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MAN KALIBEBER WONOSOBO
A. Background of the Study The teaching of English in senior high school (SMA) is intended to develop students’ communicative competence. The students should not learn how to use the language in communication only after they have learned to master its structure in drills and other mechanical exercises. The students should be given the opportunity to use their skills even before they have completely mastered them. They should focus on the messages, not on the form of their utterance. Through interactions students can increase their language store as they listen to or read authentic linguistic material, or even the output of the other students in discussions, skills, joint problem solving task, or dialogue journals. The students can use all those posses of the language in real life exchanges, which express their real life meaning. Today’s, teaching English in SMA is focused on the ability to communicate with it. It means the communicative competence of the students is the main stress. Students faced with certain situation, where they must express what they think, what they feel and what they must do. The young learners market continues to grow amidst a decade of changing attitudes towards this sector of teaching. The teacher is now viewed as a highly-skilled professional who has the knowledge, skills, flexibility and
sensitivities of a teacher both of children and of language, and one who is able to balance and combine the two successfully. The term 'young learners' in the network covers a wide age range; 4-18 years of age, and most problems encountered by teachers are due to a lack of understanding of the developmental differences between children and teenagers, and of the appropriate classroom management skills to deal with these. Differences include conceptual and cognitive variations, variations in attention spans and motor skills such as drawing and cutting, as well as social and emotional differences. An understanding of these differences can help develop the flexibility that teachers of young learners require. Teaching Children English focuses on an activity-based approach to teaching young learners aged seven years and over. It examines the educational and linguistic needs of children and provides an overview of appropriate classroom techniques. It highlights the importance of effective classroom management and organization and supports teachers in the management of classroom resources. It provides extensive practice in lesson planning in terms of language aims. For example, theme-based approach for the task content and includes stories, rhymes, songs, practical tasks and language tasks. Methodology and classroom practice issues are related to festivals, animals, storytelling and measuring. The appearance of technology has changed the tools available to storytellers. The earliest forms of storytelling are thought to have been primarily oral combined with gestures and expressions.
Language learning depends on listening. Listening provides the aural input that serves as the basis for language acquisition and enables learners to interact in spoken communication. Listening is the language modality that is used most frequently. It has been estimated that adults spend almost half their communication time listening, and students may receive as much as 90% of their in-school information through listening to instructors and to one another. Often, however, language learners do not recognize the level of effort that goes into developing listening ability. Listening is an active process, as the mind actively engages in making meaning. It is therefore our duty as teachers to ensure that the materials we use are comprehensible to our young learners, as well as within the range of what they are developmentally ready for. Listening is also hard work. So in order to maximize the potential for acquisition of language, we need to ensure that young learners are not stressed about this process. Teaching teenagers can be a frustrating and stressful experience. They tend to be less motivated than other age groups; they can have low 'world' awareness and can be unpredictable. Often they don't want to be in the class. However, they can also be the most rewarding, fun and liveliest students we will ever teach. However, as an English teacher must help the students surmount their difficulties by giving motivation, and more creative in teaching especially in teaching listening, the teacher can give many interesting ways to learn. In this case, the writer wants to observe about the implementation of teaching English listening using storybooks to the first year students of MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo and tries to describe their ability in understanding listening by using storybook.
B. Previous Study There are some researchers who have the related study with this. The first is entitled “A Study on the Teaching of Listening Comprehension in SMA Muhammadiyah 2 Surakarta Based on English Curriculum 2004“by Icuk Dhani Suprastowo (2006). The result of the research is divided into three main sections. First, CLT is a method that is suitable to conduct teaching listening. Second, the use of CLT method can make students active in the classroom. The last, the use of CLT can help the students’ master English language especially listening skill. Meanwhile, the problem of teaching listening is about the selection of material and the time management by the teacher. Other research was done by Suwignyo (2005) whose research entitled “The Implementation of Teaching Listening in SMA 1 Purwodadi”. The result of the research are, first, the implementation of teaching listening is still done traditionally, second, the teaching of teaching listening is effective. In this research, the writer is going to do the similar research; however the writer specifies the research in other media that is teaching listening using storybook to the first year students of MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo.
