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Cap K Full

Cap K Full

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Published by: Dustin M-l on Jul 15, 2011
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  • 1NC
  • **LINKS**
  • Link – Generic
  • Link – Aerospace
  • Link – Asteroids/Helium-3
  • Link – Astronauts/Desire to Space Travel
  • Link – Colonization/ISS
  • Link – Communications
  • Link – Frontier
  • Link – Get Off the Rock
  • Link – Images
  • Link – Information
  • Link – Mars
  • Link – Mars Terraforming
  • Link – Militaristic Rhetoric
  • Link – Military Funding
  • Link – Moon
  • Link – Neocon Think Tanks
  • Link – The Overview Effect
  • Link – Privatization
  • Link – Satellites
  • Link – Satellites/Space Debris
  • Link – Science Fiction
  • Link – Space Militarization
  • Link – Space Property
  • Link – Space Resources
  • Link – SPS
  • Link – Space Tourism
  • Link – Surveillance (Biopower)
  • Link – Terraforming
  • Link – Weapons
  • **IMPACTS**
  • Impact – Biopower
  • Impact – Democracy
  • Impact – Discrimination
  • Impact – Disease
  • Impact – Environment
  • Impact – Ethics
  • Impact – Ethics (Mining)
  • Impact – Genocide
  • Impact – Genocide (Surveillance)
  • Impact – Hunger
  • Impact – Laundry List
  • Impact – Militarism
  • Impact – Poverty
  • Impact – Repressed Society
  • Impact – Terrorism
  • Impact – Total war
  • Impact – V2L
  • Impact – War
  • Impact – Warming
  • Impact – Errthang (Biopower)
  • K Turns Case
  • K Turns Case – Satellites
  • **ALTS**
  • Alternate 1NC Alt
  • Alt extensions – Carroll
  • Alt solves case
  • Alt – Critique
  • Alt – Floating PIC
  • Alt – Movements/Link – K aff
  • Alt – Multitude
  • Alt – Organic Intellectuals
  • **ANSWERS TO**
  • AT – No space cap war
  • AT – Space grants freedom
  • AT – Biology=exploration
  • AT – Realism
  • AT – Cap Resilient
  • AT – Cap Sustainable
  • AT – Growth Good
  • AT – Growth/Cap kt Freedom
  • AT – Space cap good
  • AT – Perm
  • AT – Framework
  • AT – Framework – Epistemology First
  • AT – Framework (Mars Affs)
  • AT – Batra Unqualified
  • **AFF STUFF**
  • Aff – Gibson-Graham
  • Aff – Gibson-Graham Link – Cap as Subject
  • Aff – Perm
  • Aff – Perm – Reformism Good
  • Aff – Link Turn
  • Aff – Biopower Good
  • Aff – Satellites Good
  • Aff – Competition Inevitable
  • Aff – Link turn – Deep Eco Affs
  • Aff – Alt Fails – Mars
  • Aff – AT – Patriarchy
  • Aff – AT – Invisible Committee
  • Aff – AT – Epistemology
  • **WEST GOOD**
  • Imperialism Good
  • Imperialism Good – Satellites
  • Cap Resilient
  • Cap Inevitable
  • Cap Sustainable
  • Space Cap Sustainable
  • 2AC Cap Good Frontline
  • Cap Good – War
  • Cap Good – Freedom
  • Cap Good – Alt=Coercion
  • Space Cap Good – Space Tourism
  • Space Cap Good – World Peace
  • Space Cap Good – Overpop
  • Space Cap Good – Overview Effect
  • Space Cap Good – Overview Effect – Extensions
  • Space Cap Good – Economic Innovation
  • Space Cap Good – Disease
  • Cap Good – AT – Environment
  • Cap Good – AT – Corruption
  • Cap Good – AT – Ethics/Morals
  • Cap Good – AT – V2L

Cap Kritik 1/194

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DML, Ian, Harry, Jay, Amanda, Rothenbaum, Clayton

Cap Kritik 2/194

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Space exploration is merely an outlet for the state to expand its capitalist grip – infinite wars will be fought over new resources – also their advantages are made up and/or inevitable in capitalism Dickens 9 – Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex
(Peter, “The Cosmos as Capitalism’s Outside,” The Sociological Review, 57: 66–82, dml)

The imminent conquest of outer space raises the question of ‘outside’ and ‘inside’ yet again. Capitalism now has the cosmos in its sights, an outside which can be privately or publicly owned, made into a commodity, an entity for which nations and private companies can compete. As such the cosmos is a possible site of armed hostilities. This means, contra Hardt and Negri, that there is an outside after all, one into which the competitive market can now expand indefinitely. A new kind of imperialism is therefore underway,
albeit not one attempting to conquer and exploit people ‘outside’ since there are no consumers or labour power to exploit in other parts of the solar system. Ferrying wealthy tourists into the cosmos is a first and perhaps most spectacular part of this process of capital's cosmic expansion. Especially important in the longer term is making outer space into a source

of resources and materials. These will in due course be incorporated into production-processes, most of which will be still firmly lodged on earth. Access to outer space is, potentially at least, access to an infinite outside array of resources. These apparently have the distinct advantage of not being owned or used by any preexisting society and not requiring military force by an imperializing power gaining access to these resources. Bringing this outside zone into capitalism may at first seem beneficial to everyone. But this scenario is almost certainly not so trouble-free as may at first seem. On the one hand, the investment of capital into outer space would be a huge diversion from the investments needed to address many urgent inequalities and crises on Earth. On the other hand, this same access is in practice likely to be conducted by a range of competing imperial powers.

Hardt and Negri (2000) tell us that the history of imperializing wars is over. This may or may not be the case as regards imperialism on earth. But old-style imperialist, more particularly inter-imperialist, wars seem more likely than ever,

as growing and competing power-blocs (the USA and China are currently amongst the most likely protagonists) compete for resources on earth and outer space. Such, in rather general terms, is the prospect for a future, galactic, imperialism between competing powers. But what are the relations, processes and mechanisms underlying this new phenomenon? How should we understand the regional rivalries and ideologies involved and the likely implications of competing empires attempting to incorporate not only their share of resources on earth but on global
society's ‘outside’? Social crises, outer spatial fixes and galactic imperialism Explanatory primacy is given here to economic mechanisms driving this humanization of the universe. In the same way that they have driven imperializing societies in the past to expand their economic bases into their ‘outsides’, the social relations of capitalism and the processes of

capital-accumulation are driving the new kind of outer space imperialisms. Such is the starting-point of

this paper (See alsoDickens and Ormrod, 2007). It is a position based on the work of the contemporary Marxist geographer David Harvey (2003) and his notion of ‘spatial fixes’. Capitalism continually constructs what he calls ‘outer transformations.’ In the context of the over-accumulation of capital in the primary circuit of industrial capital, fresh geographic zones are constantly

sought out which have not yet been fully invested in or, in the case of outer space, not yet been invested in at all. ‘Outer spatial fixes’ are investments in outer space intended to solve capitalism's many crises. At
one level they may be simply described as crises of economic profitability. But ‘economic’ can cover a wide array of issues such as crises of resource-availability and potential social and political upheavals resulting from resource-shortages. Furthermore, there

is certainly no guarantee that these investments will actually ‘fix’ these underlying economic, political and social crises. The ‘fix’ may well be of a temporary, sticking-plaster, variety. Cap causes endless genocide and spurs violent resistance that kills millions in the name of resource expansion. Jalata 11 – Professor of Sociology & Global Studies
(Asafa, January 24th 2011, “Terrorism from Above and Below in the Age of Globalization”, p.1-4) NAR

As capitalism developed in Western Europe, the need for raw materials, minerals such as gold and silver, markets, and free or cheap labor expanded due to the desire to minimize the cost of production and to increase the accumulation of capital or wealth. “The treasures captured outside of Europe by undis-guised looting, enslavement, and murder,” Karl Marx (1967: 753-754) writes, “floated back to the mother-country and were there

DML, Ian, Harry, Jay, Amanda, Rothenbaum, Clayton

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turned to capital.” Most liberal and leftist scholars have failed to identify and explain the role of state-sponsored or state
terrorism that colonial officials, European companies, and ex-peditionary forces used during the expansion of the racialized capitalist world system to transfer the economic resources of the indigenous peoples to European colonial forces or settlers and their collaborators. The development of the nation-state and the capitalist world system occurred through

war making, violence and organized crime (Tilly, 1985: 170). We cannot clearly understand the essence and meaning
of global terrorism without comprehending the essence and characteristics of state terrorism since states were born and consolidated through vi-olence. Under the guises of “free markets,” “civilization,” and Chris-tianity, forces of European states

or state-sponsored companies committed acts of terrorism and genocide that were, more or less, ignored. In fact, the issue of terrorism only started to be addressed when, after World War I, colonized peoples in Africa and Asia began their liberation struggles against European co-lonial states. The terrorist attack on the life and liberty of American indigenous peoples by European colonial powers and their collaborators destroyed existing institutions and econo-mies and exposed the conquered peoples to poverty and fa-mineinduced “holocausts” (Davis, 2001). Discussing how the cultural destruction of indigenous peoples resulted in massive
deaths, Karl Polanyi (1944: 159-160) argues, “The catastrophe of the native community is a direct result of the rapid and vio-lent disruption of the basic institutions of the victim. These institutions are disrupted by the very fact that a market econo-my is foisted upon an entirely differently organized community; labor and land are made into a commodity, which, again, is only a short formula for the liquidation of every … cultural institution in an organic society.” The capitalist world economy that in the 19th century was permanently eliminating famine from Western Europe was

simultaneously accelerating famine and famine-induced deaths in the rest of the world: “Millions died, not outside the „modern world system,‟ but in the very process of being forcibly incor-porated into its economic and political structures. They died
in the golden age of Liberal Capitalism; indeed, many were mur-dered by the theological application of the sacred principles of [Adam] Smith” (Davis, 2001: 9). Today, mainstream Eu-ro-American scholars gloss over such crimes and

refer to them as actions of “discovery” and “civilization.” State terrorism, genocide, and the destruction of indigenous institutions and the devastating consequences of famine have been closely inter-connected in the global capitalist world system. In addition, the international community rarely
holds accountable its members that engage in state terrorism and genocide. Kurt Jonassohn (1998: 24) recently noted that terrorist state leaders in develop-ing countries “not only go unpunished, they are even rewarded. On the international scene they are accorded all the respect and courtesies due to government officials. They are treated in ac-cordance with diplomatic protocol in negotiations and are treated in the General Assembly of the United Nations. When they are finally ousted from their offices, they are offered asylum by countries that lack respect for international law, but have a great deal of respect for the ill-gotten wealth that such perpetra-tors bring with them.” Despite the fact that some government elites claim that the state provides protection from domestic and external violence, “governments organize and, wherever possible, monopolize the concentrated

means of violence. The distinction between „legi-timate‟ and „illegitimate‟ force makes no difference” (Tilly, 1985: 171). Political violence has always been involved in producing and maintaining structures, institutions, and organi-zations of privileged hierarchy and domination in society. Those who have state power, which incorporates the power to define terrorism, deny their involvement in political violence or terrorism and confuse abstract theories about the state with reality. Based on an idealized relationship between the state and
society, philosophers and thinkers such as Hobbes, Hegel, Rousseau, and Plato have identified three functions of the state that would earn it legitimacy. According to state theories, the state protects and maintains internal peace and order in society; it organizes and protects national economic activities; it de-fends national sovereignty and national interests (Bushnell, et al., 1991: 6). In reality, most states violate most of these theo-retical principles by engaging in political repression and state terrorism

in order to defend the interests of a few powerful elites. Furthermore, the revolutionary theories of the state by
Karl Marx and V. I. Lenin (1971) remain a dream because states failed to introduce revolutionary social transformations that would eliminate oppression, repression, state terrorism, and the exploitation of people (Maguire, 1978). The occurrence of political repression, oppression, state ter-rorism, and dictatorship in the former Soviet Union, China and other former revolutionary countries demonstrate that the state has remained the site of violence despite its legitimating dis-course. As Charles Tilly (985: 1819) puts it, political violence is closely related to the art of statecraft, and most of the time, “the state, like an unchained beast, ferociously [attacks] those who claim to be its master, its own citizens” (Tilly, 1985: 7). Annamarie Oliverio (1998) criticizes scholars who produce definitions of terrorism on behalf of the state and promote outmoded concepts, analyses, and theories in state bureaucracy, the media, and in academia. The motivations of those who hold state power and

engage in state terrorism are to maintain the global economy, structures of politics, and hierarchies of cultures and peoples in order to extract economic resources. The main objective of those who engage in nonstate terrorism is mainly to politically respond to economic, political, and cultural inequalities. One common denominator of the theories of non-state terrorism is that it is mainly caused by grievances of one kind or another. These grievances involve national/religious/cultural oppression,

eco-nomic exploitation, political repression, massive human rights violations, attacks on life and liberty, state terrorism, and vari-ous forms of social injustices. Yet, whilst it is acknowledged that revolutions, social movements, and non-state terrorism generally involve grievances, all grievances do not result in revolutionary or social movements, nor do they all cause sub-versive

DML, Ian, Harry, Jay, Amanda, Rothenbaum, Clayton

in short which ‘new combinations’ (Dyer-Witheford 2001) might already carry the new – and under what contemporary conditions might they have efficacy? These are more concrete questions of counter-hegemony. the challenge is to seek out in the present the preconditions for a post-capitalist future and to develop political strategy based on an analysis of those immanent possibilities (Ollman 2003). But which movements. and theorized by those who have contradictory interests and objectives and since the subject matter of terrorism is complex and elusive. as in the incorporation of indigenous ways as alternatives to neoliberal practices that have grown decidedly old (cf. which practices and which alignments of movements and practices. Movements succeed in creating change when political and cultural opportunity structures open up (Tarrow 1998). do not produce much that is new.Cap Kritik 4/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab terrorism. Clayton . there currently is a wide gap in establishing a common understanding of terrorism among scholars of terrorism studies. which is to say that the future is already contained as potential within the present. Amanda. new practices. with radical effects. movements. are laboratories for social invention. Harry. Bahn 2009).” Interface 2:2. Often the new reworks the old. conjunctural. Most experts on the subject look at this issue from a narrow perspective by ignoring what I argue to be the reality: that terrorism is a social cancer for all human groups affected by it. and behavioral factors particularly that act to transform some grievances into non-state terrorism through some agencies of the aggrieved population. securing the active. The alternative is the only way out – we need to analyze the flaws in the system to find the preconditions for movements away from capitalism and its inevitable collapse – this is key to develop a real political strategy Carroll 10 – *founding director of the Social Justice Studies Program at the University of Victoria (William. Viewed dialectically. We cannot adequately grasp the essence and characteristics of modern terrorism without understanding the larger cultural. Movements. There must therefore be some intervening structural.’ Yet it is from existing practices and relations that the new is fabricated. as distinct from defensive forms of subaltern resistance. Gramsci captured this dialectic with the metaphor of welding the present to the future: How can the present be welded to the future. Fraser 1995). weigh ‘like a nightmare on the brains of the living. Counter-hegemony. ideologues. Ian. and cadres in aggrieved populations can facilitate the emergence of subversive terrorism. DML. agentic consent of subalterns to their subordination (De Leon. defined. a well-established hegemonic structure naturalizes social cleavages and contradictions. and thus with reproducing the status quo. and the emergence of leaders. Joseph 2002). the new preserves yet transforms extant reality. Jay. as Marx (1852) wrote. dml) In the most general terms and at the highest level of abstraction. the development of extreme ideologies in the form of religion or another ideology. They are carriers of the ‘new means and values. economic. strives to shape those ‘anticipating elements’. This dialectic between what already exists and what might be constructed out of that is integral to any project of purposeful socio-political change. ‘Fermenting in the process of the real itself’ is what Ernst Bloch called ‘the concrete forward dream: anticipating elements are a component of reality itself’ (1986:197). Desai and Tuğal 2009: 216. social. so that while satisfying the urgent necessities of the one we may work effectively to create and ‘anticipate’ the other (1977: 65)? The new is no mere ‘fashion’. Alt – vote negative to reject the flawed capitalist nature of the affirmative. counter-hegemony: in search of the new. the question of counter-hegemony evokes the dialectic of bringing the new into existence. closely integrated with consumer-capitalist accumulation strategies. so that they may become lasting features of social life. precisely because they are structurally reproductive. The combination of factors such as collective grievances. Rothenbaum. ‘emergent publics’ that create possibilities for a more democratic way of life (Angus 2001). only transformative practices have that capacity (Bhaskar 1989. new relationships and kinds of relationships’ that Williams (1977: 123) identified with cultural emergence. the refusal of state actors to address longstanding grievances peacefully and fairly. such practices. Since terrorism has been conceptualized. as Melucci (1989) has emphasized. “Crisis. Indeed. 168-198. For counter-hegemony. against the sedimented practices and relations that. the continued oppressive and exploitative policies of state elites. Theorists of agency and structure note that. although social structures are sustained solely through the practices that reproduce them. and political contexts in which it takes place. the latter being a preferred trope of modernity (Blumer 1969).

Ian. Harry.Cap Kritik 5/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **LINKS** DML. Amanda. Rothenbaum. Clayton . Jay.

and exploiting zones of profitability for surplus capital. Rosa Luxemburg argued that an “outside” to capitalism is important for two main reasons. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. space stations. Rothenbaum. the humanization of the cosmos seriously questions these assertions.e. these being located mainly on earth. Ian. But. Some influential commentators argue that the current problem for capitalism is that there is now no “outside. and environmental crises on earth.7 As outlined earlier. such as the moon and Mars. In the early twentieth century. Neil Smith’s characterization of capital’s relations to nature is useful at this point. No 6. dml) Instead of indulging in over-optimistic and fantastic visions. underlying processes which are at the heart of the capitalist economy and society. with new parts of the cosmos being invested in by competing nations and companies. the atmosphere. and more critical look at what is happening and what is likely to happen.8 But expansion into the cosmos does offer prospects for exploiting new materials such as those in asteroids. an outside is needed as a zone into which surplus capital can be invested. The kind of theory mentioned above also has clear implications for the humanization of the cosmos. On the other hand. and start developing more progressive alternatives. nature becomes a universal means of production in the sense that it not only provides the subjects. these will include artificial fixes such as satellites. capitalism’s emergent outside. there are. New “spatial fixes” are due to be opened up in the cosmos.” again in response to economic. no absolute guarantees that such fixes will really correct an essentially unstable social and economic system. capital is being physically invested in new regions. and space hotels. we should take a longer. particularly those of declining economic profitability. and which are generating this demand for expansion into outer space. we must return to the deeper. expansion into the cosmos offers no benefits to capital in the form of fresh sources of labor power. Outer space will be “globalized. Clayton .” DML. they are short-term solutions.9 Capital is now also “stalking” outer space in the search for new resources and raw materials. Jay. But during the next twenty years or so. Regarding the latter. and perhaps other cosmic entities such as Mars. an increasing number of political economists have argued that the importance of a capitalist “outside” is not so much that of creating a new pool of customers or of finding new resources. To this end. capital stalks the Earth in search of material resources. Developing “outsides” in this way is also a product of recurring crises.10 Rather. Although the humanization of the cosmos is clearly a new and exotic development. Nature on a cosmic scale now seems likely to be incorporated into production processes. Similarly. and more from that of finding. the attempt is to fix capitalism’s crises. At this point. governments protecting the zones for which they are responsible. November 2010. social. Economic and social crisis stems less from the problem of finding new consumers.. These crises are followed by attempted “fixes” in distinct geographic regions. The reproduction of material life is wholly dependent on the production and reproduction of surplus value.” i. the moon. however. but is also in its totality an appendage to the production process…no part of the Earth’s surface. it is needed as a means of creating massive numbers of new customers who would buy the goods made in the capitalist countries. On the one hand. the geological substratum or the biological superstratum are immune from transformation by capital. Military power will inevitably be made an integral part of this process. allowing an increasing number of people to become integral to the further expansion of global capitalism. We can then begin taking a more measured view of space humanization. as suggested above. Harry. At first. First. objects and instruments of production. At best. space fiction fantasies about aliens aside.”11 Capitalism is everywhere. Luxemburg’s second reason for imperial expansion is the search for cheap supplies of labor and raw materials. appended to Earth. The stage would then be set for wars in outer space between nations and companies attempting to make their own cosmic “fixes.Cap Kritik 6/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Generic Their explotative project is a band-aid solution for Earthly problems that simply serves to buttress capitalist structures Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. harder. the oceans. space technology has extended and deepened this process. of course. Projects for the colonization of outer space should be seen as the attempt to make new types of “spatial fix. the social relationships and mechanisms underlying space-humanization are very familiar. The word “fix” is used here both literally and figuratively. resistance to capitalism is either everywhere or nowhere. Clearly. Amanda. Since Luxemburg wrote. Monthly Review Vol 62. will begin attracting investments. existing outsides. making.

dml) DML. allowing them to be developed throughout the globe and outer space. They help guarantee such relations. The Antarctic Treaty and the Law of the Sea Treaty were both used as models for the legal treaties governing outer space appropriation. with ‘primitive accumulation’. Space control=capitalist Dickens and Ormrod 7 . the oceans. outer space law is another instance of how a ruling class rules. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. we can envisage capital ‘stalking’ the nearby cosmos in search of the resources needed for production. near-Earth asteroids. Jay. Law and property rights are. They do so by apparently working to the same ‘universal’ rules as subordinated classes. particularly the land. One of capitalism’s main attempts at crisis resolution has been via commodification and privatization on Earth.*Peter. University of Essex and **James. encountering strong opposition from environmentalists and others (Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition 2004. first served’ has been endorsed by the International Telecommunications Union. It extends and proliferates a process started. space is not uniform in its usefulness. The Antarctic is proving attractive to pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries searching for new compounds and genetic resources. . In theory they are. IWren) The outer spatial fix. will be controlled by those already in possession of the capacity to do so. To this end. 56) Now. own and control these regions as a first step towards their privatization and commodification as part of a process of humanization. Commodifying outer space But this is part of a bigger pattern. Ian. The circuits of capital pull progressively more materials into their midst. Rothenbaum. This is what Harvey (2003) calls ‘accumulation by dispossession’. But gaining access to outer space assets is a rather different kind of accumulation. objects and instruments of production. They operate on the illusion that property rights are available to all citizens. pg 59-60. Harry. a number of books have examined the commercialization of outer space from a business or legal perspective. Since the 1980s. just over a decade later. Amanda. the atmosphere. These new types of ‘spatial fix’ are. and Hulstroj notes that speed settles these disputes rather than value judgements (2002: 110). Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 179. a close collaborator of Harvey. The Arctic and Antarctic are the closest Earthly equivalents to the nearest outer spatial assets.Cap Kritik 7/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space development is simply an extension of the capitalistic drive to secure and appropriate external resources as appendages to a system dominated by the wealthy power-elite Dickens and Ormrod 7 . whilst choosing to overlook their social position. has argued that: The reproduction of material life is wholly dependent on the production and reproduction of surplus value. Clayton . however. . Hulstroj (2002) makes the important observation that the UN declaration that space should be ‘free for exploration and use by all states’ assumed that space was an infinite resource and that there would be enough space for everybody. The object is to make the universe into ‘an appendage to the production process’. No part of the Earth’s surface. etc. he argues. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. However. capital stalks the Earth in search of material resources. Similarly. mechanisms operating in virtue of the necessary underlying relationships of capitalism. Attempts are already under way to legally subdivide. Ownership and commodification are the ways in which this appendage are made. Commodification and space law The contemporary development of space law (dividing outer space into items where property rights apply and over which contracts and individual juridical rights can be drawn up) is therefore an obvious harbinger of the forthcoming commodification of the nearby universe and the extension of the secondary and tertiary circuits into outer space. nearby resources on the Moon. The process now continues with the privatization and commodification of assets such as welfare provisions and services previously held and operated by states. as he rightly says. The geostationary orbit for satellites (an orbit that keeps satellites directly above the Earth’s equator) is already overcrowded. Seen in this way. nature becomes a universal means of production in the sense that it not only provides the subjects. in critical realist terms. one not dispossessing anyone already using these resources. (Smith 1984: 49. but is also in its totality an appendage to the production process . But both such kinds of potential ‘fix’ remain fair game for future capital investment. Oil companies are drilling in the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge as their response to the energy crisis and political upheavals in the Middle East. . but in reality they will be available only to the wealthy and to large corporations. The principle of ‘first come. when populations began to be removed from their means of subsistence. commodification and space law Neil Smith. those on the Moon. the geological substratum or the biological superstratum are immune from transformation by capital.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. leaving no room for satellites launched by developing countries who might in future want to do so. Tokar 1999). if they ever are commodified.

so that area of the moon would be government property? In anarcho-capitalism. those orbits would be treated the same way as gov. economic and cultural means. Meszaros.cho-capitalism. But in the meantime. further crisis and risk are being generated. gathering valuable moon rocks and undertaking other activities. when Neil Armstrong landed on the moon in 1969 and combined his labor with a section of the moon’s land area. political. as we have outlined in Chapters 4. as with roads and parks on Earth. Harry. Holcombe 5 -DeVoe Moore Professor of Economics at Florida State University (Randall G.ernments. The humanization of outer space is therefore being used to control or manage an earlier phase of imperialist expansion while ushering in a new one. even to the point of what Ernest Jones (1913) describes as the ‘God complex’. subaltern. Here again. These ‘fixes’ may be organized by dominant economic and military powers such as the US. Global society is in social.Cap Kritik 8/194 The main theme running through the later chapters of this book is that imperialism 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab is now entering into a new phase. the universe is conceived as an object that those with political and economic power can utilize to retain and extend social power.Spring 2005. with an additional problematic issue that the original users have been gov.ernment-owned roads. culture and military adventures on Earth. the most powerful classes of modern society are using the cosmos as a means of managing and controlling this chaos.pg26. was he acting as an individual homesteading that area of the moon. But Chapters 7 and 8 suggest that the cosmos is also integral to an imminent fourth stage: capitalism being extended by the most powerful. economic and environmental upheaval. writing of the growth of armaments in the late twentieth century. On the one hand. and that the humanized cosmos is central to this transition. populations.pdf) Similar questions arise about ownership in outer space. The emergent form of cosmic society makes sense only when placed in this context of Earthly chaos. mises. but they are almost certainly making the world more dangerous. This danger is now being increased by its spread into outer space. amongst those with access to the heavens.. hegemonic messages are being asserted by this technology. For example. technology which itself forms part of capitalism’s hegemonic resolution to its own inherent crises. again competing. Clayton . At the same time. DML. wrote ‘we have entered the most dangerous phase of imperialism in all history’ (2001: 37). “COMMON PROPERTY IN ANARCHO-CAPITALISM”. On the one hand. The result is the further development of narcissism. in a devolution to anar. the cosmos is being increasingly used to regulate social relations. It is being used to manage the ‘third stage’ of imperialism. presumably such celestial govern. Amanda. including the economic and military demands of competing geopolitical powers. 5 and 6. or was he acting as an employee and an agent of the United States government. Rothenbaum. elites and nations into outer space. For other. The global market is proving increasingly unable to contain the many contradictions of capitalism. Who owns the orbital paths that are now occu. the increasing use of the cosmos for military and surveillance purposes increases their distance from it. Ian.org/journals/jls/19_2/19_2_1. Jay. attempting to ‘fix’ it by military. Capitalism is the root cause of territory expansionism in space. JOURNAL OF LIBERTARIAN STUDIES 329. A number of interesting questions present themselves once it is recognized that common property could exist in anarcho-capitalism.ment property would revert to common ownership.pied by government satellites? Presumably.

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Link – Aerospace
Keynes got it wrong—aerospace industry funding doesn’t boost the economy, it just sustains the expansion of capitalism and exploitative class relations. Dickens and Ormrod 7 - *Peter, Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of
(Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe, pg 86-87, IWren) Capital, ‘spatial fixes’ and government in absentia Governments Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology, University of Essex and **James, Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton

do not channel funds into the military merely as a form of industrial welfare – they do so to ensure the geographic expansion of their capitalist economies. ‘The new imperialism’ consisted, and still consists, of ‘accumulation by dispossession’. It was above all a reassertion of class power, with trade unions being marginalized, the creation

of ‘flexible’ labour markets and financial capital having a key role in allocating funds on a global scale. Keynesianism was largely rejected as flows of capital were now injected into newly commodified and privatized public goods and services. Investments started to flow into the other parts of the capitalist economy that looked promising sources of accumulation. ‘Structural Adjustment Programs’ were imposed by the International Monetary Fund on developing countries, opening up global markets and reducing state welfare spending. But new investments included, and still very much include, the Far East, particularly India and China. It is the

necessity of overseeing capital’s geographic expansion and monitoring its social and political implications that gives space a revived significance over and above the demands of the military– industrial–space complex. This is where we can usefully return to Lenin’s understanding of monopoly capitalism as
outlined in the previous chapter. Not only do regional monopolies represent a threat to global ‘free trade’, they represent a threat to peace. A militarized outer space becomes a medium through which some such monopolies can be

protected. But for global capitalism outer space is a medium through which regional monopolies can be regulated and, if necessary, destroyed. Lefebvre (1976) refers to the creation of ‘super regions’, which are
now expanding themselves into space.

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Cap Kritik 10/194

7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab

Link – Asteroids/Helium-3
Resource mining is supa cap Dickens and Ormrod 7 - *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton
(Peter and James, Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 144-145, dml)

Outer space is now increasingly envisaged as providing inputs to the Earthly production process. It is, for example, seen as an unlimited source of metals for human use. Private companies have also been established working on the research and design for asteroidal and lunar mines. This is
discussed in a number of books elaborating the commercial potential of outer space (e.g. Lewis 1996; Zubrin 1999; Hudgins 2002). The expansion of industry into space has been referred to by Harry G. Stine (1975) as the ‘third industrial revolution’ and by Krafft Ehricke (1972) as ‘the benign industrial revolution’ (as there were supposedly no environmental issues associated with it). Asteroids are receiving special attention (Lewis 1996). The Moon might seem an obvious first target

for the acquisition and mining of resources, but asteroids are currently seen as a better bet thanks to their metallic density. They have three hundred times as much free metal as an equal mass taken from the
Moon. Metals found on the Moon are just the dispersed debris from asteroids. In the mid-1990s the market value of metals in the smallest known asteroid, known as 3554 Amun, was about $20 trillion. This included $8 trillion worth of iron and nickel, $6 trillion worth of cobalt, and about $6 trillion in platinum-group metals (ibid.). As and when it is possible to launch

thousands of people into orbit and build giant solar power satellites, Lewis argues, it should be possible to retrieve this and mine other asteroids to supply Earth with all the metals society will ever need. Extracting valuable helium-3 from the Moon is another possibility. One metric ton of helium-3
is worth $3 million, and one million tons could be obtained from the Moon. This has led Lawrence Joseph to question in a New York Times article whether the Moon could become the Persian Gulf of the twenty-first century (cited in Gagnon 2006). Needless to say, we

need to remain cautious in accepting these highly optimistic forecasts. Even the most enthusiastic pro-space activists see materials in space as useful only for building in space. The cost of returning materials to Earth would add so much to the cost of extracting them that this would never be financially viable.

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Link – Astronauts/Desire to Space Travel
Astronauts become the new social elite Dickens and Ormrod 7 - *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton
(Peter and James, Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 162, dml) In the previous chapter, we outlined the form of ‘cosmic narcissism’ present in the fantasies of pro-space activists about taking trips into Earth orbit. However, this narcissism is also manifest in grandiose fantasies about omnipotence

being exercised through the conquest and colonization of space. Previous research (Ormrod 2007) revealed
activists with fantasies about bouncing up and down on the Moon, playing a round of golf there, mining asteroids or creating their own small colonies on Mars. These particular human beings, far from being oppressed by or subjected to forces in the heavens, are now being

reconstituted as all-powerful individuals expressing a control over the external world, which might be likened to that experienced in the earliest years of childhood. The fantasy of life in a spacefaring civilization protects the narcissistic idea that the whole universe revolves around him/her and that the whole cosmos is there to be consumed. It is a universe that promises that the power and limitless freedom of the Western individual can be guaranteed. Reality of course dictates
that pursuit of such a relationship with the universe will necessarily result in conflict with others and between the different needs of the individual.

DML, Ian, Harry, Jay, Amanda, Rothenbaum, Clayton

It now seems clear that this process is to be extended. Bush’s Space Exploration Initiative includes plans for a permanent lunar base manned in six-month shifts.Cap Kritik 12/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Colonization/ISS The humanizing mission of space is championed by the ISS Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Amanda. Rothenbaum. DML. George W. dml) But it is little appreciated that the colonization of outer space has already started with the International Space Station.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. the surveillance of society and broadcasting information and propaganda. And here experiments are being conducted on the effects of gravity loss on human beings and other species. We have already encountered humanization in the form of militarization and. via satellites. may be possible. Clayton . Other still less exotic forms of humanization are already well in place. Harry. with outer space being envisaged as a source of energy and materials. making them into environments suitable for human beings. Jay. In the longer term the ‘terraforming’ of nearby planets. Here are living quarters for human beings. Ian. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 148.

Satellites. Jay.-designed “missile defense shield. Ian. Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. DML.” which has for some time been official U. Combined with pilotless Predator drones. economic and military assets both on Earth and in outer space. Without satellite-based communications. Teleworking is the best known example. It has now been made an integral part of the way global capitalist society is organized and extended.4 Using surveillance and military equipment located in outer space is now seen as the prime means of protecting U. with the citizens of the Czech Republic and Poland now under pressure to accept parts of a U. for example. aimed to intercept incoming missiles while facilitating devastating attacks on supposed enemies. Rothenbaum. or “Star Wars” program. November 2010)NAR Yet among these plans and proposals. The 1980s Strategic Defense Initiative. they are now being used to observe and attack Taliban and Al-Qaida operatives in Afghanistan and elsewhere. the global economy in its present form would grind to a halt. A version of the program is still being developed.S. Amanda. Satellite-based communications have also facilitated new forms of consumption such as teleshopping. No 6. are extremely important elements of contemporary communications systems.Cap Kritik 13/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Communications Communication technologies are used to protect and further capitalist exploitation. it is easy to forget that outer space is already being increasingly humanized. This action is done by remote control from Creech Air Force Base at Indian Springs. Defense Policy.S. Harry. These have enabled an increasing number of people to become part of the labor market. Clayton . Satellites have also been made central to modern warfare. Monthly Review Vol 62.” This is part of a wider strategy of “Full Spectrum Dominance.S. Nevada. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”.

Without such a frontier. The frontier is a transposable myth and ideological rendering of the past. DML. These are key values of the libertarian right. Zubrin and Wagner cite Turner and argue that ‘without a frontier from which to breathe life.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. American culture will. Rothenbaum. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 164. present and future. Ian. dml) This imagined past has long been associated with making an essential American national character. in order to justify the colonization of space. the spirit that gave rise to the progressive humanistic culture that America has offered to the world for the past several centuries is fading’ (Zubrin and Wagner 1996: 297). to American democracy and the American entrepreneurial spirit. There is. Amanda. character types and settings it evokes. This in turn leads. Pro-space activists are frequently reflexive about the fact that the needs of capitalism drive the frontier but they simply do not apply critical apparatus to their thinking about the necessity and desirability of capitalist development. of course.Cap Kritik 14/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Frontier The frontier mentality frames space as a place to be exploited Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Jay. stagnate. he believed. Harry. in which the destruction caused by the American Western expansion is highlighted (Launius 2003: 345). it is believed. along with the imagery. Clayton . a well-established counter-hegemonic critique of the frontier. Modern space advocates have adopted this understanding of the frontier. He argued that the challenges of the frontier fostered an individualist survivalism based on risk-taking and hostility towards centralized power. This oft-reinvented tradition of a toughened individual forged by making a new frontier has its roots in Frederick Jackson Turner’s 1893 The Significance of the Frontier in American History (see Turner 1962).

Rothenbaum. whether propounded by Left or Right. Clayton . first. Amanda. specifically the poor. But. particular sectors of the population and particular species and ecological systems. But the picture of catastrophism. used largely to monitor climatic and environmental change. This raises some of the debates surrounding the second contradiction thesis.Cap Kritik 15/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Get Off the Rock The rock isn’t gonna die – but only the elite will be able to get off it Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 156-157. the pessimism of the second contradiction thesis can easily be adopted not just by socialists but by the promoters of capitalism who would use the possibility of the Earth’s ‘demise’ as an excuse to continue privatizing the cosmos. Whatever happens to the Earth and the cosmos there will still be some form of a nature there (Harvey 1996). the second contradiction thesis can be seen as depending on a form of catastrophism: the idea that society and nature are doomed. Harris and Olby (2000) projected a market of $6. Humanizing nature on Earth or in the cosmos need be neither a complete disaster nor a complete triumph. One example is the revenue generated by Earth-imaging satellites.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Developing the rest of the cosmos entails what Enzensberger (1996) might call the next stage of the eco-industrial complex: providing economic opportunities for those in the business of rectifying the degradation caused by capitalism in the first instance. The priority for historical materialism is to consider the implications of outer space humanization for particular societies. O’Connor (1996) is the leading contemporary Marxist proponent of the second contradiction and he argues that it is most likely to be addressed by state intervention and limited state ownership of the means of production. it is not clear that this is an accurate account of the Left version of the second contradiction. Certainly some people. Jay. But this is a long way from saying that capitalism and nature will come to an end as a result of commodification and environmental degradation. Harry. some sociologists have started mirroring the arguments of pro-space advocates and are considering the development of space resources as a permanent resolution of the second contradiction. and working this into a fundamental critique of Marx’s political economy (Thomas-Pellicer 2004). dml) On the other hand. Ian. Like the proponents of capitalism’s infinite expansion into an infinite outer space. DML. may come off much worse than others as a result of such humanization. is quite misleading.5 billion in 2007 for Earth observation data and services. As pro-space activists show.

