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WORKPLACE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE
A study submitted to Project Management Department in Saudi Aramco
Nowier Mohammed Al-Anzi
Open University of Malaysia 2009
Open University of Malaysia
WORKPLACE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE
A study submitted to Project Management Department in Saudi Aramco
Nowier Mohammed Al-Anzi 51060418
Project Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Master of Business Administration
Open University of Malaysia 2009
Name Student's Number
: Nowier Mohammed Al-Anzi : 51060418
I hereby declare that this project paper is the result of my own work, except for quotations and summaries which have been duly acknowledged.
I hereby verify this research has not been submitted in substance for any other degree.
Supervisor Name: Mr. Iqbal Singh Kaundali
Iqbal Singh iv . Research Objective 3. Title of the project : Workplace Environment and Its Impact on Employee Performance : To determine the impact of work environment on employees’ productivity 2. Suggested supervisor for the student: Mr.APPLICATION TO CONDUCT RESEARCH PAPER PART A: STUDENT PARTICULAR 1. Topic chosen: Acceptable/Not acceptable: 2. Proposed Research Method Research Design : Questionnaire PART C: FUCULITY'S INPUTS 1. Name Student’s Number : Nowier Mohammed Al-Anzi : 51060418 PART B: PARTICULARS ABOUT THE PROJECT 1.
Discussion and Implication of the Study. Student Signature: ___________________ Date: __________________ I have read the student research proposal and I am satisfied that it is in line with the OUM MBA program guidelines for writing project proposal. It is also free from major grammatical errors. I have checked with OUM MBA program guidelines for writing project paper and I am satisfied that the project paper proposal satisfied its requirements. sentence construction weaknesses. I have thoroughly checked my work and I am confident that it is free from major grammatical errors. spelling mistakes. referencing mistakes and others. v . citation and others.Kaundali RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMISSION FORM Project Paper Title: Workplace Environment and Its Impact on Employee Performance Director Open University of Malaysia (OUM) Bahrain Branch Dear Sir. Thank you. Attached are the following documents for evaluation and approval: Chapter1 : Chapter2 : Chapter3 : Chapter4 : Chapter5 : References Appendix Introduction Literature Review Research Methodology Results and Data Analysis. weaknesses in sentence construction.
sincere advice. And last but not least I would like to dedicate this work to my brothers and sisters. Moheia Al-Anzi.Supervisor's Signature: _________________ Date: __________________ DEDICATION This dissertation is dedicated in memory of my beloved father. I would not have been able to complete my Master degree without support of my family. Also to me dear friend Faten Azer Al-Balawi. I dedicate this work to my beloved Mother. Her valuable support. who frequently told me as a young child and growing woman that “with hard work you can accomplish anything and become what you desire. Their confidence in my abilities has been driving me to successes and accomplishes the goals that I set.” Also. Mohammed AlAnzi. who accompany me in my studying journey and support me a lot. and prayers carried me through and helped me succeed. Nowier Mohammed Al-Anzi vi .
all praise is due to Allah Subhana-wa-ta’ala for bestowing me with health.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost. I am grateful to my parents. thank you for the wisdom. and compassion that you have imparted to me and my ideas. No personal development can ever take place without the proper guidance of parents. brothers and sisters for their extreme moral support. I seek his mercy. Iqbal Singh Kaundali. I have been blessed to have such a brilliant mentor to help me navigate the dissertation process. The almighty. support. favor and forgiveness. knowledge and patience to complete this work. You have offered guidance. vii . . This work is dedicated to my parents for their constant prayer and never ending love. encouragement and patience during the course of studies as well as throughout my academic career. I wish to begin by thanking my advisor. Dr. who alone made this accomplishment possible. understanding. and unwavering patience throughout this process.
..Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………….28 1.1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.… …7 1.……25 1.18 1.….31 viii .………..6 Limitations of the Study……………………………………………………. and Performance ……………….3 Objectives of the Study……………………………………….……… ..30 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.….viii ABSTRACT……………………….………………….2ProblemStatement………………………………………………..…. Work Environment..………….5 Definition of Terms………………………………………………………….1 Background………………………………………………………………………3 1.…………….4 Significance of the Study………………………………………………….1 Personality.
………………..3 Sampling Procedure:……………………………………………….41 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCHMETHODOLOGY 3.37 2.62 CHAPTER 4: RESULT AND DATA ANALYSIS 4.…………………50 3..….4) Relationship between Office Design work environment and Productivity .50 3.79 List of Figures ix .2 Study Population ………………………………………….………….……………….2 Theory and Hypotheses……………………………………………………….………….…………….78 QUESTIONAIRE……………………..61 3..1 Research Design…………………………………………….1 Discussion and Conclusion ………………………………….63 CHAPTER 5: 5..1 Data Analysis……………………………………………………………….…………….51 3..4 Data Collection Procedures……………………………………………………52 3.67 LIST OF REFERENCES…………………………………….……………….………..2.…………...3 The Key Factors of Employee’s Health That Effect Their Productivity..34 2.….6 Scale Validity and Reliability ……………………………….……71 APPENDIX…………………………………….5 Instrumentation…………………………………………………....
……..62 x .5 Figure 2: Employees’ Performance& Productivity……………….38 Table 3: Mean of factors………………………………………………………56 Table 4: Overall Responses according to Gender……………………….………….55 List of Tables Table 1: Work Environment Factors Affecting Performance…………..…6 Figure 4: Office design and Productivity………………………………………..59 Table 6: Regression Results of Model…………………………………………………..….57 Table 5: Correlation between Elements of Office Design and Employee Productivity...…….21 Table 2: Costs of occupational accidents and illhealth………………….…7 Figure 5: Quality of work Environment & Productivity………………..….60 Table 7: Example of questionnaire……………………………………………....Figure 1: workplace Environment and its Impact on employee's Performance.…16 Figure 6: The effect of sky on workplace……………………………………….....…6 Figure 3: Employees’ Wellbeing and Work Environment…………………….…..47 Figure 7: The effect of five basic elements on productivity………………….
Abstract Management's new challenge is to create a work environment that attracts. Workers are living in a growing economy and have almost limitless job opportunities. work environment and performance. work environment. feel like they have a purpose. Attitude. performance and commitment. and constantly changing. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between personality. The project is discussing the quality of the employee’s workplace environment that most impacts on the level of employee’s motivation and subsequent performance. Also to discuss the key factors in the employee’s workplace environment that impact greatly on their level of motivation and performance. health. Tech Tools and Downsizing and Outsourcing 1 . Also to assess the effect of employees’ health on their work performance Five Factors That Affect Employee's Productivity Managers and supervisors will need to be comfortable with working with the whole gamut of workplace factors that influence employee motivation. The responsibility lies with managers and supervisors at all levels of the organization. This combination of factors has created an environment where the business needs its employees more than the employees need the business. have pride in what they do. In developing my model. Today's workplace is different. Businesses must step outside their traditional roles and comfort zones to look at new ways of working. Health. keeps. The typical employer/employee relationship of old has been turned upside down. work environment preferences. I begin with a discussion of the relationship between personality. They have to create a work environment where people enjoy what they do. and the outcome variables. The main objective of this study is to find out the relationship between office design and productivity I develop hypotheses for and test the model presented. Boss. followed by a literature review of the relationships between Big Five personality factors. and can reach their potential. and motivates its workforce. diverse. and employee performance and commitment.
So the smart managers and businesses have started to create a positive work environment to be the winners of tomorrow's workplace. and overhauling old ones. Business leaders are urged to take more account of the links between good workplace design and improved business performance when planning and designing new buildings.The underlying thread is management has started to realize if its employees are dissatisfied. 2 . they can easily find employment elsewhere.
Various literature pertain to the study of multiple offices and office buildings indicated that the factors such as dissatisfaction. Most people spend fifty percent of their lives within indoor environments. 3 . 1994). actions. Comfortable and ergonomic office design motivates the employees and increases their performance substantially. especially with their immediate environment. influences to a great extent their error rate. absenteeism and. abilities and performance (Sundstrom. which greatly influence their mental status. The main objective of this study is to find out the relationship between office design and productivity . how long they stay in the job. 200 employees of Project Management were contacted and studied. The findings of this study show that office design is very vital in terms of increasing employees’ productivity.For this purpose. Clements-Croome 1997).1Background of the Study: It is the quality of the employee’s workplace environment that most impacts on the level of employee’s motivation and subsequent performance. Better outcomes and increased productivity is assumed to be the result of better workplace environment.CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1. cluttered workplaces and the physical environment are playing a major role in the loss of employees’ productivity (Carnevale 1992. ultimately. Better physical environment of office will boosts the employees and ultimately improve their productivity. How well they engage with the organization. level of innovation and collaboration with other employees.
Figure 1: workplace Environment and its Impact on employee's Performance Hughes (2007) surveyed 2000 employees pertain to various organizations and industries in multiple levels. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the office design factors on employees’ productivity. The reported results of these survey showed that nine out of ten believed that a workspace quality affects the attitude of employees and increases their productivity. Employees in different organizations have different office designs. Saudi Arabia. Every office has unique furniture and spatial arrangements. The area chosen in the Eastern Province. lighting and heating arrangements and different levels of noise. This study will try to find out the effects of office design on employees’ productivity. 4 . The literature reveals that good office design has a positive affect on employees’ productivity and the same assumption is being tested in this study for the offices of Saudi Aramco. The study will be based on primary data collected through a structured questionnaire (Appendix 1). Project Management in Saudi Arabia.
office design and productivity. in practitioner-oriented magazines and journals and. office design and work environment have become common topics in the mainstream media. In this research. work environment preferences. actions. I begin with a discussion of the relationship between personality. abilities and performance (Sundstrom. Comfortable office design motivates the employees and increases their performance substantially. in scholarly research journals. for improving outcomes. I develop hypotheses for and test the model presented. work environment. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between personality. Clements." In such situations. Better physical environment of office will boosts the employees and ultimately improve their productivity. 1994). and practice regarding environment and working ability from an organizational perspective. first I review the literature that serves to define health and well-being in the workplace. Finally. In developing my model. For this purpose employee working in offices of different designs are contacted and studied. which greatly influence their mental status. beyond skill training. research. and the outcome variables. the employee does come to work only for a paycheck. increasingly. followed by a literature review of the relationships between Big Five personality factors. I highlight important future directions for future theory. In this case. the employee is present at work in body only. favorable work environment and ideal office design.Many managers do not have much flexibility in their staffing patterns in the short-term. controlling the work environment is often the most feasible short-term option. the consequences of low levels of health and well-being. Most people spend fifty percent of their lives within indoor environments. Health. cluttered workplaces and the physical environment are playing a major role in the loss of employees’ productivity (Carnevale 1992. and employee performance and commitment. I then discussed the primary factors associated with productivity and performance. Better outcomes and increased productivity is assumed to be the result of better workplace environment. leaving their mind outside the gate. Increased personal control and comfort needs of employees triggered the concern among organizations to provide them with an environment and office design. When these other factors are missing or diluted. 5 . work environment and performance. The main objective of this study is to find out the relationship between work environment. Various literature pertain to the study of multiple offices and office buildings indicated that the factors such as dissatisfaction. advanced strategies to adapt right office design and workplace factors that effect performance. The findings of this study will show how office design is very vital in terms of increasing employees’ productivity. health. performance and commitment. There are other factors that when combined provide a more powerful determinant of employee performance. and managers must "deal with the hand they are dealt. which fulfills the employees’ needs and helps to boost their productivity.Croome 1997).
office or factory design (office design ) Employees’ Performance & Productivity Employees’ Wellbeing and Work Environment Office Design Figure 2: Employees’ Performance& Productivity Figure 3: Employees’ Wellbeing and Work Environment 6 .The key factors that effect employees’ productivity and performance fall into two categories: Those that are driven by procedures. protocols and management requirements (work environment) The factors that arise from premises.
4) To assess the effect of employees’ health on their work performance 7 . 2) To discuss the key factors in the employee’s workplace environment that impact greatly on their level of motivation and performance. performance and commitment. 3) To assess whether office design is one of the factors in affecting employees’ productivity.2 Problem Statement 1) The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between personality.Office Design and Productivity Furniture Noise Flexibility Comfort Communication Lighting Temperature Air Quality Figure 4: Office design and Productivity 1. work environment preferences. and the outcome variables.
