Ω 4Ω 5H
2F
nodal equations are GE = I
src
where
• I
src
is total of current sources ﬂowing into nodes
• G
ii
is sum of admittances tied to node i
• G
ij
is minus the sum of all admittances between nodes i and j
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–21
for this example we have:
¸
1 + 2s +
1
3
−(2s +
1
3
)
−(2s +
1
3
)
1
3
+ 2s +
1
4
+
1
5s
¸
E
1
(s)
E
2
(s)

=
¸
I
in
(s)
0

(which we could solve . . . )
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–22
example: Thevenin equivalent
PSfrag replacements
1 −e
−t
2H
1Ω
A
B
voltage source is
1
s

1
s+1
=
1
s(s+1)
in s-domain
Thevenin voltage is open-circuit voltage, i.e.,
V
th
=
1
s(s + 1)
1
1 + 2s
Thevenin impedance is impedance looking into terminals with source oﬀ,
i.e.,
Z
th
= 12s =
2s
1 + 2s
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–23
Thevenin equivalent circuit is:
PSfrag replacements
V
th
(s) =
1
s(s + 1)(1 + 2s)
Z
th
(s) =
2s
1 + 2s
A
B
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–24
Natural frequencies and stability
we say a circuit is stable if its natural response decays (i.e., converges to
zero as t → ∞) for all initial conditions
in this case the circuit “forgets” its initial conditions as t increases; the
natural response contributes less and less to the solution as t increases, i.e.,
y(t) → y
frc
(t) as t → ∞
circuit is stable when poles of the natural response, called natural
frequencies, have negative real part
these are given by the zeros of
det

A 0 0
0 I −A
T
M(s) N(s) 0

Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–25

Circuit analysis example
PSfrag replacements i L

u

R

y

initial current: i(0) KCL, KVL, and branch relations yield: −u + Li + y = 0, y = Ri take Laplace transforms to get −U + L(sI − i(0)) + Y = 0, solve for Y to get 1 L U + Li(0) = U+ i(0) Y = 1 + sL/R 1 + sL/R 1 + sL/R
Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–2

Y = RI

.in the time domain: 1 y(t) = T where T = L/R two terms in y (or Y ): • ﬁrst term corresponds to solution with zero initial condition • ﬁrst term is convolution of source with a function • second term corresponds to solution with zero source t e−τ /T u(t − τ ) dτ + Ri(0)e−t/T 0 we’ll see these are general properties . . Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–3 .

sources.Analysis of general LRC circuits consider a circuit with n nodes and b branches. dep. . op-amps. containing • independent sources • linear elements (resistors. . . ) • inductors & capacitors Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–4 .

such a circuit is described by three sets of equations: • KCL: Ai(t) = 0 • KVL: v(t) = AT e(t) • branch relations where • A ∈ R(n−1)×b is the reduced node incidence matrix • i ∈ Rb is the vector of branch currents • v ∈ Rb is the vector of branch voltages • e ∈ Rn−1 is the vector of node potentials (n − 1 equations) (b equations) (b equations) Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–5 .

) thus: circuit equations are a set of 2b + n − 1 (linear) algebraic and/or diﬀerential equations in 2b + n − 1 variables Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–6 .Branch relations • independent voltage source: vk (t) = uk (t) • resistor: vk = Rik • capacitor: ik = Cvk • inductor: vk = Lik • VCVS: vk = avj • and so on (current source. VCCS. . . . op-amp.

V = AT E • independent sources.g. e..g.. vk = Rik becomes Vk = RIk the diﬀerential equations become algebraic equations: • capacitor: Ik = sCVk − Cvk (0) • inductor: Vk = sLIk − Lik (0) thus. vk = uk becomes Vk = Uk • linear static branch relations. e. • KCL.Laplace transform of circuit equations most of the equations are the same.g. circuit equations are a set of 2b + n − 1 (linear) algebraic equations in 2b + n − 1 variables Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–7 .. KVL become AI = 0. in frequency domain. e.

in series with an independent voltage source −Lik (0) a capacitor is like a “resistance” 1/(sC).thus. not real numbers • capacitors and inductors have branch relations Ik = sCVk − Cvk (0). except • all variables are Laplace transforms. LRC circuits can be solved exactly like static circuits. in parallel with an independent current source −Cvk (0) • these “resistances” are called impedances • these sources are impulses in the time domain which set up the initial conditions Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–8 . Vk = sLIk − Lik (0) interpretation: an inductor is like a “resistance” sL.

v and i are related by convolution: v = z ∗ i similarly.Impedance and admittance circuit element or device with voltage v. current i i PSfrag replacements v the relation V (s) = Z(s)I(s) is called an impedance description of the device • Z is called the (s-domain) impedance of the device • in the time domain. I(s) = Y (s)V (s) is called an admittance description (Y = 1/Z) Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–9 .

but are not the same Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–10 .Examples • a resistor has an impedance R • an inductor with zero initial current has an impedance Z(s) = sL (admittance 1/(sL)) • a capacitor with zero initial voltage has an impedance Z(s) = 1/(sC) (admittance sC) cf. impedance in SSS analysis with phasors: • resistor: V = RI • inductor: V = (jωL)I • capacitor: V = (1/jωC)I s-domain and phasor impedance agree for s = jω.

