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Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is an inborn characteristic. Since 1990, Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer have been the leading researchers on emotional intelligence. In their influential article "Emotional Intelligence," they defined emotional intelligence as, "the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions" (1990). The Four Branches of Emotional Intelligence Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: the perception of emotion, the ability reason using emotions, the ability to understand emotion and the ability to manage emotions.
Perceiving Emotions: The first step in understanding emotions is to accurately perceive them. In many cases, this might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions.
Reasoning With Emotions: The next step involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention.
Understanding Emotions: The emotions that we perceive can carry a wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of their anger and what it might mean. For example, if your boss is acting angry, it might mean that he is dissatisfied with your work; or it could be because he got a speeding ticket on his way to work that morning or that he's been fighting with his wife.
Managing Emotions: The ability to manage emotions effectively is a key part of emotional intelligence. Regulating emotions, responding appropriately and responding to the emotions of others are all important aspect of emotional management. According to Salovey and Mayer, the four branches of their model are, "arranged from more basic psychological processes to higher, more psychologically integrated processes. For example, the lowest level branch concerns the (relatively) simple abilities of perceiving and expressing emotion. In contrast, the highest level branch concerns the conscious, reflective regulation of emotion" (1997). A Brief History of Emotional Intelligence
1930s – Edward Thorndike describes the concept of "social intelligence" as the ability to get along with other people.
1940s – David Wechsler suggests that affective components of intelligence may be essential to success in life.
1950s – Humanistic psychologists such asAbraham Maslow describe how people can build emotional strength.
1975 - Howard Gardner publishes The Shattered Mind, which introduces the concept of multiple intelligences.
1985 - Wayne Payne introduces the term emotional intelligence in his doctoral dissertation entitled “A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; selfintegration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion, tuning in/coming out/letting go).”
1987 – In an article published in Mensa Magazine, Keith Beasley uses the term “emotional quotient.” It has been suggested that this is the first published use of the term, although Reuven Bar-On claims to have used the term in an unpublished version of his graduate thesis.
1990 – Psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer publish their landmark article, "Emotional Intelligence," in the journal Imagination, Cognition, and Personality.
1995 - The concept of emotional intelligence is popularized after publication of psychologist and New York Times science writer Daniel Goleman’s book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. Measuring Emotional Intelligence "In regard to measuring emotional intelligence – I am a great believer that criterion-report (that is, ability testing) is the only adequate method to employ. Intelligence is an ability, and is directly measured only by having people answer questions and evaluating the correctness of those answers." --John D. Mayer
Reuven Bar-On’s EQ-i A self-report test designed to measure competencies including awareness, stress tolerance, problem solving, and happiness. According to Bar-On, “Emotional intelligence is an array of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures.”
Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) An ability-based test in which test-takers perform tasks designed to assess their ability to perceive, identify, understand, and utilize emotions.
Seligman Attributional Style Questionnaire (SASQ) Originally designed as a screening test for the life insurance company Metropolitan Life, the SASQ measures optimism and pessimism.
Emotional Intelligence links strongly with concepts of love and spirituality: bringing compassion and humanity to work.is a relatively recent behavioural model. attitudes. emotional intelligence (EQ) emotional intelligence theory (EQ Emotional Quotient) Emotional Intelligence . management development. recruitment interviewing and selection. the ECI involves having people who know the individual offer ratings of that person’s abilities on a number of different emotional competencies. management styles. job profiling. and also to 'Multiple Intelligence' theory which illustrates and measures the range of capabilities people possess.• Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) Based on an older instrument known as the Self-Assessment Questionnaire. The EQ concept argues that IQ. and potential. or conventional intelligence. Peter Salovey (Yale) and John 'Jack' Mayer (New Hampshire). because the EQ principles provide a new way to understand and assess people's behaviours. The early Emotional Intelligence theory was originally developed during the 1970s and 80s by the work and writings of psychologists Howard Gardner (Harvard). is too narrow. interpersonal skills. and the fact that everybody has a value. customer relations and customer service. and more. that there are wider areas of Emotional Intelligence . Emotional Intelligence is an important consideration in human resources planning. rising to prominence with Daniel Goleman's 1995 Book called 'Emotional Intelligence'. Emotional Intelligence is increasingly relevant to organizational development and developing people.EQ .