This entails not only further weaponization of outer space but its use for military surveillance. Important elements of Harvey’s ‘tertiary circuit’ are therefore being transferred to the ‘primary circuit’ in which commodities. in Sontag’s word. finished. But photographs. The whole experience is reminiscent of Susan Sontag’s (2001) analysis of photography. Such. Jay. representation of an objective reality. the satellite was out of action at the time and place the pictures were supposed to have been taken. As in the case of the internet. Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Harry. Perhaps the most famous example was during the lead-up to the second Iraq war. intrusions on selected aspects of the world. This illusion of “ownership” culminates in paranoia and unilateral war waged by the military-industrial-complex. Surveillance previously conducted by military and other state authorities are now. Amanda. but rather an intrusion granted to the military by powerful corporations. being conducted by the private sector. IWren) There is now every sign that the power of the military–industrial–space complex will continue to be enhanced. the provision of these resources for war is being infiltrated by capital. But photographs are ‘aggressive’. Ian. . infra-red sensors. At the same time. at a cost of over $2million a month. are being made. Military planners are said by Newsweek. A photograph may look very much like a neutral. for example. Colin Powell’s famous 2003 pictures shown to the UN. a medium that has largely replaced print as a form of communication in modern society. (For a historical account of America’s surveillance satellites. Furthermore. We talk more about the effects of surveillance from space in the next chapter. enabled individual soldiers to be detected walking around on the ground (Fleming 2001). Mean and Wilsdon report that: During the Afghanistan war in 2001 the Pentagon signed an exclusive deal with Space Imaging. to be working on new devices able to ‘peer through the skull and see the brain at work’ (cited in Fleming 2001).com. For the duration of the war. were provided by a private sector company called MapQuest.] This blanket control also meant that humanitarian groups were denied access to information that could have helped them locate the large number of refugees created by the war. During the Vietnam War. for example. which could penetrate clouds and storms. see Burrows 1988. sold and profited from. again. ‘Ownership’ of an objective reality via observing a photograph is more apparent than real. are ways of saving capitalism from its declining rates of profit. that these images dated from an earlier period before the installations were removed. photographs seem to offer a way of appropriating the objective reality of the world and understanding it. Clayton . a US company that sells photographs from its Ikonos satellite. the Pentagon paid Space Imaging for control of all high-quality images of Afghanistan [. At a resolution of one metre. . Yet this does not stop the powerful from using it as a means towards their particular ends. these were the best available pictures on the commercial market. (Mean and Wilsdon 2004: 31–2) DML. It now seems likely. at least according to some websites. in large part at least. On the one hand. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. earlier military applications set the original pace for making technologies that use outer space in the exercise of power. however. with the media and the internet active in promoting all kinds of conspiracy. in this case public or state means of exercising authority and control. pg 93-94.*Peter. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. These images were part of an attempt to justify unilateral war against Iraq.) This is a process now very much caught up in ‘the war on terror’. ‘treacherous’. are.Cap Kritik 16/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Images Photographs and surveillance do not represent an objective medium of communication. Surveillance rapidly increases levels of paranoia. In February 2003 Colin Powell (United States Secretary of State) presented US intelligence satellite images that purported to show evidence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. Using outer space for military surveillance has taken a great leap forward in recent years. University of Essex and **James. Rothenbaum.

moral. and local as well as commercial databases including critical infrastructure like telecommunications and computers. Rajiva 6 – Masters in Economics. mapping. Afghanistan. These were originally part of an extension of the controversial PATRIOT Act. Step by step. leaked to the media and dubbed PATRIOT II.1 (2006) 133-169. which ordinarily is not supposed to spy on citizens. the government and its private sector partners have been quietly building more and more databases to learn and store more information about the American people. espionage and propaganda have become central.. warning of attacks. and surveillance becomes an end in itself through which the corporate state jealously seeks to provoke rather than deter enemies. satellites are already involved in force enhancement.d. " says Senator Patrick Leahy. and psychological elements—in the polity the Prometheans imagine. such as provisions to loosen standards for FBI surveillance warrants and to allow the detention of suspects without bail. DML.3 "Ironically. when Congress approved an intelligence reform package with little-noticed changes. Ultimately.Cap Kritik 17/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Information Expansion of information services under the guise of national security leads to biopolitical domination over populations and war between nation states. According to the Intelligence Resource Program. more than the GDP of several nations. and both operate in a manner essentially invisible to the public. Doctoral work in international relations and political philosophy (Lila. in reaction to public outrage. warrant-less surveillance. a 50 percent increase over 1998. at the same time that the administration has been making it harder and harder for the public to learn what government agencies are up to. which. 2004.). and more than what is spent today on NASA ($16 billion) or Homeland Security ($31 billion) (Tracing the Rise n. Military Space Programs n. it is not from the framework of the so-called War on Terror but from this expansion that continued in Iraq even thought it was already well-known by early 2004 that the prisons there were peopled by petty criminals and innocent bystanders? (International Committee of the Red Cross 2004). and intercepting messages at all times of day and in all weather over the entire globe in keeping with the motto of the National Reconnaissance Office that "we own the night" (Short n. disseminating intelligence. Ian. why have interrogations and torture the most comprehensive surveillance project ever conceived until. Afferent The expansion of afferent functions recently has been stupendous.d. both in their afferent (intelligence-gathering) and efferent (intelligencedisseminating) aspects. before he was [End Page 138] Secretary of Defense. and indefinite detentions. Thus. This was followed in some states by the floating of the crime-fighting computer database known as MATRIX (Robinson 2004). The New Centennial Review 6. national defense recedes as a plausible motive. state. providing coordinates of targets. the new provisions speed the journey to secret arrests. ID badges. Amanda. it enables simultaneous surveillance of everything from credit reports to insurance claims (ACLU 2004). That suspicion became concrete on December 10. Some officials even suspect that terrorists will not be the only subjects. In 2001. dozens were spying. Harry. D-Vermont (Senate Passes Feingold-Leahy 2004). underscores the importance of the spiritual—the mental. was never introduced as a bill (PATRIOT Act II 2004). Clayton . subjected to the retinal scans. For this reason. about double in real terms what was spent on intelligence at the height of the Cold War. while in the Iraq. It demonstrates that what drives espionage and interrogation in Iraq is not some extreme ticking bomb contingency but the state's own inexorable drive to totality.d. the logic of the spy state unfolds: Admiral Poindexter's controversial Total Information Awareness program was we have to understand Abu Ghraib. The National Intelligence Reform Act of 2004 lays the foundation for a de facto national identification card and links hundreds of federal. and Kosovo wars. There is a real and grim parallel between the gray future of perpetually monitored American citizens and the luckless present of the inhabitants of Fallujah. and militarized work gangs of the imperial state (Jamail 2004). a panel that included Donald Rumsfeld. Jay. Otherwise. The most crucial point of these spy programs is [End Page 137] that access to some of this data may be given to the CIA. Now reintroduced as standalone legislation. described America as frighteningly vulnerable to space attacks and concluded that the United States was "an attractive candidate for a space Pearl Harbor" (Stoullig 2001). When such sleepless watch is being kept.). in 2004 the United States was spending more than $40 billion on intelligence. “Prometheus The Emergence of the Police State in America “) NAR The centrality of information networks. the first harbingers of a police state. Congress canceled funding (Manjoo 2003).4 The afferent network extends to the new American frontier in outer space.5 Today. Rothenbaum.

claimed. Bush (2004) stated that Mars would be the next body on which the USA’s human presence would be felt. the full expression of this movement came in the form of a massive debt bubble. and on colonialisms other than those of the European past. Behind this drive has been. marketing. Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil. Since the 1986 US National Commission on Space’s declaration of its aim to settle on Mars and the Moon. and if so. Amanda. “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. strategic. logical. Rothenbaum. In his 2004 announcement of the USA’s new space policy. George W. What was to be owned. from actual to potential. imagined. The first motivation driving this study is a straightforward concern with spatial accountancy: what kind of a space is Mars at this moment? What kind of a place is Mars before the work of its physical colonization begins? Can Mars be legally owned. and companies offering schools ready-made Martian exploration simulation programs (Space Explorers 2007). Rather than being seen or experienced as an expression of accumulated history. China and Russia announced in March 2007 that they would send a joint mission to Mars by 2009. We use the term ‘spatiality’ to refer to the composite nature of any geographical space: it works as a shorthand for the combination of physical.Cap Kritik 18/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Mars The colonization of Mars is an expansion of capitalism – their discourse of colonization being “necessary” is misguided and justifies intervention Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. It represents an opportunity for postcolonial studies to refocus on the present – and future – tense. Mars presents a unique case for postcolonial spatial analysis: it is precolonial. epistemologies. Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil. with many millions of dollars already invested in its success. By the late 20th century. The shape of future capitalist commodification strategies became further evident in moves by early traders to ‘gather up’ and concentrate the efforts of Europe’s traditional craft workers in a piecework system that de-localized the character of work (Weber 1930). latterly. a space at the threshold of a significant spatial change. generally for the economic benefit of the colonizer. colonialism incorporates expansionist capitalism. it is also necessary to briefly contextualize them within capitalism. and commodified under capitalism was prefigured in the enclosures movement that began in the late 14th century. Clayton . a more universalized managerial class. and operational plans at work. and local knowledge. The trajectory of western political economies has unquestionably been towards the monetization and commodification of everything imaginable. the DML. Ian. There are political. Bush’s Martian vision was not a new development in the USA. by whom and through which processes? And are any of the numerous lessons learned from European colonialisms of the past relevant to Mars? And is the future of Mars necessarily colonial? The second motivation is a curiosity about the ways in which geographies are produced as artefacts of systemic trends in political economic terms. Martian colonialism does not begin with the launch of the first exploration ships or at the moment the first rocket touches down on Mars. Martian colonialism is therefore not science fiction fantasy: it has begun in earnest. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261. It begins with ideas. the propertied classes of Europe and. first. labour became oriented towards the future realization of a price. Harry. 2 The European Space Agency. tradition. “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. Jay. is investing heavily in robotic probes that will scour the Martian surface for optimal colonization sites (BBC 2006). The dominant tense of work thereby moved from past to future. from a network of mutual obligations to motives of future personal gain (Graham 2001). and pronouncements. discourses. 1 As such. dml) ‘Colonialism’ has a specific meaning here: rather than a vague pejorative portmanteau used to house a myriad of power relations. an organizing of the world in a legal. children design Martian colonies as part of their homework. it refers to the creation of distant land as the property of a metropolitan state. Seen at its most abstract and general level. with teachers being trained in how best to bring Mars into the classroom (Middle 2006). Framing Mars through terms of colonization and resources guarantees capitalist exploitation Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. Space colonialism has featured on US Space policy agendas. dml) In order to understand the politics of Martian spatiality. similarly. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. and managerial framework that demands colonization. and epistemological spaces that together comprise a single place. whether on the part of traders (as profits) or workers (as wages). expectations. And in schools around the world. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261. We attend to Martian spatiality for two key reasons.

We concentrate on two important aspects of discourse about Mars that encapsulate the political and the economic. and an exemplar of historical trends in political economy. Clayton . and in which we can see the synechdocal aspects of Martian colonization in respect of capitalism’s historical development: (1) the debate about whether Mars is legally terra nullius or terra communis (politico-legal concerns) and (2) the debate about whether Mars should be terraformed to accommodate human occupation or preserved to respect the innate value of an alien planet (economic and environmental concerns). NASA Policy Directive 1280. and capitalist commodification processes. It is an important object of contemporary political economy. the NASA Administrator directed the Agency to support the President’s Freedom to Manage Initiative with the principal goal of removing barriers to more efficient management. shaping. we agree that ‘it is naïve to imagine that Apollo and the rest have been free from such earthly entanglements’ (Parker 2009).1. the Administrator established a new policy. culture. and tradition – broadly speaking. managerial control. 593). the full range of mission risk managed at HQ and Centers. ‘Political’ here does not refer solely to geopolitics.Cap Kritik 19/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab current global financial crisis is nothing less than the commodification of future human life and energies. This becomes most clear when the politics of Martian exploration. Jay. and private companies are investing intense energy in Mars’s exploration and future colonization. and. territories. while accommodating and providing flexibility to. To support this government-wide initiative and achieve management excellence. National governments. Harry. NASA Management Systems Policy. the Past – to the commodification of all future social relation s (Graham 2002). a systemic expression of colonialist capitalist commodification processes. It therefore focuses on Martian spatiality as a political object. we attend to debates around the meaning of Mars as an artifact of managerial discourses of control and exploitation.We see this as an inherent and inevitable function of contemporary managerial discourse. provides for management systems rigor and discipline. (NASA 2009a) NASA has situated itself firmly within strategic management discourse. that ‘what is at stake – politically and geopolitically – in the contemporary struggle over outer space is too serious to pass without critical comment’ (MacDonald 2007. with the expectations of improved accountability and performance. and Parker’s (2009) analysis of Space capitalism. Space agencies and societies. and ideas. Here is NASA on the matter of management: On April 24. Like Dickens and Ormond’s (2007) exploration of capitalism’s expansion into Space. Thus the arc of capitalist commodification can be seen to stretch from heritage. which today begins all approaches to reality with a ‘strategic plan’: a technical device for defining. Mars has also become an object of strategic planning. and control are investigated. ownership. although geopolitics is included in its meaning. all of which is to be achieved through increased control and ‘efficiencies’. and controlling future environmental and factoral contingencies based on expectations of profit and personal gain. Rothenbaum. DML. with McDonald. we use ‘political’ to describe motivated relationships between organizations. Mars can therefore be seen in discourse as a synecdoche of capitalist value relations – a distant and seemingly small ‘part’ of the system in which the pattern and trajectory of the whole can be seen. In what follows. Ian. Amanda. As NASA is one of the primary agencies conducting missions to the planet. 2002. species. Our approach is grounded in cultural geography set within a postcolonial framework.

this perspective remains a muted one in western thinking. In 1990. Rothenbaum. and the latter arguing for large-scale private colonization as quickly as possible (Lambright and VanNijnatten 2003) – the spatiality of Mars as a passive resource for human use and possession remains largely unchallenged. thus falling squarely within the positive side of utilitarian ethics (an intellectual pet of the 19th-century propertied classes): Zubrin. McKay (1990) similarly biologizes Martian colonialism. Ian. and the detonation of nuclear explosives on the planet to release subsurface water (Fogg 1995. in that it may contain material of future scientific benefit. Robert Haynes coined the term ‘ecopoiesis’ to describe the possibility of modifying terrestrial biota for implantation on Mars (Haynes 1990): this process would first involve manipulation of the Martian environment in order to render it habitable (Fogg 1995). Terraformers position Mars as instrumental. From a terraforming perspective. As in the schism between NASA and the Mars Society – the former advocating gradual colonization led by scientists. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261. Uluru. 2005). Mars’s political spatiality is currently dominated by anthropocentrism. volcanoes. Zubrin is far from alone in championing this version of Martian spatiality. “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. Mars’ political spatiality is thus far from settled. and Alaska under similar premises. a tablua rasa dumbly awaiting human animation. This preservationist view sees Martian space as intrinsically valuable rather than valuable only as a resource for humans. Two distinct versions of Martian spatiality emerge from the terraforming debate. Zubrin’s (1996a) spatiality is committedly anthropocentric and utilitarian: in his vision. Shayler et al. The preservationist version of Martian spatiality arises in response to terraforming. Lee (1994) argues that current environmental management frameworks must be expanded beyond the biocentric so that they encompass abiotic or inanimate environments such as Mars. At present. beautiful. and the freeing up of some of the planet’s currently frozen water supplies. Harry. argues that as an entirely lifeless space. utilitarian. and historical. which is whether or not to terraform Mars. mutely awaiting its activation by human terraformers. they ask? Fogg (2000. they insist. as beautiful. then. Karl Sagan published the first scientific study advocating terraforming in 1961. ideological orientation underpins debates about legal spatiality: at stake is the question of whether or not planets should be the possession of states and or corporations. To preservationists. 210) states that terraforming is natural because humans are essentially expansionist. Its current dimensions are being shaped in the corporate and policy domains and will therefore DML. As Paul York (2005) writes. Two divergent spatialities – terraforming and preservationist – now hover over Martian space. Martian space is inert and dead. As the debate about whether Mars should be legally terra communis or terra nullius demonstrates. Cockell and Horneck (2004) propose a series of Martian Planetary Parks that preserve key areas of Martian space in their current form. to protect and preserve key Martian sites – deserts. and interesting: this position demands very limited human impact on. Mars is a dead space of no intrinsic value. and icecaps – from any human intervention. 90). Is keeping a lifeless planet lifeless more important than allowing for the continuation of human life. Chief among the various proposed methods for Martian ecopoiesis are the focusing of giant mirrors on Mars’s surface. Jay. arguing that humans are the natural ‘pollinators of the universe’ whose instinctive task it is to fertilize the galaxy. Amanda. there is no ethical or political crisis [in terraforming] except whatever we choose to impose on ourselves’. which holds that ‘as long as life or other cultures are not present. and whether planetary resource extraction should benefit few or many. as a place that is marked by early visits to the planet. Mars is a resource for humans to use and colonize (Zubrin 1996a). It similarly informs another important dimension of Martian spatiality. considering Martian terraforming means working out the relationship between humans and Martian space. Antarctica. The argument is primarily an environmental one: terraformers argue that terrestrial overcrowding and resource depletion mean that a failure to colonize Mars would eventually result in the decline of humanity. Clayton . as Pyne (2003) writes. Parks should be created. the planet. or alteration of. the position. despite the establishment of National conservation parks in places such as Death Valley. the founder of the assertively pro-terraforming Mars Society.Cap Kritik 20/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Mars Terraforming Y’all are cap Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. each seeking a toehold in policy and in practice. The next step in the process is terraforming: this is the more ambitions plan of ‘creating an uncontained planetary biosphere emulating all the functions of the biosphere of earth’ (Fogg 1995. They argue that Martian space is valuable on several fronts: intrinsically. dml) Clearly. Manipulation in the case of chilly Mars entails the heating and thickening of the atmosphere. but the terraforming debate began in earnest in 1990 when NASA published the proceedings of a major terraforming workshop (see Committee on Human Exploration of Space 1990). Martian space is autonomously valuable. Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil.

Clayton .Cap Kritik 21/194 enclosure. expropriation. Jay. 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab be shaped in the image of past and present political economic trends where new spaces are concerned: DML. Harry. Rothenbaum. and privatisation. Ian. Amanda.

Amanda.S. Pursuit of unilateral U. space hegemony should be expected.71 Proper space strategy objectives must be congruent with these notions of peaceful international coexistence under the rule of law.” 3/30/07. but these notions are advocated without a full theoretical foundation to rationalize the need for and consequences of space preeminence. and result in undesirable if not irreparable consequences. Jay.72 DoD policy and doctrine advocating U. space superiority.S.dtic.S. “SPACEPOWER: A STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT AND WAY FORWARD. while the new space policy does not advocate space superiority as an objective. balance and separation of power. Thus. space control. its inculcation of defense policy and doctrine language. Ian. and force application should be expected. space superiority would likely exacerbate perceptions of American imperialism. Clayton . which does. proportionality and legitimacy considerations of the Just War tradition. and reflect the preference for collective security arrangements to protect common space interests while adhering to the Just War tradition.70 Just as the specter of space weapons and Soviet space domination sparked the space race and the strong U. Rothenbaum.S.Cap Kritik 22/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Militaristic Rhetoric Reject the militaristic language of the aff – furthers imperialism Farnsworth 7. right intent. Colonel at US army war college (Jeffrey. Different paradigms are needed to formulate more appropriate objectives and temper cultural tendencies toward unilateralist space dominance objectives. is problematic. Harry. could permanently fracture important international relationships. these considerations pose a moral challenge in adhering to the just cause. constitutional formula that separates and balances power to protect liberty and tranquility from tyranny. response in the Cold War. Further. the same or worse reaction against U. http://www.mil/cgibin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.Lt. suggests that space dominance by any nation is antithetical to fundamental national beliefs and values. DML. the U.S. This is not to say that objectives to establish some form of a controlled and stable space operating environment or the capacity to protect and defend space interests are not needed.pdf&AD=ADA469671) Taken together. It is to say that adopting current language from defense policy and doctrine into space strategy is probably not acceptable.

Indeed. Clayton . DML. will become profitable. University of Essex and **James. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. leading some to use the term ‘warfare state’ (Edgerton 2005). they are being channelled into surveillance: monitoring subaltern populations deemed socially or militarily problematic.*Peter. though they contribute to ensuring the reproduction of the social system. The close working relations between the economy and the military are sometimes known as ‘the military industrial complex’. they are directed by military and industrial elites into expenditures that. and in parallel with other forms of military spending. have now been made highly profitable. Rothenbaum. We now discuss each of these processes in turn. in which immediate prospects of profitability for capitalism may again not be clear. originally siphoned off from the primary circuit. such as welfare and military expenditure. and the increasing compression of time and space by new technology.Cap Kritik 23/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Military Funding Military elites ensure that funding is siphoned off to sustain the monitoring of civilian populations and the growth of the military-industrial complex Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Governments are again making investments siphoned off from the primary circuit in the form of taxes and ploughed into further primary circuits which. Harry. the American economy now deeply depends on military spending. These existing and proposed outer spatial fixes all rely intrinsically on two processes: the increasing commodification and privatization of the commons. pg 58. combined with taxes on consumers. especially for the industries of ‘developed’ countries. Indeed. Ian. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. make increasing use of outer space. Investments of this kind can be also be made in somewhat less sinister directions. the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space has displayed posters campaigning to ‘end aerospace corporation welfare’: contracts given to major weapons and space manufacturers to keep them in business. These include social expenditures. is channelled into other ‘tertiary circuit’ elements. IWren) Surplus capital. The military clearly requires the materials made by private defence contractors whereas the contractors are highly dependent on military spending as a steady revenue stream. Jay. Similarly. Military expenditures. Most importantly for our subject. it is hoped. as we later discuss. Amanda. These include the channelling of capital into satellites designed to monitor weather conditions or to assist refugees in their attempt to make a better life.

If fact. Clayton . if the provision in the Outer Space Treaty (OST) regarding their extended responsibility of launching states for whatever they put into space means anything. The “c-word” is supposed to invoke all the terrible aspects of old-fashioned imperialism. Jay. Another source of experience might be the transitions from martial law to civilian law that have taken place over the years. Within a moonbase. http://www.com/article/784/1) The term “space colonization” has been declared off-limits in polite society. Even in Europe. the epicenter of the guilt trip questions are now being asked. Within a couple of decades we will see if this approach can pass the reality test. “Independent space colonization: questions and implications. If colonization is a dirty word. The Outer Space Treaty has theoretically forbidden any nation from claiming sovereignty over any “celestial body”. DML. The ship itself is considered the sovereign territory of the state that owns it while the waters through which it passes may be international or belong to another sovereign state that is obliged to respect the right of innocent passage The ship’s crew lacks anything like the ability to function as free citizens and to buy sell and trade in a free marketplace. particularly European imperialism. “settlement”.author and journalist (Taylor.Cap Kritik 24/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Moon Moon activity in space beyond exploration is controlling and imperialist. anything that goes beyond simple exploration is problematic. None of these have involved any change in sovereignty. Harry. Once one or more bases are established on the Moon. Yet. Post World War Two decolonization involved such a change. including the one that happened in Hawaii at the end of the Second World War.” 1/15/07. nations will find themselves exerting control over parts of that body which. Amanda. One question that advocates for space colonization have to consider is: how can the transition from a quasi-military lifestyle to a civilian one be handled? The experience that many communities in the US have had when a nearby military base closed down might be relevant. and “industrialization”. Rothenbaum. “exploitation”. One notes that neither the Japanese nor the Turks nor the Russians feel particularly guilty about their now-defunct empires.thespacereview. it mean that states will have to exercise control over the inhabitants of a colony no matter how long ago their ancestors left Earth. then so are “conquest”. will amount to sovereignty. in practical terms. Ian. forwarding the cycle of domination and exploitation Dinerman 7. the government that sent them there will regulate their lives in more or less the same way a government regulates the lives of the crew of a warship. there was a major debate in France last year over whether the “positive aspects of colonialism” should be taught in schools. even one occupied by only a couple of astronauts.

Gertrude Himmelfarb. It also goes hand in hand with unquestioning support for the Israeli right. a prominent hawk. when the Post first published a revelatory piece on torture in Afghanistan (Priest and Gellman 2002). not in October 2003. Typical of the revolutionary style of functioning. was defense comptroller until his resignation. Eliot Cohen was a member of Rumsfeld's Defense Policy Board and the NSC. which are driven by transnational business interests rather than strictly national interests (Vest 2002). Committee on the Present Danger. Even then. Rajiva 6 – Masters in Economics. When they did. have received sustained coverage. in which front groups for business lobby government or other organizations through mass mailings that imitate the activism of genuine citizen groups (Lind 2002). The tone is set and the issues framed. Project for the New American Century (PNAC). and preemption. such as the formulation of the torture memos.Cap Kritik 25/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Their appeal to the neoconservative mainstream should be rejected – it is all propaganda that leads to violence. a neo-conservative historian at Chicago University. is a friend of Wolfowitz. and the Daily Telegraph.[End Page 147] Take. and his wife. sacrificing their professional integrity to support their bias (M. like Fox Television and the New York Post. “Prometheus The Emergence of the Police State in America “) NAR The similarity of the social agenda and Weltanschauung of the neo-conservatives to liberalism should thus not be surprising. the godfather of neo-conservatism and his wife. Also at PNAC is Francis Fukuyama. which Black partly subsidizes through the Nixon Center. In the Bush first term. Harry. Especially powerful are two organizations. whose members have come to occupy innumerable influential government posts from where they press the same agenda as their ideological fellow travelers in the think tanks and media outlets. rather than in the grassroots fashion of other ethnic constituencies. but only in May 2004 after the corporate media—CBS—took it up on the heels of an expose by investigative journalist Seymour Hersh. for which Decter writes. author of the most influential book of democratic triumphalism. family. Ian. Consider the manner in which the prison abuse story broke. Norman Podhoretz. Clayton . and then vanish simultaneously. This network of neo-conservative idealogues in the press and in policy team up incessantly to write their vehement tracts. second at the Pentagon. Dov Zakheim. The New Centennial Review 6. John Bolton was undersecretary of state for arms control and international security. Lind 2004). Stephen Cambone was undersecretary for intelligence and also influential in [End Page 148] pro-nuclear circles. Bill Kristol.1 (2006) 133-169. Midge Decter. who was convicted in the Iran-Contra affair. the think tank that in a notorious paper in 2000 proposed American world domination. former editor of the neo-conservative Commentary. they originated on the left as social democrats and. With the clout of the lobbying. Doctoral work in international relations and political philosophy (Lila. Kristol is the son of Irving Kristol. Both were also part of Team B. is owned by the stridently pro-war newspaper magnate Rupert Murdoch. they carried over their revolutionary roots in the cadres and networks through which they operated. and ideology. although the neo-conservatives strongly support American military strength and corporate interests. For instance. the bias lying as much in what it omitted as what it stated. It is run by the editor of the neo-conservative Weekly Standard. Rothenbaum. AIPAC makes use of a kind of top-down "astroturf" lobbying. only in the services of Link – Neocon Think Tanks capital rather than labor. neoconservatives have replaced career civil servants with political [End Page 149] appointees and nullified DML. The hard-line position they advocate rests on national missile defense. abrogation of arms control treaties. the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) and the Center for Strategic Policy (CSP). is a veteran of the old anti-Communist group. the intelligence advisory group responsible for grossly exaggerating the Soviet threat in the 1970s and 1980s in order to get massive budget appropriations for defense. even Trotskyites. such as the one on child abuse. media. The interlocking system orchestrates media reports and opinions to frame issues in particular ways so that certain themes appear in tandem. Government has been effectively captured by such private lobbyists as JINSA and the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) and such think tanks as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI). Jay. the chairman of the editorial board of Podhoretz's National Interest. is the father-in-law of Elliott Abrams. The End of History. a Post columnist. and policy networks behind them. is a fellow at the American Enterprise Institute and on the board of Hollinger International. who only moved to the right on foreign policy in response to the Vietnam War (Raimondo 1993). in spite of a flood of reports. a right-wing media conglomerate that includes the Jerusalem Post. So are Wolfowitz and Feith. The neo-conservatives see themselves as a revolutionary vanguard. Krauthammer. Wolfowitz was deputy defense secretary. in a few cases. The Weekly Standard. have remained stubbornly hidden while others. and institutions supposedly serving the national interest have come to be dominated by their private and transnational networks of business. Podhoretz is also the director of Near Eastern affairs at the National Security Council. Members of the PNAC now control the commanding heights of policymaking. when AP ran a story about torture at Abu Ghraib itself (Hanley 2003). for instance. Amanda. Libby was Cheney's chief of staff. Hollinger's board also includes the columnist George Will. many of these proIsraeli lobbies work in the top-down manner of business lobbies. are repeated until they have the required effect. Richard Perle. not in December 2002. Hollinger itself is run by Conrad Black. certain stories. undersecretary of defense under Reagan.

leaving the executive unrestrained.Cap Kritik 26/194 the traditional checks and balances between branches of government. Rothenbaum. Amanda. policies that shredded the Geneva Conventions and the Uniform Code of Justice (Silverstein 2004). but an independent intelligence agency. mandated since Nixon. extreme sensory deprivation. That was precisely what happened when lawyers from the Judge Advocate General's office were marginalized in 2003 by Pentagon appointees determined to implement policies that involved military dogs. They 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab have unified all intelligence-gathering and propaganda functions under defense (Eland 2004) and have then usurped those functions through personal networks. DML. Ian. Harry. and psychological torture. Congressional oversight of intelligence. thus effectively overturning any constraints placed by law against a consolidation of power within the executive branch. Jay. and the expertise of career civil servants. Clayton . precedent. is often bypassed (Editorial 2005). nonetheless. Whoever has the ear of the president has nearly limitless power to overthrow law. is supposed to be part of the checks against an imperial and secretive executive. Now those checks have vanished entirely.

this clearly being more a part of Space Adventures’ advertising campaign than is humility (see Box 5. Jay. he acknowledges the power of the myth of the heavens as the dwelling place of God.Cap Kritik 27/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – The Overview Effect White’s Overview Effect is a product of selfish empowerment and capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 .*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Clayton . Arguably they have been made the new intermediaries in the Great Chain of Being. Rothenbaum. Harry. White talks about the trip being like a death and rebirth.1). marking a transition of the self. Ian. White seems more than well aware of the ways in which visiting outer space provides a sense of empowerment. DML. but in order to understand what is going on we need to reconcile these two very different elements. White most definitely sees space travel as a positive thing for the self and for society. and refers to the ‘demi-god’ status of astronauts and cosmonauts based on their ability to travel to the heavens. Clearly he envisages the overview effect as aggrandizing the self. His desire to write the book came from his own feelings when flying over Washington DC and thinking how preposterous it was that the tiny beings down there were making decisions for him. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 134. Although rejecting the idea that space travel is inherently a spiritual experience. Amanda. dml) On the other hand. It was ‘like ants making laws for humans!’ (White 1987: 3).

it is being extended to the military and to surveillance. DML. Rothenbaum. Previously state-run activities are being contracted out to the private sector. Amanda. making planets into zones appropriated for the further expansion of capitalism. space activities are now being envisaged as profitable in themselves. as we have seen. This is another stage of Luxemburg’s restless search for further profits or of what Harvey (2003) calls ‘accumulation by dispossession’. Now. Ian. Jay. Clayton . Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 144.Cap Kritik 28/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Privatization Like actually how capitalist can you get Dickens and Ormrod 7 . especially through new competition schemes. In the more distant future humanization will further encroach on its ‘outside’.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Using outer space as a source of raw materials is one suggestion under very active consideration. Harnessing the Sun’s rays with solar panels in space and beaming the energy to electricity grids via Earth-bound receivers is another kind of outer spatial fix under discussion. and so space activity is now becoming increasingly commercialized as well as privatized. though it is not seen as profitable within the next twenty years. but there is a trend towards increasing private sector participation. This process is part of a much more general trend that has been experienced by almost all societies since the 1980s. dml) Private corporations have always been used to make and maintain space activities funded by the US government. furthermore. Harry. But.

for example.-designed “missile defense shield. authoritarian power relations Dickens and Ormrod 7 . aimed to intercept incoming missiles while facilitating devastating attacks on supposed enemies. Combined with pilotless Predator drones. The first is that space technology has become central to the process of promoting dominant cultural forms throughout the global society. published in the Monthly Review. This is outright war. with the citizens of the Czech Republic and Poland now under pressure to accept parts of a U. No 6. The 1980s Strategic Defense Initiative. pg 68-69. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. between colonizing nations as well as between the colonizers and aboriginal peoples. DML. surveillance and military equipment located in outer space is now seen as the prime means of protecting U.Cap Kritik 29/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Satellites Satellites are the lifeblood of modern capitalism. Satellites have also been made central to modern warfare. Satellites serve as a medium for the transmission of hegemonic worldviews. University of Essex and **James. IWren) There are two quite distinct ways in which the humanization of outer space is implicated in the maintenance of hegemony. and for the surveillance of the population. Harry. It has now been made an integral part of the way global capitalist society is organized and extended. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. a form of electronic cultural imperialism. a communications company.org/2010/11/01/thehumanization-of-the-cosmos-to-what-end ] Jay Yet among these plans and proposals. But the prospect of galactic colonialisms raises the distinct possibility of hostilities in space.S. professor at the University of Brighton and Cambridge.*Peter.” This is part of a wider strategy of “Full Spectrum Dominance. compared with another risk stemming from cosmic colonization. of who actually owns this area of outer space.786 km above the equator. Teleworking is the best known example.S. A version of the program is still being developed.”15 This raises the urgent question. Nevada. ’10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex [Peter Dickens. economic and military assets both on Earth and in outer Satellites are the best opportunity for capitalist actors to gain control Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. one still not adequately resolved. Dickens.” which has for some time been official U. are extremely important elements of contemporary communications systems. Vol. November 2010. With only three satellites in the GEO. or “Star Wars” program. Monthly Review Vol 62. it is easy to forget that outer space is already being increasingly humanized. Issue 6. a media conglomerate. Jay. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. Amanda. Armed conflict has long been a common feature of past colonialisms. November 2010. 26. Such a scenario was prefigured by the Star Trek science fiction television series in which the main role of “The Federation” is the protection of capitalist mining colonies. Satellites. Defense Policy. No wonder it has been called “space’s most valuable real estate. http://monthlyreview. Using space. they are now being used to observe and attack Taliban and Al-Qaida operatives in Afghanistan and elsewhere. Satellite-based communications have also facilitated new forms of consumption such as teleshopping. Galactic wars may therefore be the product of galactic colonialism. This action is done by remote control from Creech Air Force Base at Indian Springs. Ian. This is the 30 km-wide strip 35. the global economy in its present form would grind to a halt. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – to What End?”.24 Satellites are the means by which western culture imposes cultural imperialism on global scale and monitors falsely constructed “deviant” populations to sustain dominant. Rothenbaum. Satellites are already a means by which territories and investments on Earth are monitored and protected by governments operating on behalf of their economic interests. These have enabled an increasing number of people to become part of the labor market. Indonesia. dml) The issue is now being highlighted by an argument over the geostationary orbit (GEO). Without satellite-based communications. Clayton . Is it owned by the equatorial countries such as Colombia. one in which satellites can orbit at the same speed as the ground below them. and Kenya under this strip? Or is it jointly owned and managed by all states? But even manufactured risks may be minimal in scope.S. or a government surveillance agency can cover the whole world.

include consumerism. as discussed in Chapter 4. Muslims and. ‘terrorists’. latterly. Harry. home and duty with the neo-liberal values of possessive individualism. like those in the dominant bloc. nation. 1978). As Mowlana has argued with specific reference to satellites: The Western-fuelled system of ‘communications. Its forms are again unevenly developed but in most advanced Western societies it is a combination of appeals to ‘old values’ such as religion. (Mowlana 2004: 300) This e-sphere is certainly not imposed on audiences. and capitalism seems to be seeking to conquer the culture and diverse human capacities of the world. DML. Ian. Clayton . But dominant blocs and alliances can remain dominant only if subordinated classes actually adopt and internalize such values themselves. The focus was on supposedly lawless and hedonistic groups of young people breaking the boundaries of respectable society and hence wrecking the entire social order (Hall et al. satellites 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab help communicate hegemonic worldviews to living rooms around the world. Rothenbaum. and this is despite the massively increased social inequalities stemming from the neo-liberal experiment. Subordinates therefore not only must be reconstituted but must reconstitute themselves as atomized individuals whose pressing priorities. it is one way in which capitalism is able to spread an increasingly global culture. the acquisition of property and a dedication to hard work. Restoring class hegemony is a difficult and ongoing enterprise. It needs constant renegotiation and has no guarantee of success.Cap Kritik 30/194 As explored in Chapter 4. Satellite technology is again central to this hegemonic project of surveillance. capitalism. In the British case a series of ‘moral panics’ was created by politicians such as Margaret Thatcher and sections of the media. despite the illusion of consumer choice. and even deviant states. Authoritarian populism has been retained in the twenty-first century. Amanda. consumerism and continuous change’ contains seeds of a new form of conquest. This now surging e-sphere of information. but Mowlana’s argument is that. Moral panics over ‘youth’ have been supplemented by panics over immigrants. Jay. who voluntarily wire themselves into it. communications. Hegemonic settlements made in the postwar period have been socially and spatially uneven. Closely allied with these panics has been the increased surveillance of ‘deviant’ populations. Subaltern groups are under pressure to accept as inevitable new forms of authoritarianism.