C. Problem Statement Based on the background of the research, the writer formulated the problem as follows: 1. How is the implementation of teaching English listening using
storybook at MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo?
What kinds of problem faced by the teacher when she taught listening
using storybook at MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo? 3. What are the strategies used by the teacher to solve the problem faced
by the first year students of MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo?
D. Limitation of the Study In this research, the writer has limitation the study to make the research easier. In senior high school, there are many ways to teach. But the writer focused on the effectiveness of teaching listening using storybook to the first year students of MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo.
E. Objective of the Study Based on the problem statement, the writer has some objectives of the study, they are: 1. To describe the process of teaching listening using storybook at MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo. 2. To describe some problem faced by the teacher when she taught English listening using storybook at MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo. 3. To describe what are the strategies used by the teacher to solve the problem faced by the first year students of MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo.
F. Benefit of the Study 1. Academically This result adds the English Department student knowledge about teaching listening in different perspective; it can be used as the preference for those who want to conduct a research in English teaching learning process. 2. Practically The writer hopes this research will add the input about the implementation of teaching listening using storybook to the readers’ especially English teachers.
G. Underlying Theory 1. The General Concept of Listening Listening is an active not a passive operation. That is, as a listener, the mind is actively searching for meaning. In Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture (2000: 769) listening is: 1. 2. To give attention in meaning To take notice : hear or consider with thoughtful attention
As Anderson, et al. (1997 : 6) say that understanding is not something that happens because of what a speaker says the listener has a crucial part to play in the process by activating various types of knowledge and trying to understand what the speaker means. 2. Kinds of Listening Harmer (2002 - 129) classified listening into two parts. It consists of extensive listening and intensive listening.
a. Extensive Listening In extensive listening, the teacher encourages students to choose for themselves what they listen to and to do so for pleasure. b. Intensive Listening Intensive listening is the listening learning activities done in the classroom. Teacher usually uses the taped material, videotapes or disk. Hammer also stated that intensive listening is the live listening, where the teacher or visitor come to the class to talk to the students. There are four examples of the live listening: 1) Reading aloud Teacher reading aloud the written text or they can also read or act out dialogues either by intuiting someone into the class. 2) Story-telling Teacher gives a story and asked the students to predict the meaning or to describe the people in the story, so forth. 3) Interviews Teacher is able to invite the visitor or a native speaker to hold an interview with the student. Teacher is able to be a subject of the interview ourselves. Because the most motivating listening activities is the live interview, where the students able to make the question a really listen the answers they themselves have asked for. 4) Conversation Teacher can conduct the live conversation or perform a story by role playing.
3. Teaching Listening Listening is one of the fundamental language skills. It is a medium through which children, young people and adults gain a large position of their education, their information, their understanding of the world and of the human affairs, their deals, sense of value and their appreciation. Brown (1980: 7) points out that teaching is showing or helping someone learn how to do something, giving instruction, guiding in the study. The goal of teaching is to bring about the desirable learning in the pupils. The teacher must know: a. b. what learning is desirable for the pupils how to bring about this learning
In teaching listening comprehension we must be careful not to go to extremes, either by being concerned too much with theories without thinking about their application to teaching, or by following the dull routines of playing the tape recorder and asking some questions to the students. It is essential for a language teacher to have a through understanding of the nature of listening, as well as several activities which help students develop their listening comprehension skills. Consequently, the teachers can vary their classroom presentations that result in the more interesting classroom activities. There are some procedures of teaching listening: 1. Before listening, plan for the listening task • • Set a purpose or decide in advance what to listen for Decide if more linguistic or background knowledge is needed
Determine whether to enter the text from the top down (attend to the overall meaning) or from the bottom up (focus on the words and phrases)
2. During and after listening, monitor comprehension • • • • Verify predictions and check for inaccurate guesses Decide what is and is not important to understand Listen/view again to check comprehension Ask for help
3. After listening, evaluate comprehension and strategy use • • Evaluate comprehension in a particular task or area Evaluate overall progress in listening and in particular types of listening tasks • Decide if the strategies used were appropriate for the purpose and for the task • Modify strategies if necessary
4. The Problem of Teaching Listening In teaching listening, these are two problems. They are the problem of teacher and the problem of learner. a. Problem faced by teacher 1) teaching media 2) the material
3) managing time 4) motivation of student 5) the capability of student b. Problem faced by student 1) background knowledge 2) motivation 3) inability to concentrate 4) problem of interpretation 5) limited vocabulary 6) self esteem 7) the lack of control: toward the speed of speaker 5. Media for Teaching Listening There are some media for teaching listening. The teacher can use the authentic material and situation for teaching listening, such as radio and television programs, public address announcements (airports, train/bus stations, stores), speeches and lectures, telephone customer service recording. The other media for teaching listening are video, music, storybook, textbook, etc. 6. Storybook Storybook derives its name from the stories that are booked. Story is clearly different from the novel that actually has the same plot, setting and the flow of thinking.