responses. Salovey and David Caruso (Yale) is also very significant in the field of Emotional Intelligence. Managing your own emotions. and their feelings.that dictate and enable how successful we are. EQ embraces two aspects of intelligence: Understanding yourself. Managing relationships. such as NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming). and will in due course be summarised here too. behaviour and all. 5. . emotional and communications theories. your goals. Different approaches and theoretical models have been developed for Emotional Intelligence. And we know that despite possessing a high IQ rating. 3. Emotional Intelligence embraces and draws from numerous other branches of behavioural. control and management of one's own emotions. 2. Knowing your emotions. ie. and those of other people. Motivating yourself. managing the emotions of others. The work of Mayer. which has tended to be the traditional measure of intelligence.two aspects This is the essential premise of EQ: to be successful requires the effective awareness. success does not automatically follow. Recognising and understanding other people's emotions.the five domains Goleman identified the five 'domains' of EQ as: 1. emotional intelligence .. 4. This summary article focuses chiefly on the Goleman interpretation. • • Understanding others. ignoring eseential behavioural and character elements. Success requires more than IQ (Intelligence Quotient). emotional intelligence . We've all met people who are academically brilliant and yet are socially and inter-personally inept. intentions.
information and related theory references The following excellent free Emotional Intelligence materials in pdf file format (Acrobat Reader required to view) are provided with permission of Daniel Goleman on behalf of the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence.a generic EQ competence framework produced by Daniel Goleman and CREI covering in summary: personal competence . tools. examples. which is gratefully acknowledged: The Emotional Competence Framework . An excellent information paper by Dr Cary Cherniss originally presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. This is a detailed history and explanation of Emotional Intelligence. . tests. improving relationships and understanding.Transactional Analysis. social skills 'Emotional Intelligence: what is it and why it matters'. and empathy. The process and outcomes of Emotional Intelligence development also contain many elements known to reduce stress for individuals and organizations. self-regulation. By developing our Emotional Intelligence in these areas and the five EQ domains we can become more productive and successful at what we do. continuity and harmony. April 2000. by decreasing conflict.social awareness. self-motivation • • social competence . emotional intelligence competence framework. in New Orleans. and increasing stability. and help others to be more productive and successful too. case studies.self-awareness.
Guidelines for Promoting Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace . development.a paper by Dr Cary Cherniss featuring 19 referenced business and organizational case studies demonstrating how Emotional Intelligence contributes to corporate profit performance. etc.The Business Case for Emotional Intelligence . of EQ in organizations.. assessment. summarised as: paving the way • • • • • • • • assess the organization's needs assessing the individual delivering assessments with care maximising learning choice encouraging participation linking goals and personal values adjusting individual expectations assessing readiness and motivation for EQ development doing the work of change • • • • • • • • foster relationships between EQ trainers and learners self-directed chnage and learning setting goals breaking goals down into achievable steps providing opportunities for practice give feedback using experiential methods build in support .a paper chiefly constructed by Cary Cherniss and Daniel Goleman featuring 22 guidelines which represent the best current knowledge relating to the promotion of EQ in the workplace. HR professionals and visionaries can use to help justify focus. The paper is an excellent tool which trainers.
• • use models and examples encourage insight and self-awareness encourage transfer and maintenance of change (sustainable change) • • encourage application of new learning in jobs develop organizational culture that supports learning evaluating the change . .did it work? • evaluate individual and organizational effect eicp Emotional intelligence (EI) is an ability. and control the emotions of oneself. skill or. a self-perceived ability to identify. and of groups. Criticisms have centered on whether the construct is a real intelligence and whether it has incremental validity over IQ and the Big Five personality dimensions. assess. in the case of the trait EI model. Various models and definitions have been proposed of which the ability and trait EI models are the most widely accepted in the scientific literature. of others.
2.2 Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI) 2.2 Ability EI measures measure knowledge (not actual ability) 5. several influential researchers in the intelligence field of study had begun to recognize the . second.1 Ability model o o • • o o • o o o o o o • • • 2.3 Trait EI model 2.3 Measurement of the ESI model 2. In the 1900s. even though traditional definitions of intelligence emphasized cognitive aspects such as memory and problem-solving.1 Measurement of the ability model 2.2 EI has little predictive value 5 Criticisms of measurement issues 5. adaptation.2.1 Measurement of the Emotional Competencies (Goleman) model 220.127.116.11 Measurement of the trait EI model 3 Alexithymia and EI 4 Criticisms of the theoretical foundation of EI 4.3 Ability EI measures measure personality and general intelligence 5.2.1 EI cannot be recognized as a form of intelligence 4. not ability 5.Contents [hide] • • o 1 History 2 Definitions 2.1 Ability EI measures measure conformity.6 EI.4 Self-report measures are susceptible to faking 5.2 Mixed models 2.5 Claims for the predictive power of EI are too extreme 5. IQ and job performance 6 See also 7 External links 8 Notes and references History The earliest roots of emotional intelligence can be traced to Darwin's work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and.