Ian. November 2010. observable tracked objects to around thirty thousand. Jay.” Improved tracking systems will increase the number of smaller. much scientific intervention today stems from the crises stemming from earlier intervention.” Now such progress is regularly challenged. the success of a galactic colonialism is by no means guaranteed. is readily recognizable in space-humanization progress.”19 This kind of risk. Harry. known as “space debris” or “space junk. for example. generating thousands of pieces of orbiting debris. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. Amanda. for which no one agency or individual is usually culpable.21 DML. No 6. dml) But even if it were desirable. or what some social scientists have called “manufactured risk. 2009. This is because the very venture of space colonization brings new risks. Note. Rothenbaum. Such collisions are estimated at millions or even billions to one.20 Space junk poses a serious threat to the whole enterprise of space colonization.Cap Kritik 31/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Satellites/Space Debris Cleaning up space debris is a capitalist fix for a capitalist problem – the mindset they uphold recreates their impacts Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. designed to drag older satellites out of orbit in order to avoid collisions. Even whole satellites may collide. But on February 10. Clayton . Furthermore. The fifteenth-century Renaissance and the Enlightenment placed great faith in science as a means of bringing “progress. that there are now around fourteen thousand tracked objects circling around the earth. many of these causing potential damage. and plans are now afoot to launch even more satellites. A defunct Russian satellite crashed into an American commercial satellite. such a collision actually happened. Monthly Review Vol 62.

capitalist ambitions and utopian. If this is so.Cap Kritik 32/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Science Fiction Science fiction is both the product of and the sustainment for hegemonic. Harry. In the trilogy. cultural-socio-psycho babble of a single civilizational paradigm. the narratives of the show are stories about the crew of the Enterprise teaching the various space colonies which they visit to be American. 1994. but this requires engagement in praxis. there is clearly some hope that critical science fiction writing and the critical reading of science fiction can contribute to the exploration of alterative futures to the extension of global capitalism into space. . for example. exploitation. This is a point made eloquently by Sardar and Cubbitt: Science fiction shows us not the plasticity but the paucity of the human imagination that has become quagmired in the scientist industrial technological. Science fiction is the fiction of mortgaged futures. retreat from this altogether critical position to discuss the ways in which science fiction can play out the conundrums of civilization. University of Essex and **James. Our imagination as regards possible human futures in space is the product of hegemonic relations. he reports. pg 69-71. astrofuturism also carries within it an idealism. environmentalist and even nudist principles. Science fiction as resistance fails—it’s appropriated by capital to project social issues far into the future. Goulding’s position has been attacked by writers like Jenkins (Jenkins 1992. 4) However. the crew are disturbed upon visiting a planet on which people worked the minimum amount of time possible and spent all their free time high on drugs. Whether or not the readers of science fiction have the ability to critically dissect the messages of the shows they watch and the books they read has been hotly debated. . albeit stripped of unpleasant resonances and rendered innocent. As such. Not only is the imagined spacefaring civilization one that continues to operate on neo-liberal principles. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. 1996) trilogy of books on a Martian mining colony explore the ethics of exporting capitalism to the rest of the cosmos. Ian. more importantly. who has argued that the science fiction audience is highly creative and reflexive. IWren) Some commentators on science fiction have also argued that the stories told there about human exploration and settlement of space are distinctly hegemonic. DML. there is probably some truth to DeWitt Douglas Kilgore’s assessment of the scope of science fiction and science writing about space (what he calls ‘astrofuturism’): Astrofuturist speculation on space-based exploration. like Kilgore. capitalist power relations by normalizing dystopian futures and depicting economic tension as inevitable Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Rothenbaum. is often supportive of existing social practices. As Goulding argues. and colonization is capacious enough to contain imperialist. some writers influenced by the critical theory of the Frankfurt School have been much more outspoken against the duping effect that science fiction has on an audience that is encouraged to accept social relations as inevitable through witnessing them projected in time and space. In one episode. Goulding (1985) has argued that science fiction shows like Star Trek ‘preserve a “halo of free choice” within rigid rules and structured inequalities’. This obvious transgression against the protestant ethic had to be redressed by the Enterprise crew. Jay. and especially popular science fiction. (Sardar and Cubbitt 2002: 1) Sardar and Cubbitt. a liberal or utopian commitment that seeks alternatives and solutions to these problems and conflicts characterizing contemporary American life.] This [speculative] impulse has produced a strand of futurist thought that seeks an eternal extension of contemporary political and economic arrangements. However. The Federation to which the Enterprise belongs promulgates male authority (preserved through the notion of the chain of command). groups of Martian settlers break away from the capitalist mining operations to establish their own social order based on socialist. socialist hopes. (Kilgore 2003: 1. It can imagine space frontiers predicated on experimental arrangements and the production of relationships uncommon or unknown in the old world. Yet it should also be noted that there are those who emphasize the way in which science fiction explores the conflicts of Western society. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. Some science fiction clearly goes even further with narratives that attack the legitimacy of contemporary social relations through telling dystopian stories about how a human future in space might look. Kim Stanley Robinson’s (1993.*Peter. but. possessive individualism and the ‘Darwinian ethic’ of the survival of the fittest. Tulloch and Jenkins 1995). alternative Earthly solutions to our social and environmental problems are ignored entirely in favour of exporting them to space. and highlights the problems with imperialism and capitalism. capitalism (through military and diplomatic protection of mining colonies). However. Clayton . glossing over war and crises to fragment contemporary resistance. The futures imagined by most science fiction writers reflect a hegemonic worldview simply through their demonstrated inability to imagine anything other than an extension of contemporary social relations. [. Amanda. it is hard to deny that science fiction.

The ideological dimensions of wars being conducted in space are most obviously discussed. the Borg as communists as well as Asians (Wertheim 2002). Science fiction studies is a massive field. But the widespread and constant projection of such messages and images must have its effect.Cap Kritik 33/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Dickens and Ormrod 7 . the Star Wars films can also be interpreted in a less subversive light. in relation to the Star Wars series of films. allowing a contemporary weakening of resistance. and one that has much to contribute to a sociology of the universe. The natural parallel with American society is made clearer in the second-made trilogy (which are actually prequels to the first trilogy). an account of an alien invasion from Mars. In the case of Star Wars it all takes place in a distant future and a galaxy ‘far. This had a flying saucer landing in Washington DC and its captain ordering world leaders to abandon the nuclear arms race or face annihilation from aliens (McCurdy 1997). in which we witness the formation of the Empire. Separatists work a deal with corporations (the Trade Federation) to destroy the Republic. DML. Orson Welles caused widespread panic with his radio version of the 1898 H. Clayton . However. pg 96-97. bringing ‘profits beyond your wildest imagination’. such messages are always up for revision. it is not impossible to imagine a film offering a critical commentary on society that actually contributes to hegemony. In the later films the empire will be defeated by distinctly American rebels seeking freedom. One relevant to our present discussion is the 1951 Robert Wise movie. The programme was broadcast at precisely the time when America was jittery about the threat of fascism and Nazi Germany. In 1938. or the Klingons as Vietnamese (Goulding 1985). Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. The Republic. In this case. It offers hope that good will win out at some point in the future through the fantastic powers of an extraordinary group of activists. Harry. Wells classic novel The War of the Worlds. but not here and not just yet. it is an attack on greedy corporations whose interests are served by war. Jay. however. is manipulated by greedy and ambitious rulers into investing in the development of immense military power. Furthermore. This is a great example of the one-dimensionality of capitalism identified by Herbert Marcuse (1991). Capitalism is capable of making even our most revolutionary impulses part of its own system of social power. This is how Lucas presents the cycle of empire (Lancashire 2002). All its moral messages are worthwhile. Furthermore. Ian. the fundamental social and economic institutions and processes involved. the Star Wars films are entrenched in an American movie culture intimately bound to capital. aggressiveness. the films’ director. despite what is potentially a powerful critique of a contemporary American society gone wrong. Here Lucas is deliberately critical of American society. The Day the Earth Stood Still. unfortunately. Still more acutely. Continuing concessions and possible solutions are made without clarifying. far away However. which turns its back on democracy to become the Empire. no single movie is going to exert ideological hegemony on its own. IWren) Fear of Soviet domination of space was also reflected in contemporary science fiction films. for example. here we can only offer a few examples. University of Essex and **James. represented by the Republic. One way in which films might do this is by projecting contemporary political issues far away from today’s material reality. Amanda. This is just one instance of public suspicion and paranoia being reflected and amplified by the producers of popular movies. faster-thanlight travel and other technological developments that remove the picture of war away from its brutal realities. Of course. as consumers bought into the Star Wars brand. George Lucas. Rothenbaum. G. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. The images of the movies abstract away from particular capitalist interests or particular parts of the political class. motivated by fear. A war far. Even if the message of the plot contains the potential for critical thought. hatred and fear underlying war (Lancashire 2002). Still less will it halt an anti-war movement in its tracks. The alien races in Star Trek have been read as representations of a number of threats to the US from cultural ‘others’. is an anti-war propagandist and the films can be read as a commentary on the greed. and undermining. And it will not do so indefinitely. Hegemony works not by suppressing the truth – it is not propaganda in that sense – but by dissipating resistance to the social order (Lee Harvey (1990) uses the terms ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ ideology to make this distinction).*Peter. far away’. Star Wars merchandise was worth billions of dollars to Lucas. then the franchise’s marketing operations subsume it in another ‘Disneyized’ consumption spectacle (to use a term from Bryman 2004). for example. In our own time Steven Spielberg’s 2005 version of War of the Worlds deliberately played on fears stemming from the attacks on 11 September 2001. They also shore up the notion of a pure war by using laser weapons.

land and sea. seen in the context of Gramsci’s analysis of power. The purpose of this monopoly is not simply to control the use of force on Earth. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 88-89. At the same time US imperialism promotes the interests of the other core states and of capitalism as a whole insofar as these are in accord with US requirements. Jay. one in which the US government actively enforces a monopoly over outer space as well as air. argued along similar lines that whoever held the Moon would control access to space. (Foster 2006: 145) But. and for that reason an American Space Station was proposed. Fortunately. they will need guarantees from their governments that their investments will be protected. either from Earth-based weapons or from weapons mounted on other satellites. Forget heg—militarization and weaponization of space is only a precursor to the exploitation and imperialist appropriation of the entire cosmos Dickens and Ormrod 7 . But the success of such military and economic governance at arm’s length is also by no means guaranteed. increasing militarization is itself a sign of weakness. In 1989 a congressional study. The US has historically been anxious about other nations attempting to control Earth orbit. perhaps historically rather surprisingly. Military Space Forces: The Next 50 Years (Collins 1989). We return to this point in summary. Clayton . Ian.*Peter. dml) Harvey can also help us understand how the militarization of space helps establish new empires on Earth via imperialism at a distance or ‘at arm’s length’. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. And its aim in militarizing outer space is to achieve what the US Joint Chiefs of Staff call ‘full-spectrum domination’. Resorting to warfare is an indication that domination by consent has broken down. If more people are going to be encouraged to invest in space technology. combining with key sectors of the economy. pg 94-95. The new kinds of space-based war and surveillance which have emerged since the Second World War are a central part of the attempt by American governments.Cap Kritik 34/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Space Militarization The militarization of space is the new strategy for colonial domination Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Historically. present and future. Star wars systems are conceived in part to protect space assets from perceived threats. parliamentary democracy and markets will not necessarily be widely shared. As we go on to argue in Chapter 4. as many pro-space advocates point out. Rothenbaum. the US decided. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. one that would ensure that access to space was vetoed by American interests. This entails attempting to control and subject societies deemed to be weaker. Accumulation by dispossession continues to generate its own antagonisms and social movements. The societies and peoples deemed ‘weaker’ do not necessarily see themselves in that way and are likely to fight back. If the values of Western cultures and ways of life come under question they must be enforced. IWren) The United States government is by far the dominant military force in outer space. With a system of property rights already being drawn up for space resources. by remote control. and appears to be a possible motive for the recent initiative to establish an inhabited Moon base by 2024. This echoed an older 1959 study. and so the American Space Station became the International Space Station. a military presence in space to ensure these rights is becoming an increasing priority. As Foster argues. The militarization and weaponization of outer space is recognition that global hegemony based on a Western model can no longer be assumed. colonization has been DML. it does have something in common with earlier forms of imperialism. Harry. to make ‘fixes’ in absentia. that in the post-Cold War climate cooperation with other countries in the project would be more beneficial than a unilateral solution. Amanda.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. University of Essex and **James. but also to secure economic interests actually in space. satellites have become so crucial to the functioning of the world economy that there has been increasing tension amongst the cosmic superpowers over their vulnerability to attack. Inasmuch as such expansion promotes US hegemony it tends to increase the international competitiveness of US firms and the profits they enjoy. War is the handmaiden of property relations and economic imperialism: The primary goals of US imperialism have always been to open up investment opportunities to US corporations and to allow such corporations to gain preferential access to crucial natural resources. It is recognition that the values of individualism.

There are those who are against it per se. however. it entails societies (and particularly the US with its enormous fusion of capital and political power) privatizing and commodifying resources previously owned by the public sector or held in common in other ways. Amanda. some who see it as a necessary evil in order to protect space assets and operations. It does not entail one society invading another with a view to permanently occupying that society and using its resources. There are. This process is developing within the ‘advanced’ societies. it is a strategy that is being spread throughout the cosmos. and as a possible step in the eventual settlement of space. Clayton . It is unlike that typically pursued until the late nineteenth century. DML. Rothenbaum. Jay. But. Rather. even more important. Pro-space activists have generally been divided over the issue of weapons in space (Michaud 1986). Ian. such as the US.Cap Kritik 35/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab established through the military. but even fewer see it as a positive use of space. Harvey’s analysis of the new form of imperialism is again useful in understanding these military developments. Harry.

bestselling author and columnist for the guardian. Companies are now claiming they own asteroids and landing spaces on the moon. blocks of air. change hands for tens of millions of dollars. it is far from unprecedented. There have been a number of legal disputes over the ownership of clouds. Lexis) Terrifying as the impending capture of the essence of humanity is.” 6/20/00. as property rights proliferate. Jay.Cap Kritik 36/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Space Property Attempts to develop space lead to leadership claims that expand the totalitarian capitalist regime Monibot 2k. Rothenbaum. Ian. I told him the bad news. In several American cities. east London. which (once legally transferred to a suitable site) allow their owners to build skyscrapers. Clayton . the ownership of land is as inconceivable as the ownership of air would be in the northern hemisphere. who told me that. as firms battle for the right to make them drop their rain where they want it. Harry.(Guardian Leader Pages). and other colleges (George. The attempt to grab the genome is just one of many symptoms of a far graver disease. But. None of these presumptions is any more absurd than the claim to possess exclusive control over part of our own planet. DML. a political and economic system which. Amanda. by seizing absolute control of fundamental resources. in southern India. destitutes everyone it excludes. to the tribal people he works with. We are entering an age of totalitarian capitalism.On Saturday I met a campaigner from Kerala. fellowship/professorship holder at oxford. “ Comment & Analysis: This is a war of all worlds: Fuss about the human genome just hides the brutality of global capitalism.won the UN 500 award for outstanding environmental achievement. almost everything which once belonged to all of us is being seized.

Nature on a cosmic scale now seems likely to be incorporated into production processes. with new parts of the cosmos being invested in by competing nations and companies.” April 2005. On the other hand. Ian. governments protecting the zones for which they are responsible. Dickens 10 – Visiting Professor of Sociology (Peter. however. no absolute guarantees that such fixes will really correct an essentially unstable social and economic system. the geological substratum or the biological superstratum are immune from transformation by capital. Rothenbaum.” Attempting to resolve terrestrial resource needs through space is unethical and fuels capitalism Anker 5. JSTOR) DML. an outside is needed as a zone into which surplus capital can be invested. and space hotels. the humanization of the cosmos seriously questions these assertions. the atmosphere. Harry.” i. the oceans.” again in response to economic. Similarly. November 2010. On the one hand.. Developing “outsides” in this way is also a product of recurring crises. Neil Smith’s characterization of capital’s relations to nature is useful at this point. Monthly Review. The stage would then be set for wars in outer space between nations and companies attempting to make their own cosmic “fixes. space stations. Military power will inevitably be made an integral part of this process. particularly those of declining economic profitability. resistance to capitalism is either everywhere or nowhere. capital stalks the Earth in search of material resources. Clearly. Rosa Luxemburg argued that an “outside” to capitalism is important for two main reasons. Since Luxemburg wrote. Issue 6.Cap Kritik 37/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Space Resources Expansion into space to sustain Capitalism is a short term solution that causes global wars. To this end. The Humanization of the Cosmos—To What End?)NAR In the early twentieth century. These crises are followed by attempted “fixes” in distinct geographic regions. (Peder.9 Capital is now also “stalking” outer space in the search for new resources and raw materials.PhD in history of science from Harvard. expansion into the cosmos offers no benefits to capital in the form of fresh sources of labor power. the attempt is to fix capitalism’s crises.7 As outlined earlier. “The Ecological colonization of space. appended to Earth. space fiction fantasies about aliens aside. the moon. and environmental crises on earth.10 Rather. of course. Projects for the colonization of outer space should be seen as the attempt to make new types of “spatial fix. making. it is needed as a means of creating massive numbers of new customers who would buy the goods made in the capitalist countries. Outer space will be “globalized. UK. research fellow at the Center for Development and the Environment at University of Oslo. these will include artificial fixes such as satellites. First. objects and instruments of production. The reproduction of material life is wholly dependent on the production and reproduction of surplus value. Regarding the latter. Some influential commentators argue that the current problem for capitalism is that there is now no “outside. New “spatial fixes” are due to be opened up in the cosmos. an increasing number of political economists have argued that the importance of a capitalist “outside” is not so much that of creating a new pool of customers or of finding new resources. such as the moon and Mars. But during the next twenty years or so. nature becomes a universal means of production in the sense that it not only provides the subjects. and exploiting zones of profitability for surplus capital. The kind of theory mentioned above also has clear implications for the humanization of the cosmos. Volume 62. space technology has extended and deepened this process. But. capital is being physically invested in new regions. but is also in its totality an appendage to the production process…no part of the Earth’s surface. Clayton . and perhaps other cosmic entities such as Mars.8 But expansion into the cosmos does offer prospects for exploiting new materials such as those in asteroids. social. Economic and social crisis stems less from the problem of finding new consumers. Jay. existing outsides. they are short-term solutions. capitalism’s emergent outside. The word “fix” is used here both literally and figuratively.e. allowing an increasing number of people to become integral to the further expansion of global capitalism.”11 Capitalism is everywhere. will begin attracting investments. At best. there are. At first. and more from that of finding. Luxemburg’s second reason for imperial expansion is the search for cheap supplies of labor and raw materials. Norway. Amanda. as suggested above. these being located mainly on earth.

into capitalist forms. when royalties from the counterculture sourcebook. a leading defender of space colonization. capital creates yet another barrier. ‘The tendency to create the world market is directly given in the concept of capital itself. According to Stewart Brand. it will in due course use them up or make them prohibitively expensive to extract. in contrast to the irrational. dml) Capitalism is necessarily an expanding and crisis-making type of society. since these are the basis for capital’s ‘dynamism’. disorderly. Every limit appears as a barrier to be overcome’ (1973: 408). in order to continue reproducing and expanding.6 Capitalism needs an outside to obtain resources from in order to survive – space will become that outside Dickens and Ormrod 7 . First. As regards materials. it could be said that it requires limits. this makes the Moon and nearby planets an attractive prospect for the further expansion of capital. resistances and barriers of different kinds. political. Jay. Rothenbaum. But capital. moral. Some of them built Biosphere 2 in Arizona to prepare for colonization of Mars and to create a model for how life on Earth should be organized. necessarily encounters limits. Amanda. and methodology from space research in their efforts to reshape the social and ecological matrix onboard Spaceship Earth. Though hardly novel in other areas of historical research. so can the materials of the Arctic or of the Moon and Mars be incorporated into capitalist production processes. and historical space were invaded by ecological science aimed at reordering ill-treated human environments according to the managerial ideals of the astronaut’s life in the space colony. In the debate that followed. Regions such as the DML. for example. and worth. The Whole Earth Catalog.5 This article holds that advocates of the Martian ecological perspective sought to create on Earth what one proponent described as a “neo-biological civilization” at the expense of the humanist legacy. Indeed. yet nevertheless adopted terminology. the overwhelming majority thought space colonies could provide well-functioning environments for astronauts seeking to push human evolutionary expansion into new territories. Hardt and Negri 2000). The establishment of property rights is central. But zones outside capitalism can also be used as just a source of materials. To supporters. In the same way that gold and diamonds were taken from Peru and South Africa or sugar cane was taken from Jamaica and Java in eighteenth. This is where outer space is becoming significant. But. were used to finance space-colonization research. The very commodities it needs (whether it be labour power or just materials) are now brought within its ambit. The colonialist agenda of space research invites the use of postcolonial theory. orderly. Luxemburg also went on to argue that by incorporating a non-capitalist society in either way. technology. dignity. The connection between ecological colonization of outer and earthly space has largely been ignored. Assuming that the cost of reaching the Moon and the nearby planets is sufficiently low. capitalism expands by making other kinds of society in its own image. which holds that every human being has intrinsic and unique capacities. As discussed in Chapter 3. The use of colonial terminology was deliberate and in line with the imperial tradition from which ecology as a science emerged. today’s main power blocs (the United States.Cap Kritik 38/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space colonization caused hardly any controversy until 1975. Harry. when space colonies became the model for Spaceship Earth. as indeed it was when the African continent was subdivided by rival powers. This means that capital must find yet another source to satisfy its demand for infinite expansion. all human beings became “Space natives” colonized by ecological reasoning: Social. space colonies came to represent rational. capital needs an ‘outside’ beyond its boundaries.3 The few historical analyses of space ecology that do exist have hardly paid attention to its importance to ecologists’ understanding of Earth. postcolonial analysis has yet to be applied to the history of ecology.and nineteenth-century forms of imperialism. the European Union and in due course other societies such as China and India) are beginning to scramble for outer space in much the same way as the European societies competed for African territory in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. in line with Marx. but have not placed this methodology in the context of ecological colonization of space. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 154-155. Clayton . the term “space colony” (instead of “space settlement”) was unproblematic since “no Space natives [were] being colonized. its constant restructuring and reorganization. This ‘outside’ takes two main forms. making feudal or aboriginal societies. as this article argues.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James.”2 Yet.4 Scholars have rightly emphasized the significance of modeling closed ecosystems. and wise management. one of Harvey’s antecedents. argued in developing her theory of imperialism. The skeptical minority argued that space colonization was unrealizable or unethical. As Rosa Luxemburg. and ill-managed Earth. off which it feeds (Luxemburg 1968. while also saving a Noah’s Ark of earthly species from industrial destruction and possible atomic apocalypse on Earth. Ian. As Marx himself put it.

Amanda. 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab as soon as the Moon is exhausted. capital will be seeking more resources on Mars. The issue of ownership of means of production is again vitally important here. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 144-145. Clayton . But a number of sociological theories offer better insights into the future humanization of the cosmos. or alien life confirming the superiority of Western democracy. known as 3554 Amun. however. Lewis argues. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 143. and about $6 trillion in platinum-group metals (ibid. was about $20 trillion. Private companies have also been established working on the research and design for asteroidal and lunar mines. Asteroids are receiving special attention (Lewis 1996).Cap Kritik 39/194 Arctic or outer space are good examples. Hudgins 2002). this is of course true. The attempt to colonize and exploit space is the new front of capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 . into the production of fuel for further humanization from space materials (Zubrin and Wagner 1996).). In the mid-1990s the market value of metals in the smallest known asteroid. dml) Outer space is now increasingly envisaged as providing inputs to the Earthly production process. Even the most enthusiastic pro-space activists see materials in space as useful only for building in space. United Nations legislation and the most optimistic proponents of space exploitation assume that space resources are infinite and there will be enough for everyone to own plenty of space. and one million tons could be obtained from the Moon. But it is overlooked that the nearer parts of space are those which are most profitable and viable to exploit. with projects supposedly beneficial to society actually generating considerable potential for disaster. This chapter is in part speculative. Metals found on the Moon are just the dispersed debris from asteroids. This included $8 trillion worth of iron and nickel. but there is also a sense in which the proposals for humanizing the universe are in themselves interesting illustrations of the way in which humanity imagines its future. They have three hundred times as much free metal as an equal mass taken from the Moon. The Moon might seem an obvious first target for the acquisition and mining of resources. $6 trillion worth of cobalt. for example. for example. The cost of returning materials to Earth would add so much to the cost of extracting them that this would never be financially viable. and as this happens investors will need to be increasingly wealthy to afford to exploit it. as a means of harvesting energy for the Earth. One metric ton of helium-3 is worth $3 million. outer space being used as a refuge from disasters. On the other hand. Lewis 1996.g. Zubrin 1999. Considering the immensity of space as a whole. In reality. Research is also being conducted. Stine (1975) as the ‘third industrial revolution’ and by Krafft Ehricke (1972) as ‘the benign industrial revolution’ (as there were supposedly no environmental issues associated with it). In the more distant future. ‘The Risk Society’ is being made cosmic. and so on. seen as an unlimited source of metals for human use. It is. indications of how society’s relations with the cosmos are changing. we need to remain cautious in accepting these highly optimistic forecasts. there are some important straws in the wind. So. it should be possible to retrieve this and mine other asteroids to supply Earth with all the metals society will ever need.000 to develop computer models that could lead to the production of propellant from the lunar regolith or rock mantle (SPX 2004). Jay. but asteroids are currently seen as a better bet thanks to their metallic density. Science fiction and forward-looking space scientists give some indication of the nature of these developments. the part of space that is not yet owned and exploited will always become further and further from the Earth. NASA has recently given the chemical engineer Jonathan Whitlow a grant of nearly $50. displacing governments and using outer space for commercial purposes. It is also increasingly envisaged as a source of materials for investment in new circuits of capital. Ian. It may well be used. As and when it is possible to launch thousands of people into orbit and build giant solar power satellites. Extracting valuable helium-3 from the Moon is another possibility.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Science fiction shows. Space is seen solely as an area of resources for capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Some DML. This is discussed in a number of books elaborating the commercial potential of outer space (e. Needless to say. dml) The humanization of outer space is at an early stage and attempts by social scientists to predict the future have almost always ended in failure. To an increasing extent capital is setting the pace. investments may be made in outer space colonies. Rothenbaum. for example.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. The expansion of industry into space has been referred to by Harry G. Harry. This has led Lawrence Joseph to question in a New York Times article whether the Moon could become the Persian Gulf of the twenty-first century (cited in Gagnon 2006).

unless tempered. February 13. 2010.*Peter.: 427). Once made. Whether these fixes are (at least temporarily) effective depends on whether they are seen as profitable or. commodities or productive capacities of fresh labour powers from other regions’ (ibid. What right does humanity have to model the cosmos in its own image? Finally. unprofitable or containing people resisting their appendage status. for example. public-private partnerships. one offering new possibilities for capital accumulation. The spread of society into an external nature far beyond the Earth also raises ethical issues which already form part of a wider debate. companies and investors are realizing that everything we hold of value—metals. Mineral mining in space drives capitalist agendas forward.Cap Kritik 40/194 authors borrowing from Marx might 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab interpret the colonization of outer space as an attempted resolution of ‘the second contradiction of capitalism’. Two fundamental realities now exist that will drive space exploration forward. willing to fund individuals who are passionate about exploring space. Diamandis 10—. drive job creation and open the cosmos for the rest of us. ‘the frontiers of the region can be rolled back or relief gained by exports of money capital. We cannot overexaggerate the fact that success for Earthly or cosmic spatial fixes is by no means guaranteed. The tendency towards overaccumulation within the original region remains unchecked. DML. outer space is being used to manage flows of capital and information and to regulate social relations (including the social relations of production) on Earth. Cisco and Apple of space to be born. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. Rothenbaum. They involve the geographic expansion of the circuits of capital as new territories. but ‘devaluation is avoided by successive and ever grander ‘outer transformations’. Harvey (2007) initially assumes a single and closed region in which production and realization of surplus values take place. But in a new plan unveiled in President Barack Obama's 2011 budget earlier this month. We therefore term them ‘outer spatial fixes’. “Space: The Final Frontier of Profit?” Wall Street Journal. Honorary Doctorate at International Space University. however. a new player has taken center stage: American capitalism and entrepreneurship. reproducing labour power or successfully managing social relations. private capital is seeing space as a good investment. This process can presumably continue until all external possibilities are exhausted or because other regions resist being treated as mere convenient appendages’ (ibid. these fixes commonly take on a ‘spatial’ nature. whether they fulfil their purpose of. Clearly there is no question of importing labour power from outer space to help out a failing region on Earth but. Chairman and CEO of X Prize Foundation. a spatial ‘fix’ is likely to be destroyed or devalued in order to make way for a new spatial fix.D. Spatial fixes are only ever provisional and therefore offer only short-term resolutions to the contradictions inherent in capitalism. But. Amanda. at Harvard Medical School. with capital despoiling the natural environment to such an extent that it searches for new materials ‘off-planet’. The plan lays the foundation for the future Google. And. workforces and markets are drawn into the capitalist system. this chapter raises the possibility of a ‘cosmic consciousness’ taking the form of an individualism which envisages the whole of the cosmos as within its reach. This time the fixes are in the cosmos. But even Earthly spatial fixes may now be proving relatively ‘exhausted’. We therefore argue that Earthly fixes may be expanded to incorporate even more ‘outer transformations’. University of Essex and **James. he argues. in the case of state and social expenditures. First.: 427). as discussed in Chapters 3 and 4.wsj. Second. Ian. Clayton . raw materials. IWren) Importantly for Harvey and other Marxist geographers. Harry. it will become a central feature of a ‘cosmic society’. Jay. for adventure as well as profit. The drive to accumulate space resources is an extension of the capitalistic project of seizing areas and sucking them dry Dickens and Ormrod 7 . For purposes of exposition.com/) Government agencies have dominated space exploration for three decades. http://online. The two further circuits of capital are involved in the making of these new outer spatial fixes. pg 54-55. the raw materials of outer space are increasingly envisaged as a means of developing Earthly production processes. as we will discuss in Chapter 6. M. Co-Founder and Managing Director of Space Adventures (Peter. Signs of this subjectivity are already in evidence and we predict that. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. What was once affordable only by nations can now be lucrative.

one seeing the whole of the cosmos at his or her command. what was once seen as a wasteland will become the next gold rush. The Humanization of the Cosmos—To What End?)NAR In short. thus further enhancing their wealth and that of their many illegitimate offspring. in liberty. and population crises because it is thinking too small. Voltaire. energy and real estate—are in near-infinite quantities in space. The philosophical roots of the Space Initiative are no less than the sixteenth-century Italian Renaissance and the Enlightenment. The Medicis were bankers and merchants who made their money at the center of an emerging global mercantilist capitalism. magnesium silicates and a variety of other metals. This kind of modern human identity has since been enhanced by consumer-based capitalism and. As space transportation and operations become more affordable. But such “solutions” are again imaginary. The Initiative argues that opening up the cosmos to humanity—colonizing the solar system. for example. and the asteroids—could be central to social and environmental salvation. and Jefferson. The language used by intellectual elites of the day was Latin. The progress made by the private sector in developing technologies and efficiencies for space tourism means that commercial enterprise can now start planning to venture still further afield. Monthly Review. With the enlightened patronage of such families as the Medicis. The Space Renaissance Initiative believes in these concepts. The energy of the sun can. music. his head in the heavens and his bowels located in earthly regions. narcissistic individualism of our own day. UK. Milan. any claim that the Medici family (and similar families such as the Borgias) helped overthrow feudalism is far-fetched. with its prime focus on the power of the supposedly autonomous and inventive individual. stretched over the circle of the cosmos. society is undergoing massive social. The general point is that the vision of the Space Renaissance Initiative. Cheap electricity is most likely to increase levels of production and consumption back on earth. The belief of these philosophers in the enterprising individual. there seems rather little reason to celebrate or restore it. Rothenbaum. which would solve society’s energy shortages at a stroke. Clayton . Michelangelo. is composed of iron. humanization of the cosmos. This “Man” is perhaps best symbolized by Leonardo’s famous image of a male human being. Once thought of as "Seward's Folly" (Secretary of State William Seward was criticized for overpaying the sum of $7. there are millions of asteroids of different sizes and composition flying throughout space. They used this money to enhance their position within their feudal societies. and human agency therefore underpins the starting point of the Space Renaissance Initiative. systematically omits questions of social. Their focus on resources ‘out there’ ignores environmental degradation on Earth. But this Renaissance Man—or Woman—can also be seen as prefiguring the self-centered. For example. kings. Amanda. This movement led to the Age of Enlightenment and its most famous offspring: the American and French Revolutions.6 The Medicis and individuals such as Leonardo are often celebrated as examples of “The Renaissance Universal Man. The same will hold true for space. Consumer-led industrial capitalism necessarily creates huge social divisions and increasing degradation of the environment. and later Copernicus and Galileo leading the way. Alaska serves as an excellent analogy. Alaska has since become a billion-dollar economy. This appealed to scholars across Europe but not to the great mass of individuals living in Florence. be made into a source of clean power from outer space. November 2010. Members of the Medicis even made themselves into popes. seeing them as the basis of a new. Volume 62. one based in Northern Italy. Environmental degradation will be exacerbated rather than diminished by this technological fix. known as S-type.” one capable of spanning every kind of human practice such as art. The manifesto also praises the writings of Descartes. and opening up resources in the moon. technology. One category. Why should a galactic capitalism do otherwise? The Space Renaissance Initiative argues that space-humanization is necessarily a good thing for the environment by introducing new space-based technologies such as massive arrays of solar panels. with men like Leonardo da Vinci. perspective on humanizing the cosmos tell us? DML. Issue 6. An average half-kilometer S-type asteroid is worth more than $20 trillion. Dickens 10 – Visiting Professor of Sociology (Peter. Mars. What will ploughing large amounts of capital into outer space colonization really do for stopping the exploitation of people and resources back here on earth? The “solution” seems to be simultaneously exacerbating social problems while jetting away from them. and in reason all mean that political power should be vested in the common person and not in states. including cobalt and platinum. But there are surely major problems here. economic. and politics. and nobility.2 million to the Russians for the territory in 1867). culture took on some essential principles of classical Greek philosophy. in freedom. Another of the Medicis was made the Queen of France. Similarly. liberating. What would an alternative. progressive. or Venice. Jay.Cap Kritik 41/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab minerals. A simplistic and idealistic view of history. an unprecedented new age of development took place: arts knew a wonderful age of innovation. Ian. For example. the Space Renaissance Initiative argues. and modern science was born. more critical. the Initiative’s focus on the apparently universal benefits of space humanization ignores some obvious questions. Harry. given the problems it creates both for ourselves and our environment. and military power. environmental. Humanization in this shape—one now finding favor in official government circles—raises all kinds of highly problematic issues for society and the environment.

Those who do not write off the idea completely believe that it will become profitable and viable and may actually happen fairly soon. and became central to Gerard O’Neill’s space colony plans discussed below. So it is advisable to again be cautious about much of the highly optimistic publicity surrounding the use of solar power for Earthly needs. dml) The idea of using satellites for harnessing solar power was introduced by Glazer (1968). at least in the short to medium term (Macauley 2000). safer and easier to maintain (Collins (2000) disagrees). A study of representatives of the energy industry and of industry concluded that. However. The main criticism is the expense of the electricity they would produce. But this will only be at the point when the unit cost of electricity produced by Earthly power sources rises above the unit cost of satellite solar power. Kassing 2000. Jay. outer space collectors of solar power look like an excuse for a space programme rather than a legitimate solution to energy problems. Harry. But we need again to remain cautious. conventional electricity generation in both developed and developing countries will be more than adequate to deal with demand (Macauley 2000). the energy produced would be extremely expensive and. because of the massive investment it would require. Woodell 2000). According to many estimates this will not be until reserves on Earth are much more depleted. Only then will this particular outer spatial fix become profitable. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 145-146. DML. Amanda. There are serious questions about its profitability. Rothenbaum. and it would be a great deal cheaper. If it were ever to happen.Cap Kritik 42/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – SPS SPS is a band-aid solution for internal contradictions of capitalism and would be monopolized by the elite Dickens and Ormrod 7 . for the next quarter of a century at least. One commentator (Launius 2003) outlines the argument that equivalent electricity could be produced by covering a section of the Sahara in solar panels. it can be argued that it will simply never be viable because it is cheaper to produce renewable energy on Earth than it would be in space. would very likely be monopolized. though requiring some form of private–public partnership or World Bank funding (Collins 2000. Clayton . Ian. To Launius.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James.

outer space is being made by elite groups into the new exotic destination of choice. Clayton . trips into space being presented by the space tourism industry as an ultimate aesthetic and spiritual experience. Harry. people do not simply ‘consume’ holidays and images of holidays offered by brochures. Crang 2006. he is pointing to a certain tendency. to literally make their ‘selves’ (Britton 1991. wonder and renewed identity to the space tourist. Rothenbaum. concerning society’s relations with the cosmos. This hegemonic view of the cosmos and society’s relation to it is a product of a new dominant social bloc. But the producers of commodities are recognizing these tendencies amongst the consumers and are producing new forms of ‘aestheticized’ or ‘cultural’ tourism (Lury 1996. Hence all of us. Another form of ‘circuit’ is therefore involved here. The humanization of outer space also uses and reinforces an ancient and powerful worldview. dml) Space tourism is a rapidly growing field of economic activity. the tourism industry and governments. and its images.Cap Kritik 43/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Space Tourism Space tourism is a narcissistic exercise that reinforces class divisions Dickens and Ormrod 7 . in these we search for the appearance of an unblemished. Rather. one in which consumers are using purchased commodities to develop their aesthetic and cultural identities. It relies on the idea that outer space is an apparently pure and serene ‘other’ place offering a profound sense of awe. Ian. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 124. Ateljevic and Doorne 2006. Consumption addresses the alienated qualities of modern social life and claims to be their solution: it promises the very things the narcissist desires – attractiveness. socially valued self. dml) Whichever kind of tourism is consumed and participated in. Space tourism forms part of this process. Jay. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 129. It is well recognized that capitalism caters to the narcissistic personality type prevalent in late modernity by offering consumer goods that claim to replace a widespread loss of identity. Travelling there supposedly brings the same kinds of rewards. beauty and personal popularity – through the consumption of the ‘right’ kinds of goods and services. DML. in the form of a new self. Oakes and Minca 2006).*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. one in which surplus profits are being ploughed into outer space. live as though surrounded by mirrors. Tourism in outer space will be the newest way in which social elites forge their identities. one which particularly afflicts some classes of consumer. the aerospace industry. as does travelling to a holy site during a pilgrimage. (Giddens 1991: 172) Giddens is almost certainly wrong to suggest that literally all of us are narcissists searching for a sense of self.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Tourism makes space into a commodity Dickens and Ormrod 7 . As a number of sociologists have argued. and space tourists confirming that they have made new persons out of themselves as a result of their experience. They actively use this commodity. Amanda. It is another part of society’s ‘outer spatial fix’. Crouch 2006). the chances are that it will help make and reinforce a particular kind of social identity. in modern social conditions. one incorporating pro-space activists. Now that virtually all space on Earth has been humanized and thoroughly populated. But this is only part of the picture.

Jay.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 116. dml) Foucault’s account is useful when we turn to one of the main ways in which the socialization of outer space is being deployed today. This data can be used to target consumers. A system of geosynchronous satellites is arguably the modern-day equivalent of a punishing God or supreme power in the sky feared by societies throughout human history. Surveillance is becoming especially important in contemporary society. even though the sheer amount of information generated by all these technologies is difficult to cope with. DML. The planetary panopticon monitors and transmits highly personal information. and in neither case do the monitored have any knowledge of whether or not they are being watched. Amanda. About 200 of the Earth’s 2. this picture needs some modification. is used not only for stock-control purposes but also to make profiles of individuals as consumers. Satellites capable of monitoring and transmitting pieces of information around the globe are a step towards making a global panopticon. Ian. however. Both involve a watchstation up on high that observes deviant populations. Car number plates can be photographed and matched to centralized records to track individuals or to charge them for the use of certain streets. to bring to their attention new products via advertising or promotion over the internet. Rothenbaum. Closed-circuit television monitors the activities of individuals. Clayton . Not only does it involve the observation of populations. There is a direct parallel between Bentham’s panopticon and this new orbital or ‘planetary’ panopticon (Whitaker 2000). Data on consumers’ purchases.500 satellites can be seen exercising ‘biopower’ and ‘capillary’ authority via satellite. Telephone conversations can also be quite easily monitored. If Foucault is right. As we shortly discuss. But personalized surveillance goes even further than this. for example. but increasingly it is implicated in the transmission of information about people around the globe. Harry. the outcome is a cowed and self-policing population.Cap Kritik 44/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Surveillance (Biopower) Satellites are the new Panopticon – they exercise biopolitical control over the population Dickens and Ormrod 7 .

