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# Multiple Classification Analysis using SPSS

Widyo Pura Buana

Widyo Pura Buana - MCA

TEKNIK ANALISIS DATA
VARIABEL TERPENGARUH / DEPENDEN VARIABEL (Y) VARIABEL PENGARUH / INDEPENDEN VARIABEL (X) NOMINAL Dikotomi NOMINAL Dikotomi 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Difference of proportion test Chi-square Fisher s exact test Phi coefficient Chi-square Kendall s VCT Man-Whitney Smirnov-Kolmogoronov Analysis of variance Difference of means test (Scheffe test) Sign test M-test U-test Cross-classification analysis
Widyo Pura Buana - MCA

Politomi

Politomi

1. 2.

Chi-square Kendall s VCT

ORDINAL

INTERVAL

1. 2. 3. 4.

Analysis of variance with interclas correlation Dummy variables multiple regression Multiple classification analysis Cross-classification analysis

TEKNIK ANALISIS DATA
VARIABEL TERPENGARUH / DEPENDEN VARIABEL (Y) NOMINAL Dikotomi Politomi ORDINAL 1. 2. 3. 4. Rank-order correlation Kendall s tau Gamma Coefficient of concordance VARIABEL PENGARUH / INDEPENDEN VARIABEL (X) ORDINAL 1. Kruskall-Wallis 2. Friedman s 2 way analysis of variance

INTERVAL

Ubah var ordinal jadi var nominal & pakai analysis of variance, DVMR, MCA atau Ubah var interval Jadi var ordinal & pakai statistik non-parametrik

Widyo Pura Buana - MCA

Discriminant analysis INTERVAL Widyo Pura Buana . 4. Logistic multiple regression 2. 3.MCA . 2. Correlation atau regression Multiple correlation atau multiple regression Path analysis Partial regression VARIABEL PENGARUH / INDEPENDEN VARIABEL (X) INTERVAL 1.TEKNIK ANALISIS DATA VARIABEL TERPENGARUH / DEPENDEN VARIABEL (Y) NOMINAL Dikotomi Politomi ORDINAL Ubah var ordinal jadi var nominal & pakai logistic multiple regression & discriminant analysis atau Ubah var interval jadi var ordinal & pakai statistik non-parametrik 1.

Widyo Pura Buana .Multiple Regression and Multiple Classification Analysis Introduction  This chapter examines a model of multivariate analysis. where the objectives of analysis are: (i) To know how well all the independent variables together explain variation in the dependent variable. (ii) To know how well each independent variable is related to the dependent variable. either considering or ignoring the effects of other independent variables. involving simultaneous consideration of several independent (predictor or explanatory) variables and one dependent variable.MCA .

Dependent variable Independent variables Statistical techniques One Interval scale Interval scale Dichotomous.MCA Several Interval scale Nominal Nominal Multiple Regression Multiple Classification Analysis Multiple Classification Analysis . Polytomous Widyo Pura Buana .Multiple Regression and Multiple Classification Analysis  The following data analysis situations can be visualized. depending upon the measurement properties of the dependent and independent variables.

 Unlike simpler forms of other multivariate methods. Widyo Pura Buana . It is however essential that the dependent variable should be either an interval-scale variable without extreme skewness or a dichotomous variable with frequencies which are not extremely unequal. MCA can handle predictors with no better than nominal measurements and interrelationships of any form among the predictor variables or between a predictor and dependent variable.Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA)  Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) is a technique for examining the interrelationship between several predictor variables and one dependent variable in the context of an additive model.MCA .

bj = The effect of the membership in the j th category of predictor B. etc Y = Grand mean of the dependent variable.MCA .. . .+e ij. Widyo Pura Buana . ai = The effect of the membership in the i th category of predictor A.Model MCA Yij. category j of predictor B...n= Y + ai +bj+ .n= Error term for this individual. .n = The score on the dependent variable of individual n who falls in category i of predictor A...n where Yij. e ij..

MCA ..Model MCA Yij ...n ! Column Effect Residual Widyo Pura Buana ..n ! Grand Mean  Row Effect  Column Effect  Residual Grand Mean Row Effect Yij .

MCA 0 0 0 5 0 5 2 4 Grand Mean .Performance by Task Difficulty and Arousal Arousal (Column) Low Medium High Task Difficulty (Row) Easy 3 1 1 6 4 Difficult 2 5 9 7 7 9 9 13 6 8 Row Mean 6 Column Mean 0 2 0 0 3 2 3 8 3 3 3 5 Widyo Pura Buana .

(2  4) ! 30  30 ! 60 3 2 SS olu n !§ j !1 j ( y..(6  4)  15.4)  ..(5  4) ! 40  10  10 ! 60 Widyo Pura Buana . j  Y ) 2 2 ! 10.( 2  4)  10.2 3 2 SSTotal ! §§ ( yij  Y ) i !1 j !1 2 2 ! (3 .  Y ) 2 2 ! 15.  (0  4) ! 360 SS o 2 !§ i !1 i ( yi .MCA 2 2 .(5  4)  10.

SS Co bined ! SS o o  SS Colu  SS Colu n n SS Model ! SS SS Re sidual ! SS otal  SS Model Widyo Pura Buana .MCA .

dfTotal ! N  1 ! 30  1 ! 29 df o ! # of ro s (levels)  1 ! 2  1 ! 1 df Colu n ! # of colu ns (levels)  1 ! 3  1 ! 2 df Combined ! df Row  df Column ! 1  2 ! 3 df Model ! df Row  df Column ! 1  2 ! 3 df Re sidual ! dfTotal  df Model ! 29  3 ! 26 Widyo Pura Buana .MCA .