L. traditional types of intelligence. In 1983. there was a common belief that traditional definitions of intelligence are lacking in ability to fully explain performance outcomes. fail to fully explain cognitive ability.importance of the non-cognitive aspects. The distinction between trait emotional intelligence and ability emotional intelligence was introduced in 2000. and further argued that our models of intelligence would not be complete until we can adequately describe these factors. A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence from 1985. prior to this. in 1940 David Wechsler described the influence of non-intellective factors on intelligent behavior. Thus. such as IQ. For instance. Currently. motivations and desires of other people) and intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself. the term "emotional intelligence" had appeared in Leuner (1966). with respect to both terminology and operationalizations. Ability model Salovey and Mayer's conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines of the standard criteria for a new intelligence. Greenspan(1989) also put forward an EI model. their initial definition of EI was revised to "The ability to perceive emotion. most researchers agree that they tap different constructs. and Daniel Goleman (1995). E. there are three main models of EI: Ability EI model Mixed models of EI (usually subsumed under trait EI) Trait EI model Different models of EI have led to the development of various instruments for the assessment of the construct. While some of these measures may overlap. followed by Salovey and Mayer (1990). to appreciate one's feelings. Similarly. Thorndike used the term social intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people. Following their continuing research. In Gardner's view. even though the names given to the concept varied. integrate emotion to facilitate thought. understand emotions and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth. Howard Gardner's Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences introduced the idea of multiple intelligences which included both interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the intentions. However." . Definitions Substantial disagreement exists regarding the definition of EI. as early as 1920. fears and motivations). The first use of the term "emotional intelligence" is usually attributed to Wayne Payne's doctoral thesis.
3. The MSCEIT can also be expert-scored. the test is modeled on ability- based IQ tests. and cultural artifacts—including the ability to identify one's own emotions. By testing a person's abilities on each of the four branches of emotional intelligence. Measurement of the ability model The current measure of Mayer and Salovey's model of EI. The model proposes that individuals vary in their ability to process information of an emotional nature and in their ability to relate emotional processing to a wider cognition. as it makes all other processing of emotional information possible. the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is based on a series of emotion-based problem-solving items. it generates scores for each of the branches as well as a total score. pictures. understanding emotions encompasses the ability to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions. 2. 4. and the ability to recognize and describe how emotions evolve over time. The emotionally intelligent person can capitalize fully upon his or her changing moods in order to best fit the task at hand. Central to the four-branch model is the idea that EI requires attunement to social norms. For example. The model claims that EI includes four types of abilities: 1. so that the amount of overlap is calculated between an individual's answers and those provided by a group of 21 emotion researchers. Using emotions – the ability to harness emotions to facilitate various cognitive activities.The ability-based model views emotions as useful sources of information that help one to make sense of and navigate the social environment. This ability is seen to manifest itself in certain adaptive behaviors. even negative ones. voices. Therefore. The ability EI model has been criticized in the research for lacking face and predictive validity in the workplace. such as thinking and problem solving. Therefore. with higher scores indicating higher overlap between an individual's answers and those provided by a worldwide sample of respondents.  Consistent with the model's claim of EI as a type of intelligence. Understanding emotions – the ability to comprehend emotion language and to appreciate complicated relationships among emotions. Perceiving emotions represents a basic aspect of emotional intelligence. Managing emotions – the ability to regulate emotions in both ourselves and in others. . and manage them to achieve intended goals. the MSCEIT is scored in a consensus fashion. the emotionally intelligent person can harness emotions. Perceiving emotions – the ability to detect and decipher emotions in faces.
the MSCEIT is unlike standard IQ tests in that its items do not have objectively correct responses. and leader effectiveness. but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and can be developed to achieve outstanding performance. 3. Among other challenges. Goleman posits that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies. Mixed models The model introduced by Daniel Goleman focuses on EI as a wide array of competencies and skills that drive leadership performance. 4. In a study by Føllesdal. This and other similar problems have led some cognitive ability experts to question the definition of EI as a genuine intelligence. Emotional competencies are not innate talents. & Barsade. and react to others' emotions while comprehending social networks. the consensus scoring criterion means that it is impossible to create items (questions) that only a minority of respondents can solve. which administers the MSCEIT test. with regard to empathy. understand. Goleman's model of EI has been criticized in the research literature as mere "pop psychology" (Mayer. the MSCEIT test results of 111 business leaders were compared with how their employees described their leader. Relationship management – the ability to inspire. This has led Multi-Health Systems to remove answers to these 19 questions before scoring. responses are deemed emotionally "intelligent" only if the majority of the sample has endorsed them. Measurement of the Emotional Competencies (Goleman) model Two measurement tools are based on the Goleman model: . because. Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of EI. It was found that there were no correlations between a leader's test results and how he or she was rated by the employees.Although promoted as an ability test. by definition. 2008). Self-awareness – the ability to read one's emotions and recognize their impact while using gut feelings to guide decisions. Føllesdal also criticized the Canadian company Multi-Health Systems. Social awareness – the ability to sense. and develop others while managing conflict. but without stating this officially. Self-management – involves controlling one's emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances. Goleman's model outlines four main EI constructs: 1. The test contains 141 questions but it was found after publishing the test that 19 of these did not give the expected answers. Roberts. ability to motivate. influence. 2.