Indeed. should the environment ever prove truly stable and lush with vegetation (as utopian space art would have us believe) then one can only assume it will be the most privileged members of society who escape the chaos of Earth to achieve a new freedom in the Heavens.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. It brings another possible set of risks. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 151. as well as those corporations which might supply genetically engineered bacteria or orbital mirrors to heat the planet. Jay. some are even winning research grants now to study such things. Harry. but it is always worth recalling the kind of society transforming nature. We may well ask who might actually dwell and work in ‘terraformed’ zones and who might actually benefit. Ian. Clayton . The most likely scenario is that it will be groups of highly qualified and highly paid scientists who will benefit most from the project. On the other hand. Environmental sustainability does not always imply social justice. Amanda. slowly evolving. dml) Yet environmental risks are not the only ones associated with planetary engineering.Cap Kritik 45/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Terraforming Terraforming is not neutral – only the elite can take advantage of it and the expendable are expended to make it possible Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Yet of course. What social relations are involved for the making of its harmonious. terraformed environment? Respect for environments and ecological systems may be an inherently ‘good thing’. DML. Lovelock’s proposal for terraforming is entirely unforthcoming about the kind of society that would live and work on a terraformed planet. it could well be expendable and exploitable people who will work in zones of growing environmental risk once it is under way. this time of a social and political kind. Rothenbaum.

pg 99. States. I would be astonished if this didn’t happen eventually.. by convenient fiction——for example. expressing the view occasionally heard in pro-space circles that a military interest is necessary to get funding for a space programme at all [J3248]. the political subjects of which are a global sovereign. a global social order normalized in terms of capitalist social relations. There is a dialectic in place here as well. and as a state populated by an exceptional people. consent is won. are reduced to empty shells of sovereignty. Four people said that on technical grounds Earth-based weapons would be better. What is particularly disturbing is that several respondents seemed to believe that the weaponization of space was inevitable given human nature. IWren) As with other questions. “Taking sovereignty out of this world: Space weapons and empire of the future”. rather than expressing a clear view for or against. Such weaponization has been naturalized as ‘common sense’. in turn. Another middle-aged man. University of Essex and **James. as sovereign for a particular global social order. remarked that ‘Given man’s persistent ingenuity and determination to find new ways of killing and maiming people. a global capitalism. Ian. other than the exceptional “American” state. And their “citizens” are produced as “bare life” subject to the willingness of the global sovereign to let them live. the U. DML. persuasive power of hegemony in practice. Jay. Even in crisis conditions of contestation. Another was not critical about this. It also constitutes the ‘‘space-controlling’’ state. who were both critical of the idea themselves. a concept which in turn weakens resistance to such an ‘inevitable’ project were it to proceed. and. sustained. Together. accepted it as inevitable. The disturbing part is that these people. while erasing the sovereign political subject status of other states. Amanda. the claim with which this paper began——that modes of political killing have important effects——would be an understatement! Claims that space weaponization are inevitable are self-fulfilling.*Peter. and “bare life” for individuals and groups globally to participate in that social order. Rothenbaum. an exceptional “nation” linked to that sovereign. This is the subtle. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. Clayton . as useful administrative apparatuses for the governing of locals. One management consultant said it was inevitable given that humans by nature are fearful and aggressive animals. these three sets of effects constitute what we believe can appropriately be identified as late-modern empire. Nine people said they believed that the placing of weapons in space was inevitable. and one woman said she thought it was what the American space programme was leading up to. dml) Each of the three forms of space weaponization has important constitutive effects on modern sovereignty. Space control reinforces that exclusive constitution of sovereignty and its potentiality for fostering unilateral decision. ““Americans. Review of International Studies (2008) 34: 755-775. building on assumptions of human nature that disseminated hegemonically Dickens and Ormrod 7 . it should be noted that there were a number of respondents who chose to comment on the likelihood and practicality of placing weapons in space.S. Harry. A few mentioned that the weapons could be used to blast an asteroid on course for Earth or debris floating in space rather than referring to their military potential. Exclusive missile defense constitutes a “hard shell” of sovereignty for one state. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe.Cap Kritik 46/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Link – Weapons You cause cap Duvall and Havercroft 8 – *professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota AND **professor of Political Science at the University of Oklahoma (Raymond and Jonathan. a town planner.”” Space weaponization in the form of capacities for direct force application obliterate the meaning of territorial boundaries for defense and for distinguishing an inside from an outside with respect to the scope of policing and law enforcement——that is authorized locus for deciding the exception. If our argument is even half correct. and it’s possibly happening already’ [C3006]. as the very idea of placing weapons in space feeds into a concept of human nature as aggressive and fearful. productive effects on political subjectivities. if at all.

Rothenbaum. Clayton . Jay. Harry. Ian. Amanda.Cap Kritik 47/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **IMPACTS** DML.

computers. One of these poles . the species.. also necessarily entails racism. on the bases of which ever larger masses of living labor are ejected from the process of production. opening the way for the extension of the process of extermination to virtually the whole of the human species.com/wageslavex/capandgen.. a source of exchange-value. is marked by the subordination of the biological realm itself to the logic of capital. Anders's philosophy of technology is unabashedly pessimistic. births and mortality. and technology as the subject of history. Such a group. “Capitalism and Genocide.. culminating in the present stage of automation.of whole populations in the form of technologies of domination: "In concrete terms . Jay. becomes a biological (in the case of Nazism) or class enemy (in the case of Stalinism. for Foucault. According to Anders. Amanda.even potentially -. Moreover.. Spring 2000. weapons make it possible to wield this power to condemn whole populations to death. the culminating point of the real domination of capital. and the large-scale phenomena of population. Michel Foucault's concept of bio-power can also be refunctioned to explicitly link it to the basic tendencies of the development of capitalism. Bio-politics entails the positive power to administer. ceasing to be -. the level of health. If genocide is indeed the dream of modern powers .. focused on the species body.Cap Kritik 48/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Biopower Capitalism relies on biopower. the race.reocities. Their supervision was effected through an entire series of interventions and regulatory controls: a bio-politics of the population. manage. all this was ensured by the procedures of power that characterized the disciplines: an anatomo-politics of the human body. with all the conditions that can cause these to vary. while at the same time making it possible to grasp those features of capital which propel it in the direction of genocide. and the end of history (Endzeit). a stage which he designates as "post-civilized cannibalism" [postzivilisatorischen Kannibalismus]. It allows capital to mobilize all the human resources of the nation in the service of its expansion and aggrandizement." Nuclear. Rothenbaum. 2k [Internationalist Perspective. preparing the way for their replacement by machines.” Issue 36. and in which Hiroshima marks the point at which "humanity as a whole is eliminatable"[tötbar]. I would argue. the first industrial revolution introduced the machine with its own source of power as a means of production. centered on the body as a machine: its disciplining. the third industrial revolution. Clayton . For Anders. economic and military. culminating in an Endzeit. which. The second . its integration into systems of efficient and economic controls. and the subordination of man to the machine. by which he means making a cut in the biological continuum of human life. robotics. a dead weight. and the "birth of state racism".. in order to become an insuperable burden for capital. from the cycle of accumulation as a whole. inserting the industrial extermination of whole groups of people into the very logic of capital: genocide as the apotheosis of instrumental reason! Reason transmogrified into the nihilistic engine of destruction which shapes the late capitalist world. while the second industrial revolution saw the extension of commodity production to the whole of society.. has made humans obsolete. the Holocaust marked the first attempt at the systematic extermination of a whole group of people by industrial means. chemical. threatens its profitability. though the latter also claimed that biological and hereditary DML. corresponds to one side of the dialectic of socialism or barbarism which presides over the present epoch. and the political and ideological transformation of capitalist rule. life expectancy and longevity.. the extortion of its forces. the body imbued with the mechanics of life and serving as the basis of the biological processes: propagation. the parallel increase of its usefulness and its docility. in which the world is "overmanned". his vision of a totally reified world." Such a bio-politics represents the subjugation of biological life in its diverse human forms to the imperatives of the law of value. in the epoch of which humanity now lives. then. they constituted . Anders's concept of an overmanned world can be fruitfully linked to the immanent tendency of the law of value to generate an ever higher organic composition of capital." entailing an awesome power to inflict mass death.. this power over life evolved in two basic forms . and even to its very life.. Ian. designating the very existence of a determinate group as a danger to the population.. of this power over life. Internationalist Persepective. both on the population of one's enemy. the optimization of its capabilities. indeed. and. and biological. Harry. is what he terms "thanatopolitics.. to its health and well-being. . leaving virtually no room for Marxist hope (communist revolution). for Foucault. http://www. The extension of the law of value into every sphere of human existence. This "obsolescence of man" can at the level of total capital thereby create the necessity for mass murder. which encapsulates both the "statification of the biological".and death -.. and regulate the intimate details of the life -. and on one's own population: "the power to expose a whole population to death is the underside of the power to guarantee an individual's continued existence. and information technology.. The other side of bio-politics.a productive force. two poles of development linked together by a whole intermediary cluster of relations. Nonetheless. and creates domination over people with the ability to destroy entire populations. This stage corresponds to what Foucault designates as bio-politics. Bio-politics. in which case it provides a point of intersection between the triumph of the real domination of capital economically.html] For Anders. it is because power is situated at the level of life. so long as it lives and breathes..

Michael & Antonio. when reproduction and the vital relationships that constitute it themselves become directly productive. Rothenbaum. Clayton . DML. that is. new forces and new positions of affective labor characterize labor power as much as intellectual labor does. Hardt & Negri 2k – Professors at the European Graduate School (Professors. Jay. affects. we are able to see how the value-form invades even the biological realm in the phase of the real domination of capital. Ian. his understanding of the state as incorporating both political and civil society. and to be able to inflict mass death on populations or races designated as a biological threat. and what I see as vital contributions to their theorization by Antonio Gramsci and Ernst Bloch. Biopower names these productive capacities of life that are equally intellectual and corporeal. Such a perspective. but rather his theorization of the political and ideological moment of capital. However. and languages) stamps society with a new collective meaning and recognizes virtue and civilization in cooperation. as if the new powers of labor were only intellectual and not also corporeal (Section 3.net/text. What is at issue here is not Gramsci's politics. that I now want to turn in an effort to better elucidate the factors that propel capital in the direction of mass death and genocide. and in particular his concept of the "integral state". and his understanding of ideology as inscribed in practices and materialized in institutions. by linking this concept to the real domination of capital. all of which have enriched Marxist theory. it is Foucault's ruminations on the binary division of a population into a "pure community" and its Other.4). and it is to these. his concept of hegemony. they run throughout and constitute directly not only production but also the entire realm of reproduction. As we saw earlier. on the basis of technologies of domination. Harry. intersects with the transformations at the level of the political and ideological moment of capital. The powers of production are in fact today entirely biopolitical: in other words. The illusion of biopower is just an abstraction of the fundamental basis of social relations. where he followed the counter-revolutionary line of the Stalinist Comintern. an intelligent life that by expressing itself in production and reproduction as well as in circulation (of labor. however. which is labor. Amanda. it is possible to subject biological life itself to a formidable degree of control. which exploded the crude base-superstructure model of orthodox Marxism and its vision of ideology as simply false consciousness.php?id=1034709069754) The danger of the discourse of general intellect is that it risks remaining entirely on the plane of thought. Biopower is another name for the real subsumption of society under capital.Cap Kritik 49/194 characteristics were linked to one's class origins). Moreover. The Foucauldian concept of bio-politics allows us to see how. “Empire” http://textz. and both are synonymous with the globalized productive order. And 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the danger represented by such an enemy race can necessitate its elimination through physical removal (ethnic cleansing) or extermination (genocide).gnutenberg. which allows us to better grasp its necessity. Production ‘ fills the surfaces of empire: is a machine that is full of life. and which revolutionaries ignore at their peril. Biopower becomes an agent of production when the entire context of reproduction is subsumed under capitalist rule. his political practice. while bio-power entails the horrific possibility of genocide. his interventions in the debates on strategy and tactics within the Italian Communist Party.

Cap Kritik 50/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Democracy Capitalism and democracy are on opposite ends of the spectrum—democracy tries to ensure that people are collective. seeking laws that give them a competitive advantage over their rivals. even as consumers and investors feel more empowered. public relations. As these two forces have spread around the world. nothing more. Democracy is designed to allow citizens to address these very issues in constructive ways. “How Capitalism is Killing Democracy”. while capitalism takes away this collective identity. And while capitalism has become remarkably responsive to what people want as individual consumers. is thriving. What is desperately needed is a clear delineation of the boundary between global capitalism and democracy— between the economic game. Yet today. Reich 07—Chancellor's Professor of Public Policy at the Goldman School of Public Policy.thechicagocouncil. Foreign Policy Journal. Former US Secretary of Labor (Robert B.pdf)//AW Why has capitalism succeeded while democracy has steadily weakened? Democracy has become enfeebled largely because companies. to the detriment of our democratic duties. and how its rules are set. but not political freedom. Democracy. enables citizens to debate collectively how the slices of the pie should be divided and to determine which rules apply to private goods and which to public goods. the other must soon follow. Jay. Former US Secretary of Labor (Robert B. This fact is not. In short. Today. while democracy is struggling to keep up. “How Capitalism is Killing Democracy”..thechicagocouncil. Amanda. democracy means much more than the process of free and fair elections. and the United States. But though free markets have brought unprecedented prosperity to many.org/UserFiles/File/Events/FY08%20Events/11_November %2007%20Events/111407%20Reich%20Article. have invested ever greater sums in lobbying. And yet a sense of political powerlessness is on the rise among citizens in Europe. Foreign Policy Journal.pdf)//AW Conventional wisdom holds that where either capitalism or democracy flourishes. the challenge for citizens is to stop these economic entities from being the authors of the rules by which we live. their fortunes are beginning to diverge. It is a system for accomplishing what can only be achieved by citizens joining together to further the common good. in intensifying competition for global consumers and investors. has embraced market freedom. If the purpose of capitalism is to allow corporations to play the market as aggressively as possible. Capitalism corrupts and erodes democracy. heightened job insecurity. China. and even bribes and kickbacks. long sold as the yin to democracy’s yang. The result is an DML. Clayton . democracies have struggled to perform their own basic functions: to articulate and act upon the common good. Of course. allowing corporations and elites buoyed by runaway economic success to undermine the government’s capacity to respond to citizens’ concerns. a failing of capitalism. those tasks are increasingly being left to the market. Reich 07—Chancellor's Professor of Public Policy at the Goldman School of Public Policy. however. we have blurred their responsibilities.org/UserFiles/File/Events/FY08%20Events/11_November %2007%20Events/111407%20Reich%20Article. http://www. September/October 2007. They are encumbered by the same problems that have hobbled American democracy in recent years. at its best. poised to become the world’s third largest capitalist nation this year after the United States and Japan. Japan. on the one hand. Capitalism. Many economically successful nations—from Russia to Mexico—are democracies in name only. http://www. they have been accompanied by widening inequalities of income and wealth. Ian.. Rothenbaum. Harry. Capitalism’s role is to increase the economic pie. on the other. and to help societies achieve both growth and equity. September/October 2007. no democratic nation is effectively coping with capitalism’s negative side effects. and environmental hazards such as global warming.

even heroic -. Amanda. make donations to charities of their own choosing in amounts they decide for themselves. is to get our thinking straight. While corporations are increasingly writing their own rules. 14 October 1998 http://www. They invest to earn high returns. and climate change.au/1998/337/20135] The environmental movement is treading water and slowly drowning. might give communities a bit more time to adapt to changing circumstances. making the true price of the goods and services we purchase as low as possible. they are also being entrusted with a kind of social responsibility or morality. but the citizen in me thinks it worth the price. The larger danger is that these conspicuous displays of corporate beneficence hoodwink the public into believing corporations have charitable impulses that can be relied on in a pinch. The first step.have largely failed.Cap Kritik 51/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab arms race for political influence that is drowning out the voices of average citizens. but the citizen in me might think it a fair price to pay. Under today’s intensely competitive form of global capitalism. widening inequality.greenleft. Nor do they have any expertise in making such moral calculations. Let us be clear: The purpose of democracy is to accomplish ends we cannot achieve as individuals. Corporate executives are not authorized by anyone—least of all by their investors —to balance profits against the public good. thereby boosting the bottom line. and publisher of Rachael’s Environment and Health News. consumer and investor interests almost invariably trump common concerns. those that consume weeks or months of congressional staff time. the fights that preoccupy Congress. And for those of us living in democracies. at least indirectly. There is abundant evidence that our efforts -and they have been formidable. As a result. global investors. That is how we participate in the global market economy. My inner consumer won’t like that very much. Extended unemployment insurance combined with wage insurance and job training could ease the pain for workers caught in the downdrafts of globalization. for example. It is much the same with what passes for corporate charity. Harry. The vast majority of us are global consumers and. companies donate money to good causes only to the extent the donation has public-relations value. But shareholders do not invest in firms expecting the money to be used for charitable purposes. By pretending that the economic success corporations enjoy saddles them with particular social duties only serves to distract the public from democracy’s responsibility to set the rules of the game and thereby protect the common good. or when they appear to take on social responsibilities that they have no real capacity or authority to fulfill. A change in labor laws making it easier for employees to organize and negotiate better terms. Democracy is supposed to represent the public in drawing such lines. But democracy cannot fulfill this role when companies use politics to advance or maintain their competitive standing. The return on my retirement fund might go down by a small fraction. presumably. for example. We can accomplish this larger feat only if we take our roles as citizens seriously. Jay. A small transfer tax on sales of stock. In the United States. The only way for the citizens in us to trump the consumers in us is through laws and rules that make our purchases and investments social choices as well as personal ones. Yet the purpose of capitalism is to get great deals for consumers and investors. might increase the price of products and services. In these roles we should strive for the best deals possible. Ian. to slow the movement of capital ever so slightly. That leaves societies unable to address the tradeoffs between economic growth and social problems such as job insecurity. And the message that companies are moral beings with social responsibilities diverts public attention from the task of establishing such laws and rules in the first place. After 30 years of exceedingly hard work and DML. are typically contests between competing companies or industries.org. Politicians praise companies for acting “responsibly” or condemn them for not doing so. it is imperative to remember that we are also citizens who have it in our power to reduce these social costs. Extinction Montague co-director Environmental Research Foundation 98 [Peter Montague. But those private benefits usually have social costs. Clayton . Rothenbaum. which is often the hardest. Shareholders who wish to be charitable would.

An insignificant amount would enter the body in this fashion. mimicking calcium. then announce their “solution”. This question of democracy is not trivial. Clayton . they concluded. The AEC's best and brightest studied this problem in detail and and ultimately unsuccessful. but without the ability for citizens to participate in decisions. In the modern era. we have failed to stem the tide of environmental deterioration. we must answer No.even when Congress has been willing to impose them -. or rather movements. are we to do? This article is intended to provoke thought and debate. During the past 30 years. One thinks of the old Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) justifying above-ground nuclear weapons testing. or blow the whistle on egregious violations. then. However. a highly radioactive element that masquerades as calcium when it is taken into the body. Congress declassified many of the AEC's deliberations. Once in the body. where it irradiates the bone marrow. strontium-90 was not endangering people. And it deeply divides the environmental movement. and the amount that would end up in the cows' bones. Things would be much worse today if our work of the past 30 years had never occurred. Clearly. Ian. Experts. They calculated the strontium-90 intake of the cows. the environmental movement has had some notable successes mobilising people. and trusting their decisions. On that basis. The fundamental importance of democratic decision-making means that our strategies must not focus on legislative battles. if we are honest with ourselves. They had neglected to ask whether strontium-90. DML. they love to say. their atomic fallout was showering the population with strontium-90. and the general welfare will not usually be promoted. Harry. Errors remain uncorrected. Then they lobby Congress in hopes that Congress will impose this latest “solution” on us all. causing cancer. small groups of experts can make fatal errors. Open. The following year. narrow perspectives and selfish motives are rewarded. Our technologies are now too complex and too powerful to be left solely in the hands of a few experts. it is a necessity for human survival. Open. Lobbying can mobilise people for the short term. but few successes building longterm organisations that people can live their lives around and within (the way many families in the '30s. the question is. we got a glimpse of what had happened to the environment and the people under the Soviet dictatorship. If they are allowed to make decisions behind closed doors. Amanda. Openness. and their “solutions” -. finding new allies. would contaminate cows' milk. in that process. “The only potential hazard to human beings would be the ingestion of bone splinters which might be intermingled with muscle tissue in butchering and cutting of the meat. Rothenbaum. After the Berlin wall fell. burdensome open democratic decision-making is essential to survival. such people don't develop a big following. In the early 1950s. '40s and '50s lived their lives around and within their unions' struggles). Instead. but this is quite different from focusing our efforts on lobbying campaigns to convince legislators to do the right thing from time to time. Make no mistake: our efforts have had a beneficial effect. The power to govern would naturally flow from those efforts. Naturally. bureaucracies (whether public or private) cannot achieve beneficial results without active citizen participation in decisions and strong protection for whistle-blowers. scientists and citizens began asking. democratic decision-making will be an essential component of any successful strategy. and certainly is not offered as the last word on anything . Jay. It is deep. can we survive as a human society. “We have met the enemy and he is us”. Only by informing people.). What.” Thus. they scheme with lawyers and experts behind closed doors. cows' milk?” The AEC scientists had no response. For the same reason that science cannot find reliable answers without open peer review. argued in secret memos that the only way strontium-90 could get into humans would be through cattle grazing on contaminated grass. The focus of our strategies must be on building organisations that involve people and. the AEC reported to Congress in 1953. “What about the Secrecy in government and corporate decision-making continues to threaten the well-being of everyone on the planet as new technologies are deployed at an accelerating pace after inadequate consideration of their effects. which of course it did.have often proven to be expensive. so they prefer to leave ordinary people out of the equation. strontium-90 moves into the bones. They fundamentally don't trust people to make good decisions. but mobilising is not the same as organising. Have our efforts been adequate? Have we succeeded? Have we even come close to stemming the tide of destruction? Has our vision been commensurate with the scale and scope of the problems we set out to solve? To those questions. those laws meant nothing. In the modern world. The Soviets had some of the world's strictest environmental laws on the books. Many members of the mainstream environmental movement tend to view ordinary people as the enemy (for example. As soon as these memos became public. we must contend for the full power of government to be harnessed toward achieving our goals. democratic decision-making is no longer a luxury.Cap Kritik 52/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab tremendous sacrifice.

Capital twists racism and sexism to its own ends.simply allowing minorities or women to succeed within capitalism ensures reproduction of the harms. The sophisticated Marxist approach. and in their own right as well. We make the mistake of thinking that an AfricanAmerican person is fully liberated if he becomes an NFL quarterback and a woman if she becomes an executive on Wall Street. they are important and must be fought. are no different from rent and interest. Such a tendency is understandable in the light of the economism and reductionism of much of the Marxist left. but is finally not justified. Another way of putting the same point is to say that capitalism is a process of self-expanding value oriented to the production of surplus value. to legitimize a tough-minded. but the reverse is generally not true. then at a certain point the revolutionary elan of the civil rights and feminist movements is negated. not only over women and African-Americans but also most men and whites. As such displaced forms. to the extent that it fully comes into its own. The result is that conflict has been displaced to other spheres more or less peripheral to this central monopoly sphere. Ian. because of its thirst for surplus value. and autonomy between and among spheres. we must consider the question concerning the relationship among racism. sexism. quantitative. Class struggle is the most antagonistic of conflicts-fundamental cooperation is emerging between the sexes and races but not between labor and capital. Jay. Why is class domination ultimately more fundamental and important and overriding? It is more universal. one-dimensional domination. late capitalism has more or less immunized the monopoly sphere of the economy from serious conflict. sexism and racism are holdovers from prior epochs and. will relate racism and sexism to itself and incorporate them in various ways. Indeed. Racism and sexism. The fate of Martin Luther King's civil rights movement when it came North and began to be more openly economic in its orientation is one example. One does not get at what is specific and essential in DML. A tendency now exists in leftist circles to talk about racism. to an extent are indirectly displaced forms of class domination and colonization. has an infinity to it and tends to overcome limits and incorporate them into itself. The reign of capitalism up to this point has been nonnegotiable in the West. on the one hand. and a sophisticated Marxist model that asserts the dominance of class exploitation but allows relative autonomy on lived and ideological levels to the other two spheres. and classism. specificity. coequal forms of domination. Progress in overcoming racism and sexism occurs up to the point where that overcoming infringes upon fundamental capitalistic social relations. Marsh 95. without downplaying their tremendous moral evil and the enormous suffering they inflict in their contemporary manifestations. Racism and sexism serve capital as ideology. is the best account. racism and sexism. to the sexual or racial domains. It allows some diversity. the fate of women professionals asking for salaries equal to men in a context of economic retrenchment is another. subordinate moments in the capitalistic mode of production. technocratic. twisting them to its own ends. If this fact is not recognized. The sophisticated Marxist model thus retains the strengths of the other two while avoiding and overcoming their onesidedness. if Habermas is correct. Capital. Also. which come in fairly late in Marx's analysis in volume 3 of Capital. Racism and sexism in the West and North we are approaching rejecting in principle but not capital. as such. an asymmetry exists between racism and sexism. like the contradiction between symbolic interaction and purposive rational action. In this respect. but they are not equal in importance to class domination. like rent or interest. Racism and sexism are like other holdovers from precapitalist epochs. Asia. As such. extending not only over the United States and Western Europe but also over the Third World in Africa. Also. the three-sector model mentioned above. Harry. a vulgar Marxist model that denies any autonomy at all. and South America. and class domination as distinct. Capitalism will transform sexual and racial relations to achieve its goals. capitalism. then. and capitalism on the other. Three different models are possible here. using the former to fragment the working class and the latter.Professor of Philosophy at Fordham University (James. sexism. Capitalism defines the modern in a way that sexism and racism do not. of which American foreign policy in Vietnam and Nixon's machismo on the Watergate tapes is a dramatic example.Cap Kritik 53/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Discrimination Capitalism rigs the game . Clayton . Amanda. p 282-3) Next. Both movements at that point have simply degenerated into demands for equal participation in the rat race. Rothenbaum. in my opinion. Critique Action and Liberation.

We are not condemned to an inexorable fate. But we have also seen that the walls of racism can be dismantled. The prison of racism confines us all. Harry. of overconsumption and environmental destruction may be reaching a point of no return . inhuman. Pastor and Co-director of Crossroads 91 –– Ministry working to dismantle racism (Joseph. and greed. The danger point of self-destruction seems to be drawing ever more near . once and for all. the prison of individual. The results of centuries of national and worldwide conquest and colonialism. capitalized sexism is not the same as pre-capitalist sexism. As reflection on the use of women in advertisements to sell products indicates. For the sake of the world and ourselves. Clayton . stone by stone. and cultural racism can be destroyed. It shackles the victimizer as well as the victim. The limitations imposed on people of color by poverty. privilege.Cap Kritik 54/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab capitalist modernity by talking about rent or interest or racism or sexism as such. Rothenbaum. Ian. DML. subservience. As a glance at and reflection on the streets of Los Angeles after the 1992 riots shows (see below). will inevitably destroy us as well. restraints and limitations. the effects of uncontrolled power. the walls of racism. ghettos and prisons. Jay. institutional. in our separate prisons we are all prevented from achieving the human potential that God intends for us. which are the marks of our white prison. A small and predominantly white minority of the global population derives its power and privilege from the sufferings of the vast majority of peoples of color. You and I are urgently called to join the efforts of those who know it is time to tear down. but are offered the vision and the possibility of freedom . people of color and white people alike. and powerlessness are cruel. but by understanding these phenomena as related to and incorporated into this process of capitalist valorization. Brick by brick. Amanda. Dismantling Racism: The Continuing Challenge to White America 155-6. We have looked at barriers and fences. we dare not allow it to continue. of military buildups and violent aggression. capitalized racism is not the same as pre-capitalist racism. The walls forcibly keep people of color and white people separate from each other.) To study racism is to study walls. and unjust. D-rule Barndt.

while Rio Grande do Sur in Brazil had a more typical. For Kansas the range divided by the average is . I looked at variability in health across geographic locations. we divided the variation. Project Muse) As Susan Reynolds Whyte and colleagues note in the context of ARV access in Uganda. its unevenness. unlike Cuba. reflecting the quality of healthcare . My colleagues and I examined the rate of infant mortality in each of these regions. they expose the nature of healthcare —its dynamism. Ian. p. Saskatchewan and Rio Grande do Sur along with Cuba have national health systems that provide fairly uniform coverage over a given geographic area. or in a Canadian province? Very interesting patterns emerged from that work. and much higher. environmental justice. the rates varied. from the best to the worst."46 With drugs available and structural violence ongoing. Just how variable.S. / However. / The reason we chose these places is that on the one Canada. 07. when we viewed the same data from the perspective of the range from the best to the worst rates of infant mortality. http://findarticles. that is.Cap Kritik 55/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Disease Alt solves disease better—capitalism prevents effective disease solvency—poor members of society can’t get access to technology and are left with limited resources Biehl. different counties in Kansas. but in Cuba it was . That Cuba scored so high was not very surprising. third-world infant mortality rate. much more was revealed. Anthropological Quarterly. both as an average and how. Harry. and the least variation was in Cuba. examined Canadian data. Pre-modern and modern ways to access resources and convert risk into life possibilities routinely overlap to redistribute technology and care unequally. I asked. He has achieved international recognition for his work over many years in the field of epidemiology. we found that Saskatchewan was somewhere between Kansas and Cuba. the social determination of health. Once again. and Kansas all have capitalist economies in which investment decisions are based on maximizing profit rather than any social imperative meant to equalize economic circumstance. the variability within given populations.34. Similar things happen when we look at all causes of death. But the process is a rough and inequitable one. an effective measure of fairness. in each place. As drugs for AIDS become more common. Clayton . politically motivated and deceiving discourses have surfaced to rationalize in a perverse fashion the survival dilemmas the most vulnerable now face in the absence of improved living conditions—poor HIV-positive mothers in sub-Saharan Africa. they have the disadvantages of capitalism. the difference between best and worst.col1) A radical critique of medicine has to deal with the things that make people sick and the kind and quality of healthcare people get. We saw that the cancer rates in Kansas and in Cuba are comparable. but the variability is higher in Kansas than in Cuba. One aspect of my approach to the issues of healthcare comes from my background as an ecologist.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_4_52/ai_65805749/pg_15/?tag=content. occupational groups. “is capitalism a disease?”. age groups. different provinces in Cuba. "healthcare for all. and the order in its disorder. Capitalism makes disease spread inevitable – profit motive cripples health sector and community response – data proves Levins 2K (Richard Levins is a professor of biology at Harvard University. for example. “Pharmaceuticalization: AIDS Treatment and Global Health Politics. The Canadian and Brazilian regions have the advantage of a better and more just healthcare system but.National Institute of Mental Health postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University (João. When we hand Brazil. we observed average rates as well as the disparity. A Marxist approach to health would attempt to integrate the insights of ecosystem health. The difference across health districts of Rio Grande was even less.85. Jay. Amanda. "in principle. or other socially defined categories. 1099-1100. average. is the outcome in healthcare in different states in the United States. by the average. Rothenbaum." and alternative medicine.S. who used medicines to prevent vertical transmission are now left "to choose" to breastfeed their newborns (as the least lethal option) because lack of clean water makes formula feeding a riskier practice. while the numbers that compared U. among other factors. affordable treatment will change the meaning of AIDS (and of life!). What we saw was that infant mortality rates in United States were more or less comparable to Cuba. states showed somewhat less difference. that Kansas had a rate a little higher than the U. different health districts in a Brazilian state. The numbers for counties in Kansas showed the greatest variation. giving them an DML.

but after all. / Public health people. "it might give me cancer in twenty years. it will be extremely sensitive to other disparities. then sleep for three days. and is gone. We have to see them as constrained rationality. he or she will have proved that crime is hereditary. so what we need are education programs to teach people to make the best of their situation. / Yet another dimension of choice is found in the way we perceive time. Examined were such variables as whether there was running water or what proportion of the people spoke Spanish. Teen mothers are not experienced. emergency rooms have a lot of people coming in with burns from kerosene stoves. It is simply the way in which a pigment is deposited in the skin. but it sure keeps me alive today. This makes as much sense as the notion that black people get more tuberculosis because they have bad genes. / On the other hand. For instance. Choice also implies the lack of choice. or across small areas like counties. This is a genetic variable and thus a genetic disease but it occurs only with exposure to those fumes. like different neighborhoods within the city of Wichita. where a study was conducted of several villages. obviously poverty is not good for you. Physicians decide when to see patients. or if the prices go up. / The illusion of Choice / Poor health tends to cluster in poor communities. Following the rules of genetics in this mechanistic way." In fact. The same is true with respect to the opportunity to exercise choice. "well. for example. whether you can have a babysitter available or not. exercise. we find a threefold variation in infant mortality. unchoice. they cut back on food and other kinds of expenditures with an immediate impact on nutrition. which generally are not a good idea. while others are imposed by the environment. Genetics is not an alternative explanation of social conditions. and diet. like northeast Wichita. we see very large variations in social conditions and. even from genetics. There is an intimate interdependence among biological. they may have difficulty taking care of their babies. I made it. Amanda. like nearly everyone else. some health education programs are valuable. trivial. and if you clip all the coupons and scrutinize the supermarket ads. when to be in the library. Choices are always made from a set of alternatives that are presented to you by somebody else. or that you read the ads but cannot get away for two hours for comparison shopping. Wherever there is a rich neighborhood. if people have very low income. If the conditions of life are very poor or oppressive. unexpectedly. the lives of. in two or three years. The same is true in relation to food. the data also showed that there was tremendous difference among the outcomes in poor villages that you didn't get among the villages that were integrated into the Mexican economy. So is this a lethal gene? Is this a gene for a higher spread of pigmentation-one that also makes you more vulnerable to arrest? A standard geneticist would look at family histories and determine that if your uncle was arrested. People who have few choices in life at least can make the choice to smoke. / Trivial biological differences can become the focus around which important life outcomes are located. We know that kids do better if their mothers have had more schooling. The apparently trivial difference in experience can have a vast effect on the health of someone who is marginal. we assume that something we do now will have an impact later on. that may be unfair and/or can be eliminated. And so whenever we can get data across neighborhoods. The choice is distinguished by the lack of choice. why can't you? Some people have become CEOs of corporations who came out of that neighborhood. Ian. that is. is seated at the back of the classroom. and others who deal with these issues. We also notice that unemployment in Kansas averages 9 or 10 percent in most Kansas counties but is 30 percent in northeast Wichita. We know this from elections and from shopping. say. So there are people who choose: "yes. will prepare them for a career. arguing that much that differentiates health outcomes in poor neighborhoods from rich ones can be associated with behavior. There are always preconditions to the exercise of choice. Or suppose that you would love to eat organic food for lunch but what you have is a half-hour break to go down to the vending machines. a professor may conveniently order his or her teaching schedule around patterns of Monday. The appropriate remedy is education." What they miss is the notion of increased vulnerability. When people are unemployed. But let us take a closer look at this question of choice. For example. Suppose a pupil is a bit nearsighted but. / Another interesting case can be found in Mexico. some of the things that are unwise choices under other circumstances become the lesser evil. because she is tall. so it is unlikely their behavior will change simply by lecturing to them. those most likely to develop the cancer have livers that are not able to effectively process a particular chemical as well." Not everyone can organize their lives along an orderly annual time scale. The cancer is not a result of genetics alone. But weather is not the only variable. the most obvious is pigmentation. Conservatives will say. Safety orientation within factories does help people cope with unsafe conditions. Why? Because neighborhoods are not simply random pieces of environment. such as smoking. it is also caused by the environment. the life pattern is such that one can work unloading a ship for twenty-three hours a day for two days. as a consequence. the people who dream up these baskets assume you are a wiz at finding bargains. genetic. / It is an as-yet-unrecognized ecological principle in public health that when a community or an individual organism is stressed for any reason (low income. Suddenly she has become someone with a "learning problem" and is transferred to a vocational course even though she might have been great poet. But suppose you are not so good. Individual differences can come from anything. Clayton . Or that you live in a neighborhood where the local supermarket was not as profitable as the national chain that owned it thought it should be. One question we want to answer is whether variability will be greater across states and other large geographic regions. When making a choice about health. Under those circumstances. and with it your opportunity to get quality food. / Smoking is another example. individual differences in where you work. there would be a higher probability of you being arrested as well. say only some things can be chosen. biological versus social. knows that the categories themselves must be challenged. Most of the apparently unwise decisions people make have a relative rationality to them when their circumstance is taken into account. They would have us distinguish between disadvantages imposed o n us. for example). a small difference in temperature can have a big effect on their health--one that doesn't affect the more affluent. A Marxist confronted with choices among mutually exclusive categories like choice versus environment. do not experience the kind or quality of freedom that gives them control over their own lives. it turns out that the health of a baby born to an African-American teenager is on the average better than the health of a baby born to an African-American woman in her twenties. she gets into a fight with the kid at the next desk. On a shorter time scale. That may seem obvious. The research showed that the more marginal communities had worse health outcomes. only to be lost in the averages we develop for large areas. It is one of the few legitimate ways in some jobs to take a break and step outside. weather could impact the data in large areas like states. When we are able to look at smaller areas. For example. Smoking increases inversely with the degree of freedom one has at work. you might just get by on the Department of Agriculture poverty level basket. Wednesday. this is because the poor make unwise decisions. The difference in melanin between Americans of African and European origin is. from those that were freely chosen and for which we can only blame ourselves. and Friday. you need a poor neighborhood. from the point of view of genetics and physiology. But even when genetics is responsible for a given human characteristic. a very severe climate. then unexpectedly work in a restaurant for another two days because his or her cousin has to go to a funeral in the mountains." The unhealthy choices people make are not irrational choices. Time does not have the same structure when you can't make solid plans now for what is going to happen to you later. If you are a superb shopper.Cap Kritik 56/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab intermediate location in the variability of health outcomes. making the best of a bad situation. f rom personal experiences growing up. worry a great deal about teen pregnancies. this kid would simply end up with glasses." We need to look at teen pregnancy in a much broader social context before we can think about making it simply a public health issue. that would allow them to say. "yes. it a component of an investigation of causal factors. heredity versus experience. Yet this difference can cost you ten years of life. ranking them according to how marginalized they were from Mexican life. now say. We choose food. In the inner city of San Juan. She fidgets. For such people. people will develop cancer at a higher rate. in a factory emitting toxic fumes. and social factors." they say. In a more affluent community. academics are notable for the way time is organized. / This method can also be applied when comparing different diseases. Harry. Why? The environment of racism erodes health to such an extent that it makes a certain amount of sense to have your babies early if you're going to have them. Conclusion: the cause of criminality is genetic. can have a big impact on your health. others may vary greatly over smaller geographic units. Most people. This is something that is not obvious when you simply say. when to go to DML. how much energy you have. but it is not the experience of everyone. changing seasonal temperatures become very important. in the quality and quantity of healthcare--clearly unnecessary from the point of view of any limitation in our medical knowledge or resources. There are good reasons why it might go either way. They're structured. Jay. where the classes are smaller and teachers pay attention. ovens. to serve it. and the babies are more likely to be underweight. "teen pregnancy is a danger to people. it is only responsible within a particular context. finally forced to concede that there are big differences in health outcomes between rich and poor. The Centers for Disease Control. in fact. Kansas. So. "I will quit smoking now so that I won't get cancer in twenty years. You have to change the context within which choice is made. The teacher is overworked and does not notice that the student cannot see the blackboard. Nevertheless. Conservatives. but only from the products a company has chosen to make available to us. in Puerto Rico. not all kids turn out badly. But. and other dangerous means used to compensate for inadequate heat in their houses. Students can and do choose courses of study that. environmental. / Behavior is one of the areas where public health workers want to intervene. Rothenbaum. or Tuesday and Thursday. in late autumn and early winter.

