Proceedings of the 6th IMT-GT Conference on Mathematics, Statistics and its Applications (ICMSA2010) Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman

, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

462

Linear Programming for Parking Slot Optimization: A Case Study at Jl. T. Panglima Polem Banda Aceh
Said Munzir1 , Mahyus Ikhsan1 and Zainal Amin1
1

Mathematics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
smunzir2001@yahoo.com home page: http://www.math-usk.org/smunzir/

Abstract. This research investigate the optimization of the available parking area, based on parking requirement analysis and the identification of existing parking problem. The study is expected to provide information to reduce traffic delay due to on-street parking. It is related to the need of parking area while offstreet parking area is not available. For a case study, the street of Panglima Polem in Banda Aceh is chosen as it is located in the city central of Banda Aceh. The model use linear programming supported by observation and survey data to formulate optimization problem. The study has formulated a well-posed problem for parking slot optimization based on the user needs, interpreted as parking slot proportional to parking accumulation and duration. Keywords: parking slot optimization, linear programming

1. Introduction
Transportation plays an important and strategic role in the development of a nation, particularly in distributing the product of the development for all citizens. General problems that occur in urban transportation is the traffic jam. One of the sources of the traffic jam is the decreases of road diameter due to the use of the part of the road for on-street parking. This traffic jam has a massive effect if it is considered comprehensively. One of this effects is, for instance, the excessive use of fuels which cause a large amount of economic losses. Hence, the effort to reduce the traffic jam is necessary, one of which is the management of on-street parking problem. The traffic flow problem due to on-street parking is an extremely serious problem. Several researches has been conducted in relation to this particular problem, such as works of Sinaga [10] and Setiawan [8]. The analysis of parking demand based on characteristic of parking sites has been conducted by Yosritzal [11] and Widanengsih [12]. In addition, they also suggested that regression method can also be used to determine the standard of parking slot demand around a hospital.

Cordone [3] dan Silva [9]. From simple observation. .Proceedings of the 6th IMT-GT Conference on Mathematics. Cannon [2] develop a simulation program to handle the parking problem. PCU of each vehicle can be obtained in the Table 2. Panglima Polem.1. The demand of parking slot is impossible to be fullfiled entirely especially if the strategy is to use the on-street parking. For long term desain Djakfar [4] suggested a method using criteria analysis. From a series of previous researches related to the parking problem management. Peunayong area located in Banda Aceh is a center for bussiness activity in the city. Based on its location. On the other hand. i. This on-street parking decreases road capacity and increase road side obstacle. In reality.: on street parking and off street parking (Widanengsih dan Elkhasnet [12]). Literature Review Parking is defined as terminating a vehicle at a certain location and is a part of traffic circulation. as the space is usually allocated for traffic flow. This problem is the result of insufficient parking space available in the area.e. Parking Control Unit (PCU) is the parking space used for a vehicle. 2. model using research operation employing linear programming is also utilized by researchers such as Bruglieri [1]. the problem that usually emerge in relation to on-street parking is to determine the best parking slot allocation to distribute among different types of vehicle on limited parking space. Kuala Lumpur. In this study. we focus on building a mathematical model describing the problem and try to allocate optimal parking slot proportional to each type of vehicle using linear programming. The problem occurred in the road around the area is a heavily massive traffic activity. which depend on vehicle dimension plus additional space needed for a vehicle to maneuvre whose value depending on the parking angle. Statistics and its Applications (ICMSA2010) Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman. Malaysia 463 The parking management problems were also studied using transportation management science as performed by Rapp [6]. such as in the road segment of Jalan T. the parking is classified into two categories. we cannot find a research related to parking slot allocation using linear programming. obvious sources of low road performance in this area is the on-street parking along the road and intersections.