V. and adapting to and coping with the immediate surroundings to be more successful in dealing with environmental demands. see Matthews.1. 2008. Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI) Bar-On defines emotional intelligence as being concerned with effectively understanding oneself and others. Measurement of the ESI model The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). 2001). The EQ-i is not meant to measure personality traits or cognitive capacity. Trait EI model Soviet-born British psychologist Konstantin Vasily Petrides ("K. A limitation of this model is that it claims to measure some kind of ability through self-report items (for a discussion. and the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI). corresponding to the five main components of the Bar-On model. to be especially common among those individuals lacking in the subscales of reality testing. Petrides") proposed a conceptual distinction between the ability based model and a trait based model of EI and has . & Roberts. is a self-report measure of EI developed as a measure of emotionally and socially competent behavior that provides an estimate of one's emotional and social intelligence. programming. In general. by Bar-On. The Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI). problem solving. Grubb & McDaniel. and impulse control. relating well to people. Bar-On considers emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence to contribute equally to a person's general intelligence. 2. The EQ-i has been found to be highly susceptible to faking (Day & Carroll. Zeidner. which was created in 2001 and which can be taken as a self-report or 360-degree assessment. Bar-On posits that EI develops over time and that it can be improved through training. but rather the mental ability to be successful in dealing with environmental demands and pressures. stress tolerance. which was created in 1999. which then offers an indication of one's potential to succeed in life. Bar-On hypothesizes that those individuals with higher than average EQs are in general more successful in meeting environmental demands and pressures. 2007). He also notes that a deficiency in EI can mean a lack of success and the existence of emotional problems. which was created in 2007.  However. One hundred and thirty three items (questions or factors) are used to obtain a Total EQ (Total Emotional Quotient) and to produce five composite scale scores. Problems in coping with one's environment are thought. doubts have been expressed about this model in the research literature (in particular about the validity of self-report as an index of emotional intelligence) and in scientific settings it is being replaced by the trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) model discussed below. and therapy. The_Emotional_Intelligence_Appraisal|The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal.
agreeableness. where it was reported that TEIQue scores were globally normally distributed and reliable. Measurement of the trait EI model There are many self-report measures of EI. The TEIQue provides an operationalization for the model of Petrides and colleagues. . As expected. trait EI refers to an individual's self-perceptions of their emotional abilities. which they interpreted as support for the personality trait view of EI (as opposed to a form of intelligence)."  In lay terms. which have proven highly resistant to scientific measurement. The test encompasses 15 subscales organized under four factors: Well-Being. Trait EI should be investigated within a personality framework. This is an important distinction in as much as it bears directly on the operationalization of the construct and the theories and hypotheses that are formulated about it. The psychometricproperties of the TEIQue were investigated in a study on a French-speaking population.neuroticism).   Trait EI is "a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality. Self-Control. The researchers also found TEIQue scores were unrelated to nonverbal reasoning (Raven's matrices). TEIQue scores were positively related to some of the Big Five personality traits (extraversion. conscientiousness) as well as inversely related to others (alexithymia. including the EQ-i. and the Schutte EI model. abilities. which was specifically designed to measure the construct comprehensively and is available in many languages. the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT). but rather. One of the more comprehensive and widely researched measures of this construct is the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). they are limited measures of trait emotional intelligence. openness. and Sociability. which have revealed significant genetic effects and heritabilities for all trait EI scores. None of these assess intelligence. An alternative label for the same construct is trait emotional selfefficacy. Emotionality.been developing the latter over many years in numerous scientific publications. as opposed to the ability based model which refers to actual abilities. The trait EI model is general and subsumes the Goleman and Bar-On models discussed above. A number of quantitative genetic studies have been carried out within the trait EI model. The conceptualization of EI as a personality trait leads to a construct that lies outside the taxonomy of human cognitive ability. or skills (as their authors often claim). This definition of EI encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured by self report. that conceptualizes EI in terms of personality.