So the answer to those who talk about decision-making and choice is to tell them. it matters how that station is determined. Rothenbaum. / We should reject any of these unduly pessimistic conclusions. What they do is to try to make things more equitable--for instance. Harry. more consciously. after having failed to eliminate hunger. What has gone wrong? One answer might be that we are just not smart enough. were for this purpose. social democrats historically have taken a different approach--one that acknowledges inequality as an obstacle. we can be hit by a car. hospitals. as a social problem rather than an inevitable byproduct of a vigorous market. Amanda. In that situation. An enterprise zone might be established in an inner city that actually brings in investment. but only if the pharmaceutical industry continues to make high profits. / What Can Be Done? / At a recent meeting I attended. people need to control their own lives. Or the problems are just too complicated. Rather than improve water quality. would go into the jungle and set up clinics and work very hard under very difficult conditions for low pay. But. for example. or we have some defect. But it begins to get a little tricky when you talk about the reorganization of work or the expenditure of money. part of the value of labor power. perhaps we need to face facts and conclude that it just cannot be done. If the expenditure of money comes from taxes. and which are relatively neutral. Clayton . This distinction is clear when an employer negotiates health insurance for his or her employees. and part not. Secondly. particularly for the affluent. The history of struggle is long and not without achievements. We invest in engineering projects to control floods and they increase flood damage. Or perhaps we're just the kind of species that is incapable of living a cooperative life in a sensible relation to nature. but there is no impact on poverty because the assumption that benefits would trickle down was an illusion. rather than improve air quality. only a powerful and wellorganized labor movement will be able to impose changes. HMOs. He probably would like medicines to be cheaper. or we are selfish. the cost of the benefits package will always come before what employees may DML. the health industries engage in public relations--the winning of hearts and minds. Even the most farsighted programs initiated by European social democratic governments do not challenge the capitalist order in any way. they even push it on people who do not need it. and failed. where all citizens have the vote. But when we look at the policies that emerge from those institutions of democracy. I am sure that on the whole. obviously. the repeal of some aspect of health and safety regulation. ruling-class interest. but because they are constrained by the interests of the powerful. This highlights the lie in the notion that society is trying to improve health for everybody. with counselors to advise them of their right to unemployment insurance and other benefit programs. Not absolute predictions. Some of the clinics that were established in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War and earlier. after each new expenditure. perhaps byway of a union demand. They have treated unemployment. during the Malayan insurrection. But. where they can meet one another. for the employer. So the council cannot create employment. The center may even organize a support group where people can deal with their feelings about not being able to bring home an income to the family. through government programs to improve health. first of all. But struggle is also difficult. and provide support. it is easy to depend on the illusion of democracy and a beneficent government to solve our problems. nothing else mattered. Like any aggressive business. / In some cases improving on-the-job health is relatively cost-free. then. there is a program to break down the isolation of young mothers. In Sweden. We have described at length both the prospects and problems of that system. the more the possibility. For instance. So some people can actually structure their lives in such a way that we can actually make predictions. through progressive income taxes or generous unemployment insurance. management will see workers impinging on the very core of class prerogative. When an expenditure has to come from the individual employer. the more control you have over your life and your experience of life. improve people's health. But that is subject to the side condition that insurance industry profitability must be protected. Things can come up. transport workers demanded improved food to reduce heart disease among truck drivers. Of course. In taking each of these steps. The unions recognized that health concerns were but another aspect of class relations. Healthcare in the United States exists against background of this country's unrestrained capitalism. Or. But health is also a consumer good. but only if not expropriated from plantation owners. Those who can determine for themselves what constitutes necessary and desirable activities are clearly different from the people who have that determination made for them. In London. hours of work. Ian. or stupidity. they need to provi de the tools for making those choices. basically. and do away with inequalities. so that they can exercise all their faculties to make meaningful choices. unions have negotiated collective agreements to change shift work. They will say that it is bad for competition and threaten to close down and move somewhere else. President Clinton would rather have people covered by health insurance than not. and pharmaceutical companies. and therefore a regular object of contention in class struggle. ignorance. / A good way to see how these hidden constraints. Sometimes we discover that part of a program is carded out successfully. for example. they will be even more resistant. For example. The basic reason that programs fail is not incompetence. They organized to improve the quality of food in the roadside canteens and collaborated with restaurant owners and canteen owners and food was improved. No employer will object to putting up a sign reminding workers to wear their hard hats on the construction site. these systemic barriers. in Europe. to expand the range of choices. of exercising choice. operate is in the delivery of health services elsewhere. the more it makes sense to make the kind of decisions that public health experts recommend. of course. as trying to prevent communism. none of these measures affects profitability or challenges the market. We need to see healthcare in a more complex way. we can expect the business class to object. we can predict which kinds of measures are possible. seeing themselves either as bringing benefits to people who needed it or. In other places. share experiences. and working conditions. they buy bottled water. Jay. A reasonable return on investment was the goal of the developers. Local governments can address other social concerns. They sell healthcare to as large a market as can afford to pay for it. And if. including. living in a democracy. their opposition may take some political form. it was yet another reincarnation of the White Man's Burden that justified nineteenth-century imperialism. who can buy improvements in health for themselves. they perceive some interference with their competitive position. We create hospitals and they become the centers for the propagation of new diseases. do we permit policies that create inequalities that have such a negative impact on our health? How do we explain this? We have schemes to improve agriculture but they increase hunger. at great sacrifice. Health is part of the wage goods of a society.Cap Kritik 57/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab seminars. we see that those ostensibly aimed at improving the people's lives are nearly always hobbled by some hidden side condition. a paper was distributed that posed the following dilemma: Why. the United States would like peasants to have land. Abroad. they employ oxygen tanks in their living rooms. Third. When that was achieved. Doctors. If the union's demands deal with the organization of work itself. we directly challenge the false dichotomies that rule thinking about public health and constrain it within predetermined societal boundaries. which ones involve simply relative benefits to a class. / When health policy is looked at from the point of view of which issues involve a direct confrontation of fundamental. Health is also a commodity invested in by the health industries. /If good health depends on one's capacity to carry out those activities that are necessary and appropriate according to one's station in life. A town council will address it by financing a center for the unemployed.

and cholera . tuberculosis. Jay. 109. some 20 variations of the HIV virus have infected an estimated 29. Since its recognized appearance in 1981. not an alternative to it. / There are intellectual concerns about how to analyze data. Ian. There is class struggle in the debates around what kind of research ought to be done. the unprecedented freedom of movement across international borders.) It is a considerable comfort and undoubtedly a key to our survival that. pp. about how to think about disease. changing conditions have enhanced the potential for widespread contagion. Amanda.” FOREIGN POLICY n. Clayton . so far. by who owns the research industry. including nearly one-quarter of Western Europe's population at the time. historical. So is medical and scientific research. Winter 1997/1998. The threat of infectious pathogens is not just an issue of public health. there have been epidemics during which human immunity has broken down on an epic scale. An infectious agent believed to have been the plague bacterium killed an estimated 20 million people over a four-year period in the fourteenth century. The rapid growth rate of the total world population. Disease causes extinction Stienbruer 98 – Senior fellow at the Brookings institute (John D. We have to take up health as a pervasive issue as we do with problems of the environment. As we enter the twenty-first century. but a fundamental security problem for the species as a whole.Cap Kritik 58/194 think they need. with 1. who 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab health is always a point of contention in class struggle. 85-96. commands the production of knowledge production. But they are all part of one integral system that has to be our battleground in the future.5 million people currently dying of AIDS each year. Harry. “Biological Weapons: A Plague Upon All Houses. Throughout history. and scientific advances that expand the capability for the deliberate manipulation of pathogens are all cause for worry that the problem might be greater in the future than it has ever been in the past. there are also issues of health service and health policy. Rothenbaum.once thought to be under control . about how widely we need to look at the epidemiological. research in the health field is dominated by the pharmaceutical and electronic industries. But evolution is a sword that cuts both ways: New diseases emerge. the human body has developed physical barriers and a biochemical immune system whose sophistication and effectiveness exceed anything we could design or as yet even fully understand. DML. So knowledge and ignorance are determined. they are aspects of class struggle. while old diseases mutate and adapt. Increasingly. Malaria. ASP. Steinbruner. the main lines of defense against this threat have not depended on explicit policies or organized efforts. In the long course of evolution. and social questions they raise. as in all scientific research.are now making a comeback.4 million worldwide.

Politics is carefully excluded from his analysis. with its in-built attitude toward human beings and nature alike as means to an alien end that must be rooted out and replaced. http://www. Founding Editor. There can be no disruption of existing class or power relations. no matter how desirable in themselves. All proposed solutions must be compatible with the treadmill of production. It is hardly an exaggeration to say that without constraints of this kind arising within the system. Professor of Sociology. “Capitalism and the Environment. Jay. Monbiot pointedly tells us that the rich countries can solve the global warming problem without becoming “Third World” states or shaking up “middle-class” life —or indeed interfering with the distribution of riches at all. The affirmative declares war on the planet. our endlessly expanding commodity economy and climate stability too. our industrial waste. Paul Sweezy. Corporations. Marx.htm Such is the inner nature. Amanda. Efforts have always been made to curb its excesses. renowned Marxist economist. in a nutshell. must at last learn to use its miraculous powers not to degrade itself and destroy its home but to make the world a better place to live in for itself and its progeny for millennia to come. “A New War on the Planet?”. the most prominent proposals are shaped by the fact that they are designed to fit within the capitalist box. Even the IPCC. to take it seriously—it follows that what has to be done to resolve the environmental crisis. could at best slow down the fatal process of decline and fall that is already so far advanced. such as biofuels or even nuclear power. while sometimes interfering with the operations of individual capitalists. the capitalist class. better insulated homes. We can have our cars.Cap Kritik 59/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Environment Partial reform only pacifies the masses. describing the latter as a great victory for the political economy of the working class. replicating the root causes of ecological damage. in its policy proposals.org/2007/06/09/a-new-war-on-the-planet/) It is characteristic of the magic-bullet solutions that now pervade the media that they promise to defend our current way of life while remaining virtually cost free. Magic bullet reform sustains capitalism in its entirety. Lesser measures of reform. not only by its victims but also in extreme cases by its more far-sighted leaders. as the quintessential negation of capitalism—not as a society that eliminates the most objectionable features of capitalism such as gross inequality of income. at the very least. the essential drive of the economic system that has generated the present environmental crisis. Not surprisingly. If this conclusion is accepted—and it is hard to see how anyone who has studied the history of our time can refuse. It is capitalism itself. University of Oregon. hence also to insure that humanity has a future. not part of the problem. are part of the solution. tells us that climate change can be stopped on the cheap — if only the magic of technology and markets is applied. Thus despite the development of a growing environmental consciousness and the movements to which it has given rise in the last century. Rothenbaum. is to replace capitalism with a social order based on an economy devoted not to maximizing private profit and accumulating ever more capital but rather to meeting real human needs and restoring the environment to a sustainably healthy condition. 2004.monthlyreview. Editor. never go so far as to threaten the system as a whole. as Marx and Engels always conceived it. There is nothing in the record or on the horizon that could lead us to believe the situation will significantly change in the foreseeable future. mobilizes its defenses to repulse environmental-protection measures perceived as dangerously extreme. And during the present century conservation movements have emerged in all the leading capitalist countries and have succeeded in imposing certain limits on the more destructive depredations of uncontrolled capital. cyclical depressions. the environmental crisis continues to deepen. financial panics. having learned to perform miracles of production. more technocratic thinkers look for substitutes for hydrocarbons. Even progressive thinkers such as George Monbiot in his new book Heat: How to Stop the Planet Burning have gotten into the act. This. or they talk of floating DML. is the meaning of revolutionary change today. Harry. Ian. Despite the fact that economists have long insisted that there is no such thing as a free lunch. which instead focuses on such things as more buses. Naturally it does not operate without opposition. Clayton . capitalism by now would have destroyed both its environment and itself. mass unemployment. Total replacement of capitalism is the only way to resolve the root of environmental crises. Less progressive. Is the position taken here in effect a restatement of the traditional Marxist case for a socialist revolution? Yes. wrote feelingly about nineteenth-century movements for factory legislation and the ten-hours bill. Long before that point is reached. virtual shopping and improved cement. including the state which it controls. but with one crucial proviso: The socialism to be achieved must be conceived. 2007. and so on. Hence. Monthly Review. The goal is clearly to save the planet — but only if capitalism can be fully preserved at the same time. virtual work.” http://www. in Capital. Humanity. we are now being told on every side — even by Gore — that where global warming is concerned there is a free lunch after all.indypendent.org/1004pms3. we are led to believe. John Foster. Monthly Review. such constraints.

people increasingly live their lives under the terms of capital. tropical deforestation. 2002 “The Enemy of Nature”. As Hannah Arendt. The ecological irrationality of this response is evident in the tendency to dissociate global warming from the global environmental crisis as a whole. New social and democratic solutions need to be developed and rooted in human community and sustainability. It is then possible. Or it is thought pragmatic to dump iron filings in the ocean (the so-called Geritol solution to global warming) in order to grow phytoplankton and increase the carbon absorbing capacity of the ocean — without connecting this at all to the current oceanic catastrophe. it operates through a host of intermediaries embedded within the gigantic machine for accumulation that is capitalist society. on the one hand. Or it can be deduced from the combined tendencies to degrade conditions of production (the Second Contradiction). But this means stepping outside the capitalist box and making peace with the planet — and with other human beings. The nascent capitalist economy was fostered by the feudal state. then. On occasion. centring it about capital accumulation. More broadly. The giant corporations we rightly identify as ecological destroyers are not the whole of capital. Too much is at stake to close the argument with a demonstration of abstract laws. one of the leading political philosophers of the 20th century. Clayton . to promote biofuels as a partial solution to global warming — without acknowledging that this will accelerate world hunger. 10 [Ruth. and. the temporal pace of their life accelerates. Rothenbaum. etc. they live in a world where institutions are in place to secure this across an ever-expanding terrain: the world of globalization. Although the Second Contradiction may be offset in individual circumstances by recycling. italics in original] DML. Capital is no automatic mechanism. sees no alternative to a new assault on nature. destruction of the oceans. professor of social studies at Bard. Amanda. The fact that the biosphere is one interconnected whole is downplayed in favor of mere economic expediency. pollution control. the cancerous imperative to expand. explained: “Under modern [capitalist] conditions not destruction but conservation spells ruin. this has taken place in three dimensions — existentially. Broadly speaking. With this. the trading of credits and the like. are no more than tendencies. In this way a society. Joel Kovel. therefore. as they do so. from this narrow perspective. We must recognize that today’s ecological problems are related to a system of global inequality that demands ecological destruction as a necessary condition of its existence. high-tech armaments. the day after the stock market went into free-fall and in the context of a gathering crisis of accumulation. and the laws it obeys. overcoming or displacing recuperative efforts and accelerating a cascade of destabilization. http://www. What all of this suggests is that a real solution to the planetary environmental crisis cannot be accomplished simply through new technologies or through turning nature into a market. the imperative to expand continually erodes the edges of ecologies along an everlengthening perimeter. as much as we can about just what these actions are and how they can be changed. Jay. finally. We need to learn. We need to take a closer look at how this society works on the ground. embodying principles of conservation that are essential to life. PhD coastal marine ecology. temporally and institutionally In other words. and takes shape as this is subjected to the peculiar forces of money Its nucleus is the abstraction of human transformative power into labour-power for sale on the market. Capitalism destroys the environment – three warrants. It is necessary to go to the root of the problem by addressing the social relations of production. which includes such problems as species extinction. then took over that state (often through revolution). Capital acts through the corporation.talkingnature.” Hence. the force of capital expansion can be seen directly — as when President George W Bush abruptly reversed his pledge to trim emissions of CO2 in March 2001. The dominant answers to global warming thus amount to what might be thought of as a new declaration of war on nature. by tracking down ecosystemic breakdowns to the actions of corporations and/ or governmental agencies under the influence of capital’s force field. Ian. “Biodiversity: what it is and why it’s important”. being mediated by consciousness. and a whole way of being. p. desertification. When we say ‘capital does this’ or that. faced by natural obstacles. If nature has “struck back” at capitalism’s degradation of the environment in the form of climate change. Capital originates with the exploitation of labour. on the other.Cap Kritik 60/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab white plastic islands in the oceans (a geoengineering solution to replace the lost reflectivity due to melting ice).com/2010/02/biodiversity/biodiversity-what-and-why/. 51-52 Capital’s responsibility for the ecological crisis can be shown empirically. but only its prime economic instruments. February 9th. but also across society and within the human spirit. are created hostile to the integrity of ecosystems. the answer is to unleash a more powerful array of technological and market innovations so that the system can continue to expand as before. the capitalist mode of production was installed as such after which capital began to convert society into its image and created the conditions for the ecological crisis. Extinction Young. employing new. capitalism. toxic wastes. we mean that certain human actions are carried out under the auspices of capital. Harry.

such as apex predators (See Jeremy Hance’s post at Mongabay). However. Presently we’re only scratching the surface of understanding the full importance of biodiversity and how it helps maintain ecosystem function. invasive species and of course. Jay. pollution or disease) led to the demise of these ‘keystone’ species? Would there be another species to save the day and take over this role? Classifying some species as ‘keystone’ implies that the others are not important. By the end of the experiment. for most ecosystems we don’t know which species are the keystones! Ecosystems are so complex that we are still discovering which species play vital roles in maintaining them. First of all. even if we did complete the enormous task of identifying and protecting all keystone species. they all have a niche. they all have a function. The most well known example of this occurred during the 19th century when sea otters were almost hunted to extinction by fur traders along the west coast of the USA. ecosystem services are maintained by entire functional groups. such as fisheries. the reefs had changed from a coral to an algae dominated ecosystem – the coral became overgrown with algae. This may lead to the nonkeystone species being considered ecologically worthless and subsequently over-exploited.Cap Kritik 61/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Different species within ecosystems fill particular roles. Pollination carried out by insects such as bees enables the production of ⅓ of our food crops. The bat fish was previously thought to feed on invertebrates – small crabs and shrimp. When the time came to remove the fences the researchers expected herbivorous species of fish like the parrot fish (Scarus spp. The more biodiverse an ecosystem is. we increase the chance of maintaining our ecosystem services in the event of future impacts such as disease. “By protecting biodiversity we maintain ecosystem services” Certain species play a “keystone” role in maintaining ecosystem services. Because the urchins graze on kelp their booming population decimated the underwater kelp forests. but when offered a big patch of algae it turned into a hungry herbivore – a cow of the sea – grazing the algae in no time. The “over-fishing” was simulated by fencing off coral bommies thereby excluding and removing fish from them for three years. One could argue that to maintain ecosystem services we don’t need to protect biodiversity but rather. DML. These skates and rays eat bay scallops and their out of control population has led to the closure of a century long scallop fishery. the removal of these species can result in the collapse of an ecosystem and the subsequent removal of ecosystem services. These are just two examples demonstrating how biodiversity can maintain the services that ecosystems provide for us. climate change. Harry. the more likely these species will be present and the more resilient an ecosystem is to future impacts. the shift back to coral was driven by a supposed ‘unimportant’ species – the bat fish (Platax pinnatus). Amanda. Diverse mangrove and coral reef ecosystems provide a wide variety of habitats that are essential for many fishery species. This is the international year of biodiversity – a time to recognize that biodiversity makes our survival on this planet possible and that our protection of biodiversity maintains this service. Clayton . In the meantime. there are a couple of problems with this idea. a wise insurance policy for maintaining ecosystem services would be to conserve biodiversity. In doing so. This loss of habitat led to declines in local fish populations. The scope of this task is immense. sea urchins. what back-up plan would we have if an unforseen event (e. Sometimes we may not even know which species are likely to fill the keystone roles. To make it simpler for economists to comprehend the magnitude of services offered by biodiversity. a team of researchers estimated their value – it amounted to $US33 trillion per year. During the last 35 years. In some cases its groups of species not just one species that are vital for the ecosystem. surprisingly. This led to a population explosion in the sea otters’ main source of prey. But. For example plant species convert carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and energy from the sun into useful things such as food. An example of this was discovered on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. Rothenbaum. leading to the recovery of the kelp forests and fish stocks. Ian. This research examined what would happen to a coral reef if it were over-fished. medicines and timber.) to eat the algae and enable the reef to switch back to a coral dominated ecosystem. over fishing of large shark species along the US Atlantic coast has led to a population explosion of skates and rays. Sea otters are a keystone species once hunted for their fur (Image: Mike Baird) Eventually a treaty protecting sea otters allowed the numbers of otters to increase which inturn controlled the urchin population. So a fish previously thought to be ‘unimportant’ is actually a keystone species in the recovery of coral reefs overgrown by algae! Who knows how many other species are out there with unknown ecosystem roles! In some cases it’s easy to see who the keystone species are but in many ecosystems seemingly unimportant or redundant species are also capable of changing niches and maintaining ecosystems. In other cases. They interact with each other and the physical environment to provide ecosystem services that are vital for our survival. Similar to the removal of a keystone from an arch.g. Second. we only need to protect the species and functional groups that fill the kexystone roles.

love. as well as the resources of the earth. making profits is becoming a more important goal than caring for sick people. or shelter the purpose of the housing industry. So now we must ask. clean air. then either products can be manufactured to meet. if the needs are incompatible with the growth of capital.edu/~clayton/commentaries/evil. Rothenbaum. To put it in religious terms. Ian. in part.[1] If capital looks at (not into) the human face. In medicine. fears. To show why this is the case. though.lclark. This means that the foundation of ethics lies not in reason. What they do offer.all mean nothing in themselves. then the faces expressing them must be unrepresented or silenced. Under capitalism. but are valuable only if they can be used to turn a profit. or caring determines all. to the expansion of production. Another American philosopher. let me turn to capital's greatest critic. to be directed by the ethical concern for life. Thou shalt not kill. is the hope that human beings have the capacity to want the best for each other. The 20th century proves otherwise. nor can you share a fear without hoping that it will not come to pass. capital is the devil. Josiah Royce an American philosopher of the last century argued that you do not really understand another person if you do not understand her aspirations. The human face reveals its capacity for suffering. Harry. but rather in our passions or our hearts. But before I go there. For those who manage and live from capital. the development of technology. Clayton . Marx writes. For Hume it is part of our nature that we feel sympathy for each other. And you cannot share an aspiration or a need without wanting to see it fulfilled. “Why Capitalism is Evil”. drink. the growth of markets. If human faces express needs. or else. everything in nature and everything that human beings are and can do becomes an object: a resource for. I want to claim. and this sympathy counters our narrow self-interest. and all the necessities of life. Radio Active Philosophy. Other philosophers have taken similar positions. Karl Marx. and the temptation to use and abuse others will probably survive in any future society that might supersede capitalism. Nevertheless. and the circulation of money. or even most. But feeding people is not the aim of the food industry. nothing has value of its own. the putting the world at the disposal of those with capital has done more damage to the ethical life than any thing else. human lives -. with the result that we grow up with an interest in cultivating our own capacity to care for others. are in need. what is the foundation of moral life? What makes it possible for human beings to recognize that they have responsibilities to each other and to their communities? For example: What could possibly make anyone willing to pay living wages to workers in Indonesia or Haiti if you can get them to work for less? The 18th Century philosopher David Hume asks. human behavior. Jay. Exploitation and cruelty were around long before the economic system of capitalism came to be. Obviously what capitalist enterprises do have consequences for the well being of human beings and the planet we live on. Morgareidge 98—Associate Professor of Philosophy at Lewis and Clark College (Clayton. As capitalist enterprises these activities aim single-mindedly at DML. and needs. of course. and tobacco products. those needs. to share them. brings me back to capitalism. like children. The French-Jewish philosopher Emmanual Levinás whose major work appeared in 1961 claims that ethics arises in the experience of the face of the other. http://legacy. if we see our obligations in each others faces. So to look into the face of another human being is to see the commandment. Amanda. Capital profits from the production of food. or seem to meet. So the mere recognition of what other human beings are involves us in wanting to see them live and prosper. Lewis and Clark Educational Papers. then we have to want all the things capital does to be governed by that care.html)//AW Well. What forces are at work in our world to block or cripple the ethical response? This question. The production of all these things uses human lives in the shape of labor. shelter. in her 1984 book Caring. it sees there only eyes through which brand names and advertising can enter and mouths that can demand and consume food. I want to acknowledge that capitalism is not the only thing that blocks our ability to care. Nel Noddings. a suffering we are capable of either inflicting or opposing. or an obstacle. Now none of these philosophers are naive: none of them thinks that sympathy. Mountain streams. What reason can anyone give me to not to prefer the annihilation of all mankind to a scratch on my finger? Hume is one of many philosophers who argue that no such reason can be given. But to understand someone's feelings is. Most parents encourage this caring response in their children. If we care about life. argues that the ethical commitment arises out of the caring response that most of us feel towards those who.Cap Kritik 62/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Ethics Capitalism destroys ethical concerns.

" but only because they have learned not to call economic growth progress. but almost always with an attitude of resignation to the inevitable. in letters to the editor. They still think they can't stop it. and such purposes as caring for the sick or feeding the hungry becomes a mere means to an end. Clayton . Therefore ethics. And they are right -. is left out of deliberations about what the heavyweight institutions of our society are going to do. in living rooms. Only when the end of capitalism is on the table will ethics have a seat at the table. Amanda. the overriding commitment to meeting human need. "You can't stop progress. an instrument of corporate growth. Harry. Rothenbaum. People no longer say. Ian. Jay. Moral convictions are expressed in churches.Cap Kritik 63/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the accumulation of capital. Only a minority ("idealists") can take seriously a way of thinking that counts for nothing in real world decision making.as long as the production of all our needs and the organization of our labor is carried out under private ownership. DML. sometimes even by politicians and widely read commentators.

is left uncontaminated by human activity.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Jay. DML. Rothenbaum. Amongst those taking an ethical stance were men and women who likened the mining of asteroids to rape [B3010. it ‘seems like violation for companies to use other planets and asteroids for resources to maintain lifestyles on Earth’ [C41]. in contrast to Earth. [H1705] This kind of sentiment may well be anchored in the residual feeling that space is a realm of purity and godliness (this has certainly been mirrored in recent debates about leaving at least some parts of space as pristine sites (Williamson 2003. Amanda. Harry. Spennemann 2004)).Cap Kritik 64/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Ethics (Mining) Respect for space resources is an ethical priority – mining space is the equivalent of raping nature Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Implicit or explicit in many of these arguments is the idea that it is particularly important that outer space. C3167]. As one middle-aged single parent says. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 174. using outer space merely as an object for the fulfilment of human desires. dml) The other common sentiment was that using space resources in a similar way to that in which Earthly resources had been abused was unethical. I would hate to think that one day there might be a hotel on the Moon. Clayton . She goes on to say that the prospect horrifies her and she believes that ‘man [sic] has such potential for destruction and likes to leave behind such a mess’. Ian. Leaving debris and litter is a major concern for several respondents. One respondent predicted that religious groups would join environmentalists in opposing mining in space. I’m torn between feeling that we shouldn’t interfere with space and yet I am curious to know about it. Clearly these people do not take a Baconian stance towards the universe. It would lose its magic for me if I thought people were living out there and I get infuriated when I hear about the fact that we’ve already left debris floating around.

Genocide and slavery in the name of capitalist accumulation was practiced in the Americas and the rest of the colonized world. Karl Marx wrote in “Capital”: “The discovery of gold and silver in America. ruling classes with centuries of free labor. Genocide”. Most European colonies used the plantation system to produce sugar. signaled the rosy dawn of the era of capitalist production. the masses of people who suffer exploitation have no reason to celebrate on Columbus Day.wordpress. The capitalists’ unyielding search for profits and superprofits leaves them neither conscience nor morality. capitalist exploitation of poor and oppressed people continues to this day. the extirpation. Slave labor built the White House. 2010. Rothenbaum.S. cotton.Cap Kritik 65/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Genocide Celebrating the capitalist mindset is literally reinforcing the slavery and genocide of founding American ideas. today. the beginning of conquest and looting of the East Indies. It is not only specific companies that owe reparations. Red Ant Liberation Army News. Jay. This is the legacy of Christopher Columbus. rice and other crops for export to the European market. For nearly 100 years. October 11. CSX is the present permutation of a company that used slave labor to lay railroad tracks.S.S. the U. Even today some U. DML. Fleet Boston is a bank that was founded by a slave trader.S. indigo. Clayton . the U. Amanda.S. AETNA made its money insuring slaves as the property of their masters.” Columbus and those like him are heroes to the capitalists. tobacco.com/2010/10/11/columbus-day-u-s-capitalismbuilt-on-slavery-genocide/)//AW The slave trade provided the European and U. Lindsay 10—Youth and Student Answer Coalition Member (Peta. government and their capitalist partners reaped massive profits dripping with the blood of African slaves. the Spanish began using African slaves in gold and silver mines. The lawsuit is important because it raises the African American community’s just demand for reparations and at tacks the greedy profiteers of slavery. companies can trace their success to profits made from slavery. Ian. This process provided Europe with enough material wealth to spur the rapid advances in technological development and production known as the Industrial Revolution. government must pay as well. They understand that the cruelty and exploitation that marked the colonization of the Americas benefited them. the turning of Africa into a warren for the commercial hunting of black-skinned. In the 1600s. For that reason. These historical conditions created the economic disparity faced by African Americans in the U. A 2002 lawsuit against AETNA insurance. Although legal chattel slavery no longer exists in the Americas. “Columbus Day: US Capitalism Built on Slavery. http://redantliberationarmy. It insists that African Americans be compensated for centuries of forced labor and discrimination. The so-called “founding fathers” of America owned slaves. enslavement and entombment in mines of the aboriginal population. CSX and Fleet Boston sought reparations for African Americans from these companies based on their participation in the slave system. Harry.

and these tools can help stop violence and crime. http://www. the absolute temporality that presides over other forms of constructing time (i. he argued. or data mining. thereby disqualifying "other points of view (i. “Maybe Survelliance is Bad. which has seen democracy slide into the Nazi state.scribd. ‘7 [John Borland." Gaycken warned. http://www. As the words of the aerial photographer quoted earlier reveal. or appeals to abstract values.e.e. and Nuclear War via the Strategic Gaze”.com/threatlevel/2007/08/maybe-surveilla/ ] Jay Privacy advocates have a problem. pages 339-360. and destabilizes democracy.. "the three-dimensional forms are reduced to texture line and color. as opposed to the hard facts of suicide bombers or commuters killed on the subway. the "absolute" point of the strategic gaze manifests uncontestable control as far as the surface of the earth is concerned.” published in Wired 8/8/2007. Satellites. and state neutrality – but its tendency to create a watched and a watching class lends itself better to totalitarianism. have little "ethical competence. in 1993. or while surfing online. Vol. or to use the common vocabulary. for example. he conceded that activists’ justifications for their concerns often fail to resonate with the broad public. equality. Jay. a PhD student at Germany’s Institut für Wissenschafts. In a country such as Germany. In response. published in Alternatives. In this way which the back-up of technoscientific reason. real time) in which "juxtaposition of every locality. Rothenbaum. and literally crippling the ability to make autonomous and ethical decisions. the philosopher said. Studies show that such children tend to be indecisive. such a warning resonates strongly. reinforcing conformity. tailoring their behavior to fit what they believe the observer wants (or in some cases actively rebelling against those wishes). Many anti-surveillance arguments are based on vaguely emotional concerns. have an easy argument. “Nuclear Globalism: Traversing Rockets. Surveillance." and often live suppressed and unhappy lives.Cap Kritik 66/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Genocide (Surveillance) Surveillance creates obedience and dependence on the state. dependent on others. Gaycken said. closed-circuit cameras. Borland. staff writer.wired. Philosopher Sandro Gaycken. Many philosophers reject the notion that given technologies are inherently politically neutral.com/doc/4996747/Nuclear-Globalism ] Jay The pursuit of rectitude in the field of ariel photography has been none other than a constant battle against the three demential existence of forms and volumes that allow more than a single point of view. spatiolocality). An analogy might be the well-studied population of children with overprotective mothers. Speaking today at the Chaos Communication Camp.und Technikforschung in Bielefeld. wants to give pro-privacy forces stronger arguments to counter these concerns. 18. can be used to support democratic values of freedom. Surveillance destroys liberating thought and creates genocide against the Other. an atemporal field. The image of every part of the earth is now displaced onto that "absolute" moment. they say. Flattening the surface of the earth has also brought about a radical change in the regime of temporality. As or more disturbing may be the political implications of having a surveillance infrastructure in place. ’93 – professor of political science at Hawaii [Masahide Kato. Ian.. that is. chronolocality). "Surveillance stabilizes totalitarianism. Now imagine a society where everyone knows they are or may be watched as they walk through the streets. That – as in societies like Hitler’s Germany or Soviet Russia – will have tangible and widespread psychological consequences. After All. the notion of rectitude also depends on the construction of the single privileged moment.e. With the vantage point of hyperaltitude from outer space. People change. observed consistently in studies. Harry." Rendering the totality of Earth a two- dimensional serves no purpose other than for technostrategic interpretation of the earth as data and maps. The so-called "real-time" is therefore the very temporality of the strategic gaze. People who want to increase the amount of surveillance in society. all matter" becomes viable. In other words the "absolute" point of the strategic gaze produces a homogenous temporal field (i. whether it’s wire-tapping. Clayton . professor of Political Science at the University of Hawaii. Gaycken argued that there are well-established psychological consequences to being watched. Kato. DML. Amanda. There are terrorists and criminals out there.

people are chronically hungry because they are poor and don’t have enough money to buy food. or an automobile. Available from the World Wide Web at: www. or is exported at low prices while people in India go hungry.” and decreased government support for food production have been even more damaging to Ethiopia. “Poor in India Starve as Surplus Wheat Rots” (New York Times. Better seeds and easier access to fertilizers were made available to farmers and production Farmers responded in a completely logical way to record low prices in 2001. 55 n. Jay. They reduced the amount of land they planted the following year.monthlyreview. Ian. February 2004. A newspaper headline tells it all. Funds were not available for those wishing to build grain storage structures. created conditions for widespread hunger and even starvation in 2003.org/0204magdoff. together with unfavorable weather in 2002.htm increased. December 12. there were few storage facilities to allow farmers to store grains and wait for prices to rise.” “free trade. 9. “A Precarious Existence: The Fate of Billions?” MONTHLY REVIEW v. Amanda.org/0204magdoff. 9. DML.Cap Kritik 67/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Hunger Neoliberalism undermines local agriculture. Rothenbaum. Clayton .” decided that after they had stimulated agricultural production they needed to reduce the state’s assistance for agriculture.htm The effects of the transition to “free markets. This surplus food rots. However. People have no more legal right to food than they have to any other commodity. a television. Available from the World Wide Web at: www. The government. February 2004.” where a combination of improved varieties and a number of agronomic techniques led to much greater national food production. leading to widespread hunger-ethiopia proves Magdoff 4 – Professor in Plant and Soil Science at the University of Vermont Fred. It is as simple as that! Under capitalism. In general. The coexistence of surplus food and hunger also occurs in the third world. “A Precarious Existence: The Fate of Billions?” MONTHLY REVIEW v. heeding aid organizations that advised a “free market” approach with decreased government “interference. India is one of the success stories of the “green revolution. This decrease in planted area. Poverty induced by capitalism is the root cause of hunger Magdoff 4 – Professor in Plant and Soil Science at the University of Vermont Fred.monthlyreview. India now has “excess” food at the same time that it has widespread hunger. Harry. food is just another commodity—like a pair of shoes. is eaten by rats. As prices received by farmers fell dramatically in response to a glut on the market. 55 n. 2002).

2004). 2004). 2004). Many marginalized communities are responding to the rising global inequalities by developing their own adaptive strategies. not only has implications for women’s incomes. Social movements have emerged around the globe as a result of the ills of globalisation. without a human face. For example. aged and children) to care for themselves. It is evident from the preceding that the promised outcome of globalisation .. 2004). Since “women are society’s primary care-givers by ensuring that the family is fed. for example in food subsidies and health care have worsened living conditions of rural people in developing countries. working long hours. DML. It is about time men and women in rural communities of developing countries make their voices count in the fight against the dim side of globalisation in securing a better life for today and the future. leaving the weak behind (i. Usually.employment and improved living conditions . feminism. And it is women who bear the brunt of such exploitative acts (Kerr. 1(2) pp. 028-033. **Faculty of Development Studies Globalisation. most of resource-rich locations are rural areas where people depend mainly on agriculture for food supplies and incomes. It is not surprising that patriarchal settings like Asia. work long hours and get paid below minimum wages and their wages are lower than men’s (Vogel. Some say this is just a way of stabilizing communities that are being marginalized from the global market place (Sumner.e. It is in this regard that current globalcountermovement and debates such as: fundamentalism. promoting TNCs can create jobs for men and women. It is not surprising that patriarchal settings like Asia. Development agencies such as the World Bank have noticed the ills of globalisation and are starting to channel resources to NGOs that are involved with grassroots endeavours like micro-credit distribution and afforestation in rural communities. lacking union rights. Involving women as contributors of cheap labour. Rothenbaum. cosmopolitan activism and food sovereignty are taking place. and more particularly. Harry. 2004). Clayton . Gender and Development Studies Vol. Also. Increased workload for women could prevent them from participating in the decisions-making processes that affect their own development (Prokorpy. 2005) bring many difficulties to humanity. Journal of Peace. Central America and the Middle Eastern regions compete for foreign trade and encourage women to enter the workforce (McMichael. Rural people are the worse sufferers of these policies because of their already fragile state. environmentalism. however. The natural environment also continues to suffer Globalisation with its profit motive is leading to overexploitation of resources including land. women. 1998). women. and devastates the environment. Looking at the bright side. stays healthy. Ian. 2005. Central America and the Middle Eastern regions compete for foreign trade and encourage women to enter the workforce (McMichael. And with the adverse impacts of globalisation on poor societies.Cap Kritik 68/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Laundry List Globalization reinforces gender norms. March 2011. unregulated markets. The theory of globalisation is obviously an economic tool for growth. Over-grazing on these pasturelands more than the land can handle by huge flocks of animals will reduce the viability of the land to support food and animal production and ultimately reduce incomes of these rural people. 1998: 7). agile and reliable than men in routine assembly work. but also increase their workloads.are not being realised especially in the developing countries. women are viewed to be more reliable than men in routine assembly work. McMichael. which puts emphasis on market efficiency and profit maximisation does not only (Cynthia & Frank. but also a reservoir of labour force whereby women are actively recruited. Severe social expenditure cuts. Globalisation in the name of efficiency requiring nations to implement macro-economic policies such as privatization. women who find jobs in such corporations are underpaid (McMichael. as if women have always been ‘underused’. about 85% of workforce of the Maquiladoras trans-national export processing corporation in Mexico are young women because women are said to be docile. Maguire (1984) argued that the emphasis on efficiency reflects an economic recognition of the fact that 50% of the human resources (women) available for development were being wasted. reduction in public expenditure and increasing exports and growth rates in particularly Latin America and Africa (World Bank and IMF. is educated and so on” (Kerr. “Development Constructs and Gender Relations: Assessing Rural Gender Relations within the Context of Dependency Theory and Globalisation”) NAR recognise developing countries as a ripe field to harvest profits. workable interventions are a must. Arku & Arku 11 – *Scholar in Department of Educational Policy Studies. Also. This responsibility becomes burdensome when as a coping strategy men migrate to urban areas looking for non-existent jobs.2004). women are viewed to be more docile. Maguire (1984) argued that the emphasis on efficiency reflects an economic recognition of the fact that 50% of the human resources (women) available for development were being wasted. forest water and minerals. both material and cultural. Amanda. maintains a constant level of poverty. Jay.