The responsibility lies with managers and supervisors at all levels of the organization. and constantly changing. They have to create a work environment where people enjoy what they do. keeps. What is the connection between work environment and performance? Research has shown that environment has a direct impact on the organization’s financial and non-financial performance. Organizations that understand and can balance such “creative tension” effectively are more able to achieve performance goals in – Profitability – Quality – Innovation – Market share – Sales growth – Employee satisfaction 8 . This combination of factors has created an environment where the business needs its employees more than the employees need the business. the other is the climate within individual teams or work groups 2. Workers are living in a growing economy and have almost limitless job opportunities. For example – the need to do things differently and the need for consistent processes and procedures. and motivates its workforce. and the outcome variables. one is the organization’s culture 1. work environment preferences. Today's workplace is different. feel like they have a purpose. Businesses must step outside their traditional roles and comfort zones to look at new ways of working. have pride in what they do. There are two components to this environment. performance and commitment: Management's new challenge is to create a work environment that attracts.Explanation: 1) The relationship between personality. the need to pay attention to the external environment when making decisions and at the same time to attend to the organizations internal needs. and can reach their potential. diverse. The typical employer/employee relationship of old has been turned upside down. Organizational culture – loosely defined as “the way we do things around here” – is comprised of formal and informal factors that are constantly in tension.
or do preferences employees have for factors in their work environment play a more significant role in the relationship? Although selecting employees on the basis of individual dispositions may have a positive impact on employee attitudes and performance. And considering the increasingly large spans of control and reduced contact between employees and managers in work situations (De Meuse et al. All are related to the environment or culture in which the team operates. This is where the majority of work occurs in information-driven or knowledge-driven organizations. Hendricks. personality-based employee selection processes are notoriously inaccurate (Arthur et ai. 2001).The second connection between environment and performance is at the team or work group level. Are dimensions of personality directly responsible for employee success in organizations. With these components teams can perform at unexpected levels. groups are responsible for innovation and for processes and practices that have the ability to move the organization forward. 2001. 2000. 2001). 1994. most energetic people lose focus and energy. Without them. Recent global research has shown that there are only three things that have a material impact on the ability of groups of qualified people to perform at high levels. an over-reliance on employee selection processes as a means of improving performance and commitment may be a less effective approach than effectively managing work environments. what remains less clear is the interaction and influence of the context or place on this relationship. Motowidlo and Van Scotter. 1996). Much more than individuals. many managers do not have much flexibility in their staffing 9 . In addition. Chalmers (1997) asks the following questions about consciousness How can a human subject discriminate sensory stimuli and react to them appropriately? How does the brain integrate information from many different sources and use this information to control behavior? How it that subject is can verbalize their internal states? How do physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience? As we try to refine our approach to understanding the relationships between individuals and their performance outcomes in organizations. Although examination of direct linkages between employee personality dimensions and performance outcomes is receiving increasing support (Hurtz and Donovan.. even the brightest. the context of such interactions will be highlighted. Van Scotter and Motowidlo.
cited by 47% of those surveyed. Six years ago praise and recognition was at the top of the list.patterns in the short-term. 10 . how long they stay in the job. ultimately. How well the workplace engages an employee impacts their level of motivation to perform. for improving outcomes. Other significant changes include concern over promotions. including absenteeism and productivity. beyond skill training. the importance of compensation and benefits has risen to 28% from just 7% in the 1993 survey. In 1993. No performance or attendance policies mean that employees don't have to take responsibility for their own actions. An employee’s workplace environment is a key determinant of their level of productivity. Other critical factors include the importance of praise and recognition. and compensation each cited by 28% of those surveyed. only 9% said that the work environment was an important factor in keeping employees satisfied. consistent employee absenteeism can be a potential problem." In such situations. one-third of the executives surveyed by Robert Half International Inc. compared with 26% who said that in 1993. Indeed. Furthermore. it takes an entirely different approach than it did just a few years ago. In any workplace. Consistent absenteeism can be a result of a combination of many factors: Lack of incentives. and managers must "deal with the hand they are dealt. 2) To discuss the key factors in the employee’s workplace environment that impact greatly on their level of productivity and performance To keep employees satisfied today. including employee insurance and performance bonuses or recognition. can cause employees to become apathetic and lose motivation. controlling the work environment is often the most feasible short-term option. Only 4% of executives say that promotions are a big factor in keeping employees satisfied today. This then influences that employee’s: Error rate Level of innovation Collaboration with other employees Absenteeism and. have changed their opinions and now say the work environment is the most critical factor in keeping an employee satisfied in today's business world.
inspire. 3. President of a Florida-based consulting group. Unproductive working conditions can also result from a failure to equip employees with the right tools. and companies know it.Health Health concerns. Managers and supervisors will need to be comfortable with working with the whole gamut of workplace factors that influence employee motivation. never gives credit when due. psychological methods of improving employee productivity are great. including workers who are negative or disruptive. "A poor supervisor is definitely the No. software and supplies. naturally. Brown. are a big drain on an employee's ability to be productive. For an employee to be efficient and productive in today's job environment means equipping 11 . Five Factors That Affect Employee's Productivity Attitude. is just the opposite. employers said they were interested in services to increase employee productivity. "It's been my experience that a good supervisor will motivate." 2. but they're useless without the right tools. minimize absences and enhance the health of their employees. Any of these may lead to stress and a noticeable slowdown in productivity. Money is not a sufficient motivator in encouraging the superior workplace performance required in today’s competitive business environment. Health. the productivity level of their employees is significantly impacted. At the SHRM Conference and Exposition last June in Washington. which affects a company's bottom line. a survey showed that 85 percent of U.C. A poor supervisor. When the bad boss fails to keep promises. Tech Tools and Downsizing and Outsourcing 1. 1 factor that causes low productivity. D. training. makes negative comments. only in multiples. encourage and reward good performance. an employee's productivity is determined by their relationship with their immediate supervisor.Up to date Technology and Tools All the feel-good. Boss.. And the right tools mean the right technology. or blames others for their mistakes.Unproductive working conditions can arise from any number of factors. Employees who do not have a direct connection with the company begin to lose all the reasons for wanting to do that little bit extra and take the additional time to make something right." said Barry L. of course.S. among other things.Boss A recent poll found that.
For employees remaining in those offices and factories. Simply put. found that wireless notebook PC users increased their productivity by 100 hours per year. To help create a more positive work environment follows my Hold. Companies that don't upgrade or ignore the necessity for tech tools like PCs. One wall in the company has the photographs of all employees who have been with the company more than five years. they need to provide support to the employees that remain. their morale and motivation can take a big hit. "An employee with a positive attitude usually enjoys the work that they do and feels empowered and recognized for their contributions. The psychological impact on employees can directly impact productivity. Maybe that's why TD Industries was listed last year by Fortune magazine as one of the Top 100 Best Companies. but is simply there for a paycheck usually does not produce at a high level. more than paying for the cost of the upgrades in the first year.Downsizing and Outsourcing Ever vigilant of saving a buck and satisfying Wall Street. 5." TD Industries in Dallas. downsizing expensive labor while outsourcing a cheaper version. corporate America has turned to cutting corners by downsizing and outsourcing. has a unique way of making its employees feel valued and involved. that productivity increased as well.." said Henning. Keep.Attitude : Happy employees are productive employees. They studied the work habits and productivity of more than 100 Intel employees who were upgraded to wireless notebooks and found a gain of more than two hours per week. Translation: Will the moves to save money be contradicted by a loss in productivity from disgruntled employees? In most cases.employees with the right gear. forcing many to focus on their second careers instead of the job at hand. Seek and Review strategy. run the risk of diminished employee productivity. 4. Tex. Intel. 12 . They also found that when workers were able to control more of their time. the world's largest semi-conductor maker. cell phones and other 21st century tools. Blackberries. develops a bad attitude and generally drags a team down. employers fail to recognize that if they downsize or outsource. "An employee that is complacent and does not really enjoy their work.
13 . 5. But these are short sighted costs. they can easily find employment elsewhere. 3) To assess whether office design is one of the factors in affecting employees’ productivity It may not come as a complete surprise but the work we do in our office week out and week in is far more productive if the work takes place in a well designed office. Strategy: "Great Ideas" Program 1. or increase revenue. eliminating potential conflicts.the bonus . this strategy became the cornerstone of a recognition program that. the root cause was addressed by encouraging feedback and upward communication across the entire organization. while open to all. Intranet is recommended. but this strategy alone accomplished several goals. 4. in management's sole opinion. All employees who submit ideas of merit that are implemented will receive company-wide recognition and a bonus related to the financial impact of the idea on the company. 3. The underlying thread is management has started to realize if its employees are dissatisfied. several strategies were recommended. Employees submit ideas on how to make the company more efficient. as it provides a documentation of the person and time the idea is submitted. There will be no limit to the number of ideas selected for merit. An idea is selected for merit if. cut costs. unattractive and ultimately unproductive office designs? In most cases as always it comes down to two factors. is awarded only to those who earn it. Good workplace design can make a big difference in staff satisfaction. it should be implemented. 2. the company's investment in the program . So the smart managers and businesses have started to create a positive work environment to be the winners of tomorrow's workplace. email. Secondly. And thirdly. Can be done by paper.Keys to Increasing Employee Performance Based on recent employee surveys. First. office design cost both money and time. attraction.is derived from additional monies that the program itself generates. So why is it that so many companies still stuck with boring. or via the company's intranet. All ideas will be evaluated. A well designed office signals the values and objectives of the company and the use of design in office interiors communicates a company's values and identity. motivation and retention.
it has estimated. every employee was housed in a cubicle or individual office. a hybrid solution often works best: small private rooms for concentrated work. not every employee needs a personal work station in a digital workplace. The study by the Commission for Architecture & the Built Environment and the British Council for Offices has found even simple things such as good lighting and having adequate daylight can reduce absenteeism by 15 per cent and increase productivity by between 2. The report. Impact of Office Design on Business Performance. Proper lighting plays a huge role in the visual comfort of employees. In past.It can also affect the level of knowledge and skills of workers. has also argued that how workplaces are design is going to become more important in the future as more and more workers work remotely or outside a formal workplace. some 30 per cent of the world's top companies will have adopted a highly mobile work style model. and overhauling old ones. The average office space used to be 70 percent cubicles and 30 percent collaborative or shared space.8 per cent and 20 per cent. While three percent may seem an insignificant number. it does not reflect the residual loss of performance. how they respond to business and technological change and how effective the organization is at attracting and retaining customers. there are fewer permanent addresses. These days. By next year. In order for employees to be productive. how innovative and creating they are. they have to be comfortable in their work environment. Today. Systems that provide proper light distribution with reduced glare and dimmable capabilities gives users ultimate customization and control. Business leaders are urged to take more account of the links between good workplace design and improved business performance when planning and designing new buildings. that equation is 55 percent cubicles and 45 percent shared space. recent statistics show absenteeism rates average 3 percent across all reporting industries and professions. customers and other occupants. In the agile office. production or the financial impact on businesses. Overall. 14 . with 35 per cent having a workforce located outside the boundaries of the conventional workplace.
Work spaces are simultaneously shrinking from a standard unit of 8 by 10 feet to one as small as 6 by 6 feet in an open office plan. Finding answers to following questions can help improve the comfort level of an office to increase the productivity of its people: Who works in offices and what do they do all day? Where and how people work effectively? What is the best energy-efficient lighting that will increase employee productivity? Insufficient light will impact on visual inspection activities. and most experts agree that almost every office can benefit from a few changes in layout and organization. Work station walls are coming down. using ergonomic furniture and accessories. So what are the requirements for light intensity and what type of light should be ideal to enhance productivity? Can vibration affect an individual’s performance or safety? Is it a requirement to wear ear protection? Could this adversely affect performance? Does the work environment contain poor quality air that could cause fatigue or a reduction in performance? 15 . Studies show that comfort and productivity are interrelated. to open up views and allow occupants to enjoy natural light.personal work stations in open office settings for team work. Companies are striving to make offices a healthy and comfortable workplace. and a variety of formal and informal meeting spaces. and a functional design to minimize discomfort and distraction and consequently making employees work more productively. proper lighting.
Figure 5: Quality of work Environment & Productivity
4) To find out if employees’ health can directly or indirectly interrupt their work performance or productivity: Employee health and morale are often interrelated when it comes to productivity in the workplace. Unhealthy, ill, stressed employees will miss more days of work than their healthy counterparts, which can have a negative affect on morale and overall workplace performance. Many factors contribute to poor employee performance, including stress and a lack of communication. While business owners and corporate managers can find ways to boost worker morale, employees should also take some measures to discover methods of stress relief. Some professional environments are naturally stressful; it is particularly important for employees in these environments understand how to understand and manage stress.
Our working environment affects our sense of well-being, health and motivation to go in to work at all. It is both an employer’s responsibility, and in her interest, to ensure that employees work in a positive atmosphere because conditions at work can either maximize or minimize productivity and cause or prevent stress and fatigue. Poor seating, ventilation and lighting are detrimental to everyone’s health. Interior designer Victor Nikiforov of Trio notes that color is also important and that light tones are best; that pale green is good for calming nerves, and that blue is soporific. He says that, ideally, a workplace should have a gym, a masseur and a lounge, because people are not robots and should be given the opportunity to rest in pleasant surroundings. This seems a good idea, because contemporary businesses are often idea-driven and employees need spaces where they can relax, be creative, share ideas and think privately when necessary. Elena Klimenko, in charge of HR at Accenture, said her company has project rooms where staff can work in groups if necessary, that offices have large windows and that the furniture is ergonomically designed. She mentioned that a corporate designer even came to Moscow to ensure the office met company standards, and added that as a result of good office design, staff is generally pleased to be back in the office on returning from meetings. In conclusion, given that we spend more waking hours in the office than in our own apartments, it seems essential that offices become a home away from home and even something better— most of us cannot afford private gyms! As employers explore ways to improve the health, wellness and productivity of the workforce, incentives have emerged as an attractive tool. But employers remain concerned that incentives not become money Frivolously spent.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are as follows: 1) To analyze work place physical design in Aramco offices in, Saudi Arabia. 2) To determine the impact of work environment on employees’ productivity. 3) To analyze the impact of office design if any on gender of employees’ performance 4) To assess the effect of employees’ health on their work performance
1. To analyze work place physical design in Aramco offices in, Saudi Arabia.
"In the coming years, companies will succeed or fail depending on their ability to recruit and retain top skilled workers," said Hoskins. "Therefore, the office environment is taking on an increased responsibility to connect people and support strong corporate cultures that engage workers hearts and minds." Companies have come to realize the importance of comfort in the workplace environment, improving on functional ergonomic elements in order to retain quality personnel, increase productivity, and maintain a competitive edge. People spend hours making their home an environment that is not only secure, but also inviting. With the average American spending more than 40 hours a week nowadays at work, it has become all the more vital to have their work environment feel like home away from home.² Employees want more control over how their work environment looks and functions. Office design trends continue to meet the comfort needs of end-users. As the technology boom has no end in sight, designers and suppliers are forced to provide new concepts that facilitate these growing demands. In addition, as a more versatile and diverse work force emerges, evolving trends such as unlikely color combinations are expected to surface, satisfying a wide range of tastes. As the work force increases and space becomes less affordable, more offices will be designed around total space efficiency, flexibility, and comfort.