The essence of this criticism is that scientific inquiry depends on valid and consistent construct utilization.. attitudes and values. Viewed as a spectrum between high and low EI. and that it even runs contrary to what researchers have come to expect when studying types of intelligence: "[Goleman] exemplifies more clearly than most the fundamental absurdity of the tendency to class almost any type of behaviour as an 'intelligence'. but intelligence—the ability to grasp abstractions—applied to a particular life domain: emotions. how do we know they are related? So the whole theory is built on quicksand: there is no sound scientific basis. and he offers an alternative interpretation: it is not another form or type of intelligence.The individual's level of alexithymia can be measured with selfscored questionnaires such as the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) or the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ) or by observer rated measures such as the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS). Goleman admits that they might be quite uncorrelated.Two recent studies (one a meta-analysis) involving direct comparisons of multiple EI tests yielded very favorable results for the TEIQue  Alexithymia and EI Alexithymia from the Greek words "λέξις" (lexis) and "θυμός" (thumos) (literally "lack of words for emotions") is a term coined by Peter Sifneos in 1973 to describe people who appeared to have deficiencies in understanding. the alexithymia construct is strongly inversely related to EI. some scholars believe that the term EI merges and conflates such accepted concepts and definitions. and that before the introduction of the term EI. If these five 'abilities' define 'emotional intelligence'. we would expect some evidence that they are highly correlated. Thus. Eysenck (2000) writes that Goleman's description of EI contains unsubstantiated assumptions about intelligence in general. or describing their emotions. He suggests the concept should be re-labeled and referred to as a skill. Criticisms EI of the theoretical foundation of EI cannot be recognized as a form of intelligence Goleman's early work has been criticized for assuming from the beginning that EI is a type of intelligence. Locke (2005) claims that the concept of EI is in itself a misinterpretation of the intelligence construct. representing its lower range. and personality traits and emotional states. processing. psychologists had established theoretical distinctions between factors such as abilities and achievements." Similarly. EI has little predictive value . skills and habits.. and in any case if we cannot measure them.
" Landy (2005) Similarly. the MSCEIT "tests knowledge of emotions but not necessarily the ability to perform tasks that are related to the knowledge that is assessed". neuroticism has been said to relate to negative emotionality and anxiety. as measured by the MSCEIT. that alternative explanations have not been completely considered: "EI is compared and contrasted with a measure of abstract intelligence but not with a personality measure. Generally. it doesn't necessarily follow that he could actually carry out the reported behavior. self-report EI measures and personality measures have been said to converge because they both purport to measure personality traits.Landy (2005) claimed that the few incremental validity studies conducted on EI have shown that it adds little or nothing to the explanation or prediction of some common outcomes (most notably academic and work success). Specifically. and in the fact that scores on the MSCEIT are negatively distributed (meaning that its scores differentiate between people with low EI better than people with high EI). (2001). This argument is rooted in the MSCEIT's use of consensus-based assessment. who claimed that unlike tests of cognitive ability. namely.  which suggests that the EI. The interpretations of the correlations between EI questionnaires and personality have been varied. Intuitively. The main argument is that even though someone knows how he should behave in an emotionally laden situation. which re-interprets EI as a collection of personality traits. individuals scoring high on neuroticism are likely to score low on self-report EI measures. Ability EI measures measure personality and general intelligence . may only be measuring conformity. or with a personality measure but not with a measure of academic intelligence. other researchers have raised concerns about the extent to which self-report EI measures correlate with established personality dimensions. Criticisms Ability of measurement issues EI measures measure conformity. Landy suggested that the reason why some studies have found a small increase in predictive validity is a methodological fallacy. In particular. not ability One criticism of the works of Mayer and Salovey comes from a study by Roberts et al. The prominent view in the scientific literature is the Trait EI view. Ability EI measures measure knowledge (not actual ability) Further criticism has been leveled by Brody (2004). there appear to be two dimensions of the Big Five that stand out as most related to self-report EI –neuroticism and extroversion.