Harry. But. Clayton . This in turn requires systems of property rights and protection of the kind that can only be supplied by government. This type of war relies on satellites and their capacity for enabling instantaneous response to perceived enemies. success for this new type of imperialism and its military handmaiden is in practice by no means guaranteed. but they are also concerned with politics. University of Essex and **James. Dickens and Ormrod 7 . IWren) In this chapter we turn our attention to trying to theorize the broader social significance of the increased use of outer space for military purposes. which in principle does not entail the costly and politically unattractive idea of sending troops to foreign countries. Jay. Rothenbaum.Cap Kritik 69/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Militarism Capitalism necessarily turns to space militarization as a guarantor of its expansion via dispossession of foreign lands—this culminates in a new form of imperialism controlling both earth and space. both on Earth and in space. Guarantees are required to ensure that capital investments are to be worthwhile. but the bottom line is military force. Protection can take many forms. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. Amanda. which has a central role in establishing and maintaining the new form of imperialism.*Peter. This is attempted by ‘war at a distance’. as recent events have shown. Ian. pg 77-79. These processes are social and economic. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. This in turn depends on the militarization of outer space. DML. We argue that understanding contemporary warfare also means turning to the material processes underling imperialism and ‘accumulation by dispossession’.

edu/~cottrell/OPE/archive/0604/0025. From. Rothenbaum. take the initiative but especially represent and present things. Amanda. Ian. This is what is now in present in consciousness at a very advanced level. a new process of development (or "model") seeking to regulate. The real subjectivation of the multitude does not make one think of organisational forms that have more or less democratic centralism. scholar. http://ricardo. which do not yet exist and might well not come into being. Bhandari – Professor of Rhetoric at University of California Berkeley (Rakesh. with the state identified as being the only agency able to energise such a convection system.html) NAR Conclusion: The Poor Are Always With Us? Although it creates wealth. by itself capitalist growth is not a solution to poverty. Strike is the moment of rupture. through the exclusion from the productive function. arguments have been made for "comprehensive systems of social security based on universal entitlements and funded by redistributive taxation". Poverty is not simply the poor miserable polulations who are at the bottom of the third world. Two linked alternatives must be considered. The most urgent necessity to counter the poverty caused through environmental change by the dynamic of capital is a new model of industrialisation based upon renewable energy. poverty is something that is at the centre of our metropolis. of seeing how far for instance in relation to the traditional Fordist worker today the mode of feeling and seeing both work and communal activity has changed.Cap Kritik 70/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Poverty Capitalism relies on a system of poverty to strengthen itself Negri 2 – Italian Marxist sociologist. but here (exodus) it is the moment of rupture but it is also that of a social construction of community. on the contraction of standards of social consumption in polluting regions and on convergence in less polluting regions. and bequeathed to generations. collective property rights . From the era of the genesis of industrial capitalism to the present-day. Florian Schneider and Thomas Atzert (October 2002. http://www.htm) NAR We really need a capacity to mobilise poverty. that has become more internal to it through the precariat. The privileged places for this practice are fundamentally the metropolises.at the very least entirely new forms of regulation and governance and new levels of enforcement at the global and national levels. It is a great problem that obviously can only be resolved by practice. Current market-mediated pollution targets and compensation schemes have the most effective proximate response to unavoidable poverty-creating processes and institutions of capitalism has been perfectly well known. a power.generationonline.ecn. there are many ways in which it causes poverty .14 This would require . On the contrary. Jay. “Poverty and Capitalism by Barbara Harriss-White”. What we must managed to develop is the feeling that poverty is a subject. by itself. minimise and equalise the impact of capitalism on the environment still would not avoid the other forms of poverty created by capitalism without a second set of redistributive interventions. Poverty is indignation against wealth but also the enormous capacity to produce wealth. It is there that we must try to verify. experiment. A Video Conversation with Antonio Negri. The relative weights of the mechanisms through which poverty is created will differ among countries occupying different positions in the world's division of labour. It is something that is inside. more or less centripetal webs towards organisation. revolutionary philosopher and teacher (Antonio. We have to interpret this because this strike in the common becomes a fact of a different civilisation. The problem is all in the content not in the form. it would be very interesting on this terrain for instance to make documentaries and movies.if not new systems of no purchase on the scale of the problem. Rather than strike we should use the word exodus.15 Some societies have succeeded in realising DML. Clayton . Thomas Paine in the 18th century to the International Labour Office in the current era.even though that poverty may be exported to sites from which it is not visible. In a theatre too… Capitalism is the root cause of economic inequality. Poverty is not something that is outside of the working class or of the normal structure of production. Harry. Of course. It is only when we manage to put into motion this concept of poverty as power that we can also understand what organisasion is. to create a physical image of the development of these struggles.wfu. and how it is on this new terrain of anthropological modification and transformation that a new mode of struggle must be conceived. The failure of capitalism to address its poverty-creating processes not only generates a continual material and political struggle but also threatens the ecosystem in which capitalism is embedded.org/t/glossary. Poverty is something that is put to the margin of this world of capitalist production but it's also something that runs through it internally and thoroughly. April 11th 2006. a capacity to renew the world. Here there is a whole other issue regarding the anthropology of struggles and behaviours today.

S. with its poverty ranks swelling by a million every year. These are not acts of God. suicide. it also afflicts a large swath of people in the First World. is official corruption. The 14 to 18 million deaths a year caused by structural violence compare with about 100. They are not where the major violence in our society takes place. Any theory of violence. In fact. which breeds economic policies that enrich the ruling elite and exacerbate income and wealth disparities.S. which in turn reflects government malfeasance.16 Calls for poor people to empower themselves and support for some of them to organise. Such practices are not equal to the ways in which poverty is embedded in the institutions and processes of the capitalist mode of production. Those excess deaths (or at least a demonstrably large proportion of them) are a function of class structure. Jay. Structural violence differs from behavioral violence in at least three . they found that 18 million deaths a year could be attributed to the “structural violence” to which the citizens of all the other nations were being subjected.000 deaths per year from armed conflict. aid and "development" agencies responsible for tackling the MDGs under neo-liberalism. poverty is not just a Third World cancer. and DML. whereas murders. voters) whose decisions may nevertheless Structural violence is normally invisible. Any approach to a theory of violence needs to begin with a look at the structural violence in this country. yet poverty stalks the world with increasing vehemence Extinction Gilligan professor of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School 96 [James. especially a psychological theory. The finding that structural violence causes far more deaths than behavioral violence does is not limited to this country. the United States. Hearing about their lives. Ian. and the perpetrators who fill them are far from being the main causes of most violent deaths. But both the welfare state and the income guarantee are ideas deeply out of fashion with the international funding. Rothenbaum. which continues year after year. are not sufficient. including the advanced economies of North America.S. concerning how to distribute the collective wealth of the society. the discrepancies between the rich and poor nations have increased dramatically and alarmingly. p 191-196] The deadliest form of violence is poverty. and a member of the Academic Advisory Council of the National Campaign Against Youth Violence. such as the deaths we attribute to homicide. but of the growing monopoly power of big business. However. Australia and Japan. By “structural violence” I mean the increased rates of death. dml) Most experts blame the problem on our planet’s population explosion. Harry. executions. I am contrasting “structural” with “behavioral violence. while necessary. The Downfall of Capitalism and Communism: A New Study of History pg 1-2. professor of economics at SMU (Ravi. It is the strength of the contestation to regulate capitalism that will decide the levels and causes of poverty. after the shocks of an era of major economic depression and world war and in the face of a socialist alternative. Not a day goes by without realizing that trying to understand them and their violent behavior in purely individual terms is impossible and wrong-headed. The poverty tumor is not the result of paltry growth in output. or human. *The lethal effects of structural violence operate continuously. independent of individuals and groups (politicians. Director of the Center for the Study of Violence. Sweden was their model of the nation that had come closes to eliminating structural violence.Cap Kritik 71/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the welfare state.R. and about their families and friends. every fifteen years. Kohler and Alcock attempted to arrive at the number of excess deaths caused by socioeconomic have lethal consequences for others. and disability suffered by those who occupy the bottom rungs of society. the richest country. the Indonesian massacre of 1965-66 (perhaps even a hypothetical nuclear exchange between the U. and other forms of behavioral violence occur one at a time.000) deaths). * inequities on a worldwide basis. When they compared the life expectancies of those living in the other socioeconomic systems against Sweden. 1939-1945). Clayton . it was clear that even war cannot begin to compare with structural violence. the Vietnam war (possibly two million. 1954-1973). and that structure is itself a product of society’s collective human choices. as contrasted with the relatively lower death rates experienced by those who are above them. Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes. and the lowest discrepancies in death rates and life expectancy. It had the least inequity in income and living standards. *Structural major respects violence operates more or less independently of individual acts.” by which I mean the non-natural deaths and injuries that are caused by specific behavioral actions of individuals against individuals. suicides. (232 million). wars. political parties. and the highest overall life expectancy in the world. Europe. rather than sporadically. This book argues that the main cause of poverty. During the past decade. as 575. and the U. Focusing merely on those relatively few men who commit what we define as murder could distract us from examining and learning from those structural causes of violent death that are far more significant from a numerical or public health. you are forced to recognize the truth in Gandhi’s observation that the deadliest form of violence is poverty. Cap is the root cause of poverty Batra 7 – Rishee’s dad. including those by genocide—or about eight million per year. and the material constituency which is damaged by current arrangements and which has an interest in a universal entitlement is comprehensively prevented from developing the countervailing power to claim it. standpoint. that evolves from the experience of men in maximum security prisons and hospitals for the criminally insane must begin with the recognition that these institutions are only microcosms. such as World War II (an estimated 49 million military and civilian deaths. You cannot work for one day with the violent people who fill our prisons and mental hospitals for the criminally insane without being forcible and constantly reminded of the extreme poverty and discrimination that characterizes their lives. capital punishment. soldiers in warfare. anywhere and everywhere. In other words. . Amanda. on the average. because it may appear to have had other (natural or violent) causes. and so on. now resembles a banana republic. Comparing this frequency of deaths from structural violence to the frequency of those caused by major military and political violence. Global output has grown twice as fast as the global population since 1980.

for they are inextricably related to each other. Ian. the equivalent of an ongoing. Harry. unending. Clayton . Structural violence is also the main cause of behavioral violence on a socially and epidemiologically significant scale (from homicide and suicide to war and genocide). in fact accelerating. DML. dangerous. in effect. Jay. The question as to which of the two forms of violence—structural or behavioral—is more important. or lethal is moot. perpetrated on the weak and poor every year of every decade. or genocide. This is. Rothenbaum.Cap Kritik 72/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab many people die because of relative poverty as would be killed by the Nazi genocide of the Jews over a sixyear period. throughout the world. thermonuclear war. as cause to effect. Amanda.

Once more. Jay. Amanda.Cap Kritik 73/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Repressed Society The culmination of this hegemonic drive towards technology and surveillance is a repressed. IWren) If this is the universe as experienced by pro-space activists. again experienced as a frightening subject controlling Earthly affairs from on high. as are contemporary cosmological theories divorced from most people’s understanding. Clayton . University of Essex and **James. pg 77. But this is hidden by a mask of mysticism. socially and politically powerful people (some even claiming to be on a mission from God) are attempting to make the cosmos into a means by which they can control society on Earth. then a contrary Chapter 1. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. Commodification. Ian. This is a relationship experienced by those not in control of the universe: those on the margins of Western society. militarization and surveillance by the socially powerful are again making the universe into an entity dominating human society. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. These developments are explored further over the next two chapters. DML.*Peter. in which power is maintained by those with technological domination over the universe. It is a twenty-first-century version of the Platonic and mediaeval universes in which humans are made into repressed objects and thereby brought to heel. which we began to outline in the return to a fearful and estranged relationship with the universe. is development. subservient society dominated by the power-elite Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Harry. The combination of these two trends is a ‘Wizard of Oz’ effect. which keeps the public in a position of fear and subservience. Rothenbaum.

‟ „biased. as Eqbal Ahmad (1998: 5) argues.” On the other hand. who are sympathetic towards libera-tion fronts such as the Palestinian Liberation Organization or other oppositional organizations. nor do they include in their definitions the specific characteristics of the varied forms of terrorism. “Terrorism from Above and Below in the Age of Globalization”. preferring to endorse the idea that “one man‟s terrorist is another man‟s freedom fighter.htm) In the aftermath of the September 11. support for investment in and the proposed deployment of a NMD system is largely a domestic concern. Harry. Rothenbaum.is a Nuclear Age Peace Foundation Policy Analyst (“A Matter of National Priorities: National Missile Defense (NMD) and Theatre Missile Defense (TMD) as Violations of International Law and a Threat to Human Survival”October 2001. http://www. Despite the attempted linkage of disparate and unrelated threats to U. there is a history of colonialism. I argue that any balanced definition of and theory about terrorism must consider all attacks by both state and non-state actors as attacks on the life and liberty of noncombatant civilians as terrorist. “state terror very often breeds collective terror. or by delivering a chemical or biological weapon of mass death tucked into a shipment of cocaine bound for Los Angeles. Jalata 11 . the Rumsfeld analysis cannot stand the test of critical analysis. there are scholars who acknowledge that state terrorism begets non-state terrorism: “When terrorism is theoretically examined as a form of social control. Where poverty and deprivation have reigned supreme. there is little empirical support for the proposition that a truly "defensive" NMD system could prevent such attacks even if a truly "defensive" system existed [EXHIBIT 21]. fundamental controlling apparatuses of the state may be viewed as terroristic. groups. there is no basis for alleging the possibility of a missile attack. Rumsfeld stated that "it is the asymmetric threats that are a risk. Terrorist attacks are. In the final analysis. Amanda. scholars and politicians such as Ben-jamin Netanyahu (1995) have disregarded the alternate prin-ciple that “one man‟s terrorist is everyone‟s terrorist. January 24th 2011. rather than the exception. that vast expenditure will have availed little or nothing in the provision of genuine national security. ex-tensions.” the definitions diverge on several issues such as which agencies engage in terrorism and who exactly the targets of terrorism are (Goodwin. Unfortunately. have not denounced their terrorist activities. Clayton . Jay.1-4) NAR Yet. 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon terrorist attacks.wagingpeace.S. more closely associated with peacetime military spending than with the actual world situation. Aruri (2006). Some ig-nore the issue of state terrorism altogether while others “seek to denounce a focus on state terrorism as „skewed.org/articles/2001/10/00_paupp_nmd-tmd. for an enemy can always choose to play a different game.” Neta-nyahu never recognizes that the Israeli state engages in terror-ism against Palestinians. terrorist attacks are a symptom rather than a cause of the underlying global maladies of our age. Terrorism is a backlash to the state’s monopoly on violence. they include cyber-attacks" [EXHIBIT 19].” Although several representative definitions of terrorism converge on the notion that terrorism is “the deliberate use of violence in order to influence some audience (or audiences) [author‟s emphasis]. foiling the best -laid NMD plans by firing a nuclear-armed cruise missile from a ship lying off New York. The real source of U. 2006: 2028). Ian. p.Cap Kritik 74/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Terrorism Capitalism is root cause terrorism Paupp 2001 .Professor of Sociology & Global Studies (Asafa. and terror” (Oliverio. To illustrate my point. Jenkins (1981: 6-7) challenges this notion on the grounds that it “implies that there can be no objective definition of terrorism and that there are no universal standards of conduct in peace or war. national security. organizations or states seek to impose control over other human beings through violence. Those who take these extreme posi-tions ignore the crimes committed against humanity. 1998: 7). imperialism. Organiza-tions.‟ ideological and „out of touch with real political events‟” (Stohl and Lopez. Robert Higgs has argued: "if an effective NMD system is ever successfully produced-a big "if"-it will certainly have cost far more than the presently projected amount. DML. and individuals who legitimate the use of vi-olence to achieve their goals may be viewed as products. Behind the frustration of generations. Commentators and scholars such as Samih K. On this matter.S. or by any number of other means immune to the missile defense system". Furthermore. or models of the essential structure of a state when its purpose is to regulate behavior via various forms of repression. let me briefly introduce such terrorist epi-sodes. Farsoun and Naseer H. and great power rivalry. they include ballistic missiles. an expression of the powerless position of persons and groups who come from exclusionary states at the periphery of the international capitalist system. domination.” Brian M. Those who study terrorism do not ade-quately explain why certain human elements. groups. and they include terrorism. Where widespread poverty and deprivation is the rule. 1984: 3). in large measure.

The New Centennial Review 6. In the gray zones of borders. work camps. and protests. law and order—which may eventually mean no more than enthusiasm for the neo-liberal order—become the excuse to turn mind control techniques against the population. In this quasi- war. models its action on real military operations in Iraq: the fight with the Mehdi army in the south and the hunt for Uday and Qusay Hussein (Loftus 2004). Even if that was not the original intention. Such simulations. Precisely because of their supposed harmlessness. occupations. they are almost certain to be used with greater and greater frequency against ordinary citizens engaged in any kind of resistance to the government. This is attested to by a burgeoning industry of action films. Just as the spy network uses terrorism as the pretext to spy upon the general population. Rothenbaum. While the desire to reduce civilian casualties and minimize pain may be admirable in theory. necessary. even the most nonviolent. like violent porn. video games. the corporate state maintains a low-grade and perpetual quasi-war at all times and in all places under its [End Page 145] dominion. Amanda. simulation and reality. Kuma War. Ian. Jay. that is exactly how they have been employed so far. “Prometheus The Emergence of the Police State in America “) NAR And here. for instance. the video game series. and violent pornography that blurs the line between entertainment and news. Rajiva 6 – Masters in Economics. any hypothetical advantages of sublethal techniques are outweighed by their real disadvantages—their invisibility to and greater acceptability by the public.1 (2006) 133-169. the truth is out. Nonlethal weaponry is not meant to replace but to enhance conventional weapons. prisons. and inevitable. Harry. corporate merchandise and advertising act like psychotronic weapons by commercializing and inserting the imagery of war into the public imagination. Clayton . desensitize young males by promoting a model of aggressive masculinity that feeds recruitment in the warfare state while also preparing a larger public to accept state violence as virtuous.9 It seems very likely that psychotronic weapons were conceived not merely to supplement but also to act as a convenient cover for conventional torture or war. Doctoral work in international relations and political philosophy (Lila. both in domestic and foreign settings.Cap Kritik 75/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Total war Capitalism maintains cycles of constant threat construction and war to pacify the populace. DML.

cerntruth. Ian. that nations are the supreme meaning of our existence. ecological movements in which people were aware that metal. a concept of systems sciences that discharges full responsibility in the individuals and yet creates the same effect. nuclear scientists. You live in the Financial-Military-Industrial Complex (called in newspeak the Free market. Every time we work. that corporations serve us. This samurai today rules japan and its corporations that manufacture machines with a submissive population that likes more their robots than the foreigners. such as the nuclear industry. so I will not insist on it. biological program of love for nature. data in a computer).com/?p=257 ] Jay I know you don’t believe me. Amanda. a nation founded by iron-horse warriors coming from Korea. But now the FMI system controls our information. the ‘nervous system’ of simultaneous indoctrination will imprint your brain with mass-media propaganda and the 3 ‘ideologies’ that make of its 3 networks. The Matrix of fictions and marketing built today to appease the sheeple was not yet in place. the super-organism of history as we substituted our fathers. “Fukyshima: Dying for Japan Inc. when you are put in front of a TV. individualist egotism that corporations. we reproduce a machine or a part of it. But the FMI complex is an evolving system independent of man. don’t worry and don’t read. Yet behind those ‘selfish memes of metal’ imprinted in our mind. unrelentlessly: Gaia->History->The Metal-Earth (FMI complex). machines and money as the future of mankind. came on top of all societies. That simple chain is the world you live in. Sancho. Probably mankind is beyond salvation. So if you want to keep happy. They justify all the wrong paths with the same self-centered. It is what it is expected of you. to appease and convince people that the FMI system cares for us. Japanese are kept in a state of ‘neoteny’. All this wisdom was lost and soon selfish egocentric tribes that relied on weapons to impose their power (Indo-Europeans) or money to hypnotize and slave people (cananeans). we humans have only 2 functions: to work=reproduce those machines and to test=consume them. nations. bankers – you name it – show in everyday behavior. clean air. short-span. self-centered fictions which now are ‘common-sense’. Men had not been devolved into a short attention-span. the meaning of it all. And so a great deal of ‘newspeak’ takes place within the Financial-Military-Industrial Complex and the die-hard ‘believers’ that worship with messianic zeal the evolution of weapons. How this is possible is obvious: today the imprinting of our mind with the ideologies that make us love the FMI complex that is killing gaia starts at 3. there is still a natural genetic. but in system sciences I prefer to call it by its biological function – so we shall call corporations company-mothers of machines. the FMI system in complexity). feed them with energy. some good some bad. Especially if you are a Japanese living close to the death zone. with infantile myths and self-restrain. evolution and purpose is crystal clear to us – though all this might be hidden to you. whose functions.. makes them in external behavior closer to their robots than to human beings. even if you are prisoner on the iron jail the FMI complex has built for all of us. and worship their ‘traditions’. And that is right. but ‘emergence’. Because the world you live in is NOT a world in which life has an infinite value.Cap Kritik 76/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – V2L No value to life in capitalism. so we believe what it tells us. anthropomorphic belief on our self-centered position in the Universe. in a ‘free market’ where all goes. Clayton . but the invisible hand of go(l)d. myopic. Harry. To explain you really the meaning of economics I would need an entire web-blog on complex economics which I have. And this duality between a brain-washed mankind who adores the wrong memes and a newspeak of caring is specially present in Japan. the jail of their mind.” published 3/29/2011. visual neopaleolithic and ego-centric. the organism of life. the FMI complex was more obvious. There was an age that has resurfaced from time to time in religions of love and social. weapons that kill our body. the ultimate beliefs. which merely constructs it. natural food. And only if you are aware of that arrow of evolution we have Because the FMI system is an evolving ecosystem of machines that is terraforming the Earth and substituting us. to which we transfer our form and evolve to reach higher degrees of energy and information – to exist and what is far worse. Rothenbaum. We humans have become completely dependent on machines – organic systems of metal. There is no confabulation theory here. So it has its own organization and goals. It has a global. and its values must be respected. gold that hypnotize our mind and today machines that make us increasingly obsolete were ‘dual fruits of the tree of science’. equations. Jay. social love – the genetic program of human evolution. and by not distinguishing and pruning the bad fruits. And yet there is a certain beauty in knowing the truth. in an economic ecosystem in which weapons could predate on man. 90% of the stock-market is dedicated to re=produce those machines. Before II world war. And for 5000 years they built a matrix of ideological. our beliefs have adapted to them subconsciously since the Bronze age in which we discovered the power of weapons. digital brain called the world stock-market and a type of citizen called the corporation. we would become extinct. I know you think and believe the ‘experts’ of the system. in being free at least in your mind. the most informative atom of the Universe into e-money. http://www. From then on. evolving DML. Those are your memes to keep you happy. Those are the ideologies that sustain the Financial-Military-Industrial complex in which we live. because it has become lobotomized to a point in which so much restrain of otherwise natural feelings and inner emotions. This is what you have learned. provide them with information and within that scheme. displaying an extreme aggressive-passive behavior to people who might ‘offend’ their sensibilities) and imprinted the happy peasants of the sun-god with an absolute slavery to the master. the idols of mankind. The financial system has an ideology called capitalism that tells us money is NOT just a system of metal-information (evolved from gold. who became samurais and emperors (but this cannot be said. every time we consume it we test it and vitalize it. a perfectly organized system that we complexity theorists study scientifically as an evolving organic system. more complex than we are. ’11 – chair of the Annual World Conferences on the Science of Duality [Louis Sancho.

consciously express themselves and realize themselves. in which everything real. “Critique Action and Liberation. Capitalism is inherently dehumanizing and converts people into only labor. the Lukácsian concept of reification. They become nothing more than commodities to be bought. He is the high-level functionary in a vast bureaucratic organization who does his killing from behind a desk. Harry. what Marx calls the fetishism of commodities arises. capitalism estranges them from their own consciousness. and we back with the 3 ideologies of mechanism (machines are the future of man. to be manipulated at will. “Capitalism and Genocide. It turns consciousness into a means of individual life or mere physical existence.Cap Kritik 77/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab set in motion. including Fukushima. and the Arendtian portrait of the desk killer. The features of the desk killer. in capitalism becomes subordinate to the product's exchange value. The desk killer is the quintessential bureaucrat functioning according to the imperatives of the death-world. we can interpret the world as it is. Clayton .” page 277. Jay. is alienated in the pursuit of profit. For Adler. Internationalist Persepective. standing-reserve or raw material. are treated as so much Bestand. enframing. nature is turned against them. Capitalism turns people into profits. capitalism (money is the language of god. Rather than living to work the worker works in order to live. the abstract labor time as measured in money. Here. from which he rationally plans and organizes mass murder. which Lukács was one of the first to analyze. The consciousness of everyone. should be the vehicle of their conscious self-expression. Ian. Marsh ‘95 – Professor at Fordham [James Marsh." Reification. DML. even the capitalist. the Adlerian concept of the administered man. and no sense that those who went to the gas chambers were human beings and not things. and destroyed. called a flag. Rather than nature being the environment in which human beings freely. can be joined to Martin Heidegger's concept of das Gestell. That which should be a means becomes an end. all beings. Rothenbaum.” Spring – 2000. Amanda. This reduction of humans to a raw material is the antechamber to a world in which they can become so many waste products to be discarded or turned into ashes in the gas chambers of Auschwitz or at ground zero at Hiroshima. Use value. the desk killer. In this institutionalized reification in which things become more important than consciousness. Money becomes an all-consuming god devouring everything in its path. when human beings are administered.geocities. treating it as simply a technical task. Complete value for life disappears. the seeming transformation of social relations into relations between things.Adler designated as "the administered man" [Der verwaltete Mensch]. workers' own bodies. that embodiment of the triumph of instrumental reason. not organic systems of metal that substitute and make obsolete human beings). inherent in the commodity-form.com/wageslavex/capandgen. In estranging human beings from object and process. and that which should be the end becomes a means. thereby clearing the way for their removal or elimination by genocide. including humans.G. As a human type. have been clearly delineated by Hannah Arendt. to keep body and soul together. professor of philosophy at Fordham University. and the world around them. Human beings forget that they are the source of value in their wealth and think that it is the source of their value. in the person of Eichmann. in which the organization of genocide was the responsibility of desk killers like Adolf Eichmann who could zealously administer a system of mass murder while displaying no particular hatred for his victims. http://www. has become a vital part of the state apparatus of late capitalism. Consciousness ceases to be an end and becomes a means to the realization of profit. an autonomy that seems so strictly rational and all-embracing as to conceal every trace of its fundamental nature: the relation between people. and its tendential penetration into the whole of social existence. no great ideological passion for his project. nature. The outcome of such a process can be seen in the bureaucractic administration of the Final Solution. they are treated as things.html] The phenomenon of reification. 2k – staff writer [Issue 36. sold. so we must not love each other and evolve together as members of the same species. but use weapons to come up on top). is a hallmark of the real domination of capital: "Its basis is that a relation between people takes on the character of a thing and thus acquires a `phantom objectivity'. not a language whose values are different from those of words and give zero value to life and maximal value to machines and weapons) and nationalism (the idea that we are different races according to a piece of cloth. has as one of its outcomes what the German-Jewish thinker H. no different than the problem of transporting scrap metal. the capacity of products for fulfilling real human needs. published 1995] Ideally.

have reduced the ability of the world market to absorb world output.socialsciences. the military dimension appeared to exercise an over determining influence in the reconfiguration of global politics. Neoliberalism ‘peacefully’ forced open new areas for global capital in the 1980s and the 1990s.html)//AW The weapons producers are a key part of the U. But this structural power became less effective in the face of the three-pronged crisis mentioned above. The Bush régime militarized social and economic contradictions. the jets..org/news/199910/war. both intensive and extensive. October 1999. Jay. and McDonnell-Douglas. and mortars that DML. The train of neoliberalism became latched on to military intervention and the threat of coercive sanctions as a locomotive for pulling the moribund Washington consensus forward. They play a direct role in determining U.socialistaction. necessitating military aggression and war mobilization. The system cannot meet the needs of a majority of humanity. The space for ‘peaceful’ expansion. Robinson 07—Professor of Sociology. These are the producers of the weapons of mass destruction. Latin American and Iberian Studies at the University of California-Santa Barbara (William I.pdf)//AW By the early twenty-first century. Second is a structural crisis of over accumulation. Capitalism makes a constant state of war inevitable—disarmament and cooperation is impossible in a capitalist-centric world. launching a permanent war mobilization to try to stabilize the system through direct coercion. Harry. In the post 9/11 period. Ian. the downward pressure on wages and popular consumption worldwide. But was all this evidence for a new US bid for hegemony? A US campaign to ‘compete’ with other major states? To defend ‘its own domestic capital’? To ‘maintain a critical balance’ and ‘control major [state] competitors’? I trust my reasons for rejecting such an argument have been made clear in this critical article. This crisis involves three interrelated dimensions. perhaps even billions. as the former ‘socialist’ countries became re-integrated into global capitalism. Six huge companies dominate the arms market in the U. the tanks. Rothenbaum. foreign and domestic policy. Boeing. rockets.S. became ever more restricted. and legitimates the creation of a police state to repress political dissent in the name of security. and the depleted uranium bullets. and much of the world. The problem of surplus absorption makes state-driven military spending and the growth of military-industrial complexes an outlet for surplus and gives the current global order a frightening built-in war drive. or even assure minimal social reproduction. “The Pitfalls of Realist Analysis of Global Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood’s Empire of Capital”. First it is a crisis of social polarization. Global and International Studies. Amanda. as the consumption of high-income sectors worldwide reached a ceiling. ruling class. Seligman 99—Editor of the Socialist Action Magazine (Carole. for the forcible restructuring of space in order to further accumulation. The legitimacy of the system has increasingly been called into question by millions. The system cannot expand because the marginalization of a significant portion of humanity from direct productive participation. They are Lockheed-Martin. and the polarization of income. 2007. http://www. generates a colossal deficit that justifies the ever-deeper dismantling of the Keynesian welfare state and locks neoliberal austerity in place.Cap Kritik 78/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – War Capitalism causes permanent war-drives.ac. global capitalism was in crisis. Historical Materialism. http://www. as Wood would likely agree. Socialist Action. The ‘war on terrorism’ provides a seemingly endless military outlet for surplus capital. This was often accomplished through economic coercion alone. Northrop Grumman. and so on. Textron. the Cruise missiles.uk/disciplines/politics/research/hmrg/activities/documents/Robinson.S. including in the Balkans. of people around the world. Military aggression has become in this context an instrument for prying open new sectors and regions. Opportunities for both intensive and extensive expansion dried up as privatizations ran their course. made possible by the structural power of the global economy over individual countries.S. Clayton . “Capitalism and War”.manchester. and is facing an expanded counter-hegemonic challenge. Raytheon. Third is a crisis of HIMA legitimacy and authority.

military technology. and after the war. "they could". many of the wealthiest war profiteers. resulting in violent wars.S. “Juarez is All of our Futures”. imported duty-free.S. The grassroots movement against the postpolitical cartel warriors. they explained to her. she said. for example. Rothenbaum. Clayton . Vulliamy 11—British writer and journalist for the Observer and the Guardian. casually shedding their Mexican workers. But this is not just a war between narco-cartels. Haiti. the new justification is that the U.S. so. and tetracene. is still not a capitalist country-as a field for capitalist exploitation Capitalism leads to a new world order of criminal enterprise. the very companies with controlling power in American society. 2011. and Juarez journalist. The Guardian. must produce a newer model capable of shooting down the ones they are selling now. about seeing loads of spent ammunition casings on the streets of Dili. tungsten carbide. Ian. who organised a week-long peace march after the murder of his son in the spring. "Cartel war" does not explain the story my friend. the National Movement for Peace. This ammunition had been supplied to the Indonesian military. Somalia. the cry will go up for the next generation of terrorist weapons of mass destruction. The army plays its own mercurial role. was exposed by socialists and other honest people during the war. [Journalist Alan Nairn testified the last week of September 1999. have outsourced violence to gangs affiliated or unaffiliated with them. is famously led by the poet Javier Sicilia. "It's a city based on markets and on trash. Juarez has imploded into a state of criminal anarchy . making agreements to limit the production and acquisition of vital war material (such as magnesium. weapons. Iraq and Kuwait. except the Soviet Union. DML.S.S. workers make the goods that fill America's supermarket shelves or become America's automobiles. a photographer who has chronicled the implosion. before a Congressional sub-committee in Washington. Sandra Rodriguez told me over dinner last month: about two children who killed their parents "because". LexusNexus)//AW Interestingly. This is the mechanism of the war economy in which we live. Air Force officials are already proposing overseas sales of the F-22. Over half of the U. and in the home. or any significant leftwing or union opposition. the corporations can do it cheaper in Asia.bonded assembly plants where." This is even more true now than when he said it.27.S. arms exports (many sold to governments who shoot down their own peoples or workers and peasants of neighboring countries) are paid for with our taxes. Now. Remember the $64 billion that the U. is selling F-15s. during. The arms manufacturers are so "patriotic" that in five out of the last six wars where the U. but to secure Yugoslavia-which. that the NATO forces were not bombing them to save them. specializing in Boarder Wars (Ed. Jay. manufacturer on them. joined in cartels with Nazi-run German industry. though moving towards capitalism.S. This very male war is opposed by women. has budgeted for the F-22 fighter jets at $200 million each? The original justification for producing this new generation of fighter planes was made during the Cold War against the so-called Evil Empire. p. Recruits for the drug war come from the vast. Now. Not by coincidence.the cartels." says Julian Cardona.. in fighting World War II-not saving the Jews and other persecuted peoples of the world! Albanian Kosovars will be learning this bitter lesson under occupation. in a highly politicised society there is no rightwing or Mussolinian "law and order" mass movement against the cartels. F-16s (made by Lockheed) and F-18s (made by Boeing) to the new NATO allies. who compete for tenders with corrupt police officers.) This and many other forms of cooperation between the American and German biggest industries before. Harry. and then to the militias.the whole city is a criminal enterprise". phony as it was. American forces faced adversaries that had previously received U. and Juarez has become a teeming recruitment pool for the cartels and killers. June 21. or training. capital of East Timor. has sent troops into conflict-Panama. "goes from boys like that right to the top . and Bosnia. for rock-bottom wages.Cap Kritik 79/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab pierce the tanks.] During World War II. by the United States. in the workplaces and barrios. Juarez is also a model for the capitalist economy. because the arms-makers have assumed ever greater power and wealth.C. Profit-making was the engine that drove all the major countries. The culture of impunity. Lenin said that "disarmament is obviously utopian under capitalism. He could read the name of the U. without that rationale. sprawling maquiladora . D. acting like any corporation. Amanda. It is a city that follows religiously the philosophy of a free market. so the U.

such as dipping people into vats of acid so that their limbs evaporate while doctors keep the victim conscious. Murder City. they are democratic the postmodern way. dml) Warfare is a perennial human activity. then. So Mexico's war is how the future will look. But they won't. They could not have known how prescient their title was.which the leaders of "legitimate" politics. Ian. Narco-cartels are not pastiches of global corporations. race and religion . In a recent book. Rothenbaum. Journalists find it hard that while even people as crazy as Osama bin Laden will talk to the media . the war on drugs. and innovative torture. The Downfall of Capitalism and Communism: A New Study of History pg 50. and more expensive. For example. Twelve years ago Cardona and the writer Charles Bowden curated a book called Juarez: The Laboratory of Our Future. they must wear another brand. I answer: these are largely of tangential importance. postmoral world. in their business logic and modus operandi. they are busy across thickets of internet hot-sites and the narco-blogosphere. and to a zeitgeist of frenzied materialism we adamantly refuse to temper: it is the inevitable war of capitalism gone mad. commanding a vast viewing public. nothing. and these variations have generated regular economic cycles. or the 20th with wars of ideology.but utterly in a present to which the global economy is committed. for obvious reasons: the good burgers of capitalism and their political quislings depend on this money. The Mexican cartels epitomised the North American free trade agreement long before it was dreamed up. government response to it.S.is greed. but the U. I objected.they feel they have a message to get across . Mexico's carnage is that of the age of effective global government by multinational banks . A very brave man called Mario Trevino lives in the city of Reynosa. The cruelty is in and of the nihilism. He said of the killers and cartels: "They are revolting people who do what they do because they cannot be seen to wear the same label Tshirt as they wore last year. They have to bank it . What accounts for the three-decade periodicity of these cycles? It is hard to explain why certain events can occur with such regularity. I answer tentatively that I think there is a correlation between the causelessness of Mexico's war and the savagery. Juarez is the new order." Capitalism causes cycles of wars that bring itself down Batra 7 – Rishee’s dad." It can't be that banal. to how the legal economy will arrange itself next. as they have with actions against terrorist funding. nor are they errant bastards of the global economy . what can the authorities do? Simple: Go After the Money. Cardona told me how many times he had been asked for his view on the Javier Sicilia peace march: "I replied: 'How can you march against the market?'" Mexico's war does not only belong to the postpolitical. business and banking preach by example . People often ask: why the savagery of Mexico's war? It is infamous for such inventive perversions as sewing one victim's flayed face to a soccer ball or hanging decapitated corpses from bridges by the ankles. It belongs to the world of belligerent hyper-materialism. Jay. and of our time. but its financing has varied somewhat over time. the 1973 Arab-Israeli battles were short lived and didn’t involve the United States militarily. But they choose not to. Yet in the aftermath the United States responded by printing oodles of money.and politicians could throttle this river of money. the greed for violence reflects the greed for brands. and becomes a brand in itself. and the economy is based on what happens when you treat people like trash. The killers post their atrocities on YouTube with relish. because it belongs not in the 19th century with wars of empire. US aid to Mexico.the narco-cartels have no interest in talking at all. Cartel bosses and street gangbangers cannot go around in trucks full of cash.banks that. It certainly belongs to the cacophony of the era of digital communication. but he pleaded with me not to underestimate these considerations. which is in the grip of the Gulf cartel. They control the message. People also ask: what can be done? There is endless debate over military tactics. The thing that really makes Mexico's war a different war. in the end. professor of economics at SMU (Ravi. and they thrive upon it. Bowden puts it another way: "Juarez is not a breakdown of the social order. a war for the 21st century. Amanda. Clayton . while bleating about the evils of drugs cooked in the ghetto and snorted up the noses of the rich. Harry.they are pioneers of it." Very much. according to Antonio Maria Costa. the former head of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime.Cap Kritik 80/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab "Killing and drug addiction are activities in the economy. in which the only ideology left . and whether narcotics should be decriminalised. They point. have been for years kept afloat by laundering drug and criminal profits. is that it is about. DML. and in the process generated the highest peaks of the money and inflation cycles. Thus it is not warfare that has been following a regular pattern.

curbs money growth and hence the spiral of prices. and inevitably encounters inflation. Then it learns its lesson. Whenever a crisis occurs.Cap Kritik 81/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab The answer must lie in the relative stability of the mental and psychological processes of the people involved in these events. It is human nature alone that can possibly generate rhythmic patterns. the easiest way out for the government is to print money. because the old generation has been displaced even as new problems occur. Ian. Jay. Clayton . Amanda. Rothenbaum. It is usually observed that each generation is active for about thirty years. But the hard-earned lessons of the past are forgotten. DML. Every generation apparently finds a way to make the same mistake. Thus every generation succumbs to the temptation of pump priming to solve its problems. This way there are three-decade cycles of money growth and inflation. Harry.