or is a 6x8-foot with the right storage and right counter space enough? How can they downsize? How can they get rid of the levels? The way businesses save space today is by efficient space planning. Do they need an 8x10-foot work station. 19 . and space planning. For Saudi Aramco it's a natural. With many firms. materials." added Rymshaw. "Which means that companies get into a process of figuring out what kind of space their people really need to work in.Today’s design community is also moving toward being environmentally friendly. " Along these same lines. "But there's also the perception that a company is saving money on real estate and travel time. In terms of keeping people. the more technology has become a part of its life. workplace design now is largely influenced not only by trends in color. that builds community. Saudi Aramco is just getting into this. or green. The more technology driven a company is in what they make or what they do. furniture. Space drives function. the flexibility issue is in bringing everyone together. actually building in flexibility for change by not over stratifying the company. For today's designers. but also by environmental concerns. not having a closed-door policy and using glass doors. "The idea of an employee being able to hook up his or her laptop anywhere and do desktop presentations on the screen in the front of the room has become attractive to many companies. One of the biggest trends is consolidation--bringing people together in less space and still making it an efficient process. video conferencing has become popular. "This is also an important trend because it means that a meeting can now handle a lot more people." said Rymshaw." Rymshaw said." "We're creating telecommunication rooms that can do sophisticated presentations through video conferencing. being colorful. "Bringing everyone together into an owned building rather than using rental space outside of company headquarters is catching on fast." Some companies are more up on this than others. Companies aren't disrupting an employee's day by asking him or her to fly into headquarters for a meeting. This focus strives to create healthier conditions for end-users and the environment through the use of recycled materials. Some companies are consolidating by taking employees from rental space in other parts of the country and bringing them together in one place so that communication and idea generating can happen easily. As a result. even though these rooms cost a fortune to build. lighting. setting the mood and image is what corporate interior design is all about--open spaces.
communications. In doing so. that are more efficient for circulation. hence spending money on improving the work environment may be the most cost effective way of improving productivity. Every department in the company has a different way of working. her job would be twice as hard. while incorporating the overall comfort factor. Employee common areas such as lunchrooms and outside seating are pretty larger and more accommodating than in the past. It is a much higher cost to employ people who work than it is to maintain and operate the building. social relationships. "Because of all the flexibility that was built into the design. The company’s office design encourages employees to work a certain way by the way their workstations are built." she said. Any quantitative proof of this statement is sparse and controversial. at the same time.Joan Heilly. management. the company also facilities group the ability to maintain inventory. Modular workstations are set as a dominant alternative to a facility comprised of hallways and private offices. Also. So the other trend reflects in using systems furniture which is becoming more universal. They build modules. the company is answering the firm's business plan while making sure their employees have everything they need to work. we can take a manager's station and divided it into two analysts' workstations in a matter of minutes. Depending on the furniture system they use. vice president for facilities at GMAC. office system organization. Workspaces are designed to allow for flexibility and efficiency. which can be pushed together to make a round conference table. Individual lockers are provided to the employees as permanent storage space for their belongings. But. It used to be that everyone had their own cubicle in Aramco offices but now it's more common to work in twos or fours with a shared conference table. acting as a secondary source of branding for the company 2. more flexible and more technology driven. as well as environmental issues. 20 . The ongoing trend is open environment. To assess the impact of work environment on employees’ productivity and performance: It is felt in general that improving the work environment increases productivity. and the company’s system allows for flexibility. There are a number of interacting factors which affect productivity. Reception desks reflect a very high-end element in the overall office design in Aramco. they have created more privacy and encourage more communication by how they set up those modules. Many of departments hold a quarter of a round table for each of four persons. reception areas are very spacious in order to present a bolder first impression. depending on furniture system. including privacy. "The new systems are helping us cope with overcapacity." Offices in Aramco are a good example of such modern trends of work designs. notes that if it weren't for their new modular workstations.
control. knowing job. meaning of work. affectivity related to job satisfaction. career goals. peer pressure Relationship with management. cognitive ability. responsibility. respect. job satisfaction and performance Aronoff and Kaplan Physical setting. motivation. supervision. relationship with coworkers. responsibility to peer group. expectancy. High productivity brings a sense of achievement for the individual as well as increased profits for the work organization. sense of usefulness and control over work. job security. relationship with co-workers. Brown Sundstrom Table 1: Work Environment Factors Affecting Performance The mind and body need to be in a state of health and well-being for work and concentration. status. pride and self-respect. group cohesiveness. organizational charter. goal setting. Responsibility and autonomy. education. This is a prime prerequisite for productivity. pride of craft.Work Environment Factors Affecting Performance Source paper Factors affecting motivation . reward. promotion prospects. autonomy. identity. neuroticism. social interaction. socio-economic status. status. self-respect. task identity. equity. pay. job security. initiatives. camaraderie. the work itself and physical environment. pay. communication system. congruence between personality and work environment. Locus of control. satisfaction with goals. Job specification and requirements. feedback. Arvey et al Bakke Blackler and Williams Identity. trade-offs expectations and equity. skill variety. age. company policy. 21 .
Stress in the Workplace Stress tops the list of employee complaints and is a major cause of many attendant health issues. whether personal or work-related. but from changing the overall work environment. Almost as many (89%) believe that the quality of their working environment is very important to their sense of job satisfaction. Over time. and friendly and helpful coworkers correlate highly with perceptions of a healthy work environment. stress can significantly weaken our immune systems. Some statisticians estimate that as many as 80 percent of illnesses are stressrelated. Granted. It's proven that a high-stress environment. or high blood pressure. creates significant health risks. good supervision. job security. respect. job autonomy. it is worth examining specific job characteristics to determine the extent to which they correlate with employees' perceptions of healthy work environments.Past Surveys overwhelmingly point to the importance of good workplace environment for employee satisfaction. This can arise for any number of reasons. workfamily balance. a workplace will be perceived by employees to be less healthy. good co-worker communication. is one such problem and may increase the incidence of heart attacks. Over 90% say the quality of their working environment affects their mood and attitude about their work. 22 . individual workers who perceive their workplace to be healthy still need to take responsibility for reducing their personal health risks. In the absence of any of these conditions. Worries about job security are on the rise in today's volatile market. a safe work environment. including a too-rigid or too-lax work environment. Stress in the workplace is a leading cause of employee health issues and absenteeism. making us more susceptible to common colds and viruses. and employers can support them through a range of health promotion programs. A clear and consistent picture emerges: trust. Given that roughly one in six employees considers his/her workplace unhealthy. Stress Statistics Our immune systems are affected by the strains of stress. Hypertension. Previous researches suggest that both work environmental and individual characteristics should be taken into account in order to capture sources of stress in modern working life . The biggest sustainable gains in employee health and productivity result not from these programs. which may be another cause of employee stress. however.
Companies need to rethink the very fundamentals of office design. E. said: "As the pressures of competition place new demands on differentiation through quality of knowledge management and creative thought. on behalf of cooperation and collaboration of course doesn't fit all companies. In one major UK Company. web programmers spitting out code need more privacy than salespeople using the telephone. Multi-purpose spaces. most companies have a remote or mobile workforce. and style. specific corporate and branding objectives and have an international workforce and global clients. central placed common areas are examples of strategic office designs." he added. Gone is the 1960's legacy of workplaces dominated by cubicles and private offices. new environments are needed to encourage interaction and teamwork.3. Office designs based on setting up work areas wherever they are needed in the building can raise satisfaction while boosting density. which cubicles and private offices give employees. have diverse employee demographics. When it comes to office design. When an office is configured to maximize employee interaction then collaboration becomes an integral part of every workday. To analyze the impact of office design if any on gender of employees’ performance Workplace design may promote organizational success by creating environments that support work quantity. But giving up the individual space. while improving turnover and absentee rates (Becker. As in most contexts the "one-size-fits-all" approach hardly ever works out. Paul Morrell. staff turnover at a call centre reduced by 11per cent after a move to new well-designed offices and output doubled during the same period. quality. Companies of today need to meet the business needs of today. 23 . CABE commissioner and president of the BCO. function often follows form. "Those employers who ignore the evidence of office design as an enabler of staff satisfaction and performance risk the loss of key staff and ultimately business success.g. An employee's workplace is responsible for 24 per cent of their job satisfaction level and this can affect staff performance by five per cent for individuals and 11 per cent for teams. Office design has to reflect this. 1981). Today's office design is led by the realization that collaboration is an increasingly critical ingredient the success of basically any business. Office design founded on employee privacy and individuality is no longer.
impaired judgment and decision-making and the onset of both mental and physical health problems. one person in four will suffer from a mental health problem at some point in their life1. chief executive of the British Council for Offices. and being located too far for direct reports) was considered the leading organizational factor hindering individual's physical. The costs of unhealthy and unsafe workplaces have been well documented and are calculated in terms of absenteeism 4. To assess the effect of employees’ health on their work performance: According to the 2001 World Health Organization report. The energy renewal 24 .Richard Kauntze. Stress can manifest itself in absenteeism. which found that employees put through an energy renewal program outperformed a control group by 15% to 20% in achieving bottom line targets for sales and business growth (Schwartz & McCarthy 2006). and social well-being and consequently work performance. and increased staff turnover. by contrast. inefficient and inflexible workspace. is linked to lower business performance and higher level of stress experienced by employees. privacy needs not met.. reduced productivity. psychological. communication barriers due to unshared space. A business that gives serious attention to the physical environment of the office is far more likely to increase staff productivity than one which ignores the building. said: "No part of the BCO's work is more important than developing a greater understanding of the relationship between an office building and the effectiveness of the people who work in it. Work-related stress is the root cause of a significant degree of mental ill health. The impact of health on performance is demonstrated by a study of employees at the US banking giant Wachovia. "The workforce is by far the most valuable asset of any business. For more information on this aspect of mental health. Excessive stress can lead to fatigue. And a 2006 report commissioned by five leading mental health charities states that at least one million adults in the UK are out of work with mental health problems2." he added. Poor workplace design. Poor workplace design (e.g. see our fact sheet on dealing with workplace stress. and almost always the biggest cost.
services. Dealing with mental health in the workplace People with mental health problems are not a uniform or homogenous group. By and large. practical activities that helped reduce stress and improve energy levels. Of the companies with health management. Such an initiative demonstrates that the organization recognizes and accepts that mental health is an important issue and emphasizes the organization's commitment to promoting the mental health of its workforce. discrimination against people who declare any mental health problems is still widespread . incentives have emerged as an attractive tool. wellness and productivity of the workforce. 1. As employers explore ways to improve the health. Seventy-five percent of the responding companies offer health management to their employees. While creativity is the starting point for any kind of 25 . The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) recommend that a mental health policy should be an integral part of any organization's health and safety at work policy. Individuals face challenges specific to themselves and many may need little or no support at work. and most believe that incentives are cost-effective.even though a significant proportion of the workforce faces mental health difficulties during their working life. major companies represented in this survey are “on board” in offering health management.4 Significance of the Study: Innovation is the major driving force in organizations today. processes and strategies is essential. With the rise of truly global markets and the intensifying competition for customers. A better understanding of positive effects of a good working environment would support the implementation of effective health and safety policy at company level. But employers remain concerned that incentives not become money frivolously spent. employees and other critical resources. two-thirds use employee incentives with those programs. It would complement the set of rules and regulations with a significant parameter that is directly linked to the intrinsic motivation of a company.program used simple. the ability to continuously develop successful innovative products. Employers who wish to create a healthy work environment recognize the need to establish policies and procedures in the area of mental health that set out a tangible programme with measurable targets and an effective auditing process. However.
26 . in the form of delay in work completion. almost one out of every five employees rated their workplace environment from. effect on personal growth etc. lighting. As many as 40percent of the employees believe that their companies want to keep their costs low that is why their workplaces have bad designs. Many organizations still do not give much importance to workplace design. The main hypothesis for the research is that there is a relation between the co-workers\' self-rated health. work satisfaction and the design of the office layout. When data was summarized. Yet again 89 percent blamed their working environment for their job dissatisfaction (Gensler. The results indicate that a highly rated physical working environment results in greater job satisfaction. noise. Research concerning the influence of the physical environment on the individual has ranged over a broad spectrum. In environmental psychology. In management research there are studies which have attempted to chart the effect of the physical working environment on performance and efficiency. temperature and spatial arrangement on employees’ productivity. the \'cell office\'. Around 50 different offices are taking part in the study and they all are within the \'knowledge-based\' sector. 90 percent admitted that their attitude about work is adversely affected by the quality of their workplace environment. design is the process through which a creative idea or concept is translated into reality. Their individual perception of the work environment is also going to be compared with the work satisfaction and the self-rated health. the medium large office landscape (20-50 co-workers) and the smaller landscape (7 -15 people). This study will try to find out the effects of office design in terms of furniture. The situation is that they cannot even complain about them. such as sound. The study shows that noise gives rise to dissatisfaction with the physical working environment. The project is based on a large case study of the four main types of offices that can be identified. the \'flex office\'. The aim of the research project is to see how important is the architectural design of an office. researchers have studied individual environmental factors. and how it influences the work satisfaction among the co-workers and their self-rated health.innovation. the \'combi office\' and the office landscape. and 46 percent of employees think that the priority list of their company does not have workplace design on top. The office landscape itself is divided into three groups . 2006). ‘fair to poor’. frustration. It is evident that there is less importance to office design. incentives and assisting facilities and also it is not available to the employees. to see how it affects the subjective perception of stress. These circumstances are affecting the performance of the employees greatly.the larger landscape (around 100 co-workers). with focus on the plan layout. Business line and different sizes of offices are represented in the study.