if branch 13 is an inductor. and W ) Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–11 .we can express the branch relations as M (s)I(s) + N (s)V (s) = U (s) + W where • U is the independent sources • W includes the terms associated with initial conditions • M and N give the impedance or admittance of the branches for example. (sL)I13(s) + (−1)V13(s) = Li13(0) (this gives the 13th row of M . U . N .

we can write circuit equations as one big matrix equation:  0 I(s) A 0 0   0 0 I −AT   V (s)  =  U (s) + W E(s) M (s) N (s) 0     Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–12 .

i. complex-valued functions of s) • hence.  A 0 0 I(s)  V (s)  =  0 I −AT  E(s) M (s) N (s) 0 in the time domain.hence. much of what you know extends to this case Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–13 ..e.   −1  0   0 U (s) + W   A i(t) −1   v(t)  = L  0 e(t) M (s)   0 I N (s) 0 −AT  0 −1  0  0 U (s) + W    • this gives a explicit solution of the circuit • these equations are identical to those for a linear static circuit (except instead of real numbers we have Laplace transforms.

e.e.. i..Natural and forced response let’s express solution as  i(t)  v(t)  e(t)  = L −1       A 0 M (s) A 0 M (s) 0 I N (s) 0 I N (s) 0 −AT  0 0 −AT  0 −1  −1  0  0 U (s)    + L −1  0  0   W thus circuit response is equal to: • the natural response. solution with independent sources oﬀ. plus • the forced response. solution with zero initial conditions Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–14 . i.

the inductor & capacitor initial conditions Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–15 .e.• the forced response is linear in U (s).e. i.. the independent source signals • the natural response is linear in W . i..

get LR circuit with solution ynat(t) = Ri(0)e−t/T .Back to the example PSfrag replacements i L u R y initial current: i(0) natural response: set source to zero. replace inductor with impedance Z = sL: Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–16 . T = L/R forced response: assume zero initial current.

the voltage is y(t) = ynat(t) + yfrc(t) (same as before) Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–17 . Yfrc simple resistors!) so yfrc = L−1(R/(R + sL)) ∗ u. 1 yfrc(t) = T t R =U (as if they were R + sL e−τ /T u(t − τ ) dτ 0 all together.e.PSfrag replacements Z = sL U R Yfrc by voltage divider rule (for impedances). i..

constant) voltages. respectively Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–18 . . ) • independent sources • elements described by impedances (inductors & capacitors with zero initial conditions. ) we can manipulate • Laplace transforms of voltages. and resistances. dependent sources. . currents • impedances as if they were (real. .Circuit analysis with impedances for a circuit with • linear static elements (resistors. op-amps. . currents. . .

parallel combinations • voltage & current divider rules • Thevenin.reason: they both satisfy the same equations examples: • series. Norton equivalents • nodal analysis Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–19 .

Zin = 1/(2s) + (1 4s) + 3 = 4s 1 + +3 2s 1 + 4s 1Ω 4H we have 4s 1 + + 3 Iin(s) 2s 1 + 4s provided the capacitor & inductor have zero initial conditions Vin(s) = Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–20 . Zin = Vin/Iin by series/parallel combination rules. i.example: PSfrag replacements Iin 2F Vin 3Ω let’s ﬁnd input impedance.e..

example:replacements PSfrag nodal analysis 3Ω E1 Iin 2F E2 5H 1Ω 4Ω nodal equations are GE = Isrc where • Isrc is total of current sources ﬂowing into nodes • Gii is sum of admittances tied to node i • Gij is minus the sum of all admittances between nodes i and j Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–21 .

) Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–22 .for this example we have: 1 + 2s + 1 3 1 −(2s + 3 ) 1 3 −(2s + 1 ) 3 1 + 2s + 4 + 1 5s E1(s) E2(s) = Iin(s) 0 (which we could solve . . .

i..e.. Vth = 1 1 s(s + 1) 1 + 2s Thevenin impedance is impedance looking into terminals with source oﬀ.e.example: Thevenin equivalent 2H PSfrag replacements A 1 − e−t 1Ω B voltage source is 1 s 1 − s+1 = 1 s(s+1) in s-domain Thevenin voltage is open-circuit voltage. i. 2s Zth = 1 2s = 1 + 2s Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–23 .

Thevenin equivalent circuit is: Zth(s) = PSfrag replacements 2s 1 + 2s A Vth(s) = 1 s(s + 1)(1 + 2s) B Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–24 .

e. the natural response contributes less and less to the solution as t increases.. converges to zero as t → ∞) for all initial conditions in this case the circuit “forgets” its initial conditions as t increases. have negative real part these are given by the zeros of A 0 0 I −AT  det  0 M (s) N (s) 0 Circuit analysis via Laplace transform 7–25   . y(t) → yfrc(t) as t → ∞ circuit is stable when poles of the natural response.. called natural frequencies.Natural frequencies and stability we say a circuit is stable if its natural response decays (i. i.e.