A New War on the Planet?. high-tech armaments. Ian. All proposed solutions must be compatible with the treadmill of production. virtual work. virtual shopping and improved cement. New social and democratic solutions need to be developed. Even the IPCC. destruction of the oceans. we are now being told on every side -.html) During the last year the global warming debate has reached a turning point." President Bush said in a hastily organized retreat. not part of the problem. are part of the solution." It is characteristic of the magic-bullet solutions that now pervade the media that they promise to defend our current way of life while remaining virtually cost free.but only if capitalism can be fully preserved at the same time. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). "Let's quit the debate about whether greenhouse gases are caused by mankind or by natural causes. followed by a new assessment by the U. It is necessary to go to the root of the problem by addressing the social relations of production. Foster 07 – professor of sociology @ University of Oregon (John Bellamy.org/mrzine/foster080607. The ecological irrationality of this response is evident in the tendency to dissociate global warming from the global environmental crisis as a whole. The dominant answers to global warming thus amount to what might be thought of as a new declaration of war on nature. toxic wastes. Or it is thought pragmatic to dump iron filings in the ocean (the so-called Geritol solution to global warming) in order to grow phytoplankton and increase the carbon absorbing capacity of the ocean -without connecting this at all to the current oceanic catastrophe. Politics is carefully excluded from his analysis. tropical deforestation.N. which instead focuses on such things as more buses.even by Gore -. our industrial waste. tells us that climate change can be stopped on the cheap -. such as biofuels or even nuclear power.without acknowledging that this will accelerate world hunger. we are led to believe.if only the magic of technology and markets is applied. Suddenly the media and the public are awakening to what the scientific consensus has been saying for two decades on human-induced climate change and the dangers it poses to the future of life on earth. in its policy proposals. Corporations. We must recognize that today's ecological problems are related to a system of global inequality that demands ecological destruction as a necessary condition of its existence. We can have our cars. one of the leading political philosophers of the 20th century. If nature has "struck back" at capitalism's degradation of the environment in the form of climate change. explained: "Under modern [capitalist] conditions not destruction but conservation spells ruin. and climate stability too. There can be no disruption of existing class or power relations. Jay. more technocratic thinkers look for substitutes for hydrocarbons. Hence. Clayton . to promote biofuels as a partial solution to global warming -. the most prominent proposals are shaped by the fact that they are designed to fit within the capitalist box. Rothenbaum. Proposed solutions to global warming are popping up everywhere. Due to the media hype surrounding Al Gore's film An Inconvenient Truth." Hence. employing new. Despite the fact that economists have long insisted that there is no such thing as a free lunch. Monbiot pointedly tells us that the rich countries can solve the global warming problem without becoming "Third World" states or shaking up "middle-class" life -. our endlessly expanding commodity economy. Harry. 8/06/07. which includes such problems as species extinction. Amanda. capitalism. or they talk of floating white plastic islands in the oceans (a geoengineering solution to replace the lost reflectivity due to melting ice). rooted in human community and DML. the answer is to unleash a more powerful array of technological and market innovations so that the system can continue to expand as before. The fact that the biosphere is one interconnected whole is downplayed in favor of mere economic expediency. the climate skeptics have suffered a major defeat. sees no alternative to a new assault on nature. "Let's just focus on technologies that deal with the issue. http://www. better insulated homes. Even progressive thinkers such as George Monbiot in his new book Heat: How to Stop the Planet Burning have gotten into the act. The goal is clearly to save the planet -. desertification. faced by natural obstacles. Less progressive. What all of this suggests is that a real solution to the planetary environmental crisis cannot be accomplished simply through new technologies or through turning nature into a market.or indeed interfering with the distribution of riches at all. etc.monthlyreview. from this narrow perspective. As Hannah Arendt. from the current biofuels panacea to geoengineering solutions such as pumping sulfur particles into the stratosphere to shade the earth from the sun to claims that a market in carbon dioxide emissions is the invisible hand that will save the world. It is then possible.Cap Kritik 82/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Warming Attempts at reform only render us unable to deal with the crisis of warming – capitalism proposes only half-way solutions that preserve the capitalist system but guarantee ecological destruction down the line.that where global warming is concerned there is a free lunch after all.

able momentarily to overlook company losses. the huge bonuses received by top corporate executives are influenced not only by the growth in profits but often as well by the rise in the prices of company stock. availability of clean water. Moreover. the increasing toxicity of our environment and our food.and with other human beings. Amanda." which encompasses problems as diverse as: global warming. and other natural resources. With respect to those environmental conditions that bear most directly on human society.Cap Kritik 83/194 sustainability. However. These all represent issues of sustainability. rationing and conservation of non-renewable resources. i. has already had its comeuppance. but patience evaporates very quickly if the companies invested in keep having losses. which is a source of capital for expansion and a facilitator of mergers and acquisitions. The capitalist drive towards profits is the root cause of global warming. A significant part of the wealth of top corporate executives depends on the growth in the stock market prices of the stock options they hold. raising questions of intergenerational environmental equity. The foregoing defects in capitalism's relation to the environment are evident today in all areas of what we now commonly call "the environmental crisis. The list is very long and rapidly getting longer. The short-term time horizon endemic to capitalist investment decisions thus becomes a critical factor in determining its overall environmental effects. Just as significant as capitalism's emphasis on unending expansion is its short-term time horizon in determining investments. In evaluating any investment prospect. In these areas the dominant motives are obviously to secure a supply of materials for the manufacture of a final product. based in the rich countries. disposal of wastes. Harry. and the spatial scales on which these problems manifest themselves are increasing. Even those industries that typically look ahead must sooner or later satisfy the demands of investors. The time horizon that governs investment decisions in these as in other cases is not a question of "good" capitalists who are willing to give up profits for the sake of society and future generations-or "bad" capitalists who are not-but simply of how the system works. Besides investing their own surplus funds. they have to make enough money to pay interest and to set aside a sinking fund for future repayment of bonds. Foster 01 (John Bellamy. For this. removal of tropical forests. extinction of species. Ian. lack of clean water. which needs to recoup its investment in the foreseeable future. Ecology Against Capitalism Statistical Data Included) Capitalist economies are geared first and foremost to the growth of profits. Professor of Sociology at University of Oregon.e. overfishing. corporations also borrow via long-term bonds. and radioactive contamination-to name just a few. shrinking water supplies. Controlling emissions of some of the worst pollutants (usually through end-of-pipe methods) can have a positive and almost immediate effect on people's lives. and hence to economic growth at virtually any cost--including the exploitation and misery of the vast majority of the world's population. Even the much-trumpeted flood of money going into the New Economy with future prospects in mind. Speculative investors looking to reap rich rewards via the stock market or venture capital may have some patience for a year or so. destruction of the ozone layer. Rothenbaum. A good deal of environmental long-term policy for promoting sustainable development has to do with the third world. loss of genetic diversity. it is useful to look at what many today consider to be the most pressing global ecological issue: that of global warming. associated with the "greenhouse effect" engendered when carbon dioxide and other "greenhouse gases" are emitted. But even in these cases the time horizon rarely exceeds ten to fifteen years-a far cry from the fifty to one hundred year (or even more) perspective needed to protect the biosphere. But this 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab means stepping outside the capitalist box and making peace with the planet -. embodying principles of conservation that are essential to life. desertification. trapping heat within the atmosphere. and to obtain a rate of return that over the long run is exceptionally high. and cannot be incorporated within the short-term time horizon of nonphilanthropic capital. owners of capital figure on getting their investment back in a calculable period (usually quite short) and profits forever after. There is now a worldwide scientific consensus that to fail to stop the present global warming trend will be to invite ecological and social catastrophe on a planetary scale over the DML. This is exactly the place where capital. oil wells. often demanding that it get its initial investment back in a year or two. and effects on population and the environment associated with the specific locations chosen for industrial projects. elimination of coral reefs.. plus secure a flow of profits to warrant the risk and to do better than alternative investment opportunities. In order to understand how the conflict between ecology and capitalism actually plays out at a concrete level related to specific ecological problems. Jay. It is true that a longer-term perspective is commonly adopted by investors in mines. Big investors need to pay attention to the stock market. requires the fastest return on its investments. economic development needs to be planned so as to include such factors as water resources and their distribution. Corporations are expected to maintain the value of their stockholder's equity and to provide regular dividends. Clayton . The perspective in stock market "valuation" is the rate of profit gains or losses in recent years or prospects for next year's profits. This rush to grow generally means rapid absorption of energy and materials and the dumping of more and more wastes into the environment--hence widening environmental degradation. the real protection of the environment requires a view of the needs of generations to come. A long-run point of view is completely irrelevant in the fluctuating stock market. bondholders. and banks.

If this increase (even in the middle range) comes true. disease. When set against the get– rich–quick imperatives of capital accumulation. Foster 01 (John Bellamy. surely include increased desertification in arid regions and heavier rainfall and risks of floods in other regions. http://monthlyreview. Capitalism is unable to reverse course – working within its coordinates makes the fight to reduce carbon emissions unwinnable. proposals are under consideration that involve a scale of operation that might well dwarf the star wars defense system.8–6. In other words. to move from a structure of industry and accumulation that has proven to be in the long run (and in many respects in the short run as well) environmentally disastrous. and Will. which mainly has to do with the emission of fossil fuels.org/1001jbf.5–6. Either we radically reduce CO2 and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e. or else survival for the present and future generations is in jeopardy. no matter how urgent it is for life on the planet as a whole that greenhouse gas buildup in the atmosphere be stopped. Clayton . not As scientists warned at Copenhagen. Extinction Cummins and Allen 10 (Ronnie. they now estimate an increase of 1. These will carbon dioxide elsewhere—in the oceans instead of the atmosphere. including agriculture-derived methane and nitrous oxide pollution.0 °C (2. Dir. war. allowing the carbon–based economy to continue as before unchanged. Under this hellish scenario. Ian.5 °C (1. On top of all of this.8 °F). Rothenbaum. From any rational perspective.7–10. which includes all GHGs. All of them raise major environmental considerations of their own. the earth’s environment will be so radically changed that cataclysmic results will undoubtedly manifest themselves worldwide. Int’l. there will be increased risks to human health. coated with any of the many chemicals that react with carbon dioxide. The use of the ocean as the final destination for the wastes of the human economy was an issue that already concerned Rachel Carson in the 1950s and ‘60s. – Organic Consumers Association.6 degree Fahrenheit rise in global that the carrying capacity of the Earth in 2100 will be reduced to one billion people. and 80-90% by the year 2050. Leading climate scientists such as James Hansen are literally shouting at the top of their lungs that the world needs to reduce emissions by 20-40% as soon as possible. The IPCC Working Group I concluded in its 2001 report that “there is new and strong evidence that most of the warming observed over the last fifty years is attributable to human activities. within just a few generations. emission reductions as a solution to global warming are much less desirable than sci–fi technological solutions that will allow us simply to reroute such waste. October 2001. None of these technologies are remotely practical at present and may never be. as usual and a corresponding 7-8. The solution being proposed via sequestration technology is to dump the excess greenhouse gas emission reductions on a level far more aggressive than what was envisioned by the Kyoto Protocol are now needed to address global warming. But little has been achieved thus far to address this problem.” In place of the IPCC’s earlier estimate of an increase in temperature by 1.” coupled with fleets of ships pulling two–mile–long pipes that will pump chilled. and starvation. serious damage to crops in the tropics and eventually in temperate areas as well.Cap Kritik 84/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab course of the present century.0–3. if we are to avoid climate chaos. The fact that such research is being funded and given serious consideration demonstrates that. both in magnitude and sheer folly. that could pull the gas from the air as it passes by. and loss of both species and genetic diversity. 2-14) The hour is late. the failure of the Kyoto Protocol significantly to address this problem suggests that capitalism is unable to reverse course—that is. damage to ecosystems. Harry. the planet itself. crop failures. billions will die of thirst. “Climate Catastrophe: Surviving the 21st Century”. melting of the polar icecaps. pressurized carbon dioxide deep into the oceans. Amanda.htm) All of the hoped–for carbon capture and sequestration technologies are designed to get around the emissions problem. the biosphere scarcely weighs in the balance. DML. Policy Advisor – Organic Consumers Association. discussed in Discover magazine (August 2001). Research ideas currently receiving government and corporate funding. Yet. Professor of Sociology at University of Oregon. and a disastrous rise in ocean levels.3 °F) in this century. cold. rising sea levels (due to the melting of glaciers) that will submerge islands and delta regions. Ecology Against Capitalism. involve the search for something on the order of a “giant absorbent strip. The emphasis on profits to be obtained from fossil fuel consumption and from a form of development geared to the auto–industrial complex largely overrides longer–term issues associated with global warming—even if this threatens. business temperatures means just CO2) pollutants (currently at 390 parts per million and rising 2 ppm per year) to 350 ppm. Jay. endless wars. As always the most exploited areas of the world and their inhabitants will prove most vulnerable. heat. for the advanced capitalist economies.

1990: 137). . 1995. Epiphenomenal tensions aside. 2005). Rothenbaum. Clayton . 2003: 255). “Foucault’s Legacy: Security. since life becomes the author of its own (un)making. the biopolitical assay of life necessarily portrays a commitment to the supremacy of certain species types: ‘a race that is portrayed as the one true race. they are waged on behalf of the existence of everyone. Ian. When Foucault refers to ‘killing’. 41 no. 2003: 62). While killing does not need to be physically murderous. 4 413-433. expulsion. This takes us to the heart of our concern with biopolitical rationalities. then. degenerate. but also every form of indirect murder: the fact of exposing someone to death. against those who pose a threat to the biological heritage’ (Foucault. quite simply. increasing the risk of death for some people. conditions of life and the survival of a population that believes itself to be better than its enemy. 2003: 61). modern societies reveal a distinct biopolitical aporia (an irresolvable political dilemma) in the sense that making life live – selecting out those ways of life that are fittest by design – inevitably writes into that very script those lives that are retarded. of Leeds (Brad Evans. Harry. Indeed. Jay. 2008).Cap Kritik 85/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Impact – Errthang (Biopower) Biopolitics is the root of racism and genocide – their mindset is the same one that created Auschwitz Evans 10 – Lecturer in the School of Politics and International Studies @ Univ. controlling and administering life. Racism makes this process of elimination possible. a sort of ‘biological danger’. or. the right to put someone to death. and against those who deviate from that norm. dml) Having established that the principal task set for biopolitical practitioners is to sort and adjudicate between the species. 2002). that is not to suggest that we should lose sight of the very real forms of political violence that do take place in the name of species improvement.” Security Dialogue August 23. but allows itself to produce all the more hecatombs and genocides: not by returning to the old law of killing. wasteful and ultimately dangerous to the social order (Bauman. The principle underlying the tactics of battle – that one has to become capable of killing in order to go on living – has become the principle that defines the strategy of states (Foucault. Evidently. 2010 vol. War. . precious space. he is not simply referring to the vicious act of taking another life: ‘When I say “killing”. that is when the capacity to legitimate murderous political actions in all our names and for all our sakes becomes altogether more rational. since it is precisely through the internalization of threat – the constitution of the threat that is now from the dangerous ‘Others’ that exist within – that societies reproduce at the level of life the ontological commitment to secure the subject. and Violence in the 21st Century. Amanda. backward. utilitarian. when the defence of society gives sanction to very real acts of violence that are justified in terms of species necessity. power necessarily concerns itself with those biological threats to human existence (Palladino. . what is at stake here is no mere sovereign affair. 1991). As Deleuze (1999: 76) duly noted. When ‘life itself’ becomes the principal referent for political struggles. it is within those sites that ‘eliminate radically the people that are excluded’ that the DML. Auschwitz arguably represents the most grotesque. At that point law increasingly renounces that symbol of sovereign privilege. Racism thus appears here to be a thoroughly modern phenomenon (Deleuze & Guattari. for political modernity to function one always has to be capable of killing in order to go on living: Wars are no longer waged in the name of a sovereign who must be defended. but on the contrary in the name of race. massacres have become vital. political death. when it becomes the ‘bio-power’ or ‘bio-politics’ of populations. for Agamben. racial problems occupy a ‘permanent presence’ within the political order (Foucault. 2003: 256). which it now treats not as the juridical enemy of the old sovereign but as a toxic or infectious agent. rejection and so on’ (Foucault. I obviously do not mean simply murder as such. since everybody is now possibly dangerous and nobody can be exempt. That is to say. shameful and hence meaningful example of necessary killing – the violence that is sanctioned in the name of species necessity (see Agamben. it is indeed life that emerges as the new object of power. calculated. for it is only through the discourse and practice of racial (dis)qualification that one is capable of introducing ‘a break in the domain of life that is under power’s control: the break between what must live and what must die’ (Foucault. the race that holds power and is entitled to define the norm. since one of the most ‘essential characteristics’ of modern biopolitics is to constantly ‘redefine the threshold in life that distinguishes and separates what is inside from what is outside’. hence altogether more frightening: When a diagram of power abandons the model of sovereignty in favour of a disciplinary model. entire populations are mobilized for the purpose of wholesale slaughter in the name of life necessity. when notions of security are invoked in order to preserve the destiny of a species. Biopolitically speaking.

sovereignty as the ability to declare a state of juridical exception – has certainly gained widespread academic currency in recent times. in terms of understanding violence they are limited. use of torture. The camp can therefore be seen to be the defining paradigm of the modern insomuch as it is a ‘space in which power confronts nothing other than pure biological life without any mediation’ (Agamben. has been awash with works that have tried to theorize the ‘exceptional times’ in which we live (see. and so forth). Guantánamo Bay. Clayton . 1995: 171). for instance. While some of the tactics deployed in the ‘Global War on Terror’ have undoubtedly lent credibility to these approaches. 2007). DML. Precluding any critical evaluation of the contemporary forms of violence that take place within the remit of humanitarian discourses and practices. Rothenbaum. with post-interventionary forms of violence no longer appearing to be any cause for concern. 2007. Devetak. the invasion of Iraq. Ian. Violence is only rendered problematic here when it is associated with some act of unmitigated geopolitical excess (e. there is a categorical failure to address how necessary violence continues to be an essential feature of the liberal encounter. The field of international relations. Hence. 1995: 179). Jay. Harry. While lacking Agamben’s intellectual sophistry.g. such a Schmittean-inspired approach to violence – that is. in particular. Amanda. Kaldor. the nature of the racial imperative that underwrites the violence of contemporary liberal occupations is removed from the analytical arena. This is unfortunate.Cap Kritik 86/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab biopolitical racial imperative is exposed in its most brutal form (Agamben.

it will fail and lead to war Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter.24 It is a discomforting fact that both China and the United States are now actively developing their own versions of “full spectrum dominance. known as “space debris” or “space junk. But on February 10. But success is not guaranteed. Such a project could well be made a future hegemonic project. Satellites are already a means by which territories and investments on Earth are monitored and protected by governments operating on behalf of their economic interests. artificial dust clouds. Harry. compared with another risk stemming from cosmic colonization. no more and no less than attempts at saving capitalism.21 Space colonization brings a number of other manufactured risks. many of these causing potential damage. under current political and social arrangements. Dyes. destroying a faulty U. No 6. professor of medical physics at the University of California. Rothenbaum. the more likely it is that they will be powered by nuclear. Yet. Ian. Current and future forms of outer space humanization are. and Gramsci’s notion of hegemony. and plans are now afoot to launch even more satellites. suitably packaged as a DML. Such ‘fixes’ would offer another promise of staving off capitalism’s tendency towards crisis formation. Galactic wars may therefore be the product of galactic colonialism.” Science and technology.” Now such progress is regularly challenged. designed to drag older satellites out of orbit in order to avoid collisions. Such collisions are estimated at millions or even billions to one. having failed to achieve orbit. Dr. are creating new problems that are unforeseen and extremely difficult to cope with. This and the Cassini example further demonstrate the nature of “manufactured risk. The farther space vehicles penetrate the solar system.” China demonstrated its capabilities in January 2007 by shooting down one of its own defunct satellites.23 Some of the wilder plans for space colonization also entail major risk. dml) This brings us back to our conceptual starting points: Harvey’s notion of ‘spatial fixes’ as solutions to capital’s continuing crises of accumulation. and building nuclear-propelled rockets for missions to Mars. for example. John Gofman. energy. much scientific intervention today stems from the crises stemming from earlier intervention. But the prospect of galactic colonialisms raises the distinct possibility of hostilities in space. rather than solar. Armed conflict has long been a common feature of past colonialisms. This is because the very venture of space colonization brings new risks. such a collision actually happened. Monthly Review Vol 62. one led by a dominant social and economic bloc. A defunct Russian satellite crashed into an American commercial satellite. that there are now around fourteen thousand tracked objects circling around the earth. Clayton . These include proposals for “planetary engineering. But even manufactured risks may be minimal in scope. Amanda. Note. One estimate is that if something had gone wrong while Cassini was still circling the earth. Even whole satellites may collide. Such a scenario was prefigured by the Star Trekscience fiction television series in which the main role of “The Federation” is the protection of capitalist mining colonies. dml) But even if it were desirable.”19 This kind of risk. The fifteenth-century Renaissance and the Enlightenment placed great faith in science as a means of bringing “progress. the U. for example. is readily recognizable in space-humanization progress. between colonizing nations as well as between the colonizers and aboriginal peoples. satellite with a sea-based missile. In February 2008.S. This is outright war. 2009. It is not widely appreciated. The plan is a band-aid solution for the problems of cap Dickens and Ormrod 7 . for which no one agency or individual is usually culpable. that the 1997 Cassini Mission to Saturn’s moons (via Jupiter and Venus) was powered by plutonium. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. as early as 1964.Cap Kritik 87/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab K Turns Case Even if they win space is good in theory.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Whether cosmic socio-spatial fixes are profitable or necessary will depend not only on environmental degradation or social crisis on Earth but on making the resources of outer space into a series of successful primary circuits of capital. generating thousands of pieces of orbiting debris. Furthermore.” whereby the climates of other planets would be changed in such a way as to support life. far from creating Renaissance or Enlightenment-style optimism and certainty. some thirty to forty million deaths could have occurred. or what some social scientists have called “manufactured risk. Berkeley.” Improved tracking systems will increase the number of smaller. Both President Obama and the Russian authorities are now arguing for generating electricity with plutonium in space. a plutonium-powered generator fell to earth. Jay. or rule by consent.22 No plans were in place for such an eventuality.” or making parts of the cosmos more like earth. then argued that there was probably a direct link between that crash and an increase of lung cancer on Earth.S. the success of a galactic colonialism is by no means guaranteed.20 Space junk poses a serious threat to the whole enterprise of space colonization. genetically engineered bacteria. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 158. An arms race in outer space has already started. and the redirecting of sunlight by satellite mirrors are all being advanced as means of “terraforming. November 2010. observable tracked objects to around thirty thousand. Navy demonstrated a similar capability.

Needless to say. Ian.Cap Kritik 88/194 boon to the Earth’s population. At the same time. Harry. poverty and environmental degradation on Earth. there is every possibility that such interventions may make matters even worse. Jay. there is no clear indication that they will resolve the crises of unemployment. Clayton . If the ‘risk society’ thesis is taken seriously. what forms they would take and how successful they would be. Rothenbaum. it 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab is far from clear when and how such fixes will be seriously attempted. Amanda. But how is the development of space made a ‘common sense’ enterprise? DML.

sub-sea cables bring communications to the main seaport or capital city while satellites are still used to make the networks over the remainder of the country.Cap Kritik 89/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab K Turns Case – Satellites The use of satellites in capitalism guarantees the continuation of war and ethnic conflict Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Satellites do remain the favoured medium in circumstances that are hostile to significant military or social interests. British banks with global operations use satellite links to their automated teller machines. Harry. Africa. Twenty years ago satellites were a central part of the global communications network as they bridged continents and allowed ubiquitous coverage of the globe. Jay. But he also uses the term ironically. capital’s switch away from satellites is only partial. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 113-114. to bring communications access to South America. the Far East and zones where civil wars continue to threaten landlines. knowing that it could never be a permanent fix in terms of guaranteed or continuing capital accumulation. DML. Returning for the moment to the economic level. This capital switch has. Still less could it bring a stable cultural and political fix. the ‘fix’ represented by the several thousand satellites surrounding the Earth is unstable for a number of reasons. They are used. allowing branches to communicate with their headquarters where landlines can be readily accessed or interfered with. Fibreoptics has since been further developed and used as a means to transmit signals. resulted in satellites no longer being the only favoured medium for telecommunications transmission. Ian. Rothenbaum. It is not finally fixed because of capital’s own fluctuating commitment to a particular technology. dml) Harvey uses the term ‘spatial fix’ to refer to the flows of capital into new areas for investment. for example. In truth. Similarly. and there are social and political reasons for this. This includes telecommunications via satellite. In parts of Africa subject to civil war. as we have seen. Clayton .*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Amanda.

Harry. Amanda.Cap Kritik 90/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **ALTS** DML. Clayton . Jay. Rothenbaum. Ian.

eventual. say. 1(1).Associate Professor of Ethnic Studies. Rigoberta Menchú in Guatemala or Domitila Barrios de Chungara in Bolivia? I do not pretend to speak for or represent the perspective of these indigenous women. From the structural location of an indigenous woman in the Americas. wage labor. Harry. the concept of capitalism implied in this perspective privileges economic relations over other social relations. Spanish and Portuguese colonization of the Americas. to. 2000). which let accidentally to the so-called discovery and. Accordingly. Clayton . petty-commodity production. Protestant) church. 2) an international division of labor of core and periphery where capital organized labor in the periphery around coerced and authoritarian forms (Wallerstein 1974). The primary motive for this expansion was to find shorter routes to the East. 5) a global gender hierarchy that privileges males over females and European Judeo-Christian patriarchy over other forms of gender relations (Spivak 1988. 6) a sexual hierarchy that privileges heterosexuals over homosexuals and lesbians (it is important to remember that most indigenous peoples in the Americas did not consider sexuality among males a pathological behavior and had no homophobic ideology). what arrived was a more complex world-system than what political-economy paradigms and worldsystem analysis portrait. This was a crucial part of. University of Cal.) are going to coexist and be organized by capital as a source of production of surplus value through the selling of commodities for a profit in the world market. This has led to important problems in the way we conceptualize global capitalism and the “world-system. political-economy paradigms and world-system analysis. Grosfoguel 11 . what we get is a picture in which the origins of the so-called capitalist worldsystem are primarily produced by the inter-imperial competition among European Empires. Amanda. Rothenbaum. have not derived the epistemological and theoretical implications of the epistemic critique coming from subaltern locations in the colonial divide and expressed in academia through ethnic studies and woman studies. the transformation in the relations of production produces a new class structure typical of capitalism as opposed to other social systems and other forms of domination. Berkley (Ramon. Decolonizing Post-Colonial Studies and Paradigms of Political Economy: Transmodernity. Jay. with only a few exceptions. 3) an inter-state system of politico-military organizations controlled by European males and institutionalized in colonial administrations (Wallerstein 1979). Our alternative is to shift our geo and body politics to a point of view outside Eurocentrism. Ian. 2011.Cap Kritik 91/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alternate 1NC Alt Global Colonialism has created the hierarchies and basis for all forms of violence – structural or otherwise – in the modern world. Without denying the importance of the endless accumulation of capital at a world scale and the existence of a particular class structure in global capitalism. They still continue to produce knowledge from the Western man “point zero” god-eye view. Class analysis and economic structural transformations are privileged over other power relations.” What arrived in the Americas was a broader and wider entangled power structure that an economic reductionist perspective of the world-system is unable to account for. TRANSMODERNITY: Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World. Moreover. From this point of view. The following examples can illustrate this point. 4) a global racial/ethnic hierarchy that privileges European people over nonEuropean people (Quijano 1993. the capitalist worldsystem would be primarily an economic system that determine the behavior of the major social actors by the economic logic of making profits as manifested in the extraction of surplus value and the ceaseless accumulation of capital at a worldscale. If we analyze the European colonial expansion from a Eurocentric point of view. I raise the following epistemic question: How would the world-system look like if we moved the locus of enunciation from the European man to an Indigenous women in the Americas. A European/capitalist/military/Christian/patriarchal/white/heterosexual/male arrived in the Americas and established simultaneously in time and space several entangled global hierarchies that for purposes of clarity in this exposition I will list below as if they were separate from each other: 1) a particular global class formation where a diversity of forms of labor (slavery. 8) an epistemic hierarchy that privileges Western knowledge and cosmology over non-Western knowledge and DML. but was not the sole element in. the entangled “package. The first implication of shifting our geopolitics of knowledge is that what arrived in the Americas in the late fifteenth century was not only an economic system of capital and labor for the production of commodities to be sold for a profit in the world market. and Global Coloniality) NAR Globalization studies. Enloe 1990). etc. semi-serfdom. What I attempt to do is to shift the location from which these paradigms are thinking.” These concepts are in need of decolonization and this can only be achieved with a decolonial epistemology that overtly assumes a decolonial geopolitics and body-politics of knowledge as points of departure to a radical critique. 7) a spiritual hierarchy that privileges Christians over non-Christian/non-Western spiritualities institutionalized in the globalization of the Christian (Catholic and later. Decolonial Thinking.

14) an ecological hierarchy where the Western conceptions of “nature” (as an object that is a means towards an end) with its destruction of life (human and nonhuman) is privileged and considered superior over nonWestern conceptions of the “ecology” such as Pachamama.” is a false dilemma. that is. Art Galleries and global art markets. to political organizations. in which subjectivity and the social imaginary is not derivative but constitutive of the structures of the world-system (Grosfoguel 2002). modernity. Taking a step further from Quijano. Ian. However. Rothenbaum. the more authority and respect he/she receives from the community. where the older the person. gender. linguistic and racial forms of domination and exploitation where the racial/ethnic hierarchy of the European/non-European divide transversally reconfigures all of the other global power structures. and institutionalized in the global university system (Mignolo 1995. entangled and constitutive part of the broad entangled “package” called the European modern/colonial capitalist/patriarchal worldsystem (Grosfoguel 2002). sexual. In this conceptualization. epistemology and spirituality were globalized and exported to the rest of the world through the colonial expansion as the hegemonic criteria to racialize. nonWestern people. It is not an accident that the conceptualization of the world-system from decolonial perspectives of the South will question its traditional conceptualizations produced by thinkers from the North. or gender relations. Harry. The “colonial power matrix” is an organizing principle involving exploitation and domination exercized in multiple dimensions of social life. citizenship and democracy were formed in a process of colonial interaction with. an entangled articulation of multiple hierarchies.Cap Kritik 92/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab cosmologies. European Judeo-Christian patriarchy and European notions of sexuality. rights. The same way as the European industrial revolution was achieved on the shoulders of the coerced forms of labor in the periphery. sexuality. but an integral. For example. Amanda. naïve or primitive art where the West is considered superior high art and the nonWest is considered as producers of inferior expressions of art institutionalized in Museums. intersectionality (Crenshaw 1989. and institutions of modernity such as nation-states. 13) an age hierarchy where the Western conception of productive life (ages between 15 and 65 years old) making disposable people above 65 years old are considered superior over non-Western forms of age classification. or a “heterarchy” (Kontopoulos 1993). peasants and agrarian production at the worldscale. or Tao (ecology or cosmos as subject that is an end in itself). What is new in the “coloniality of power” perspective is how the idea of race and racism becomes the organizing principle that structures all of the multiple hierarchies of the world-system (Quijano 1993). in the new colonial power matrix some women (of European origin) have a higher status and access to resources than some men (of non-European origin). Quijano 1991). Following Peruvian Sociologist Aníbal Quijano (1991. Jay. and epistemology are not additive elements to the economic and political structures of the capitalist world-system.S. In the “coloniality of power” approach. while political-economy places the primary determination on economic relations. and households (Quijano 2000). the different forms of labor that are articulated to capitalist accumulation at a world-scale are assigned according to this racial hierarchy. 2000). misleading.” people immediately think that we are talking about the “economy”. economic. 2) The old Marxist paradigm of infrastructure and superstructure is replaced by a historical-heterogeneous structure (Quijano 2000). 1998. structures of knowledge. the new identities. Tawhid. to use U. state institutions. race. 4) Coloniality is not equivalent to colonialism. 12) a media/informational hierarchy where the West has the control over the means of global media production and information technology while the non-West do not have the means to make their points of view enter the global media networks. 15) a spatial hierarchy that privileges the urban over the rural with the consequent destruction of rural communities. laws. It is not derivative from. what comes first. classify and pathologize the rest of the world’s population in a hierarchy of superior and inferior races. Third World Feminist concept. The idea of race organizes the world’s population into a hierarchical order of superior and inferior people that becomes an organizing principle of the international division of labor and of the global patriarchal system. spiritual. Fregoso 2003) of multiple and heterogeneous global hierarchies (“heterarchies”) of sexual. 10) an aesthetic hierarchy of high art vs. We are all encompassed within a capitalist world-system that articulates different forms of labor according to the racial classification of the world’s population (Quijano 2000. 2000. The global gender hierarchy is also affected by race: contrary to preEuropean patriarchies where all women were inferior to all men. 3) The old division between culture and political-economy as expressed in postcolonial studies and political-economy approaches is overcome (Grosfoguel 2002). coercive (or cheap) labor is done by non-European people in the periphery and “free wage labor” in the core. spirituality. a chicken-egg dilemma that obscure s the complexity of the capitalist world-system (Grosfoguel 2002). 5) To call “”the present world-system “capitalist” is. “capitalism” is only one of the multiple entangled constellations of colonial power matrix DML. 11) a pedagogical hierarchy where the Cartesian western forms of pedagogy are considered superior over non-Westerm concepts and practices of pedagogy. Post-colonial studies conceptualize the capitalist world-system as being constituted primarily by culture. The sixteenth century initiates a new global colonial power matrix that by the late nineteenth century came to cover the whole planet. “culture or the economy. This conceptualization has enormous implications that I can only briefly mention here: 1) The old Eurocentric idea that societies develop at the level of the nation-state in terms of a linear evolution of modes of production from pre-capitalist to capitalist is overcome. we could conceptualize the present world-system as a historical-structural heterogeneous totality with a specific power matrix that he calls a “colonial power matrix” (“patrón de poder colonial”). Grosfoguel 2002). or antecedent to. race and racism are not superstructural or instrumental to an overarching logic of capitalist accumulation. 9) a linguistic hierarchy between European languages and non-European languages that privileges communication and knowledge/theoretical production in the former and subalternize the latter as sole producers of folklore or culture but not of knowledge/theory (Mignolo 2000). Coloniality and modernity constitute two sides of a single coin. Given the hegemonic Eurocentric “common sense. This matrix affects all dimensions of social existence such as sexuality. from economic. subjectivity and labor (Quijano 2000). which considers in its rationality the reproduction of life. to say the least. Clayton .” the moment we use the word “capitalism. epistemic. Contrary to the Eurocentric perspective. and domination/exploitation of. I conceptualize the coloniality of power as an entanglement or.. political. authority. they are constitutive of capitalist accumulation at a world-scale.