It is difficult or 27 . and we know that job satisfaction probably plays an important part in this context. have a very limited short-term effect. sickness absence has been high among the working population in recent years. the economic approach to health and safety at company level cannot replace the value of the human requirements. numerous employee surveys have shown by and large this to be untrue. Most of the organizations do not give importance to office design. Increasing knowledge of the economic and social benefits of good safety and health performance at company level plays an important part in raising occupational health and safety levels. architecture. The extra money soon comes to be regarded not as an incentive but as an "entitlement". Although this may be true in a minority of cases. However. In the context of Saudi Arabia.In the area. this is a relatively new topic. in many instances. Human resource professionals in the organizations are well aware of the importance of this issue. In fact. it is recommended to have proper and adequate artificial as well as natural light to improve the office design for better performance. this huge gap needs to be filled by new research scholars. Research shows that psychosocial environmental factors have a great influence on mental and physiological health. Lighting was found to be the major factor. that has a direct influence on the physical environment. Psychological ill health is the most common cause of sickness absence among office workers. this study will give them ample reasons to consider office design as an important factor in increasing their employees’ productivity. A company policy cannot only be based on economic parameters. Therefore. Future research should examine the dimensionality of both personality and outcomes in the workplace to understand the complexities of the relationship. which is affecting the daily and overall productivity of employees in offices. salary increases and bonuses for performance. there are few studies that show how design affects the end users. Ill health has become a macroeconomic problem. In recent studies. and that intervening variables play a substantial role. Many managers and supervisors labor under the mistaken impression that the level of employee performance on the job is proportional to the size of the employee’s pay packet. The impact and significance of work environment on employees’ productivity is addressed in this study. Health and safety is part of the social and ethical role of a company. The significance of employee goal-orientation preferences in fully mediating the relationship between personality and workplace outcomes provides further evidence to support the contention that the relationship between personality and performance may not be divagate. Very few researches can be found in the field of Human Resource Management. In Sweden.
It is also important to apply a holistic view to the office environment. decrease of lifespan. so that creativity and efficiency at the workplace may be enhanced in this way and better results may be achieved in the long run. Better understanding of positive effects of a good working environment would support the implementation of effective health and safety policy at company level. reduction in the quality of life. We know much less of how the physical office environment affects office workers and their job satisfaction. Management wishes to have more interaction and information sharing among employees. In my opinion. how and in what way the physical office environment can help improve office work. The research issue is whether. we should be able to create office environments that support both those working there and the organizations. and so on. expensive mistakes can be avoided. function and health and job satisfaction are complex. machines etc. Our objective therefore is to translate the knowledge generated by this research into practical guidelines for the various stakeholders who are involved in creating our offices. With such a research based design. It is not enough to design office environments only on the basis of practical experience and professional preconceptions. in monetary terms. industry. The practical side of the theory is its ability to give good advice.even impossible to evaluate qualitative costs such as suffering. The final evaluation concerns not only the short term. The relationships among form. materials. In other words: an interdisciplinary approach is essential. with scientific knowledge of how the physical office environment affects those working there. It would complement the set of rules and regulations with a significant parameter that is directly linked to the intrinsic motivation of a company. but is more an issue of the long term.) into goods and services 28 . since it is the totality of different factors that constitutes the actual office environment. country) converts input resources (labor.5 Terms Definition Productivity: Productivity is that which people can produce with the least effort Productivity is a ratio to measure how well an organization (or individual. family problems. We believe that. 1. This responsibility fits into the broader concept of the performance of a company. it is important to bring together the different disciplines so that we may have an opportunity to measure and assess the influence of the physical office environment on the employees. Safety and health of workers is a moral responsibility within our society that cannot only depend on productivity criteria within a particular company.
memorandum. standard for dealing with data transfer . demographic. Mentoring Act of providing guidance and support to another (usually younger or less-skilled) person Protocol Method of dealing with a certain subject. and technological factors (called environmental factors) that effect the survival. cultural. operations.Office Design: The arrangement of workspace so that work can be performed in the most efficient way Work Environment: Circumstances. economic. original record of a document. stresses. Emotional stability Emotional stability Psychology Consistency of mood and affect 29 . rules of behavior. and growth of an organization. influences. regulatory. Protocol is a set of guidelines or rules that help in governing an operation on the internet and communications over it. and competitive. draft of a treaty. natural. political.
some other objective method of collecting data can also be used. As a result. Following are a few limitations of the study: The sample size is not diverse enough to give the image of all organizations functioning in Saudi Arabia. Data was collected by employing the simple method of structured questionnaires. As the survey comprises a large number of populations. The survey was conducted in English language so it limited only to English speaking employees. other methods could have been used for collecting data. This research also relied on self-report surveys to measure employees' perceptions of their personality. so for the sake of ease only internet based data was collected.6 Limitations of the Study Potential limitations of this study include the relatively small sample size and the crosssectional nature of the data in this exploratory study. The survey was bound to be completed in a certain time. future research could utilize multiple rating sources for many of the variables. Although the performance outcome measure was collected from managers. commitment. The data collected was based on subjective productivity measurement. so time limit was a barrier from investigating more employees and acquiring more information. 30 . generalize ability of the results may be limited. such as using friends or co-workers to rate personality. and work environment preferences. which raises the potential for common method variance.1.
CHAPTER 2: Literature Review A widely accepted assumption is that better workplace environment produces better results. Similarity between a job applicant's values and the values of recruiters and employees within organizations has been shown to result in improved work attitudes and increased performance after organizational entry (Judge and Cable. It is also dependent on the physical environment and its affect on health and employees’ performance. Chatman. technology and objectives of the organization." and people are differentially attracted to. productivity is affected by many factors such as employees. Mount and Barrick. 1997. Costa. McCrae. Research by Cable and Judge (1994) and Judge and Cable (1997) provides evidence that applicants pro-actively choose such organizational environments based on individual preferences. and differentially leave organizations. 1995). 1991). as they found that job candidates seek organizations with reward systems and cultures that fit their personalities. Hum and Donovan. 2000).1 Personality. 2000. Work Environment. 1996. Of even greater significance is the possibility that the relationship between personality characteristics and specific work environments may influence performance (Hurtz and Donovan. The performance of an employee is measured actually by the output that the individual produces and it is related to productivity. and Holland (1984) assert that people begin this process by selecting into vocations that match their personalities. differentially selected. Personality Traits as Sources of Stress: 31 . Hogan et al. 1998. 2. At corporate level. Health. "the people make the place. The general trend in the research has been towards increased optimism regarding the utility of personality tests in personnel selection with the goal of ultimately enhancing job performance (Behling. Mostly the office is designed with due importance to the nature of job and the individuals that are going to work in that office. and Performance According to Schneider (1987).
and conscientiousness (Costa and McCrae. Hurtz and Donovan (2000) found that emotional stability and agreeableness were also significant predictors of interpersonal facilitation. active. Extraversion assesses the extent to which individuals are assertive. . 1993. Five personality dimensions that have been identified are neuroticism. These studies illuminate a significant gap in the literature-that Age research to date has disproportionately focused on the direct linkage between personality and performance. Of these five personality dimensions. specifically. specifically the conscientiousness dimension (Behling. Conscientiousness measures one's self-control and purposefulness and is associated with academic and occupational achievement. are creative and imaginative. 1985. and talkative. we must move beyond this divaricated relationship and toward specifying the intervening variables that link these domains" (Hurtz and Donovan. 1996. extraversion and agreeableness were more strongly related to interpersonal facilitation. McCrae. Deary and Blenkin. and prefer variety. extraversion. Recent research indicates the intervening effects of performance expectancies. 1993. self-efficacy. 1998). The general consensus has been that personality holds utility as a predictor of job performance. 1996. Openness measures the extent to which persons are open to new experiences. 1985). openness. Research has also provided evidence of linkages between personality dimensions with narrower facets of performance. 1992). Van Scotter and Motowidlo.Past studies have indicated the potential impact of personality traits on job stress (Goldberg. neuroticism has been found to have a positive relationship with job stress (Deary and Blenkin. 1997). and ". Gellatly. and goal setting on the relationship between conscientiousness and performance (Barrick et al. agreeableness. However. 2000: 32 . 1991. 1996. a number of different studies have begun to illustrate that the effects of personality on performance may be more indirect. Tellegen. if we are to truly understand the relationship between personality and job performance. 2001). Costa and McCrae. Research by Motowidlo and Van Scotter (1994. Agreeableness reflects the extent to which one is altruistic and cooperative. The neuroticism domain reflects one's degree of emotional stability and adjustment. Martocchio and Judge. and emotional stability was a predictor of task performance. . 1996) suggests that personality has a larger impact on contextual (as opposed to taskoriented) dimensions of performance. McCrae and Costa. 1985. 1992. Birch and Kamali. Snyder and Ickes.
Tending to the structural and interpersonal aspects of each of these factors enables employees to apply the required skills in a consistent and habitual way. and can guide interventions aimed at reducing employee stress in a variety of work settings. 1982). such as the social communication exchanges and cohesion among workers. These work environment preferences have been shown to affect individuals' personal functioning at work (Billings and Moos.877). maintaining a task orientation. Examination of work environment preferences can help identify organizational factors that may be problematic. A widely accepted assumption is that better workplace environment produces better results. It is also dependent on the physical environment and its affect on health and employees’ performance. System maintenance refers to how orderly and organized the work setting is. how clear it is in its expectations. The most important of workplace environment factors that either lead to engagement or disengagement are shown in the following diagram. work environment preferences can be measured using three dimensions of work environment settings: system maintenance. According to Moos (1981). A close consideration of each of these factors is also very useful in ensuring that employees apply the skills they learn during training programs once they return to their workplace. Goal orientation assesses the degree to which an environment encourages or stifles growth through providing for participation in decision making and autonomy. goal orientation. technology and objectives of the organization. and relationship dimensions. The performance of an employee is measured actually by the output that the individual produces and it is related to productivity. and how much control it maintains. At corporate level. 33 . Mostly the office is designed with due importance to the nature of job and the individuals that are going to work in that office. and the friendship and support provided by co-workers and management. and providing job challenge and expectations for success and accomplishment. The relationship dimension measures the degree of interpersonal interaction in a work environment. productivity is affected by many factors such as employees.
development of safe working practices and the adequate supply of protective clothing and equipment. office or factory design : Furniture Workspace availability Light intensity Weather/temperature Ventilation/humidity Noise/vibration Premises hygiene/welfare facilities 2. The personality factors openness to experience and emotional stability will manifest themselves in relationship and system maintenance work environment preferences. •Working patterns. 34 . agreeableness. and through their influence on such preferences will affect job performance and commitment. and extraversion-will work specifically through goal orientation and relationship work environment preferences on their way to influencing job performance and commitment. shift-working. absence or holiday cover. we believe that the personality factors conscientiousness. including the provision of training.2 THEORY AND HYPOTHESES For the reasons which follow. definition of job descriptions and the degree of access to the management and administrative support needed to complete their tasks. The factors that arise from premises. break times. and •Health and safety policies.The key factors that effect employees’ productivity and performance fall into two categories: Management driven factors include the development of: • Organization plans such as the allocation of responsibilities at all levels of the organization.
Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Extraversion and Employee Performance: Conscientiousness is the personality trait most strongly linked to performance outcomes. Two recent meta-analyses provide strong linkages between conscientiousness and employee outcomes. Salgado (2003) found that, of the Big Five dimensions, conscientiousness was the strongest predictor of job performance. Judge and Hies (2002) also found that conscientiousness was a strong and consistent predictor of performance motivation.
However, the potential influence of the mediating effects of work environments on the conscientiousness-performance relationship has been hinted at in several recent empirical studies. Research by Witt, Burke, Barrick, and Mount (2002) and Witt and Ferris (2003) found that low levels of social skill on the part of conscientious employees removed the significant relationship with performance. This result indicates the potential importance of the interpersonal interaction-oriented relationship dimension of work environments as a mediator in the conscientiousness-performance relationship.
The importance of the goal achievement dimension and maintaining a task orientation in work environments on the conscientiousness-performance relationship has been indicated in research by Stewart, Fulmer, Barrick, and Hollenbeck (2005), whereby conscientious employees were shown to focus on task role behavior in their pursuit of team performance outcomes. The relationship between conscientiousness and increased commitment also seems to have a goal achievement mediator, as Moon (2001) found that conscientiousness operational zed through achievement-striving was associated with an escalation of commitment.
The relationship between the personality dimension of agreeableness and performance has also received some recent support. Agreeableness may lead to enhanced customer contact and interactions, and improved relationships and communication with managers. Agreeable employees may be viewed as more trustworthy, and as possessing higher levels of integrity, which can aid them in customer relationships and in access to valued information (Costa and McCrae, 1995; Sackett and DeVore, 2001).
The work environment dimension of goal achievement may play a significant mediating role in the relationship between extraversion and employee outcomes. In examining the ratings of performance in a sales job, Barrick et aL (2002) found that an individual's striving for status and accomplishment mediated the extraversion-performance relationship. And Barry and Stewart (1997) noted that extraverts induce perceptions of their contributions to group outcomes by focusing on providing task related inputs. Such task- and accomplishmentoriented efforts indicate the importance to extraverts of goal achievement-oriented work environments.
In summary, our review of the literature suggests that the personality factors conscientiousness, agreeableness, and extraversion manifest themselves in preferences for goal- and relationship-oriented work environments, which in turn affect employee performance and commitment.
Openness to Experience and Employee Performance: Openness to experience has been described as an employee's desire to be intellectually curious, imaginative, and open to possibilities. We often hear of business coveting employees who can "think outside the box" or can adapt and change to solve complex problems in a continuously evolving work environment (Burke and Win, 2002). It appears that the research on the openness to experience-performance relationship has reinforced the idea that dynamic work environments in which learning and adaptation are required tend to enhance the openness-performance link. Bing and Lounsbury (2000) found that openness predicted variance in job performance above and beyond all of the other dimensions of the Big Five. However, the sample consisted of employees in U.S.-based Japanese manufacturing firms, of whom a large amount of employee training, adaptability, and change were required. Generally, the research indicates strong linkages between openness to experience and enhanced performance in such learning and adaptation-oriented environments as decision making (Lepine, 2000; Colquitt et al., 2002) and training proficiency (Salgado, 1997). This may indicate a negative relationship with the mediating work environment dimension of system maintenance, which emphasizes control, order, and organization.
