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OM Lecture 18 Quality and Inspection

OM Lecture 18 Quality and Inspection

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Published by: qamarulislam on Jul 15, 2011
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Lecture 18

Quality Control & Inspection
Quality: It means and includes the desirable and measureable features present in the product. Activities such as measuring, examining, tasting, gauging one or more characteristics of a product and comparing these with specific requirements to determine conformity. or It is the degree to which performance of a product or service meets or exceeds customer expectations. Dimensions of Quality: Customer expectations can be broken down into a number of categories, or dimensions, that customers use to judge the quality of a product or service.

Quality Control & Inspection
Dimensions of Quality: Performance, aesthetics, special features, conformance, reliability, durability, perceived quality, and serviceability.
Dimension Performance Aesthetics Features Conformance Reliability Durability Perceived Quality Serviceability Examples Everything works: fit & finish Exterior and interior design Convenience, safety Car matches manufacturer s specifications Infrequent need for repairs Useful life in miles, resistance to rust Top-rated Service after sale

Quality Control & Inspection
Quality Control: A process that evaluates output relative to a standard and takes corrective action when output doesn t meet standards. Inspection: Appraisal of goods or services. It is an appraisal activity that compares goods or services to a standard. Purpose of quality control and inspection: a. Maintaining special standards b. Prevention of defects as early as possible c. Correction of defects

Quality Control & Inspection
Purpose of quality control and inspection: d. Economical product by reducing the wastage and operating cost e. Safety (General public and the workers) f. Meet market competition g. Satisfaction of customers in monopolistic business resulting in sales increase and discouraging future competition.

Development of Inspection Program
A. Who to Inspect? a. Professional Inspection: Professional inspectors are needed in technical nature of work. b. Worker Inspection: Inspection by the internal management in case of common and general nature of work c. Automatic Inspection: In case when different parts of a product are combined together to perform the required work d. Machine Inspection: Where maximum and 100% accurate results are required.

Development of Inspection Program
B. a. b. C. a. How much to Inspect? The frequency of inspection depends largely on the rate at which a process may go out of control or the number of lots being inspected. Test Inspection: It is carried out in machine Complete Inspection: It is carried out in manual work. When and Where to Inspect? Many operations have numerous possible inspection points. Raw Materials and purchased parts: At the time of the procurement of material (before using it). There is little sense in paying for goods that do not meet quality standards and in expending time and effort on material that is bad to begin with. Work in process: Easy checking at this stage Finished goods: Checking at the final stage. Difficult checking at this stage. Customer satisfaction and the firm s image are at stake here, and repairing or replacing products in the field is usually much costly on returns and payment for goods or services may be held up pending delivery of satisfactory goods or remedial service.

b. c.

Development of Inspection Program
C. When and Where to Inspect? d. Before a costly operations: The point is not to waste costly labor or machine time on items that are already defective. e. Before an irreversible process: In many cases, items can be reworked up to a certain point: beyond that point they cannot. f. Before a covering process: Painting, plating, and assemblies often mask defects.

Types of Inspection
i. On-Site Inspection or Floor Inspection: Some situations require that inspections be performed on-site. It is an arrangement whereby production is examined at the same place and is not taken to the laboratory or any other place for determining the quality. Merits: Easy in case of bulky or heavy product Defects are easily discovered and removed at the same place Decrease in handling cost Ease in checking of work in process Quicker decisions

a. b. c. d. e.

Types of Inspection
Demerits: a. Interference in work because production process will be effected at the time of inspection b. Personal favour to some selected persons especially in public sector c. Difficulty in use of special equipment because more cost will be required to install equipment at different level.

Types of Inspection
ii. Centralized Inspection: Specialized tests can best be performed in a laboratory (e.g., performing medical tests, analyzing food samples, testing metals for hardness, etc.) It is an arrangement whereby a separate place is used to inspect and control the quality by establishing special laboratory or any other place. Merits: a. Less noise and confusion b. Lack of vibrations c. Absence of dust d. No workers helping with inspections.

Types of Inspection
How to decide about the place of inspection? The central issue in the decision concerning on-site or lab inspection is whether advantages of specialized lab tests are worth the time and interruption needed to obtain the results.

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