Claims for the predictive power of EI are too extreme . who investigated the Ability Emotional Intelligence Measure found similar results (Multiple R = . agreeableness (standardized beta = .69).69 (using the Swaps Test and a Wechsler scales subtest. employment settings). as well as gender had a multiple R of . they found a multiple R of . Gangster et al. McFarland. Paulhus. acting as a mediator of the relationships between selfreport measures (Nichols & Greene.46). Peebles & Moore. Carretta (2004). 1983). faking good is defined as a response pattern in which test-takers systematically represent themselves with an excessive positive bias (Paulhus. Self-report measures are susceptible to faking More formally termed socially desirable responding (SDR).. These studies examined the multivariate effects of personality and intelligence on EI and also corrected estimates for measurement error (which is often not done in some validation studies).39). For example. standardized beta = . the 40-item General Knowledge Task) and empathy. agreeableness (measured by the NEO-PI). the problems of response sets in high-stakes scenarios become clear (Paulhus & Reid. which is a more long-term trait-like quality. Some researchers believe it is necessary to warn test-takers not to fake good before taking a personality test (e.26 (using the Questionnaire Measure of Empathic Tendency)--see also Antonakis and Dietz (2011b).76 using Cattell’s “Culture Fair” intelligence test and the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Ree.54).. This result has been replicated by Fiori and Antonakis (2011). a study by Schulte.g. 1987). Zerbe & Paulhus. Antonakis and Dietz (2011a).. significant covariates were intelligence (standardized beta = . There are a few methods to prevent socially desirable responding on behavior inventories. McFarland & Ryan. 2004. Some inventories use validity scales in order to determine the likelihood or consistency of the responses across all items. 1991). It has been suggested that responding in a desirable way is a response set. Nichols & Greene.  showed that general intelligence (measured with the Wonderlic Personnel Test).g.81 with the MSCEIT. 1997.  who show how including or excluding important controls variables can fundamentally change results—thus.. 2003). This bias has long been known to contaminate responses on personality inventories (Holtgraves. it is important to always include important controls like personality and intelligence when examining the predictive validity of ability and trait EI models. and openness (standardized beta = . with significant predictors being intelligence. 2004. standardized beta = . This is contrasted with a response style.New research is surfacing that suggests that ability EI measures might be measuring personality in addition to general intelligence. 2001). Considering the contexts some selfreport EI inventories are used in (e. which is a situational and temporary response pattern (Pauls & Crost. 1997. 2002). 2000. 1998.
Mayer (1999) cautions "the popular literature's implication—that highly emotionally intelligent people possess an unqualified advantage in life—appears overly enthusiastic at present and unsubstantiated by reasonable scientific standards. the WLEIS (Wong-Law measure) did a bit better (r = . and the Bar-On measure better still (r = . Antonakis argued that EI might not be needed for leadership effectiveness (he referred to this as the "curse of emotion" phenomenon. Interestingly. Harms and Credé found that the meta-analytic validity estimates for EI dropped to zero when Big Five traits and IQ were controlled for. EI. Antonakis and Ashkanasy/Dasborough mostly agreed that researchers testing whether EI matters for leadership have not done so using robust research designs. As an example. unless those datasets are made public and available for independent analysis. currently there is no strong evidence showing that EI predicts leadership outcomes when accounting for personality and IQ. the credibility of the findings cannot be substantiated in a scientific way. because leaders who are too sensitive to their and others' emotional states might have difficult to take decisions that would result in emotional labor for the leader or followers).04). EI measures correlated only r = . However.08). therefore. IQ and job performance Research of EI and job performance shows mixed results: a positive relation has been found in some of the studies. r = . Goleman (1998) asserts that "the most effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence.. Harms and Credé found that overall (and using data free from problems of common source and common methods). while the latter is trying to warn users against these claims. basing this distinction on the alleged predictive power of EI as seen by the two currents.e.. In a subsequent paper analyzing the impact of EI on both job performance and leadership. or verification.18). A recentlypublished meta-analysis seems to support the Antonakis position: In fact. which correlate both with EI measures and leadership. ability-measures of EI fared worst (i." Landy further reinforces this argument by noting that the data upon which these claims are based are held in "proprietary databases".. that posits that the association between EI and job performance becomes more positive as cognitive intelligence . In an academic exchange. in others there was no relation or an inconsistent one.11 with measures of transformational leadership. the validity of these estimates does not include the effects of IQ or the big five personality. .Landy distinguishes between the "commercial wing" and "the academic wing" of the EI movement. This led researchers Cote and Miners (2006) to offer a compensatory model between EI and IQ. which means they are unavailable to independent researchers for reanalysis. the former makes expansive claims on the applied value of EI. According to Landy.emotional intelligence is the sine qua non of leadership". In contrast. Thus. replication.
The results of the former study supported the compensatory model: employees with low IQ get higher task performance and organizational citizenship behavior directed at the organization. An emotionally intelligent organization can be imagined where: • • • everyone communicates with understanding and respect. Frederickson. and where enthusiasm and confidence in the organization are widespread. the evidence is now clear that people skills are far more important when it comes to the bottom line. For many years it had been considered inappropriate to show or to have emotions in a work situation. an idea first proposed in the context of academic performance (Petrides. Understanding emotions contributes toward building an emotionally intelligent organization. increased problem-solving and improved decision-making. Unlike IQ. In 1983 Howard Gardner. Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. usually does become greater with age and maturity. Utilizing the power and energy of one's emotions leads to high motivation. An overwhelming amount of research shows that not only are emotions very much a part of the work experience. and in fact. but to a large degree they set the course that a company follows. the purely cognitive capacities measured by IQ. Emotional Intelligence describes abilities distinct from and complementary to academic intelligence. & Furnham. Emotional Intelligence. Working with Emotional Intelligence. where people set group goals and help others work toward them. The business community was rocked by the research that overwhelmingly showed that up to 90 percent of one's performance effectiveness was due to emotional savvy rather than technological knowledge. a Harvard psychologist. listed seven kinds of intelligence including knowing one's inner world and social adeptness.decreases. . It was followed by a second best seller in 1998 by the same author. The importance of developing one's emotional intelligence is essential to success in the workplace. which is set and unchangeable from childhood on. emotional intelligence can be developed. 2004). In a country where IQ and SAT scores have dominated thinking on who is likely to succeed. Emotional Intelligence The concept of emotional intelligence became popular after the immense success of Daniel Goleman's book in 1995. the higher their EI.