Employees with high levels of openness to experience may also benefit from highly relationship-oriented work environments, as Nikolaou (2003) found that openness to experience was related to performance only for occupations involving higher levels of social interaction. The relationship between openness to experience and employee commitment may also be mediated by relationship dimensions of work environments. In a three-wave longitudinal study of employees, openness was associated with higher levels of proactive socialization behavior and relationship building, which were related to employee commitment outcomes of turnover intentions and actual turnover (Wanberg and KammeyerMueller, 2000).
2.3 The Key Factors of Employee’s Health That Effect Their Productivity:
Health concerns, naturally, are a big drain on an employee's ability to be productive, and companies know it. At the SHRM Conference and Exposition last June in Washington, D.C., a survey showed that 85 percent of U.S. employers said they were interested in services to increase employee productivity, minimize absences and enhance the health of their employees. Estimates show that 18 to 20 million American adults age 19 to 64 are not working due to a disability or chronic disease, or are not working because of health reasons. Roughly 69 million workers reported missing days due to illness last year, for a total of 407 million days of lost time at work. Along these same lines, nearly 40 percent of U.S. workers experience fatigue, according to a study in the January "Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine." Researchers noted that the effects of fatigue, most related to a wide range of physical and mental health problems, on health-related lost productive time is not just absenteeism but also days the employee is at work and is performing at less than full capacity because of health reasons. For U.S. employers, fatigue carries overall estimated costs of more than $136 billion per year in health-related lost productivity, $101 billion more than for workers without fatigue. Eighty-four percent of the costs were related to reduce performance while at work, rather than absences.
material Quality losses Training of new staff Technical disturbances Organizational difficulties Increase of production costs Increase of the insurance premium or reduction of the discount Administration costs Legal sanctions Loss of production Increase of social security costs Medical treatment and rehabilitation costs Decrease of the standard of living Family and friends Colleagues Company Deterioration of the social climate Bad reputation Weakening of human relations Society Reduction of the human labor potential Reduction of the quality of life Table 2: Costs of occupational accidents and ill-health 38 .Non-tangible Victim Pain and suffering Moral and psychological suffering (especially in the case of a permanent disability) Moral and psychological suffering Medical and family burden Bad feeling Worry or panic (in case of serious or frequent accidents) Tangible Loss of salary and premiums Reduction of professional capacity Loss of time (medical treatments) Financial loss Extra costs Loss of time and possibly also of premiums Increase of workload Training of temporary workers Internal audit Decrease in production Damages to the equipment.
In order to insure that the Health Program is effective.The Table shows clearly that occupational accidents and ill health can have serious consequences for individual workers. Their goal is to assist the employee in maximizing optimum health and professional productively while minimizing the ill effects of work area stress and hazards. for their families and social networks. Employees in Saudi Aramco are given job-related health information and counseling as soon as they begin in processing and it is continued throughout their period of employment. Without good health and proper working conditions. When available. Our ability to manage our moods in the face of everyday stresses is one of the secrets to job satisfaction. people cannot produce to their optimum capacity. Emotionally stable employees are able to maintain a problem-solving attitude when dealing with a wide range of stressful work conditions. and the employee is orientated to the resources of Health Program. Emotional stability is the ability to handle pressure and stress. people are considered most important resource. Workplace safety and health conditions are examined. as well as for companies and society as a whole. 39 . Recommended immunizations for employees working in hazardous areas are provided. to consistently carry out responsibilities. Problem areas are reported and corrective action is recommended. and self-discipline. The employee is periodically instructed about potentially hazardous conditions existing in the work environment. Initially the employee’s health is evaluated in relation to the job to be performed. periodic visits are made to work areas by environmental and occupational health specialists. influenza vaccine is offered annually on a voluntary basis to all Saudi Aramco employees. In the Saudi Aramco. Occupational health nurses give presentations to supervisors regarding their responsibility for employee health and safety and the Health staff also arranges for presentations on specific health problems that may affect certain groups of employees. Emotional Stability and Employee Performance We all have our emotional ups and downs. and thus may fail to reach both their own professional potential and the productivity required to make the Saudi Aramco function effectively. The employee’s supervisor also notes physical/health problems the employee may have on the job or within the working environment. along with any adverse results these conditions might have on employee health and safety.
1985). insecure. emotional instability and maladjustment.Neuroticism reflects one's tendency to experience negative affects such as fear. Hence. Such information seems to suggest that these individuals are likely to perceive greater organizational stressors. a higher level of neuroticism implies a higher level of psychological distress. 1992). the job stress level experienced by employees who have high neuroticism tend to decrease when the level of unfavorable work environment ranges from moderate to high. when the alienation level is low to moderate. the stress level of employees with low levels of neuroticism shows an increasing trend when the unfavorable work environment level increases from low to high. anger. For employees with high level of neuroticism. In work settings. For employees with low neuroticism. and tends to interfere with one's ability to adapt. lead to higher job stress. sadness. People with high levels of neuroticism (representing the negative pole of emotional stability) are described as depressed. and anxious. 1985. embarrassment. which in turn. and unfavorable work environment) and job stress. Neuroticism was found to moderate the relationships between three organizational stressors (alienation. increase in job stress is at an increasing rate when the level of unfavorable work environment is perceived to range from moderate to high as opposed to when the level of unfavorable work environment is perceived to range from low to moderate. one would expect the effects of organizational stressors on job stress among these individuals to be greater compared to those who are low in neuroticism. individuals high in neuroticism are thought to be less able to both control their impulses and cope effectively with stress. people with neuroticism traits are those who experience more negative emotions. their job stress level seems to remain constant when the level of unfavorable work environment is between low to moderate. According to previous scholars (Costa and McCrae. individuals high in neuroticism are emotionally unstable and experience negative affect (Costa and McCrae. and disgust (Costa and McCrae. their stress 40 . work overload. Thus. Specifically. Thus. and high levels of job stress. guilt. which would be reflected in poor job attitudes. activated by perceptions of environmental uncertainty. However. Generally. Tellegen (1985) suggested that neuroticism functions as a warning system. 1992).
an external locus of control. It should not be surprising that in the Judge and Hies (2002) meta-analysis. Van Vianen and De Dreu (2001) found that high levels of emotional stability contributed to social cohesion in teams. 2005). 1997). The impact of emotional stability/ neuroticism seems to be related to the ability to form and maintain positive relationships in one's work environment. their job stress level decreases with low to moderate alienation level and increases as the alienation level moves from moderate to high. Many authors have noted that. For employees with high level of neuroticism.level showed an increasing trend and a decreasing one when the alienation level moves from moderate to high. These traits are considered would not facilitate effective job performance. along with efficient management processes. and high levels of neuroticism predict anger and neglect in relationships (Barta and Kiene. We hypothesize that the relationship between emotional stability and employee performance and commitment is mediated by the relationship work environment dimension. 41 . and lower job satisfaction. Williams et al. and attract more employees. 2. many organizations have been trying new designs and techniques to construct office buildings. Emotional stability has also been shown to positively and significantly predict academic performance (Nguyen et al. which can increase productivity. Further.4) Relationship between Office Design and Productivity Over the years. 2000). a meta-analysis conducted by Frye (2001) suggests that neuroticism is the latent construct underlying lower levels of self-esteem. 1993. emotional stability was the strongest and most consistent correlate of performance motivation. lower self-efficacy. 1985). 2005) and turnover intentions (Caligiuri. is playing a major role in boosting employees’ productivity and improving organizational performance (Uzee. and Barrick and Mount (1991) have argued that such individuals are often selected out of the labor pool altogether. the physical layout of the workspace. So low to moderate levels of work alienation are considered to be more preferable among employees with high neuroticism whilst moderate to high preferable levels of work alienation are more preferable among employees with low neuroticism. Leaman and Bordass. A similar result was obtained in a met analysis of European data (Salgado. 1999.
2006). feel that a better physical working environment would have a positive impact on their company's bottom line.S.K. They also estimate that their companies would be able to perform an average of 22% more work if their companies had better designed physical working environments. competently and in compliance with operational performance targets. business objectives. It is important to address the following: Furniture Workspace availability Light intensity Weather/temperature Ventilation/humidity Noise/vibration Premises hygiene/welfare facilities 42 . and also makes a company more competitive. Workplace Survey is part of the firm's annual inquiry into the impact of design on business performance and builds on an earlier workplace survey conducted by Gensler's U.S. office.The Gensler 2006 U. including occupants of the C-suite. an Executive Director at Gensler.S. The Gensler 2006 U. According to the survey. "They are embracing performance-focused workplace design as a strategic business initiative--as the forum that can drive employee excellence. Nearly 90% of senior executives. and ultimately. the effect of office design on worker productivity in the U. "Businesses are waking up to the fact that the workplace is much more than just real estate and a means to house their people." said Diane Hoskins. the bottom line. office workers believe they would be 21% more productive if given a better working environment. Almost half say they would log an extra hour per day under such improved circumstances. These survey findings suggest businesses that ignore the design and layout of their workplaces are failing to optimize. The work environment can also have an impact on an individual’s ability to work safely. according to an analysis and an independent research firm conducted a research on US workplace environment (Gensler. In fact. is estimated to be at least $330 billion annually for the eight industry groups sampled in the survey." According to the survey. Workplace Survey reveals that workplace design has a very real impact on companies' bottom lines. nine in ten workers believe that better office design leads to better overall employee performance.
There are various sources of noise pollution. in turn affecting the overall organizations. etc. like desks. drawers. the filing system.Furniture Office furniture comprises of desks chairs. The positioning of the computer monitor and the mouse should also be adequate. his work is bound to get affected. Office furniture like desks can be designed to give greater leg room and adequate support to the elbows while working on the computer. so that the user does not have to strain his vision to view and stretch uncomfortably far to reach them. one of the most important thing to be considered while buying office furniture is to ensure whether it is ergonomic or not. and even employ ergonomic experts that advice people on how to improve their office ergonomics and what type of furniture would be suitable to make the ergonomics of a work place better. They are designed in manner that makes them safe to be had around and also reduce the possibility of any accidents in the work place. then the employee will be comfortable and remain motivated to give his best. their working style and efficiency gets hampered considerably. 43 . In some places noise from construction projects predominate. and if they are uncomfortable and not user friendly. chairs. shelves. These days’ organizations consult. Ergonomics of office furniture is important because an employee has to work with them for the entire time that he is on office. and at the same time taking care of the employees' health. Noise harms us in more ways than we can think of and at times without us even knowing about it. Noise: It is probably the most frequently forgotten of the environmental pollutants whose effects can be far-reaching. All these components have a specific role to play in the proper functioning of any office and the productivity and the efficiency of the employees. computer alignment and even environmental factors. If all factors surrounding the employee are ergonomically correct. which again has an adverse effect on the productivity. Office furniture helps the organization tremendously in increasing its productivity. while in others it is vehicular traffic or noise from airports. where the laws are either battered in the name of religion or just for fun. We cannot have a noise free world but we sure can have a noise safe world. Having ergonomic office furniture reduces the chances of any risk injury. Other sources include the noise in occupational settings or even the noise of simultaneous conversations. Ergonomic office furniture ensures that each employee gels well with the things around him. If the employee is uncomfortable due to any reason. Non-ergonomic office furniture can also lead to health problems of employees. In our country unleashed loudspeakers disturb the neighborhood on seemingly endless nights. And.
Architects and Interior designers have a notion that acoustically treated spaces are not aesthetically appealing. if business success is to be achieved. Very often. he should always consider the acoustic impact of the materials being used. Virtually every space demands acoustic attention in order to function for its specified purpose. educational institutes and also retail spaces. Some environments can even become dangerously loud and unsafe for the occupants. annoyance. Acoustics is essential to the functioning of almost every type of environment. is the ability to conduct work without distraction. Unhealthy employees not only would be a cause of concern but also their health is directly proportional to their productivity and hence their performance. office acoustics also affects employee health and safety. If your space does not meet the needs of the end user or is found to be unsafe. But the severity of this potential problem is overlooked. panel heights and ceiling systems. It is very difficult. Beyond productivity. anxiety. headache. office noise poses some serious concerns. Through this discrepancy. 44 . 70% of office workers polled agreed that productivity can increase if office noise is decreased. you could be held liable. as far as productivity is concerned. it has become a part of homes. In order to effectively address these issues.Talking of the business world. hostility and violence. Think about where are the people being placed. noise does not produce visible results. how are the job types being grouped. In a recent study completed for the American Society of Interior Designers (ASID) by Yankelovich Partners. it is apparent that companies must increase their attentiveness of the acoustic environments of open-office spaces. When one is designing an open office. But a subsequent study (conducted for ASID by LC Williams and Associates) proved that business executives do not acknowledge office noise: 81% of those who polled reported they were not concerned with office noise. the type of telephones being used. noise creates health hazards affecting children the most. people believe that noise does not cause health hazards. today’s acoustics have both ‘beauty and brains’. Architects and interior designers have a big and profound responsibility to design functional and sound safe environments. offices. acoustics should be considered in the design phase itself. That is why probably. Now acoustics is no more limited only to the dark cinema halls or big auditoriums. Many studies acknowledge that noise (even at low levels) is a cause of stress that causes health problems such as digestive disorders. But thanks to the perseverance of certain individuals and their constant innovative study and experience. you could be putting people in danger. if not impossible to meet these goals without considering acoustics. Allowing the end-users to experience true acoustic comfort in the spaces designed will be appreciated anytime. hypertension. with extremely high noise levels even causing hear loss in newborns. hospitals. It should not be forgotten. and worst yet. and ulcers. One of the most important aspects of an open office. Noise can cause irritation. anti-social behavior. But as per different studies. sound masking.