e. Secondary supporting data and information for this research is obtained from Dinas Perhubungan Provinsi Aceh. 3. total number of vehicle parked during certain time interval compared to vehicle enter parking site.2 5.5 3.m. b.4 5.1 4.3 7.1 7.e.9 4.m. number of vehicle parked at a parking site at a certain time.5 1. percentage of the vehicle occupied the parking area. time interval (in minute or hour) for a certain vehicle parked at a parking site.3 2.1 Parking Length (meter) 2.5 3. Average parking duration.1 6. measurement of parking occupation calculated as ratio between the number of vehicle parked compared to parking capacity available.0 10.. T. Parking volume. Meanwhile.e. d. According to Hobbs [5].00 a. average parking is obtained from the ratio between sum of parking accumulation for all observation time and number of observation. to 18.8 1. Parking exchanges. Data sampling for vehicle entering or leaving the parking site along with its parking .e.6 Length (meter) 2.1 3. Percentage amount of parking duration is formulated as ratio between the amount of vehicle parked during certain time interval and total number of vehicle observed. Statistics and its Applications (ICMSA2010) Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman.3 8. computed from the ratio between average parking and parking space capacity.e.0 9.6 Parking Width (meter) 1.7 2. The method used to obtained parking space geometric data and existing parking space capacity is through measuring the parking space area and parking space allocation for each vehicle. i.5 2. Parking duration.5 2. Panglima Polem Peunayong Banda Aceh and was conducted whole day beginning from 07.4 1.Proceedings of the 6th IMT-GT Conference on Mathematics. Research Method Location of this survey is at Jln. i.1 PCU of each type of vehicle Width (meter) 1 0. Kuala Lumpur. parking characteristics includes: a.2 1. Malaysia 464 Table 2. f.00 p. i. c.1 No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Jenis Kendaraan Becak Motorcycle Passenger Car Medium Bus Big Bus Truck Small Bus Parking characteristics are parameters related to the amount of parking demand that have to be provided.e.2 4. Parking accumulation.4 2. number of vehicle entering a parking site. Parking utilization level. i. i. Parking index. g.

. Data processing is conducted using Microsoft Excel 2003 and QM for Windows 2.Proceedings of the 6th IMT-GT Conference on Mathematics. Statistics and its Applications (ICMSA2010) Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman.0. proportionality to average parking duration every 15 minutes for motor cycle. where t1 t2 t3 : Average parking duration for motor cycle (minute) : Average parking duration for car (minute) : Average parking duration for becak (minute) . This proportion for motor cycle. car and becak are respectively formulated as: t3 t1 t2 (x1 + x2 + x3 ) (x1 + x2 + x3 ) (x1 + x2 + x3 ) t1 + t 2 + t 3 t1 + t 2 + t 3 t1 + t 2 + t 3 . In relation to data obtained from the field survey. model analysis to be developed is conducted by including the user parking space demand proporsional to average parking accumulation and average parking duration. Malaysia 465 duration is obtained through a field survey walking along the parking site and counting the number of vehicle and its parking duration. car and becak are calculated using the following formulation: p 1 x +x +x . Kuala Lumpur. 2 3 p +p +p 1 1 2 3 p 3 x +x +x 1 2 3 p +p +p 1 2 3 ( ) ( ) ( ) where : Average parking accumulation of motor cycle (number of vehicle/15 minutes) p 2 : Average parking accumulation of car (number of vehicle/15 minutes) p 3 : Average parking accumulation of motor becak (number of vehicle/15 minutes) p1 and x1 + x 2 + x3 : Parking space capacity Mean while. Proportionality of average parking accumulation is computed every 15 minutes for each type of vehicle. 2 3 p +p +p 1 1 2 3 p 2 x +x +x .

Kuala Lumpur. c. In mathematical model.75 m2.Proceedings of the 6th IMT-GT Conference on Mathematics. The parking demand is based on proportionality of average parking accumulation and average parking duration. Parking space for motor cycle is 3. The structure of decision making for maximization of parking capacity can be arranged as: Tabel 3. b. Statistics and its Applications (ICMSA2010) Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman. parking space for each vehicle in this study is sebagai berikut: a. Based on parking space standard allocated for each type of vehicles by Dinas Perhubungan Aceh.05 m2. Panglima Polem subject to available parking land. The focus here is to allocate parking space for all three types of vehicle.12 m2. it can be written as: 1. Malaysia 466 The problem to solve is how to maximize parking space capacity at Jalan T.1 The structure of decision making for maximization of parking capacity activity No Coefficient of objective functions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parking space area Motor cycle parking accumulation proporsional to all Car parking accumulation proporsional to all Becak parking accumulation proporsional to all Proporsional waktu parkir rata-rata mobil Proporsional waktu parkir rata-rata becak motor x1 c1 x2 c2 x3 c3 Limitation factor a11 a31 a51 a61 a71 a12 a32 a52 a62 a72 a13 a 23 a33 a 43 a53 a63 a73 a21 a22 a41 a42 ≤ b1 ≥ b2 ≥ b3 ≥ b4 ≥ b5 ≥ b6 ≥ b7 Proportion of vehicle average parking accumulation every 15 minutes for each type of a vehicle is computed from the vehicle average parking accumulation divided by total average parking accumulation for all vehicles and then multiplied by parking space capacity. Parking space for becak is 4. and the same time meet the the demand of parking for each type of vehicle. Proportion of average parking accumulation for motor cycle is p1 (x1 + x2 + x3 ) p1 + p 2 + p 3 . Parking space for car is 12.