Perhaps Hendrie Weisinger in his 1998 definition says it best: Quite simply. Only in civilized adults do we expect actions to be divorced from emotional reactions.Peter Salovey of Yale and John Mayer of the University of New Hampshire coined the term "emotional intelligence" in 1990 and proposed a comprehensive theory. split-second thoughts give rise to . are indeed emotionally intelligent. or causes. All emotions are in essence impulses to act. As thinking human beings. the center for rational thinking and decision-making. But even as highly intelligent and civilized adults. the center active during anger. especially when the emotions aroused are anger and anxiety. emotional intelligence is the intelligent use of emotions! It is emotionally intelligent when you intentionally make emotions work for you by using them to help guide your behavior and thinking in ways that enhance your results. They are in fact caused by our interpretations of events. Most people have trouble managing situations that are emotionally charged. Salovey and Mayer defined emotional intelligence in terms of being able to monitor and regulate one's own and other's feelings. for motivating ourselves. we value our rationality and cognitive powers that set us apart from the animal kingdom. not just the expression or regulation of them. and to use feelings to guide thought and action. For the first time ever. sending emotional signals to act and react. The emotional parts of the brain are located in the more ancient. scientists have been able to study the functioning of the brain on living subjects and to map out the centers responsible for thinking and feeling. poor communications skills. then people really do get into trouble. including the amygdala. sometimes so fleeting and fast as to be beneath the level of consciousness. and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships. The neo-cortex. central parts of the brain called the limbic system. Research into emotions has been greatly enhanced by brain-imaging technologies in the last decade. but who are also able to generate the kinds of emotions that are productive and efficient. we can never disengage our emotional brain¾ it is always there. even when there is no logic. Those individuals who are able to handle their emotions. The very root of the word is from the Latin verb to move. is the newer part of the brain that is highly developed in humans. That emotions lead to actions is obvious from watching animals or children. Goleman defines it as the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others. The fact that the term emotional intelligence encompasses so many abilities and competencies dilutes the impact of its meaning. Our pre-conscious. Most people believe that emotions are caused by events. When this difficulty is accompanied by.
What is "EQ" and how do you measure it? IQ is a measure of one's cognitive abilities. and how we handle a situation. First. Over ninety percent of effectiveness at work is attributed to one's emotional intelligence. We then have a choice as to how we behave. are more . questions their validity and appropriateness. Developing empathy 5. including self-motivation 4. an "emotional intelligence inventory" published by Multi-Health Systems. one has to precisely define the components of emotionally intelligence. Using emotions to maximize intellectual processing and decision-making. A person who is highly-developed emotionally becomes sensitive to preconscious thoughts. women are more aware of their emotions. and is able to directly influence feelings. verbal comprehension. IQ scores account for as little as 25% in predicting future success in college. The appropriateness of our actions and the effectiveness of our communications make up our emotional intelligence. Although they were so small as to be statistically insignificant. technical savvy and knowledge may contribute as little as four to ten percent towards performance effectiveness. More specifically.automatic emotional reactions. It is useful to look at Goleman's five major factors of emotional intelligence. thoughts and behaviors. Then. It has been validated on over 4000 subjects in North America of diverse backgrounds. IQ measures spatial and mathematical reasoning. a term coined to express the measure of one's emotional intelligence. one has to design questions that can be scientifically validated as measuring what they set out to measure. relate better interpersonally. Inc. To measure one's emotional functioning is a more complicated task. information and memory.Q. Men appear to have better self-regard. Reuven Bar-On developed the "E. He summarizes emotional intelligence into the following components: 1. Emotional self-awareness 2. what we say. Social scientists have long been aware that IQ tests are inadequate for predicting success in life. Dr. and act more socially responsible than men.-I". EQ. Managing one's own emotions 3. In the work environment. has been proposed as the answer to why some people with average IQs end up more successful in life than some with brilliant IQ scores. there were some gender differences. show more empathy. and has been quantified and validated by scientists since the first decades of this century. The art of social relationships and managing emotions in others In 1997.