when the days are shorter.There are plenty of solutions available to combat potential acoustic problems in open-office spaces in order to facilitate employee productivity. if any. Some studies shows as much as 10 percent of people are affected. the only purpose of indoor lighting was to aid with visually directed tasks when there wasn't enough external light. In the past. concentration. Common knowledge. well furnished office could be designed which will take care of noise and will also give the visual delight of perfect interior designing. 45 . the part of our brains that controls and moderates sleep and wakefulness. Today with the endless options in acoustic themes and with the widened horizon of designers who now combine architecture with acoustic designing. which can be a serious. Treatment of SAD consists of exposure to high light levels for 30 minutes each day. It is an acute depression. but this could be nothing but taking one further away from the truth. Light intensity: Up until recently. primarily in the autumn and winter months. Adjusting the type and quality of light can significantly improve working experience and productivity. backed up by scientific research proves that the quality of indoor lighting in the office can have significant effects on the performance and the well-being of employees. SAD includes depressive symptoms and is experienced by approximately six out of one hundred people in the developed world. there has been a stigma associated with acoustic products. In just the last few years. preferably before 10:00 a. directly affecting our levels of alertness. Light is an important therapy treatment for individuals who suffer from SAD (seasonal affective disorder). an acoustically perfect. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a type of clinical depression related to morning light deprivation. and task performance. exposed to little. the understanding of how light impacts upon our health has grown by leaps and bounds. natural light. life threatening condition and thus requires medical advice. as many workers spend the majority—if not all—daylight hours indoors. Non visual receptors in the retina of the eye form nerve pathways that directly influence our biological clock. The brightness of office light effects alertness. usually in the late fall and winter days. But a recent discovery has shown that light has an impact beyond merely helping us see.m. It is now being suggested that modern working conditions can make these symptoms worse. Some professionals think they’re utilitarian and that they limit your design options.
sensors and multiple switches also enable varied lighting levels to match needs. 46 .Over-lighting can actually make a workplace uncomfortable and distracting. Workers who use computer display terminals typically prefer relatively low lighting levels to minimize glare and reflections on their display screens. It is easier to turn off localized lighting when it isn’t needed than to shut off lighting from a general overhead source. also need higher lighting levels. write and draw on paper typically prefer higher lighting levels so they can see small letters and fine details. offer an excellent color rendition (have a high Color Rendering Index) and save energy. Dimmable intelligent lighting systems allow the user to control light levels and save energy. eliminate flickers. Task specific or directed lighting makes for a more comfortable and aesthetic workspace. while reducing energy use. Task lamps and desk lamps are essential pieces of office equipment. Task lamps relieve inefficient overhead lights of their massive duties. direct/indirect linear suspended fixtures eliminate glare and increase the visual comfort of the occupants. In addition. who must adapt to varying levels of sunlight during the day and workers who require adjusted lighting levels for the different daily tasks that they perform. workers who read. Also. notably reducing energy use and over lighting. Newer technologies such as T8 lamps with electronic ballasts increase the lighting output. and others with weak vision. Giving workers control over their lighting has been found to result in energy savings and increased workplace satisfaction. On the other hand. Using direct lighting to illuminate specific areas instead of relying on ceiling fixtures that light entire rooms is an innovative idea. Dimmers. An over lit office can be uncomfortable and increase agitation and distraction. The ability to adjust lighting levels is particularly important for workers seated near windows. giving workers control over their lighting has been demonstrated to increase productivity and workplace satisfaction. offering workers the control they need to be comfortable and productive. Older workers.
Sky Effect™ Technology With this understanding of how light affects our bodies. look up at your lights. Figure 6: The effect of sky on workplace These new lights incorporate greater levels of shorter wavelength light—light in the blue range of the spectrum. these deliver a far broader spectrum of light. Sky Effect™ lights are described as having a "higher color temperature" than conventional lights. Benefits: Increases focus. As you consider workplace productivity and satisfaction. The Sky Effect™ range of fluorescent lights are specially designed for office and factory use. minimizing lost work time and maximizing productivity 47 . and concentration Boost performance Fends off fatigue Reverses Seasonal Affective Disorder. Nature Bright has created a new generation of industrial lighting. alertness. Unlike conventional lights. This blue light has been shown to have the greatest effects upon our central biological clock. Its brightness is exactly the same and its clarity is pleasing to the eye. And this higher temperature will result in a brighter mood—for you and your coworkers. It also happens to be precisely the spectrum of light that is missing in conventional indoor lighting! This light is only slightly different in appearance to conventional lights. There may be a bright way to change your workplace and give everyone there a boost.
although the World Health Organization recommends a maximum working temperature of 24ºC. Unless intense physical effort is involved. But for someone not as thin. ergonomically designed offices. as other factors such as air movement and relative humidity will also have a part to play. that temperature alone may not ensure ‘reasonable’ comfort. It can be very easy for employers to underestimate the importance of general day-to-day comfort. Low Humidity Levels have a debilitating effect on our ability to breathe and swallow without discomfort as our mouths and noses can become dry due to the increased level of evaporation in the surrounding environment. Possible Effects of Temperature/Humidity: High Temperature Levels: Employee lethargy and tiredness as a result of increased body temperature lead to possible efficiency decreases. the temperature in all workplaces inside buildings shall be reasonable’. For a thin person. a higher temperature might be better. This. It should be stressed however. etc. In hot environments.. but it does increase our susceptibility to high temperature levels as evaporation of body sweat is impeded. it is not uncommon for staff to become irritable and less efficient. the workplace regulations say that temperature in workrooms should normally be at least 16ºC (a workroom is defined as a room where people work for more than short periods). can have a dramatic effect on the performance of a worker. avoiding RSI. EMPLOYEE COMFORT Temperature and humidity can have a significant impact on how alert or tired somebody might feel. 48 . Low Temperature Levels: Low Temperature Levels decrease in efficiency due to cooler body heat and shivering. in turn.Temperature and Humidity: What temperature works best for one’s productivity depends on one’s body. but the overall comfort of the working conditions of employees can sometimes be overlooked. a lower temperature may work better. A lot of emphasis has been placed in recent years on issues such as maximum working hours. High humidity In itself may not be a direct problem. Regulation 7 of the Workplace (Health. Currently there are no regulations governing high temperature levels in offices and the responsibility of employers to their employees in this respect. Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 states that‘During working hours.
PRODUCTIVITY AND TEMPERATURE An ergonomics study by the Cornell Institute in the US concluded that there were definitive links between the efficiency/productivity levels of workers and the environmental conditions in offices. 89 percent of the respondents rated design. 49 . colder workers could mean more errors and therefore higher costs for the employer. workplace designs. from important to very important. The study results showed that 31 percent of people were satisfied with their jobs and had pleasing workplace environments. the research concluded that higher temperatures (in the region of 2425ºC) resulted in fewer keyboard errors than occurred at temperatures of around 19ºC. which showed that almost 22 percent increase can be achieved in the company’s performance if their offices are well designed. 1999) carried out an independent study and revealed that the physical workplace design is one of the top three factors. a survey was conducted by taking a sample size of 2013. 50 percent of people were seeking jobs and said that they would prefer a job in a company where the physical environment is good. The final outcome of the survey suggested that businesses can enhance their productivity by improving their workplace designs. regular monitoring could also help companies and organizations to identify how environmental conditions can be adjusted to help improve productivity and efficiency within the office workplace. Almost 90 percent of senior officials revealed that effective workplace design is important for the increase in employees’ productivity. In other words. which affect performance and job satisfaction. Although by no means completely representative of all kinds of environments and all type of industry. work satisfaction. The research was related to. In March 2006. The American Society of Interior Designers (ASID. in addition. Health and Safety regulations mean that some form of ongoing monitoring should be carried out by employers. A rough estimation was made by executives. Temperature and humidity monitoring in office environments has often been overlooked as a mechanism for ensuring that a workforce is both happy and efficient. and productivity. but.
The study includes recommendations for better practices aimed at identification of effective occupational strategies to aid in improved work ability. this business line covers the biggest number of employees and tasks in the company. The study was conducted through two questionnaires. and the second questioner was about the work environments and its impact on employee 50 . and desks located in open areas were included.. A review of the literature on work environment and performance is conducted. Questions are structured to discover which organizational factors (i. Primary data is collected through a survey. the first one was about the office design and its impact on employee performs. articles from journals. management support. Descriptive statistics are used to analyze the data.e. Content analysis procedures (Spradley. 1979) are used to determine relationships between subjects’ answers. Workspace types such as enclosed cubicles with partition walls. The effects of design features are compared to other organizational factors. This study examines office workers in different offices in order to collect information required to meet the objectives of the study.2 Study Population As mentioned in the sampling procedure. the study conducted in the Project Management business line in Saudi Aramco Company. and coworker support) in relevant workplace workers perceive to hamper or encourage their ability to perform effectively. cellular offices with floorto-ceiling walls. workplace design features. technology and equipment. and official web sites.CHAPTER 3: Research Methodology 3.1 Research Design The research design is a basic research and it is a field survey through self administered questionnaires. 3. secondary data is obtained from books.
HR group and the planning group. Primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire. So this business line covers the biggest number of employees and tasks in the company. NAPD Northern Area Projects Dept. It also included the IT group departments. SAPD Southern Area Project dept.3 Sampling Procedure: The petroleum Aramco Company (Project Management Business Line). The survey consisted of employees from different departments of Aramco’s business line like (FPD facility Planning Dept. engineers in their different ranges. Managers were provided a summary of the results of employee perceptions of the work environment to encourage participation in the research. and it has works with the contractors (out side company that help Aramco in some job like the drilling and design). cost group . system business analyst. This survey was distributed to the managers and secretaries as well. I tried to cover all the business line to have a large number of answers from different employees in different jobs.timekeepers . The study covers most of the business lines employees. Observation was also used to collect the required information. Saudi Arabia has been chosen as the population for the study because it covers most of Aramco employees and various kinds of jobs that begin from the genitor to the Senior Vice President. And the people who participate in the questioners were from different levels of jobs ranging from the manager to the business cleric. • • The relationship between personality. and others. to the admin clerks and admin assistances.performance. the employee can meet in the work environment. 51 . PS&CD project support dept. with a letter explaining that it’s for study which may solve many problems. The survey focused on two factors. The distribution of sample among offices and number of employees taken from each office are given. 3. work environment and employees’ productivity The relationship between office design and employees’ productivity. It also covers many jobs cycle in Aramco such as Chapter 8 (which is the out of Kingdom assignment. A total of 200 employees from these 7 departments were taken as the sample size.
and medical. A few questions were measured by the five point Likert Scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (always). The scale varies from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) for most of the questions. All subjects were located in the Eastern Province. For example. supervisors. allowing the employees to hide their identity which improved the response rate. Saudi Arabia. clients. direct-sales representatives. subjects consisted of employees of seven different departments. The questions in the questionnaire for the subjective productivity measurement were in percentages. The strength of the MSS is its broad definition of performance. 3. The survey was administered to the direct supervisors or managers of the employees to collect ratings of each subject employee's performance. All of the surveys were administered through internet. A total of 90 subjects participated in the study. 1996 and Laitinen et al. The performance measure used was the Minnesota Satisfactoriness Survey (MSS) (Gibson et al.In the first survey. A five point Likert Scale was used to measure all the variables. customer service personnel. 4 questions on each variable. work environment and performance Questionnaire B to study relationship between office design and employees’ productivity Survey 1: Questionnaire A consisted of 24 questions. A wide range of offices and positions were chosen to provide greater heterogeneity in both job context preferences and personalities in the sample. as every employee in the position analyzed within each organization was included as a subject. Data was collected from the sample of 13 offices (105 employees). 1977). Subjective productivity data was gathered from the employees. Out of these. customers and suppliers.4 Data Collection and Measures As my survey was divided into two parts. such a question might be. telemarketers. so there were two Questionnaire forms named as: Questionnaire A to study relationship between personality. information systems specialists. ‘how your productivity changed during the last year’ (Black and Lynch. based on the technique of subjective productivity measurement. The subjects were chosen using quota sampling. Managers were provided a summary of the results of employee perceptions of the work environment to encourage participation in the research. representing financial analysts. on a scale of 1-4. 4 questions were on productivity. including assessments of the quality and quantity of 52 . 1999). A direct subjective productivity measurement is a survey question concerning an employees’ own productivity.
military.an employee's work. The WES consists of ninety statements such as "The work is really challenging" and "People take an interest in each other. 1994). as it provides a parsimonious measure of overall commitment that has been effectively used in research linking individual preferences with organizational attitudinal outcomes 53 . 1987). represents the Big Five personality measure (Costa and McCrae.83 on the various subscales (Moos. goal orientation (the degree of job challenge and task orientation). Studies indicate that the reliability coefficients for the MSS range from . The twenty-eight item instrument asks managers to rate each employee's efforts and outcomes in comparison to the rest of the work group.95. The third measure in the employee survey examined employee commitment. Validity of the NEO-FFI's five factors has been indicated across a large number of studies (Costa and McCrae. 1977). Reliabilities of the WES (using Cronbach's Alpha) have varied from . administered to the employees. support and cohesion among workers). The WES was chosen to measure work environment preferences as it utilizes a broad approach to defining work environments in three distinct dimensions: system maintenance (referring to how orderly and organized the work setting is). and the MSS has demonstrated validity in longitudinal examinations of tenure and promotions across a variety of occupations (Gibson et al. with a median of . 1994). The first was the Work Environment Scale (WES) (Moos. the NEO-FFl Form S. McCrae and Costa. 1994). which was used to measure subjects' perceptions of their ideal work environment. The first survey. O'Reilly and Chatman's (1986) psychological attachment instrument was used.69 to .. included three instruments. and their overall dependability and promo ability. The second instrument in the employee survey. and correctional facility environments (Moos. and relationship dimensions (desired levels of social interaction. 1995.69 to . The WES has shown validity in predicting outcomes with employees in health care. 1991)." which subjects rate as either true or false in representing their work environment preferences.87.