MCA .Eta (L) Etarow ! L row ! SS Row SSTotal SSColumn SSTotal Etacolumn ! L column ! Widyo Pura Buana .

Goodness of Fit R  Squared ! SS Model SSTotal SS odel SSTotal !  Squared ! Widyo Pura Buana .MCA .

2) Arousal (1. Widyo Pura Buana .3) /MAXORDERS=NONE /METHOD=EXPERIMENTAL /STATISTICS=MCA. ANOVA Performance by Difficulty (1.Syntax SPSS MCA *MCA model with categorical predictors:.MCA .

Struktur Data MCA dengan SPSS Widyo Pura Buana .MCA .

Performance by Task Difficulty.667 Sig.MCA .333 4.000 360.ANOVAa Tingkat Kesulitan Pekerjaan dan Gairah Kerja berpengaruh terhadap Performance Kerja (baik secara overall atau individual) Experimental Method Sum of Squares 180.000 Performance Main Effects (Combined) Task Difficulty Arousal Model Residual Total a.000 .000 60.333 8.000 60.024 . Arousal Significant Widyo Pura Buana .000 180.923 12.000 30.414 F 8.000 120.000 120.000 180.667 17.000 6.000 .000 df 3 1 2 3 26 29 Mean Square 60. .

00 6.00 5.MCAa Predicted Mean Deviation Adjusted Adjusted N for for Unadjusted Unadjusted Factors Factors 15 6.000 1.00 2.000 1.000 Performance Task Difficulty Easy Difficult Arousal Low Medium High a.000 -2.000 1.00 2.000 1.00 -2. Arousal Performance Deviation Mean Row Task Difficulty Arousal Easy Difficult Low Medium High Grand Mean 6 2 2 5 5 4 Widyo Pura Buana .00 5.000 15 10 10 10 2.00 2.00 5.00 2.000 2.000 -2. Performance by Task Difficulty.000 -2.MCA Column 2 -2 -2 1 1 =6±4 =2±4 =2±4 =5±4 =5±4 Row(i)-Grand Mean Column(j)-Grand Mean .00 5.

408 =SQRT( SSRow/ SSTotal ) =SQRT(120/360) =SQRT( SSColumn/ SSTotal ) =SQRT(60/360) Widyo Pura Buana .MCA .Factor Summarya Eta Task Difficulty Performance (Row) Arousal (Column) Beta Adjusted for Factors .577 .408 Formula .577 .

707 =SQRT(R-Squared) R Squared .Model Goodness of Fit R Performance by Task Difficulty.500 = SSModel/SSTotal Widyo Pura Buana .MCA . Arousal .

Multiple Classification Analysis with Interaction Widyo Pura Buana .MCA .

2) Arousal (1.3) /MAXORDERS=ALL /METHOD=EXPERIMENTAL /STATISTICS=MCA.MCA . Widyo Pura Buana .Syntax SPSS MCA *MCA model with categorical predictors. interaction:. ANOVA Performance by Difficulty (1.

000 5.000 2-Way Interactions Model Residual Total Arousal Task Difficulty * Arousal Widyo Pura Buana .000 30.008 . .000 60.000 Experimental Method Mean Square df F 3 60.000 9.000 1 2 2 5 24 29 120.000 30.000 60.414 24.000 48.000 120.000 6.000 12.000 240.008 .000 6.000 120.600 Performance Main Effects (Combined) Task Difficulty Sig.000 .000 360.000 12.ANOVAa Sum of Squares 180.MCA .000 .

00 4.00 Ar l ¤ l i l Widyo Pura Buana .00 2.00 0.MCA § © s i ffic lt ©    §  i l i ffic lt ¨  ¨  § © ¨§ A s l ¦ ¢¡ £   ¥ .00 8.00 4.00 iffic lt s 10.00 .00 2.00 8.Graphical display of interactions  Two ways to display previous results 10.00 r 6.00 r 6.

MCA .MCA \$ GLM Factorial Anova Widyo Pura Buana .

Source : http://srmo. For example. the COVARIATE(s)..com/view/the-sage-encyclopedia-of-social-science-research-methods/n597. Hardy & Chardie L. multiple classification analysis (MCA) is a QUANTITATIVE analysis procedure that allows the assessment of differences in subgroup means.. decomposing the SUMS OF SQUARES explained by the model into the relative contributions of the factor of interest.sagepub.xml Widyo Pura Buana .MCA . which may have been adjusted for compositional differences in related factors and/or covariates and their effects. Baird MULTIPLE CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS (MCA) Also called factorial ANOVA.MCA \$ GLM Factorial Anova MULTIPLE CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS (MCA) Melissa A. These F tests assess the ratio of the sums of squares explained by the factor(s) and covariates (if specified) adjusted. MCA produces the same overall results as MULTIPLE REGRESSION with DUMMY VARIABLES. and any INTERACTIONS that are specified. an MCA in SPSS produces an ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE with the appropriate F TESTS. although there are differences in the way the information is reported.

Graphical display of interactions  What are we looking for?  Do the lines behave similarly (are parallel) or not?  Does the effect of one factor depend on the level of the other factor? No interaction The lines are parallel Widyo Pura Buana .MCA Interaction The lines are not parallel .

GLM Factorial ANOVA Statistical Model: Yijk ! Q  E i  F j  .

H 0 : E1 ! E 2 ! L ! E p Treatment B. H 0 : F1 ! F 2 ! L ! F q Interaction.EF ij  I k ( ij ) Statistical Hypothesis: Treatment A. H 0 : EF11 ! EF12 ! L ! EF pq The interaction null is that the cell means do not differ significantly (from the grand mean) outside of the main effects present.MCA .e. that this residual effect is zero Widyo Pura Buana . i.

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