Children have an innate love of stories. Stories create magic and a sense of wonder at the world. Stories teach us about life, about ourselves and about others. Storytelling is a unique way for students to develop an understanding, respect and appreciation for other cultures, and can promote a positive attitude to people from different lands, races and religions. According to Taylor (2000: 16), storytelling is relating a tale to one or more listener through voice and gestures oral telling tends to use much simpler language. Sentences are generally shorter. With oral telling, we usually repeat things more redundancy, especially the students are having difficulty to follow the story. Children love to hear the language of storybooks. This language can enhance the oral English they have been using in the classroom. The pictures and the expression help children to understand the vocabulary and the story. Children can see and hear the English they have learned come alive through storybook characters. 7. Teaching Listening Using Storybook Realizing that listening skill is as important as speaking skill, student must succeed in listening. Rost (1994: 142) states that the skills of listening must be succeed in listening by:
a. discriminating between sound b.recognizing word c. identifying stressed words and groupings of word d.identifying functions (such as apologizing) in a conversation e. connecting linguistic clues (gestures and relevant objects in the situation) in order to construct meaning f. using background knowledge (what we have already known about the content and the form) and the context (what has already been said) to predict and then to confirm meaning g.recalling important word, topics and ideas h.giving appropriate feedback to speaker i. reformulating what the speaker has said
There are some further reasons why teacher use storybook through storytelling (Ellis, 1991: 1-2):
a. Stories are motivating and fun. They can help develop positive attitudes towards foreign language learning. They can create a desire to continue learning. b.Stories exercise the imagination. Children can become personally involved in a story as they identify with the characters and try to interpret the narrative and illustrations. This imaginative experience helps develop they own creative power. c. Listening to story in class is shared social experience. Storytelling provokes a shared response of laughter, sadness, excitement, which is not only enjoyable and encourage social and emotional development. d.Children enjoy listening to stories over and over again. Many stories also contain natural repetition of key vocabularies and structures. e. Listening to stories allows the teacher to introduce or revise new vocabulary and sentences structure. f. Stories create opportunities for developing continuity in children’s learning since they can be chosen to consolidate learning in school subject across the curriculum. Listening to stories should be part of growing up for every child. g.Listening to stories develops the child’s listening and concentrating skills via visual clues. For examples are pictures and illustrations. h. Le arning English through stories can lay the foundations for secondary school in terms of basic language functions and structures, vocabulary and language learning skill.
Based on Burns and Broman (1995: 73), young children enjoy listening to story if it stimulates their imagination and ecliptics experiences they can understand. Below are the criteria for selecting the story that appeal to young children as stated by Burns and Broman (1975: 73)
1. A simple well develop plot is centered in one main sequence of events, so that a child can anticipate to some degree of the outcome of events with action predominant. A slight surprise element which makes the children wonder what will happen next. 2. Using repetition, rhyme and catch phrases that the child memorizes new words quickly and easily. 3. Using carefully chosen language, not using complicated words and using a large amount of direct conversation.