In an initial study. sex. The relationship is defined in such a way that the set of factors impact on an individual. job satisfaction and perception of the physical office environment. 54 . 491 people employed by 26 companies were analyzed with reference to self-reported health status. These factors have different impacts on different employees based on their gender.Survey 2: Different types of offices have been compared and have taken into consideration the fact that there may be differences among those employed in different types of office with respect to age. which in turn determine the final outcome in terms of increased or decreased productivity of that individual. small open plan office (4–9 people /room) open plan office of medium size (10–24 people/room) and large open plan office (>24 people/room) Conceptual framework Based on the literature review. the relationship between office design and productivity was conceptualized and depicted in Figure below. b. The types of office we are studying are defined by their architectural and functional characteristics as outlined below: • • • • • cell office (private room) shared room (2-3 people/room) flexible office (no workplace of one's own) combination office (team based office type) and open plan office. broken down into a. c. appointment and the type of company.
temperature and spatial arrangement were used to determine the extent of the loss in productivity. temperature. 55 . The overall response for each factor was analyzed and the mean and standard deviation values are shown in the Table 1. noise. lighting and spatial arrangement were considered for study in the second survey. Data was analyzed to identify the factor that the relatively high tendency towards decreasing productivity. noise.Conceptual framework Furniture Noise Lighting Productivity Temperature Spatial Arrangements Independent Variables Dependent Variable Figure 7: The effect of five basic elements on productivity Five indicators of office design such as furniture. lighting. Different office design factors such as furniture.
Both natural and artificial light is very essential in any office environment. Due to this discomfort.63) SD= Standard deviation Table 3: Mean of factors The prime factor which affects the productivity of employees is lighting in the office.41 (0. 26.62) 3.Factors Furniture Noise Lighting Temperature Spatial arrangement Total number of respondents 105 105 105 105 105 Mean (SD) for Factor 3.77) 3.67 (0. Next to the factor lighting. According to the data collected.23 (0. 56 .70 (0. Accomplishment of daily tasks in workplaces with less or dim light is difficult for employees.6 percent respondents were female employees and 73. productivity is very much affected causing overall decrease in employee’s performance.86 (0. furniture and temperature.63 3. Then the importance sequence is noise. It gives a sense of energy and affects the mood of the employees.44) 3. Hawthorne effect is the best example of benefit of lighting in productivity. Working in dim light leads to eye strain and thus causing headaches and irritability. The overall response according to the gender and the mean and productivity for male and female employees is detailed in Table 2. it is spatial arrangement.3 percent were male employees.
77) 3. which they use in their workplaces.26 ((0.84 (0.92 (0.21) and in their surroundings. On the other hand.49 (0.61) Mean (SD) for female employees Furniture Noise Lighting Temperature Spatial arrangement 3.66) Overall mean Overall Productivity 3.62).13 (0.Factors Factors Mean (SD) for Male employees 3.77) and their performance also remains unaffected with uncomfortable furniture (3.84 (0.46) 3.68 (0. the female respondents’ results show that there are many noise distractions in their workplace (3.23).84) but due to even a little noise their productivity was affected (3.45 3. If only the performance of both male and female employees is compared then we can see that male employees perform less than female employees due to bad furniture. While analyzing the means of Noise obtained from the data.21 (0.36) 3.77 (0.21 (0.23 SD= standard deviation Table 4: Overall Responses according to Gender According to the results in Table 2.23). it was revealed that male employees were not much affected by noise (3.61) 3.64) 3.62 3.68). But due to this noise productivity of female employees is not affected (3. male employees are affected by the furniture in their offices (3. their productivity is also affected by the furniture they are using or which surrounds their workplaces (3. Along with this the results also show that female employees are less affected by the furniture in their work area (3.62).59) 3.62 3.82) 3. 57 .46) 3.
In case of male employees. According to the results female employees are more conscious about the arrangement of space in their workplaces (3.62). Both natural and artificial light is needed in a proper and adequate amount to carry out normal activities of everyday office work. which means that lighting is not proper in offices and when we see the productivity of male employees against this mean it is high (3. So. Female respondents’ results show that the temperature conditions of their offices are good (3.62). Male employees’ results show that they are more concerned about the lighting in their offices then the spatial arrangement and other factors. the conclusion can be made that due of improper lighting in offices male employees have difficulty in completing and concentrating on their work and their productivity (3. This factor was analyzed in my research. There is a direct relationship between office Design and productivity.84).21) but due to this their productivity is not affected (3. Results revealed that male employees show a low mean (3. Another major aspect of the way in which the workplace aids productivity is in supporting work processes through the way that space is arranged.62) is affected.23). The overall mean of all the factors show a low mean for female employees (3. which means that temperature is not irregular in their offices. only the productivity of male employees (3.13) a little more than male employees. it is satisfactory. One of the most important features in office design is light.49) by the spatial arrangement than female employees but their productivity (3. 58 .23) with respect to noise.Because female employees are always chatting. they can work in noisy surroundings. Pearson’s Correlation is a measurement of the strength of a linear or straight line relationship between two variables. This means that female employees are more concerned about their workplace surroundings than male employees. In the someway when female employees’ results were analyzed. they are far less affected (3.45) and a relatively high mean for male employees (3.26). but their productivity (3. Temperature affects productivity the most. and it transpired that they were affected (3. This relationship between office design and productivity was determined by using the Pearson’s Correlation in standard statistical software “Statistical Package for Social Sciences” (SPSS). The Correlation Coefficients indicate both the direction of the relationship and its magnitude (Table 3). Differences are found amongst the responses to different factors in the workplace.23) is not affected by lighting around their workplace. On comparing. the mean value for male employees is (3.92) in both summers and winters. therefore. Due to the pleasant temperature in summers and winters there is no adverse effect on their productivity (3.23).23) the result shows that lighting affects male employees more while working in offices then female employees.62) and female employees (3.62) and female employees (3.62).62) is affected by this. productivity of male employees is more then female employees. But a little irregularity in temperature affects their productivity (3. Comparing the productivity of male employees (3. Similarly.
000 Spatial arrangement r is Pearson correlation coefficient * Correlation is significant at the 0. when the correlation was calculated in SPSS it gave a positive relation with productivity (r=0.047 .000 .467) at p=0.01 shows that employees’ productivity highly correlates to the lighting conditions in the offices.01. There is a positive relationship between Noise and Productivity.01.467(**) . 59 . Table 5: Correlation between Elements of Office Design and Employee Productivity The analysis of the results indicate a positive correlation between furniture and productivity (r = 0.720(**) . Spatial Arrangement is the space factor in office design.Office design Elements Furniture Noise Lighting Temperature and Air Quality Pearson Correlation (r) .720) at 0.429) is significant at 0.380(**) Significance (2-tailed) .194) and is significant at 0.194(*) . The results of temperature reveal its significant correlation with productivity (r=0. This shows that when the furniture of the office is not comfortable and according to the needs of the employees their productivity is affected.01.000 .01 level (2-tailed).000 .05 level (2-tailed) ** Correlation is significant at the 0.380) where p=0. The positive relationship between lighting and productivity (r = 0.05. The correlation coefficient (r=0. 429(**) . It means that the spatial arrangement has a considerable effect on the employees’ Productivity (Table 5).
51525 R= Correlation coefficient a. Spatial arrangement. 60 .021 and 0. On converting the R.Model Summary Model 1 R .555 Std. 0. furniture. Error of the Estimate . Predictors: (Constant). temperature and spatial arrangements are 0. respectively.739.576.015. The regression co-efficient for the predictor variables.000 df= degree of freedom . 000(a) 1 Regression 5 99 104 26.162. Lighting. Furniture. F=regression mean square/residual mean square . Temperature Table 6: Regression Results of Model Source: Survey Model Sum of Squares 35. Lighting.265 F Sig.759(a) R Square .283 df Mean Square 7. -0.143 .068.576 Adjusted R Square . This gives us the ratio of explained variation to total variation. Predictors: (Constant). From this percentage it is concluded that 58 percent of the variability of employees’ productivity is accounted for by the variables in this model. . noise. Noise.Sig=P-value a. square value to percentage it comes to be approximately 58 Percent. Noise. Furniture. Spatial arrangement. Temperature b.717 26.907 Residual Total 62. lighting. Dependent Variable: Productivity Source: Survey The coefficient of determination R. and 0. square = 0.
The use of combined of open ended and fixed alternative questions potentially allow for greater response information than single type questions. When we analyze the coefficient value for the variable. on a scale of 1-4. N=noise.0. when all the other variables are held constant. For example.5 Instrumentation Two surveys were developed as instruments to collect information for the study under consideration. L=lighting. 1996 and Laitinen 1999). the one closest to their answers. Also surveys are considered quite flexible.162 SA (Where F=furniture. ordinal scales was used.068 N+ 0. Fixed alternative questions allow respondents to choose from given limited alternative responses.The coefficient values show. Open ended questions allow respondents to express their opinion about a particular issue in their own words. A combination of nominal and 61 . The Regression Equation: Employee Productivity = -0. inexpensive. ‘lighting’ we can say that there is an increase of 0. Surveys provide quick.739 L + 0. such a question might be. Survey questions were a combination of open ended questions and fixed alternative questions.645 + . how your productivity changed during the last year’ (Black and Lynch. efficient and accurate means of assessing information about the population.015 F . T=temperature and SA=spatial arrangements) 3.739 in the productivity of an employee for every unit increase (betterment) in the lighting conditions of the office.021 T + 0. the change in productivity with a unit change in a variable value. keeping all the other variables constant.
An example of questionnaire is as follows: Job Characteristic : Trust employer to treat me fairly Employer treats me with respect Safe work environment Good communication among co-workers Job allows me to balance work and family/life Good job security Good relationship with supervisor Freedom to decide how to do work Friendly and helpful co-workers Percentage : Table 7: Example of questionnaire 3. and experience. Primarily an ordinary scale was used for most of questions. namely repeatability and internal consistency. feeling. The scale reliability was ensured through applying two concepts. the split half method was used. For internal consistency.6 Scale Validity and Reliability There were different scales used for the survey questionnaires to ensure validity and reliability of scale for certain questions. Questionnaires contain different questions asking about the same thing but in different forms. 62 . since most of questions were measuring knowledge.
Extraversion. and emotional stability were all significant predictors of a goal orientation preference. where both the personality and work environment dimensions were included to assess mediating effects. and system maintenance). Three models were used to examine each of the three hypotheses. the work environment dimension of goal orientation was the only variable that maintained a significant relationship with employee performance and commitment. The results of the first model regressions indicated that three of the Big Five factors were significant predictors of work environment preferences. The second model regressions indicated significant and positive relationships between two of the Big Five personality factors and the outcome variables. the Big Five personality dimensions. The first model examined the relationship between the independent variables. In the third model. A separate regression equation was used for each work environment dimension. The results of these analyses provide partial support for hypotheses 1-3. Conscientiousness was a significant predictor of employee performance. and extraversion indicated a significant relationship with employee commitment. The third regression model examined the relationship between the Big Five independent variables and the outcome variables of performance and commitment in the presence of the work environment mediating variables.CHAPTER 4 Results and Analysis Survey 1 The results of the data analyses provide support for the importance of goal-orientation on the personality-performance relationship. and agreeableness was a significant predictor of a preference for system maintenance. All of the personality dimensions were non significant for both outcome variables when the work environment measures were included in the equation. Although the system maintenance and relationship dimensions of work environments were not significant 63 . and the mediators (the work environment preference dimensions of relationship. The second regression model looked at the relationships between the independent variables (the Big Five factors) and the outcome variables of employee performance and commitment. conscientiousness. goal orientation.
Best satisfied with the support given by the office for community spirit and interaction were those working in flexible offices. The worst were combination offices and open plan offices of medium size. had much better results than the others. Topping the list of employee show satisfaction about physical environment to be spacious. As regards job satisfaction. flexible and cellular. In addition. having quiet areas. agreeableness. As regards health status. and modern design. goal orientation was a significant outcome of all three hypothesized personality dimensions (extraversion. The worst rating with respect to contentment was received by open plan offices of medium size. and fully mediated the effects of conscientiousness on performance.factors mediating the personality and performance/commitment relationships. followed by large open plan offices. 62% of Aramco office workers have great respect for leaders who work in an open plan environment with their teams rather than in private offices. Survey 2: Research findings support the existence of an important link between a good physical working environment and the performance of a company. The worst reported health occurred among those working in open plan offices of medium size. and conscientiousness). closely followed by those in small open plan offices. Goal orientation was also the only significant predictor of performance in the full (third) model.it was only when the social aspects of the office were considered that they were dissatisfied. yet healthy and secure working conditions are reported as the most important factors in an efficient working environment. flexible offices and shared rooms were best. Other notable responses from the study include: Most of the respondents say their current workplace design promotes health and well-being. 64 . Thus. Only 42% of respondents say they would be proud to show important customers or potential recruits their current workplaces. The results reveal considerable differences. comfortable workstations. the quality of a working environment has a strong influence on the productivity and profitability. the effects of extraversion on commitment were non-significant when the goal orientation dimension of work environments was included in the analysis. for example with the support of the office environment for community spirit among all employees. two types of office. Those working in cell offices were best satisfied with their working environment .