Nevertheless. Adaptability Components A. Intrapersonal Components 2. and all tests purporting to do so are really measuring one's selfperception. and cope better with stress. Since 1995. and business levels seems to be so far advanced and sophisticated? The evidence of emotional dysfunction and personal discomfort is apparent on every level from the school room to the board room of major corporations. 1. Other tests that propose to measure "E.Q. People lose control of their emotions and go on rampant shooting sprees. What is happening in this country that on financial. such information can be useful in designing coaching programs and planning goals for personal and professional growth. insight and awareness of the person taking the test. It is limited by the honesty. A look at what the "E.Q.-I" measures contributes to an understanding of the components of emotional intelligence. There is no way yet to accurately measure one's emotional intelligence. Impulse Control 5.-I is a selfreport test. Stress Management Components B. Flexibility 4. the Simmons Personal Survey. Problem Solving B." are Daniel Goleman's Emotional Competence Inventory." All allow an individual to chart strengths and vulnerabilities on emotional intelligence components. General Mood Components How does one scientifically measure someone's happiness? The E.independent. Cooper's "EQ Map.Q. Interpersonal Components 3. are more flexible. Application: Why Learning the Skills of Emotional Intelligence is Crucial When Daniel Goleman first talked about emotional intelligence he made a big point about how everyday we are assaulted by news in the media of someone gone berserk. . Reality Testing C. technological. as are other such tests designed to measure emotional intelligence. solve problems better. and Robert K. we have been further shocked by several occurrences of school children killing other children.
there is a strong sense of a group IQ. has shown that when people administering IQ tests treat their subjects warmly.There is a need to teach how to relate to others using emotional intelligence. In meetings and in group settings where people come together to collaborate. domineering. the sum total of intellectual knowledge and skills in the room. how to develop one's EQ. one's competency at work will be determined and evaluated on emotional intelligence. preferably a professional familiar with the individual's needs and environment. Robert Sternberg and Wendy Williams of Yale have studied this "group IQ. Daniel Goleman makes a strong case for working with a coach to improve one's E. emotional competencies would be difficult to learn from a book. Robert Rosenthal. they enhance intellectual performance.Q. a group may be able to work smarter than its members' collective intelligences would suggest. The most important element in a group's intelligence is not the average or highest IQ." Thus.Q. A single participant who is low in EQ can lower the collective IQ of the entire group. . Although many authors have jumped on the current popularity of the concept. Three books stand out in their ability to teach the tools of emotional intelligence: 1. one's personal growth and development must include strengthening of emotional capacities in order to survive. and how to apply the knowledge of emotional intelligence in the work place. the test scores are higher. In today's world of diminishing job security. or infighting to degrade performance and stymie progress. 3. but emotional intelligence. and must be strengthened by working with another individual. the Key to Emotional Intelligence (1998). 2. Indeed. More than ever. there are only a few books that are adept at providing steps to improve one's E. but it can also rapidly work dumber by not allowing people to share talents and by allowing destructive discontent. Cooper's Executive EQ: Emotional Intelligence in Leadership and Organizations (1997). Group IQ and How it is Affected by EQ: When emotions are acknowledged and guided constructively. Seymour Epstein's Constructive Thinking. Robert K. Teaming. in a recent article in the Harvard Business Review. Hendrie Weisinger's Emotional Intelligence at Work (1998). a Harvard expert on empathy.
Today's fast-changing work environments require more open and fluid work styles.This has obvious impact on the effectiveness of teams and work groups. to others. preconscious thoughts and their possible distortions. . withdrawal. Work with a mentor or personal coach to improve your EQ. Learn to differentiate between emotion and the subsequent need to take action. in order to be effective. 9. Acquire the skills of "learned optimism": what is your personal explanatory style? How do you explain events to yourself. a) The need to promote action in response to avoidance. 8. and sadness. People need to be able to handle their own and other's emotions in order to trust and team up for problem-solving and decision-making. 3." 10. Ten Steps for Promoting Your Emotional Intelligence 1. both good and bad? Increase your optimism when appropriate and beneficial. Teaming. b) The need to inhibit action in response to anger and hostility. 7. Increase positive feedback to yourself. Know yourself well through the use of assessment tools to understand your strengths and vulnerabilities. Identify the causes of feelings: become aware of split-second. Listening for the "lessons" of feelings: turn mistakes into energy. 4. requires people to have a high degree of both intellect and EQ. Learn to reframe negatives. 6. Using "somatic markers" in decision-making: trust your gut and use it. Increase your appreciation of yourself and others. Become aware of your emotional style: what do you do to avoid discomfort? 5. Developing listening skills and in asking open-ended questions: "listening is the best way to get your point across. 2.
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