12 x1 + 12.Proceedings of the 6th IMT-GT Conference on Mathematics. i. p 3 is becak average parking accumulation (number of vehicles in 15 minutes). Malaysia 467 2.05 x3 ≤ Parking space area . In mathematical model. Proportion of average parking accumulation for car is p2 (x1 + x2 + x3 ) p1 + p 2 + p 3 3.75 x 2 + 4. while ( x1 + x 2 + x3 ) is parking slot capacity to be allocated. Proportion of vehicle average parking duration every 15 minutes for each type of a vehicle is computed from the vehicle average parking duration divided by total average parking duration for all vehicles and then multiplied by parking space capacity. Processing Model in Linear Programming The problem of parking slot allocation at Jln T. Proportion of average parking duration for car is Where t1 is average parking duration for motor cycle (minutes). Panglima Polem uses three parts of linear programming model. Proportion of average p3 (x1 + x2 + x3 ) p1 + p 2 + p3 parking accumulation for becak is Where p1 is motor cycle average parking accumulation (number of vehicles in 15 minutes).e. and t 3 is average parking duration for becak (minutes). Statistics and its Applications (ICMSA2010) Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman.1. p 2 is car average parking accumulation (number of vehicles in 15 minutes). Proportion of average parking duration for motor cycle is t1 (x1 + x2 + x3 ) t1 + t 2 + t 3 t2 (x1 + x2 + x3 ) t1 + t 2 + t 3 t3 (x1 + x2 + x3 ) 3.: Objective function: Z = x1 + x 2 + x 3 Subject to constraints: 3. it can be written as: 1. 3. t 2 is average parking duration for car (minutes). Kuala Lumpur. Proportion of average parking duration for becak is t1 + t 2 + t 3 2.

72 8.Parking duration of largest number of vehicles (minutes) . the optimization problem can be written as: . Statistics and its Applications (ICMSA2010) Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman.3 106. Becak 100 9 08. t1 .875 After substitution of the values of p1 .Jumlah Kendaraan (kendaraan) Parking index (%) Parking duration: .m.m Car 421 16 11. p 2 .80 24. x3 . t 2 and t 3 from field survey into the model.m 10 111. p 2 . t 3 ≥ 0 0 ≤α ≤1 and x2 ≥ Table 4. t1 .84 15 68.24 67.Proceedings of the 6th IMT-GT Conference on Mathematics. Malaysia 468 x1 ≥ p1 (x1 + x2 + x3 )× α p1 + p 2 + p3 p2 (x1 + x 2 + x3 )× α p1 + p 2 + p3 p3 (x1 + x 2 + x3 )× α x3 ≥ p1 + p 2 + p3 t1 x1 (x1 + x2 + x3 )× α ≥ t1 + t 2 + t 3 t2 (x1 + x2 + x3 )× α x2 ≥ t1 + t 2 + t 3 t3 (x1 + x2 + x3 )× α x3 ≥ t1 + t 2 + t 3 And non-negativity constraints: x1 . p3 . t 2 .30 – 11.45 – 09. x 2 . p 3 .1 Parking characteristics of Motorcycle.11 15 79.45 p.15 a. Car and Becak Parking Characteristics Parking volume Parking capacity Peak of parking accumulation: .23 51.5 15 68.09 46.45 a.00 and 09.30 – 14.00–09.Time Motor cycle 1211 147 14.60 25.Percentage of the number of vehicle park (%) Average parking duration (minutes) Parking exchanges Parking utilization (occupation) (%) 135 91. p1.69 26. Kuala Lumpur.67 .18 26 162.24 1.