4. Using one main character which the child can easily identify, too many characters can be confusing.
H. Research Method 1. Type of Research In this research, the writer uses classroom action research (CAR). Action research methods were first proposed by Lewin in 1946, as a research technique in social psychology. Action research is a model of professional development where educators study student learning related to their own teaching, a process that allows them to learn about their own instructional practices and to continue to improve student learning. Classroom action research is research on pedagogy which is specific to a particular classroom or small set of classrooms. To achieve excellence in teaching, a teacher must find out what works best for him or herself in each particular teaching situation. Classroom action research helps a teacher systematically analyze what is happening in the classroom. In addition to research on the individual classroom, CAR can be conducted at the departmental level to examine an entire program or curriculum. 2. Object of the Study The object of the research is teaching English listening using storybooks at MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo. 3. Subject of the Study The subject of the study is the first year students of MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo and the English teacher of first year students of MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo.
4. Source of Data The form of the data is information deriving from the observation of teaching English listening process committed by the teacher and the students and other source such as books, lesson plan, teaching listening process. 5. Method of Collecting Data The process of action research involves four phases: identifying a classroom problem, developing and implementing an action research plan, collecting and analyzing data, and using and sharing results. Action research never really ends because learning is a cyclical process. An action researcher is always observing, analyzing, designing, assessing, and adjusting. The cyclical nature of action research provides teachers with ongoing opportunities to reflect on and refine their own teaching practices.
The Action Research Process
6. Technique for Analyzing Data In analyzing data, the writer uses qualitative research. To analyze the collected data, the writer takes these following steps: 1. Observing the class, teachers, students, and teaching learning process. 2. Giving the appropriate materials for the teacher (lesson plan, teaching method and material) 3. Analyzing the teaching learning process by using storybooks at MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo. 4. Analyzing the problem faced by the teacher when she taught English listening using storybooks at MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo. 5. Analyzing the strategies used by the teacher to solve the problem faced by the first year students of MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo. 6. Drawing the conclusion and suggestion based on the data analysis.
H. Research Paper Outline CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION A. B. C. D. E. Background of the Study Problem of Statement Objective of the Study Benefit of the Study Research Paper Outline
: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. Previous Study The General Concept of listening Kinds of Listening Teaching Listening The Problem on Teaching Listening Media for Teaching Listening Storybook Teaching Listening Using Storybook
: RESEARCH METHOD A. B. C. D. E. F. Type of Research Object of the Study Subject of the Study Source of Data Method of Collecting Data Technique for Analyzing Data
:THE RESULT OF TEACHING IMPLEMENTATION AND DISCUSSION A. The Implementation of Teaching Listening Using
Storybook to the First Year Students of MAN Kalibeber Wonosobo 1. 2. Instructional Design Classroom Management
The Procedure The Advantages and Disadvantages of Teaching
Listening Using Storybook C. CHAPTER V Discussion
: CONCLUSSION AND SUGGESTION A. B. Conclusion Suggestion
Anderson, Anne, et al, 1997. Listening. Oxford: Oxford university press. Brown, G & Yule, G. 1983. Teaching the Spoken Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Burns, Paul, et al. 1975. The Language Arts in Childhood Education. Chicago: Rand. Mc Nally Ellis, G. and Brewster, J. 1991. The Storytelling Handbook: A guide for Primary Teacher of English. Hamondswath: Penguin book Fauziati, Endang. 2002. Teaching of English as a Foreign Language (TEFL). Surakarta: Muhammadiyah University Press Harmer, Jeremy. 2002. The Practice of English Language Teaching. England: Longman Longman dictionary of English language and culture. 2000. Longman Group.ltd Rost, Michael. 1994. Introducing Listening. England: Penguin English Taylor, E. 2000. Using Folktales. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press http://www.longman.com/young_learners/teachers/teaching-tips/story.html Acceseed on March 20, 2007 at 02.25 PM. http://www.cambridge.org/elt/elt_projectpage.asp? Accesseed on March 20, 2007 at 02.30 PM. http://www.madison.k12.w1.us/sod/car/carhomepage.hmtl Accessed on March 26, 2007 at 09.00 AM. http:// www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/methodology/teen_angst.shtml on June 16, 2007 at 03.05 PM Accessed
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/methodology/manage_young.shtml Accessed on June 16, 2007 at 03.07 PM
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