The overall response. The overall mean of all the factors show that female employees are more concerned about their workplace surroundings. so. Back in March 2006. followed by the spatial arrangement.576. they polled over 2. The Relationship between Office design and Productivity was determined by using the Pearson’s Correlation in SPSS. it can be concluded that 58 percent of the variability in employees’ productivity is accounted for by the variables in this model. direct/indirect linear suspended fixtures eliminate glare and increase the visual comfort of the occupants. The regression analysis of the data shows that the coefficient of determination R. eliminate flickers. Dimmable intelligent lighting systems allow the user to control light levels and save energy.000 office workers (selected from a pool of over 8. whereas. according to gender. with the help of professional survey firm D/R Added Value. There is a direct relationship between office design and productivity. The overall impact of different elements showed that lighting affects the productivity of most employees. showed differences amongst the responses for different elements in the workplace. A strong correlation exists between elements of office design and productivity of office design. offer an excellent color rendition (have a high Color Rendering Index) and save energy.000 to achieve a representative sample) about their workplaces. What is the best energy-efficient lighting that will increase employee productivity? Newer technologies such as T8 lamps with electronic ballasts increase the lighting output.Office design and productivity: Analysis of the collected data revealed that office design has a substantial impact on the employees ’productivity. Male respondents’ results show that they are more concerned about the lighting in their offices. Also. their male counterparts are less concerned with it. square = 0. Here are some results: Workplace and empowering creativity: • • • • • 90% of American workers believe that workplace design affects their productivity 50% of workers say their current office environment empowers them to innovate 49% of workers said that they would work an extra hour per day if they had a better work environment 33% say workplace improvements are a priority at their company The average office worker feels he or she has less time to think than they did five years ago 65 .
mobile phones. video conferencing.Where and how people work effectively: • • • • 84% of employees say they accomplish their best work at the office 12% of workers say they do their best work at home 67% said they were more efficient at developing ideas when collaborating closely with co-workers 80% of workers feel technology has enhanced their workplace environment (including desktop computers. but especially for the larger companies.3 years is the average time they have been at their job 210 is the average number of employees a person works with in the same office 13% was the average amount of work time spent answering e-mail 14% was the average amount of time spent on the phone 20% was the time spent in meetings While this survey was likely biased toward larger companies. wireless access. 66 . and mobile e-mail devices) • Who works in offices and what do they do all day? • • • • • • 42 years old is the average age of an office worker 6. The data that I found most provocative was that while 90% of people feel their workplace is important to their productivity. only 33% see this as a priority at their company. the results offer useful insight into workplaces generally.
Thus. Goal orientation fully mediated the significant direct relationship between conscientiousness and performance.. reducing the effects of cognitive interference on task performance. and these positive feelings may also manifest themselves in enhanced employee commitment (Whittington et al. This may be particularly relevant in work environments where managers have very large spans of control which restrict them from frequent and direct contact with employees. Strickland and Galimba (2001) found that goals provide structure to ambiguous situations. and the development of goal-oriented work environments may be a more effective means of improving employee performance and commitment. it does not occur in a vacuum. The results of this study indicate that an over-reliance on employee selection processes may be misguided. The results suggest that agreeableness. nor the work environment preference for relationships had a significant effect on performance and commitment. and conscientiousness may combine to form a preference for work environments that offer high levels of goal orientation. Agreeableness was significantly related to both goal orientation and system maintenance. If managers provide goal-oriented work environments to individuals with these desirable personality characteristics. and motivate high-performers is becoming increasingly important in today's competitive organizational environments. The results suggest that a specific "place" variable--an employee's work environment preference for goal orientation--plays a predominant role in performance and commitment outcomes.CHAPTER 5 Discussion and Conclusion Work Environment and Productivity: To more fully understand the degree to which the "people make the place. and the significant direct relationship between extraversion and commitment was removed when preferences for goal-oriented work environments were included in the analyses. 67 . work environment preferences. 2004). the effect of personality on performance and commitment has a situational context. and performance and commitment in organizations. Challenging goals may communicate high levels of confidence in the abilities of employees and increase self-efficacy (and performance). Neither the personality characteristics openness and emotional stability. keep. extraversion. they should reap the benefits of enhanced performance and commitment. The ability to attract." this study examined the relationship between individual personality. but these relationships did not translate into either performance or commitment.
(2004) found that goal setting enhanced the direct relationship between transformational leadership and employee commitment and performance. Advice should only be sought on specific issues directly related to the person's employment. Decisions affecting the employee should only be based on medical advice as it applies to the specific work environment. direction. 1975). As climate scholars generally identify managers as the primary architects of group member climate perceptions (e. 1978. 2000). and longer-term perspective needed to translate transformational leadership effectively into performance. Future research could examine the specific influence of leaders in the form of behavioral modeling and leader-member exchange on the personality--work environment performance relationship.. the results of our research indicate the potential importance of leaders in focusing on the development of goal-oriented work environments to achieve enhanced performance and commitment. Naumann and Bennett. and employees tend to conform to such expectations to receive social approval from their peers (Salancik and Pfeffer. Whittington et al.Work environments can provide social cues to organizational members on how to act appropriately. and concluded that goal-oriented environments provide clarification. Thus. focus. As with physical disability.. there will be occasions when specialist advice is needed to assist someone with a mental health problem. if a work environment develops a strong goal orientation.g. 2000). employees are more likely to align their individual goal orientations with the norms of the work environment to maintain harmony with their surroundings (Neal et al. As employers have a duty to make provision for emergencies that may affect the health and welfare of their employees it is essential to recognize the needs of all disabled employees. Schneider. 68 . There should be a procedure in place to ensure managers are confident as to the action to take place in seeking such advice. irrespective of the disability.
Encourage feedback. Understand limitations. SUGGESTIONS: Employee Stress Reduction and Tips for Boosting Morale Several on-the-job techniques may aid in stress reduction and help boost employee morale.This may be when: • • • There are frequent short-term and/or long-term absences from work The employee appears to be experiencing side-effects from medication Perceived unusual behavior patterns take place. the significant relationship between goal-oriented work environments and commitment enhances the argument that employers should do more to try to structure work environments in a positive way so that work is a more satisfying and rewarding experience. about what leads to detrimental stress. In moderation. Be wise. While it's important for employees to develop stress management and coping skills. Employers and employees should keep in mind that some level of stress or pressure is beneficial to reaching project completion. work situations are within the control of most managers. stress creates the motivation to perform and be proud of the results. Incorporate an outside facilitator or coach into the employee program. Although selecting employees on the basis of favorable and relatively stable individual dispositions may have a favorable impact on employee attitudes and performance. Managing Employee Attitudes: The results of this study also have implications for managing employee attitudes. 69 . including unrealistic goals and impossible expectations. especially when faced with new projects or when rolling out new products. and supervisors will gain from receiving anonymous feedback. Expecting too much in a limited amount of time produces stress and decreases the quality of employee output. Given the consistency of employees' job attitudes. there are several things that managers and business owners can do to help employees decrease their stress levels: • • • • • Adopt reinforcement techniques that will reward workers who excel. including a wellness program and insurance incentives. however. Explore health-related options. Personnel are more willing to provide input to an outside source.
and turnover (Jenkins. Future research could also provide useful information regarding the role of personality and goal-setting work environments on a more comprehensive set of dependent variables that have been linked to personality. 1993). The results of this study indicate that the relationship between personality. 1998). Future research In summary. satisfaction (Staw and Cohen-Charash. It would be helpful to determine if the omission of potential mediators or moderators of the relationships between personality variables and employee performance outcomes in past research has served to enhance the importance of personality relative to contextually-oriented variables. Future research should examine the dimensionality of both personality and outcomes in the workplace to understand the complexities of the relationship. and that intervening variables play a substantial role. 20 05). The significance of employee goal-orientation preferences in fully mediating the relationship between personality and workplace outcomes provides further evidence to support the contention that the relationship between personality and performance may not be divaricates.Our research suggests that unfavorable work situations can directly impact employee performance regardless of personality predispositions. such as organizational citizenship behaviors (Neuman and Kickul. and employee outcomes is interrelated and in need of further examination. future studies should examine the effectiveness of human resource departments functioning as strategic partners in creating performance-oriented work climates and team self-management contexts to aid in the adaptation towards increasing worker autonomy and larger spans of control in contemporary work environments. the primary contribution of this research was the examination of the unique variance contributed by personality and work environment preferences in determining employee performance. work environment. Following the recommendations of research by Luthans and Sommer (2005) and Tata and Prasad (2004). whereas the development of supportive work environments can have a direct and positive affect on employees. 70 .
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APPENDIX QUSTIONNAIRS 78 .
Name :( optional) _________________________Designation:______________________ Bank’s Name: ______________________Branch’s Name: ________________ Age____ Gender___________ Furniture 1. • Not at all • To some extent • Often • Mostly • Always 79 . • Not at all • To some extent • Often • Mostly • Always 4. • Not at all • To some extent • Almost • Fairly enough • Completely flexible 2. Adequate and comfortable furniture will affect my productivity positively. rearrange or reorganize my workspace. ENCIRCLE the option you think best suits you.Questionnaire for Research study on “Impact of Office Design on Employees’ Productivity” INSTRUCTIONS: Please READ each question carefully. Encircle only ONE option for each question. My furniture is comfortable enough so that I can work without getting tired till 5pm. My work environment is quiet. The physical conditions at work influence my productivity. • I strongly disagree • I disagree • I’m neutral • I agree • I strongly agree 3. • I strongly disagree • I disagree • I’m neutral • I agree • I strongly agree Noise 5. My furniture is flexible to adjust. • Not at all • To some extent • Often • Mostly • Always 6. I am able to have quiet and undisturbed time alone.
The overall temperature of my workspace in winters is • Cold • Cool • Pleasant • Slightly warm • Warm 11. • I strongly disagree • I disagree • I’m neutral • I agree • I strongly agree Lighting 13. To what extent your room temperature affects your normal level of productivity. Noise free environment will increase my productivity. • I strongly disagree • I disagree • I’m neutral • I agree • I strongly agree 8. Do you have control over the lighting on your desk (i-e adjustable desk light on desk)? • Not at all • To some extent • I don’t need desk light • Mostly • Completely 80 . • I strongly disagree • I disagree • I’m neutral • I agree • I strongly agree 14. I am able to control temperature or airflow in my office. My workspace has many noise distractions. • No effect • Positive effect • Normal effect • Quite good effect • Bad effect 10. The overall temperature of my workspace in summers is • Cold • Cool • Pleasant • Slightly warm • Warm 12. • 10% • 20% • 30% • 40% • 50% or more Temperature 9. My workspace is provided with efficient lighting so that I can work easily without strain on my eyes.7.
Favorable environmental conditions(less noise. suitable temperature etc) in the office building will increase my productivity at work • No effect • Increase by 20% • Increase by 30% • Increase by 40% • Increase by 50% or more 81 . • I strongly disagree • I disagree • I’m neutral • I agree • I strongly agree Productivity 21. My work area is sufficiently equipped for my typical needs (normal storage. I am satisfied with the amount of space for storage and displaying important materials.15. • Not at all • To some extent • Often • Mostly • Always 19. • Extremely dissatisfied • Dissatisfied • Neutral • Satisfied • Extremely satisfied 20. Number of windows in my work area complete my fresh air and light need. • I strongly disagree • I disagree • I’m neutral • I agree • I strongly agree 18. Ample amount of natural light comes into my office. • Not at all • To some extent • Often • Mostly • Always 16. My workspace serves multipurpose functions for informal and instant meetings. • Not at all • To some extent • Did not notice • Mostly • Always Spatial Arrangement 17. My office/branch is open enough to see my colleagues working. movements. etc).
unsuitable temperature etc) in the office building will Decrease my productivity at work • No effect • Decrease by 20% • Decrease by 30% • Decrease by 40% • Decrease by 50% or more 23.22. Due to overall office environment can you complete your daily tasks easily? • Not at all • To some extent • Often • Mostly • Always 24. • No change • 10% • 20% • 30% • 40% or more 82 . Unfavorable environmental conditions (noise distractions. By what percentage your overall productivity would increase if the related office environment Problems are solved.
1 year 1-2 years 3-5 years Overall how satisfied are you with your position at this company? • Very dissatisfied • Somewhat dissatisfied • Not satisfied or dissatisfied • Somewhat Satisfied • Very satisfied Please indicate your level of agreement with each of the following statements. Which of the following best describes your position here? • Clerical • Technician • Managerial • Accounting • Project Management • Other 3. How long have you worked at (company)? • • • • • 4. Encircle only ONE option for each question.1 year 6 months . Do you feel that employees are recognized as individuals? • Always • Usually • Sometimes • Rarely • Never • Not sure 6. Less than 6 months 6 months . 5.Questionnaire for Research study on “Impact of Work environment on Employees’ Productivity” INSTRUCTIONS: Please READ each question carefully. Which of the following best describes the department you work in? • Customer Service • Finance/Accounting • MIS • Sales/Marketing • Corporate Marketing • Human Resources 2. ENCIRCLE the option you think best suits you. Name :( optional) _________________________Designation:______________________ Bank’s Name: ______________________Branch’s Name: ________________ Age____ Gender___________ 1. How motivated are you to see the company succeed? • Very motivated • Somewhat motivated 83 .
none of the above have been observed or experienced 12. Have you ever observed or experienced any of the following forms of discrimination or harassment at this company? • Racial discrimination • Sexual harassment • Age discrimination • Sexual orientation discrimination • No. • Strongly disagree • Strongly disagree • Somewhat disagree • Neither agree nor disagree • Somewhat agree • Strongly agree • 13. I have a clear path for career advancement. Would you refer a friend to apply for a job at this company? • Definitely • Probably • Not sure • Probably not • Definitely not 11. Which of the following describes the variety of tasks required by your position? • Too many • Enough • Not enough 14.• • • Not very motivated Not at all motivated Not sure 7. Not sure The Company clearly communicates its goals and strategies to me? • Strongly disagree • Somewhat disagree • Don't agree or disagree • Somewhat agree • Strongly agree 8. • Strongly disagree • Somewhat disagree 84 . I receive enough opportunity to interact with other employees on a formal level • Strongly disagree • Somewhat disagree • Neither agree nor disagree • Somewhat agree • Strongly agree How would you rate (Company) on each of the following? 15. How flexible is the company with respect to your family responsibilities? • Very inflexible • Somewhat inflexible • Neither • Somewhat flexible • Very flexible 9. The company clearly communicates its goals and strategies to me. Do you take part in your company's flextime program? • Yes • No 10.
where 1 represents "Poor" and 5 represents "Excellent". Poor Communication Average Good Very Good Excellent Planning and organizing Directing and coordinating Job/Technical knowledge Interpersonal relationship 85 . My job requirements are clear • Strongly disagree • Somewhat disagree • Neither agree nor disagree • Somewhat agree • Strongly agree How would you rate your manager in each of the following areas? Please assign a rating on a scale from 1 to 5.• • • Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Strongly agree 16.
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