1. 2. Optimization considering constraints only of average parking accumulation with values of α from 0. i. ≥ ≥ 588 0. 4.25( x1 + x 2 + x3 ) × α x1 x2 x3 x x2 4.75 up to 1.: 1.7.12 x1 + 12.0 with the solution is shown in the Table 4.05 x3 ≤ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ x3 Where x1 .5 up to 0. Following up these results. Kuala Lumpur. Results and Discussions The model was initially tested for values of α between 0. constraints cannot provide any feasible point in its interior. more realistic scenarios for the optimization were made.75 up to 1. Formulation Considering Parking Accumulation Only Optimization considering constraints only of average parking accumulation with values of α from 0. x 2 . Optimization considering constraints only of average parking duration with values of α from 0.Proceedings of the 6th IMT-GT Conference on Mathematics. no feasible solution was found. Malaysia 469 Maximize Z = x1 + x 2 + x3 Subject to constraints: 3. .75 to 1 using QM for Windows 2.27( x1 + x 2 + x3 ) × α 0. However.e.75 x 2 + 4. Optimization considering both constraints of average parking duration and average parking accumulation with values of α from 0. Statistics and its Applications (ICMSA2010) Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman.04( x1 + x 2 + x3 ) × α 0.14( x1 + x 2 + x3 ) × α 0.0 to find optimal solution.82( x1 + x 2 + x3 ) × α 0. x3 . 3.48( x1 + x 2 + x3 ) × α 0.2.75 up to 1 was run using QM for Windows 2. ≥ 0 and 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 . This means that in trying to satisfy the average parking accumulation and parking duration simultaneously for each vehicle at more than 75% satisfaction.

6519 136.5101 From the solution in the Table 4.8823 17.575 4.90 55.75 up to 1 was run using QM for Windows 2.5808 21. Kuala Lumpur.6043 106.95 51.3562 24.90 112.1768 25.Proceedings of the 6th IMT-GT Conference on Mathematics.2.80 119.548 α =1 107.9547 24.45 139. As average parking duration for all vehicle more balance (the differences were not very extreme). it shows that the higher the value of α (level of satisfaction) the smaller the parking slot obtained especially the vehicle (motor cycle) having the highest accumulation in comparison to the others.6684 14.2204 130.3923 22.8341 109.4126 22.0 with the solution is shown in the Table 4.8474 134.6951 98.95 109.769 4.85 115.1879 α =1 47.1703 α = 0.6571 α = 0. .966 4.3361 103.704 21.75 121.2011 25.2 Solution for Optimization considering average parking accumulation only Variable x1 x2 x3 Z α = 0.0623 α = 0.0182 18.85 59.7555 23. the resulting parking slot allocation also more balance between all three types of vehicle.2.3732 α = 0.6505 α = 0.6289 5.8209 α = 0.8731 16.80 63.0222 112.7804 From the solution in the Table 4.2.3. Malaysia 470 Table 4.0373 15.8873 16. Statistics and its Applications (ICMSA2010) Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman.2197 140.2714 5. Formulation Considering Parking Duration Only Optimization considering constraints only of average parking duration with values of α from 0.2817 4.4146 26. 4.0368 132.75 68.2029 23.6707 24.1185 α = 0.7158 α = 0.0321 101.3 Solution for Optimization considering average parking duration only Variable x1 x2 x3 Z α = 0. Table 4. it shows that the higher the value of α (level of satisfaction) the smaller the parking slot obtained especially the vehicle (motor cycle) having the highest average parking duration in comparison to the others.

28329 125.30043 122.20263 129.28654 21.52 α = 0.25949 118. Variable x1 x2 x3 Z α = 0. In contrast.76446 18.70 73.3 Formulation Considering Both Parking Accumulation and Parking Duration Optimization considering constraints for both average parking duration and parking accumulation with values of α from 0.77855 20.4.60 83. Comparison of all three formulations suggests that the formulation considering parking accumulation only is the best option if the total number of optimal parking slot is used as a performance measurement.0028 α = 0.55 89. .621 α = 0.46021 20. Trying to fulfill all parking demands and requirements may lead to the optimization problem without any feasible region in the optimization.7 was run using QM for Windows 2.6966 α = 0.Proceedings of the 6th IMT-GT Conference on Mathematics.74738 18. it also usually does not relate significantly with the customer satisfaction.93796 19.65 78.80025 19.66595 17.5 up to 0. Malaysia 471 4.49884 16.2304 From the solution in the Table 4.91958 17.4. it shows that the higher the value of α (level of satisfaction) the smaller the parking slot obtained especially the vehicle (motor cycle) having the highest average parking accumulation and parking duration in comparison to the others.5 95.0 with the solution is shown in the Table 4. in practice. The formulation considering average parking duration only is clearly less preferable as it give the result of less number of parking slot and.16532 115. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the formulation of optimization for parking slot allocation give significantly different results when the formulation consider various aspects of parking requirements and demands. Statistics and its Applications (ICMSA2010) Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman. parking slots for both Car and Becak increased with the increase of α (level of satisfaction). 5. Kuala Lumpur. The most important aspects should come into the formulation before considering other aspects to see the realistic optimal result for the problem.

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