DML. economic. but not the sole one. Ian. but a civilization that has conquered the world trying to colonially impose the ways of thinking. 6) Accordingly. Harry. Anti-systemic decolonial struggles against the fifteen power hierarchies of the world-system are at the same time a civilization struggle for a new humanism (Fanon 1967) and a new civilization (indigenous’ conception of transformation in different parts of the world). political. 7) The complex multiplicity of power hierarchies at the global scale in the present world-system we inhabit is not just a social or an economic system. epistemic. Given its entanglement with other power relations. pedagogical and racial hierarchies of the “modern/colonial western-centric Christian-centric capitalist/patriarchal world-system. To transform this world-system it is crucial to destroy the historicalstructural heterogenous totality called the “colonial power matrix” of the “worldsystem” with its multiple forms of power hierarchies.” The “coloniality of power” perspective challenges us to think about social change and social transformation in a nonreductionist way. aesthetic. gender. Rothenbaum. linguistic. Jay.Cap Kritik 93/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab of what I called. but I am sure there are more that escaped my conceptualization. Above. to move beyond this system the struggle cannot be just anticapitalist but an anti-systemic decolonial liberation. “Capitalist/Patriarchal Western-centric/Christian-centric Modern/Colonial WorldSystem. Clayton . I outlined a total of 15 global power hierarchies. acting and living to the rest of the peoples in the world.” Capitalism is an important constellation of power. It requires a broader transformation of the sexual. spiritual. at the risk of sounding ridiculous. Anti-systemic decolonization and liberation cannot be reduced to only one dimension of social life such as the economic system (capitalism) like it happened with the twentieth century Marxist left. destroying the capitalist aspects of the world-system would not be enough to destroy the present worldsystem. Amanda.

registered in such notions as war of position and historical bloc. and autonomous governance of the commons. This direction implies a process of democratic globalization that reaches beyond the Westphalian division of humanity into (potentially) warring factions – and well beyond the current state of the world. however. Amanda. the autonomist politics of the Larzac plateau is exemplary. but also by arborescent formations such as new democratic left parties in Europe (Rao 2009 Solty 2008).Cap Kritik 94/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt extensions – Carroll Reject their complicity with capitalism – only unconditional rejection of consumerism can initiate revolts against capitalism that can become truly global Carroll 10 – *founding director of the Social Justice Studies Program at the University of Victoria (William. new media and new communicative struggles. and the problem of welding present to future. and quotidian practices of becoming aware and acting coherently all mark a cathartic shift from protest to generative politics. whose constituents recognize in the intersections of power and oppression an emancipatory collective interest. and a sustainable relation to the earth’ (Magdoff and Foster 2010). welding the present to the future has an indelibly programmatic aspect. and leadership in counter-hegemonic globalization can be expected to emanate from the South. dml) Our point of departure was a meditation on the new. globally and in national and local contexts – or else it will stumble. the autonomy of individuals with an abiding appreciation of the intersecting relations that implicate us in each other’s lives. “Crisis. Williams 2008:156). These politics must be substantially rooted in local and national contexts: local self- empowerment is a requirement of democratic mobilization. reaching from the local to the global. requires more than a cataloguing of what is new. Ian. counter-hegemony: in search of the new. what seems adjacently possible is an ‘institutionalization of multilevel contestation’. to production of sustainable agriculture. a counterhegemonic historical bloc organized around a project of sustainable human development and participatory democracy. toward the adjacent possible. initiatives to reclaim the commons. and including as allies progressive state actors. movements. The movement of movements will walk on both legs. As for the national and transnational. Jay.11 To break from the hegemony of marketplacesociety is to endeavour ‘in the here and now to create in the interstices of the system a new social metabolism rooted in egalitarianism. creating new relations. deployed in the pursuit of movement in the desired direction’ (Unger 2009:xxi. Counter-hegemonic globalization is sustained by the transnational cultural infrastructures and activist networks that shape global civil society. of communications and culture. Yet achieving the global contraction in greenhouse gas emissions and convergence in emissions per capita necessary to avert the worst ecological scenarios will require a strong ethico-political solidarity of North with South –quite DML. both physical and informational. that combines. Harry. community. within an ethicopolitical framework. Globally. where the marketplace society and postmodern fragmentation discussed earlier are most entrenched – where the left’s marginality contributes to a doxic condition of ‘dreamlessness’.” Interface 2:2. dialogical communicative relations. the ‘programmatic imagination’ marks a direction and defines the next steps in taking up that trajectory (Unger 2009:xxi). the intergovernmental organizations developing within the Bolivarian process and what may be an emerging Fifth International inclusive of parties and movements. of new social relations and subjectivities. For such generative politics to take root ‘a synergistic relation between political parties and civil society must be forged in order to ensure that the necessary institutional spaces are created and the capacity for civil society participation is developed’ (M. Counter-hegemony. 168-198. practices and subjectivities both on the cultural terrain of civil society and within/against the state. in ‘virtuous circles’ that strengthen both movements and initiatives by state leaders at the global level (Evans 2008). of collective property. in North America. The emergent themes and practices discussed above help mark a direction: toward a post-capitalist way of life that is broadly eco-socialist. ‘the possible that counts is not the fanciful horizon of possibilities but the adjacent possible: what is accessible with the materials at hand. Rothenbaum. Marking a direction sketches the contours of a counter-hegemonic project – a possible it is the choice of next steps that enables motion. and winning state power is indispensable to transformation at a global level. Transnational networks and campaigns. Indeed. that subordinates the state to an empowered civil society structured around practices of participatory democracy. In practising sustainable consumption in the North. As an instrument of alternative – but transformative politics. These developments portend a global left. when placed in the context of the ecological race against time and the continuing hegemony of consumer capitalism. as Bloch put it 10 – it is unlikely that transformative politics will gain traction until consumerism as a way of life that contains its own selfreproducing end values is rejected by (or becomes unviable for) great numbers of people. combining rhizomic networks and ‘traditional’ trees. The elements of the new I have sketched also illuminate the next steps. This project faces great challenges. In this respect. Clayton . emphasis added). pressure for change may arise most urgently from a growing“environmental proletariat” (Foster 2010: 15) in areas of failing habitability.

Ian. Such a global transition would require that ecological and social revolutions in the South ‘be accompanied by. DML. Amanda. taken in that direction that. the twin exigencies of our time. Jay. the destruction of the planet. and the treadmill of accumulation’ (Foster 2010: 15). What is particularly new in this organic crisis is the entwinement of human survival with democratic socialist construction. steps 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the reverse of what was on display at COP15 in Copenhagen in December 2009. Harry. or inspire. Clayton .Cap Kritik 95/194 nevertheless. and presently a distant possibility. It is. cumulatively. universal revolts against imperialism. might open an exit hatch from capitalism. Rothenbaum.

A powerful coalition of financiers. The first step in this process was simply the recognition that science was a priority. This broad view allowed them to put substantial resources into all areas of study. A citizen could continue their studies as long as they were capable. however. By contrast. Religious prejudices that had long held back rational study were pushed aside. Patents. economically and politically powerful will continue to make themselves even more potent via the humanization of the cosmos. When half of the world’s population is forced to live on less than two dollars a day. and private industry were eliminated. particularly in the areas of Mathematics. Rothenbaum.htm) The ultimate proof of capitalism’s hindrance of science and technology comes not from capitalism.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. The soviet government immediately tore down all the barriers on science that strangle innovation within the capitalist system. Clayton . it was transformed into a leading super-power. Astronomy. doctors and engineers per capita than any other country on Earth in just a few decades? The superiority of the nationalized planned economy and the break from the madness of capitalism is the only explanation. it’s just a question of how we approach it – the aff causes cap but the alt causes genuine society Dickens and Ormrod 7 . trade secrets. How were such advancements possible? How did the Soviet Union go from having a population that was 90% illiterate. A ‘risk society’. Under current social and political arrangements. let alone open up university education to all who are able. they plan to build a marketable product and will only do what is necessary to bring that product to market. Paleck 9 – Former Iowa Democratic nominee for the House of Representatives (Mike.com/capitalism-versus-science. Many Soviet era scientists have been awarded Nobel prizes in various fields. By abolishing private schools and providing free education at all levels. Companies do not plan to advance technology. This process seems destined to be made into a hegemonic project. will be created. third world country that had been ruined by the First World War. The USSR would go on to be the first to put a satellite into orbit. with all its power relations and consequent social injustices. Another vital component of their success was the massive expansion of education. Soviet scientists pushed the frontiers of knowledge. Ian. Harry.Cap Kritik 96/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt solves case Space exploration is inevitable. and the first to build a permanently manned outpost in space. Under capitalism. which prevent large portions of the population from reaching their potential. this time on a cosmic scale. These successes are particularly stunning. its history gives us valuable insight into the potential of a nationalized planned economy. One only has to look at the ban on stem-cell research under the Bush regime DML. Amanda. semi-feudal. individuals in the population were able to meet their potential. Nuclear Physics.marxist. Jay. the ability of private companies to develop science and technology is limited by a narrow view of what is profitable. the first to put a man in space. industrialists. Tragically. such a project also seems likely to make outer space in the image of the Earth itself. even many advanced capitalist countries have been unable to eliminate illiteracy today. massive financial barriers are placed in front of students. dml) It seems clear that society will be made increasingly ‘cosmic’. but from the alternative. Under capitalism. to having more scientists. This allowed for more collaborative research across fields and a free flow of information between institutions. In a matter of decades. The Soviets immediately recognized the importance of the overall development of science and technology and linked it to the development of the country as a whole.8/12/09. If a cosmic society is to genuinely benefit the dispossessed it will have to be organized around radically different priorities. a form of ‘common sense’ with investments into an infinite outer space supposedly bringing great benefits to the whole of society. An alternative hegemonic project will have to be made. when one considers the state the country was in when capitalism was overthrown. http://www. The alt solves space better – technological expansion is held back by commercial profit. Space Exploration and Chemistry. While the Soviet Union under Stalin was far from the ideal socialist society (something which we have explained extensively elsewhere). “Capitalism Versus Science”. we can only conclude that massive reserves of human talent are being wasted. the socially. states and pro-space activists is beginning to make outer space into an extension of Earthly society. In 1917 the Bolsheviks took control of a backwards. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 176.

Today. Nikolai Vavilov. The only thing that stands in our way is capitalism. Every aspect of human development is hindered by the erroneously-named free-market. While the many barriers of capitalism were broken down. What was once impossible. Religious interference locks science in a cage and declares important fields of study off-limits. in some cases new ones were erected as the direction of scientific study was subjugated to the needs and desires of the bureaucracy. is now understood. The advancement of scientific knowledge will one day put even the farthest reaches of the universe at our fingertips. including Agol. This is madness. Under a democratically planned economy. 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab But it wasn’t all good news under Stalinism. Amanda. Jay. Private companies refuse to let new technologies out of their back rooms. one of the Soviet Union’s great geneticists was sent to a labour camp. where he died in 1943. What was once a mystery. but hinders it at every step. humanity stands at the doorstep of a bright future of scientific advancement and prosperity. DML. A lack of resources for education and research keep doors closed to young aspiring minds. there would be no reason for such atrocities. We are learning more and more about every aspect of our existence. The chains of the free- market prevent meaningful research from being done. Science is being held back by private interests and industry. Clayton . Potential cures for deadly diseases are tossed aside to clear the way for research into the latest drug to cure erectile dysfunction. Humanity today is being held back by an economic system designed to enslave the majority for the benefit of a minority. These crimes were not crimes of socialism. In the most extreme cases.Cap Kritik 97/194 to see the negative effects religious bigotry can have on science. Levit and Nadson were executed. is now in plain sight. the internet and new technologies. What was once veiled. With the development of computers. This ban wasn’t overturned until the mid 1960s. it is the task of those interested in science and socialism to learn the lessons of history. One of the most outrageous cases was Stalin’s contempt for chromosomal genetics. it also hindered certain areas of study. Ian. Just as the bureaucracy hindered the development of the economy. Rothenbaum. is now tangible. Harry. certain fields of study were outlawed entirely and leading scientists were arrested and sent to labour camps in Siberia. The study of genetics was banned and several prominent geneticists. but of Stalinism. Private collectors hold unique and important specimens for their own personal amusement. Capitalism does not drive innovation.

Harry. Amanda.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. DML. Social and political alliances can be. They are the product of recent times and can certainly undergo change in a more socially progressive direction. Contemporary forms of subjectivity which are alienated from the cosmos and dreaming about being part of it are not inevitable. Moreover.Cap Kritik 98/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Critique Merely the act of critique alone points out the flaws in space capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 . This is what Roy Bhaskar (1986) refers to as an explanatory critique: the deliberate undermining of the false beliefs created by society based on social power and coercion. but extend this order indefinitely into the cosmos. But an explanatory critique hopefully also shows that there is nothing inevitable about this process. and are being. The science of outer space is now being deployed to humanize the cosmos in ways that not only reproduce the social order. Clayton . forged against this particular form of humanization. Jay. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 189. it exposes the ways in which these mechanisms are used by the powerful as a means of enhancing their authority over the rest of society. New types of common sense can be constructed. Rothenbaum. An explanatory critique exposes the causal mechanisms and elements that underlie the complexity of the social life and of the universe. Ian. dml) In this book we have aimed to go even further towards revealing ‘the worm in the apple’ of space humanization: outlining the capital processes which underpin it and in the process stripping away some of the hegemonic assumptions that serve to obscure them.

the humanization of outer space could emphasize collective responsibilities on Earth and try to ensure that any gains made through space exploration were spread throughout to improve the lot of the dispossessed on Earth (as was the original aim of the United Nations Moon Agreement). So long as it is not motivated by fear and panic. rather than being founded on the interests of capital. Earth imaging technology available freely to all can be used to track refugee populations. In theory. Amanda. To quote Etzioni. Rothenbaum. this is not incompatible with scientific exploration of outer space aimed at simply discovering how the universe is structured. DML. Ian.Cap Kritik 99/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Floating PIC Alt doesn’t preclude the plan but it’s a prerequisite to solving the link Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Jay. ‘space for peace’ could also include diverting risk stemming from Earth-bound asteroids: a plan under active development by NASA and the European Space Agency (Gray 2007). Harry. so long as funds are not diverted from more socially necessary projects. dml) Alternatively.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 190. ‘As we move deeper into space we should be facing Earth and allow our deprived world to set the pace’ (1964: 198). Clayton . or chart changes in the environment caused by global warming. and individualist fantasies.

Beck 1992). for example. Ian. Amanda. The new social movements are constituted by groups often removed not just from industrial production but from its values and priorities. The bond that unifies these heterogenous groups is the critique of growth’ (1981: 33). But they are addressing themselves to the question of how counter-hegemony can be formed at a time when ‘the ruling class’ seems to be on the wane. these authors oppose any notion of general or ‘universal’ propositions such as the working class or class struggle being the principal generator of social change. ethnic. economic growth and scientific rationality (see also. or who are more seriously affected by them. Habermas argued a quarter of a century ago that new social movement conflicts are carried on between those involved in production. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 180-181. Harry. These struggles are widely seen as composed of heterogeneous actors who do not represent a particular social stratum with identifiable interests. these theorists believed that when human material needs were satisfied they would turn their attention to ‘higher’ cultural goals. locality or even. Rothenbaum. other theorists have attempted to retain an emphasis on fundamental antagonisms at the heart of the social order. the environment and sexuality. anti-authoritarian. In this respect. anti-institutional. They have some of the characteristics ascribed to real – that is. and with interests in maintaining it in its current state. This has been heralded by some theorists as a radical new era of post-material (Inglehart 1981) or post-emancipatory (Giddens 1991) politics. ecological. this latter group deliberately and consistently challenges modern concepts of progress. The diversity of people’s material positions is emphasized here. two of the most influential political writers on global politics in recent years have been Laclau and Mouffe (2001). most disturbing of all. Jay. Clayton . Laclau and Mouffe urge us to only look around to observe what they call ‘the new antagonisms’. turning their attention to issues such as peace. gender. Often. feminist. social movements which define themselves without reference to class are a category puzzle. (Scott 1995: 3) Here Scott is describing the problem traditional Marxists have had in explaining the constituency of new social movements. this has meant explaining away new social movement identities as forms of false consciousness. The common denominator of all of them would be their differentiation from workers’ struggles. even to the extent of denying links between political identity and the material world. albeit with a less direct connection to class interests. Influenced by Michel Foucault and ‘poststructuralist’ thought. In addition. neither fish nor fowl. dml) Marxist theories are generally found wanting in the era of the new social movements. (Laclau and Mouffe 2001: 159) Whereas Laclau and Mouffe respond to the emergence of new social movements by removing material struggles from their analysis.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. DML.Cap Kritik 100/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Movements/Link – K aff Class struggles must come first – any other issue can’t solve the root cause of their struggles Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Laclau and Mouffe agree that Gramsci offered major insights into the role of ideology and ‘common sense’ as a means of holding society together. They agree that forms of consciousness and identity nowadays no longer stem primarily from the factory or the sphere of production. Like many other writers on contemporary social protest. regional or that of sexual minorities. The unsatisfactory term ‘new social movements’ groups together a series of highly diverse struggles: urban. class – movements (for example mass mobilization) but they appeal to ‘illusory collective identities such as nation. considered as ‘class’ struggles. and those who are not and who are therefore ‘more sensitive to the self-destructive consequences of the growth in complexity. as he notes. to abstractions such as “the public” or “humanity” ’. As a number of authors other than Habermas argue. The supposed separation from material politics by the new movements has inspired ‘postMarxist’ developments in social movement theory. racist. As Scott writes: At least in the conventional Marxist analysis. Mirroring the psychologist Maslow’s (1971) ‘hierarchy of needs’. prosperity. new social movements initially appear unconcerned with material politics at all.

It is a force that the dominant social bloc must overcome if it is to remain intact. Ian. This is conceived by these authors as a great mass of people subordinated to global capital and global power. DML. ‘The multitude’ is the new counter-hegemonic force that will overthrow the existing social order. Luxemburg and many others earlier believed was capable of creating its own hegemonic worldview and overthrowing the social order. the diversity of the multitude is its very strength. Organizing themselves like capital itself. Lenin. Harry. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 181-182. despite its many deprivations. a ‘global elite’ still represents the interests of financial and corporate capital and. Amanda. But resistance is now coming from what Hardt and Negri call ‘the multitude’. power throughout the whole of global society. the multitude is coming to represent a powerful counter-force resisting and eventually overcoming capitalist imperialism. Rothenbaum. Hardt and Negri argue that resistance is no longer forged in the factory. ‘The multitude’ in this picture is therefore envisaged as the modern version of the international proletariat which Marx.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. especially those who have suffered from capital investment. Like Laclau and Mouffe. Clayton . Jay. dml) On the one hand. exercises and Negri argue that. particularly via electronic networks and channels of information flows. privatization and commodification disrupting their lives.Cap Kritik 101/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Multitude Endorsing the multitude would help break down capitalism Dickens and Ormrod 7 . It is the product of the new social and technological era. Hardt working with political leaders.

These are the intellectuals ‘organic’ to the subordinated or subaltern classes. Here the prospects for resistance and the making of new kinds of coalition between dominant and subordinate groups are more promising. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 186-187.Cap Kritik 102/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – Organic Intellectuals Embracing the organic intellectual is key to catalyze class struggles Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Ian. Amanda. Clayton . They are again the people using their abilities and knowledge towards emancipating oppressed people. creating new trends in consumption. themselves low on economic capital. They are also people with high levels of cultural capital such as teachers and workers in the public sector. often including more ascetic tastes and resistances to consumerism (Savage et al. These are the main ‘intellectuals’ of the present day. DML. Jay. Harry. dml) A third set of intellectuals in Gramsci’s scheme is that attached to the resisters themselves. 1992). ‘cultural leaders’. In Gramsci’s time and to an extent in our day they would include people attached to the labour movement and to trade unions. Rothenbaum. They are more likely to endorse projects not wholly devoted to further capital accumulation. may find useful alliances with them.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. but subordinate orders. They have a vested interest in their elite status.

Ian. Is a cosmos reproducing and expanding a socialist or communist society necessarily a problem? Perhaps the significance of the utopian cosmists is that they prefigured the possibility of alternative types of space humanization. can be criticized for simply imposing humanity’s priorities. humanization cosmists by spreading a could attempt to emulate the early twentieth-century Russian socialist or communist society throughout the whole of nearby outer space. as such. and much more ambitiously. DML. But any project is going to be ‘human’ or ‘anthropocentric’.Cap Kritik 103/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Alt – SPACE COMMUNISM ALT TEXT – PUT COMMUNISM IN SPACE Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 190. Jay. Harry. albeit communist priorities.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. dml) Alternatively. Clayton . This is a highly human-centred project and. Rothenbaum. on the cosmos as a whole. Amanda.

Rothenbaum. Harry. Amanda. Ian. Jay. Clayton .Cap Kritik 104/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **ANSWERS TO** DML.

Rothenbaum. as and when elements of nearby outer space are legally subdivided and exploited by different private or state interests. Clayton . at least. dml) But this new form of imperialism is not quite ‘accumulation by dispossession’ in the classic sense outlined by Harvey and. At the moment. given the contradictions and increasingly evident social and environmental crises of Earthly society.Cap Kritik 105/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – No space cap war Even if there’s no harms right now – domination and war will happen Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Ian. Jay. Amanda. such imperialism also opens up the possibility of wars between those powers gaining access to the Moon or other nearby parts of the cosmos. Luxemburg and Lenin. of course. Earthly sociopolitical coalitions and environmental degradation into the cosmos. But the fact remains that this fourth stage of imperialism may in the long term simply reproduce Earthly conflicts. DML. this precludes public and private investments in probably more worthwhile projects on Earth. This form of imperialism and capital expansion may seem particularly attractive to ruling elites. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 179-180. cosmic imperialism is not directly dispossessing anybody of anything. Furthermore. before him.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. There are no people or societies out there protesting or rising up against this latest stage of domination and capital accumulation. Harry. But.

Rothenbaum. DML. Amanda. Jay. Ian.Cap Kritik 106/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Space grants freedom Freedom is bad! Dickens and Ormrod 7 . not only does the language of freedom sustain neo-liberal capitalism. Again. but it also legitimizes the wants of its subjects.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. with its emphasis on the individual and delight at the survival of the fittest. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 166. dml) These arguments about freedom are ultimately intricately related to the need of pro-space activists to re-experience total power centred around the self. Harry. Clayton .

Conversely. Amanda. culture and contingency in human social life. In this way human society is not limited to one ‘ecological niche’ but can expand and grow to other niches. the history of the world is largely understood as the history of exploration. Rothenbaum. The argument that curiosity and exploration are an adaptive survival trait for the human species is well-rehearsed. ‘common sense’ perceptions about human nature and human behaviour. Ian. Some prospace activists frame their discussion of human nature directly in relation to Dawkins’ sociobiological arguments. It is easy to see how to these people exploration would appear to be human nature. Gene-based biology used to justify further space exploration and the increasing humanization of the universe is an excellent case in point. in line with our critical realist standpoint as outlined in Chapter 1. is reduced to the biological level (Pinker 1997. Biology is clearly important but it is overlaid or ‘over-determined’ by social relations and social processes of many kinds (Dickens 2000). when resources become scarce. to fight the exploration and development of space is to fight against human nature. Columbus. for example. Sahlins 1972. their relations to their environment and their development during their lifetimes goes largely missing from the sociobiology enterprise (Dickens 2000). Society. The familiarity of these tales precludes the telling of alternative stories. Sociologists and social anthropologists tend not be persuaded by this discipline because it disregards the importance of agency. Lewontin 1993).*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. many of which have become popular reading in the movement. Rose and Rose 2000). Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 171-172. For many pro-space activists. One of the key points about a critical realism is that it points to the way in which certain kinds of science are used to ideological and political ends. To pro-space activists growing up in contemporary America. biology should be seen as offering important insights into the causal powers underlying the growth and development of humans and other species. Much of the foundation for the argument that it is in humanity’s nature to explore comes from grossly selective extrapolations from historical evidence. sociobiology forces sociology to recognize the biological foundations of human behaviour and development. dml) Sociobiological arguments often reflect broadly accepted. including psychic structure. On the other hand. Jay. even hegemonic. Clayton . and has been discussed by Dawkins himself (1998). meaning. It has characterized the whole of human history. But these combine with other causal powers operating within society to generate biological development and forms of subjectivity. An intense focus on genes means that the interaction between organisms as a whole. It is believed that. outer space represents the next ‘ecological niche’ for mankind. this being a positive attribute. DML. For some time now there have been extensive criticisms of sociobiology (see. Harry. To explore and develop space for them is to act according to human nature. some or all humans are pre-programmed to explore their surroundings for more resources.Cap Kritik 107/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Biology=exploration This is capitalist and wrong and evil and dumb Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Lewis and Clarke and Neil Armstrong are all examples of idols worshipped by the Western culture of exploration and imperialism. the Pilgrim Fathers. Indeed.

it shows how seemingly universal and apolitical values (for example ‘peace’) are articulated by a movement with other concepts and priorities central to the discourse. ‘individualism’.Cap Kritik 108/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Realism Realism isn’t the root cause of war – realist discourse is Dickens and Ormrod 7 . especially when ‘cornered’. we should note that many of the values held by pro-space activists are precisely those now informing Earthly ‘accumulation by dispossession’. the discourses of social movements can change over time. Expansion into outer space is as likely to undermine peace as to bring it about. nonWestern societies are being invaded in the cause of ‘freedom’. underlying causes of war. ‘economic growth’ and. First. Lorenz 1966). At the time of writing. this is another argument unpopular with sociologists and political scientists. Second. will fight to survive. like other animals. Ian. as we have tried to argue in Chapter 2. Rothenbaum. These.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Framing the problem in this way leads to a prognosis in which opening up outer space combined with individual freedom. Finally. DML. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 172-173. These arguments stem from human ethology. The argument rests on an assertion that wars are the product of people competing for limited resources and that humans will inevitably fight for survival under such circumstances. Harry. A more critical analyst would examine the way that this argument diverts attention from the real. dml) This argument exemplifies two points. Perhaps needless to say. Social relations have again gone largely missing. more space and increased resources will lead to social harmony. revolve around power and private property. An emphasis on the importance of space for peace on Earth has really come to prominence post 9/11. ‘peace’. Clayton . Humans. Amanda. most paradoxically of all. Jay. one of the precursors to sociobiology and also unpopular with sociologists (Ardrey 1967.

Rothenbaum.Cap Kritik 109/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Cap Resilient Organic intellectuals are capable of resisting the decentralized and normalizing efforts of hegemonic. there is a danger that space technology itself disseminates a hegemonic worldview that legitimizes as inevitable the endless expansion of imperial capitalism into space. They have been outspoken against the militarization of space. and have flagged up issues including the creation of space debris and the socio-environmental consequences of opening up space to capital. though it remains to be seen whether the US influence will continue to dominate proceedings in an era in which blocs of power in other countries such as China and India emerge as major stakeholders in outer space. demonstrate the awareness that activists have that issues about outer space are the result and continuation of the dynamic of a global neo-liberal capitalist economy. such as the Yorkshire CND in England. Social movements like the Global Network could mount such ethical opposition to the humanization of space that investment might.*Peter. Harry. As mentioned above. however. pg 72. the monopoly that the Western world is developing over outer space. but also against the use of nuclear power in space. 7 DML. third world governments have also contested. Amanda. Jay. albeit to date unsuccessfully. There is always the danger. for a while at least. be halted. Clayton . that these resistances will be blown out of the water by those social alliances attempting to retain power. IWren) Resistances to military enterprises and to what Harvey calls ‘accumulation by dispossession’ may well be multiple. however. There is evidence that this movement is gaining in numbers and becoming increasingly militant. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. Organic intellectuals within popular culture and activist organizations will certainly have a key role to play if this is to be resisted. The links they have built with other organizations associated with the political left. University of Essex and **James. The United Nations’ role in dictating the shape of the humanization of space looks to become increasingly central. capitalist views toward space propagated by the media and military Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Culture and the media have a key role to play in dulling or awakening popular consciousness about these issues. As we have already argued. Ian. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe.

PhD in geography from Cambridge (“Organizing for the Anti-Capitalist Transition”. The result is ever greater uncertainty about all kinds of short-term decision-making. Why not then simply raise prices? Because there are limits beyond which one cannot push their level. The remedies recommended vary considerably.com/articles/2011/01/02/unconventional_wisdom?page=0. http://www. Amanda. For a while now. the system proceeds by its accepted rules. upturns always occur after downturns. There are the personnel expenses of all kinds -.for unskilled workers. Director of The Center for Place. When their processes move too far from equilibrium. and nuclear proliferation. The problem is that the basic costs of all production have risen remarkably. Together. http://globalization. environmental degradation. Doubt feeds on itself as we search for ways out of the menacing uncertainty posed by terrorism. The real action. but the idea that the system shall continue in its essential features is a deeply rooted faith. Ian. Clayton . But it is wrong. We meet at G20 sessions and seek a futile consensus. and lower living standards Harvey 10 . climate change. not whether it should survive. All this activity simply accentuates the structural crisis. Rothenbaum. The last bubble will be state indebtednesses. What we are witnessing as a result is chaotic fluctuations of all kinds -. there has been a significant increase in taxation of all kinds.for detoxification. and more and more guarantees of lifetime income. it merely exposed it as hollow. political. It is wrenching to accept that the historical system in which we are living is in structural crisis and will not survive. The result is a growing profit squeeze. for top-level management. Jay. And the democratization of the world has led to demands for more and more education. There are the costs incurred as producers pass on the costs of their production to the rest of us -. as well as frantic realignments of every variety. All systems have lives. IWren) The historical geography of capitalist development is at a key inflexion point in which the geographical configurations of power are rapidly shifting at the very moment when the temporal dynamic is facing very serious constraints. To meet these demands. politicians. has been in existence for some 500 years and has for at least a century encompassed the entire globe. dml) Virtually everyone everywhere-economists.economic. We "develop" our economies in whatever way we can. These fluctuations cannot easily be controlled by public policy. sociocultural. Culture and Politics.pdf. pandemics. The fundamental political struggle is over what kind of system will replace capitalism. what I call a capitalist worldeconomy.Cap Kritik 110/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Cap Sustainable Transition is inevitable – the underpinnings of capitalism are collapsing Wallerstein 11 – *senior research scholar at Yale (Immanuel. it has moved steadily further and further from equilibrium. Harry. But like all systems. We speculate on the markets. Distinguished Professor at the City University of New York (CUNY).foreignpolicy.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2011/04/OrganizingtheAnti. The choice is between a new system that replicates some of the present system's essential features of hierarchy and polarization and one that is relatively democratic and egalitarian. for renewal of resources. The extraordinary expansion of the world-economy in the postwar years (more or less 1945 to 1970) has been followed by a long period of economic stagnation in which the basic source of gain has been rank speculation sustained by successive indebtednesses.” January-February 2011. more and more health provisions. The latest financial crisis didn't bring down this system. Three percent compound growth (generally considered the minimum satisfactory growth rate for a healthy capitalist economy) is becoming less and less feasible to sustain without resort to all manner of fictions (such as those that have characterized asset markets and financial affairs over the last two decades).David. they fluctuate chaotically and bifurcate. Our recent "difficulties" are merely the next-to-last bubble in a process of boom and bust the world-system has been undergoing since around 1970. is elsewhere. There are good reasons to DML. It is called the elasticity of demand. Talk given at the World Social Forum 2010.or refuse to recognize -. pundits -. Now or Ever. which is reaching a point where the game is not worth the candle. After all.gc.cuny. it has moved too far from equilibrium.9. for infrastructure. “The Global Economy Won’t Recover. poverty. for cadres. Most people do not recognize -. the struggle over what new system will be created. It has functioned remarkably well.these realities. Cap unsustainable in the long term—propping it up in the short term leads to military repression.agrees that the world has been in some kind of economic trouble since at least 2008. including in the so-called emerging economies. these costs have risen beyond the point that permits serious capital accumulation. The only sure thing is that the present system cannot continue. Meanwhile. such that it is today in structural crisis. leading to bankruptcies. And virtually everyone seems to believe that in the next few years the world will somehow "recover" from these difficulties. Our existing system.

and to suffer environmental degradations galore to say nothing of serial reductions in their living standards which means starvation for many of those already struggling to survive at rock bottom. The result has been global wage repressions (a declining share of wages in total GDP almost everywhere) and the creation of an even vaster disposable labor reserve living under marginal conditions. to surrender many of their rights and their hard-won asset values (in everything from housing to pension rights). Rothenbaum. The difficulties were in part resolved by creation of fictitious markets where speculation in asset values could take off unhindered. political and geopolitical and environmental difficulties? Again. These conditions varied considerably. Crises are moments of paradox and possibilities. (f) Compensating for anemic rates of return in production by the construction of whole series of asset market bubbles. instituting labor-saving technological changes and heightening competition. Real problems of finding adequate outlets for surplus capital began to emerge after 1980. then there is no alternative to socialism or communism. opening the way towards the beginnings of a hegemonic shift of power particularly but not exclusively towards East Asia. Surplus capital and surplus labor exist side-by side with seemingly no way to put them back together in the midst of immense human suffering and unmet needs. At some point quantitative changes lead to qualitative shifts and we need to take seriously the idea that we may be at exactly such an inflexion point in the history of capitalism.” But the mass of the people will have to surrender the fruits of their labour to those in power. All manner of localized possibilities arise for either nascent capitalists in some new space to seize opportunities to challenge older class and territorial hegemonies (as when Silicon Valley replaced Detroit from the mid-1970s onwards in the United States) or for radical movements to challenge the reproduction of an already destabilized class power. even with the opening up of China and the collapse of the Soviet Bloc. therefore. The system that has been created amounts to a veritable form of communism for the capitalist class. to be in the forefront of current debate. the interests of the people had to be sacrificed (as became standard practice in IMF structural adjustments programs from the early 1980s onwards). while some 17 per cent of the workforce were either unemployed. police violence and militarized state control to stifle unrest. These steps included: (a) the successful assault upon organized labor and its political institutions while mobilizing global labor surpluses. What could be more irrational than that! Can capitalism survive the present trauma? Yes. The current crisis originated in the steps taken to resolve the crisis of the 1970s. (b) undermining previous structures of monopoly power and displacing the previous stage of (nation state) monopoly capitalism by opening up capitalism to far fiercer international competition. The state (local and national) also became increasingly committed to providing a “good business climate” to attract investments in a highly competitive environment. The current crisis offers a window of opportunity to reflect on what might be involved. All of that may require more than a little political repression. all of which had a Ponzi character. What spaces are left in the global economy for new spatial fixes for capital surplus absorption? China and the ex-Soviet bloc have already been integrated. Africa is not yet fully integrated but there is nowhere else with the capacity to absorb all this surplus capital. The ideology rested upon the idea that free markets. culminating in the property bubble that burst in 2007-8. corporate and household) to its limits (particularly in the USA and the UK but also in many other countries from Latvia to Dubai). DML. To say that the capitalist class and capitalism can survive is not to say that they are predestined to do so nor does it say that their future character is given. then this means finding new and profitable global investment opportunities for $1.” It must now take up the task of defining how another socialism or communism is possible and how the transition to these alternatives are to be accomplished. the political and cultural traditions and how the balance of political-economic power was shifting. If that is to be done in an equitable way. then uncertainties as to outcomes are heightened at times of crisis. the other potential barriers of effective demand in the market place. the World Social Forum became the center for articulating the theme “another world is possible. of technologies and of geographical/ geopolitical distributions are likely to be profound. depending upon what part of the world one inhabited.42 trillion needed in 1973 (the dollar figures are inflation adjusted). Harry. In midsummer of 2009. What new lines of production can be opened up to absorb growth? There may be no effective long-run capitalist solutions (apart from reversion to fictitious capital manipulations) to this crisis of capitalism. These asset bubbles drew upon finance capital and were facilitated by extensive financial innovations such as derivatives and collateralized debt obligations. (e) The augmentation of otherwise sagging effective demand by pushing the debt economy (governmental.6 trillion in 2010 rising to closer to $3 trillion by 2030. one third of the capital equipment in the United States stood idle. Since much of this is unpredictable and since the spaces of the global economy are so variable. of course. Since the late 1990s. personal initiative and entrepreneurialism were the best guarantors of individual liberty and freedom and that the “nanny state” should be dismantled for the benefit of all. free trade. enforced part-timers or “discouraged” workers. Jay. Ian. Where will all this investment go now? Leaving aside the undisputable constraints in the relation to nature (with global warming of paramount importance). social. So how can the left negotiate the dynamics of this crisis? At times of crisis. The corollary was to enhance the profitability of financial corporations and to find new ways to globalize and supposedly absorb risks through the creation of fictitious capital markets.15 trillion new investment needed in 1950 and the $0. that no serious active oppositions to continuous capital accumulation and further consolidation of class power materialize. (c) utilizing and empowering the most fluid and highly mobile form of capital – money capital – to reallocate capital resources globally (eventually through electronic markets) thus sparking deindustrialization in traditional core regions and new forms of (ultra-oppressive) industrialization and natural resource and agricultural raw material extractions in emergent markets. (d) At the other end of the social scale. The new rounds of primitive accumulation against indigenous and peasant populations were augmented by asset losses of the lower classes in the core economies (as witnessed by the sub-prime housing market in the US which foisted a huge asset loss particularly upon African American populations). The interests of the people were secondary to the interests of capital and in the event of a conflict between them. The political forces that coalesced and mobilized behind these transitions had a distinctive class character and clothed themselves in the vestments of a distinctive ideology called neoliberal. which is unlikely. the answer is a resounding “yes. Clayton . the irrationality of capitalism becomes plain for all to see. Can the capitalist class reproduce its power in the face of the raft of economic. even supposing. South and SouthEast Asia is filling up fast. Class inequalities will increase (as we already see happening). Amanda. Questioning the future of capitalism itself as an adequate social system ought. this meant heightened reliance on “accumulation by dispossession” as a means to augment capitalist class power. thus introducing (beginning with the Mexican and developing countries debt crisis of 1982) “moral hazard” big time into the financial system. the class relations prevailing there. But at what cost? This question masks another. This contrasts with the $0. But the practice entailed that the state must stand behind the integrity of financial institutions. So what will happen this time around? If we are to get back to three percent growth. Intensifying global competition translated into lower non-financial corporate profits. Uneven geographical development and inter-territorial competition became key features in capitalist development.Cap Kritik 111/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab believe that there is no alternative to a new global order of governance that will eventually have to manage the transition to a zero growth economy.

195. There is another contradiction that O’Connor (1996). Had they stayed in their own ecosystem. sustainable development based on long distance trade will not be environmentally sustainable. One of the ways Marx theorized that capitalism brings about environmental destruction is by creating a metabolic rift in the relations between humans and nature. Capitalism is unsustainable. Castro 4 . The scale of ecological destruction is larger under capitalism than under previous modes of production.org/en/articles/2008/global-financial-crisis-shows-inherent-instability-of-capitalism) NAR DML. it is the social movements that force the state to intervene in the market in ways that do not directly benefit capital (a fact that is conveniently forgotten in mainstream approaches). matter could have been recycled. December 08. and the communal conditions (which include space and social environment). 2008. Jay. provoking the struggle of social movements to force capital to internalize this destruction. Applying this concept to the soil. which is carried by trade far beyond the bounds of a single country” (p. (p. (p.pdf) NAR There are many contradictions in the capitalist system. soil. for many people. http://www. and there is a degree of substitutability between nature and human-made capital. http://zonecours. have understood that environmental conservation and capital accumulation are contradictory goals. Harry. which presided at the height of the sustainable development ideology and whose environmental record is uneven. “Sustainable Development: Mainstream and Critical Perspectives”. Rothenbaum. and creating this metabolic rift (Foster. but two of them will concern us here. The conditions of production are the “external physical conditions” (forests. and because it is in contradiction with environmental sustainability. science and technology can produce some of these conditions. and water quality). Clayton .Instructor of sociology at Clark College (Clark. friend and foe alike. the capitalist system faces periodical crisis. which ten years ago was thought to mark a decisive change in the human relation to the environment. the capitalist state intervenes partly in response to such movement pressure and partly to save capital from undermining its own capacity for capital accumulation. As is clear from this list.SustainableDevelopment%28castro%29.hec. has come to be seen as such a colossal failure? The answer is that it was undermined by global capital both from within and without. According to O’Connor. As a result of this contradiction. The leaders of the world have not been able to fulfill the agreements signed 10 years ago at the Earth Summit for this reason as well. it seems impossible to achieve sustainability and economic growth at the same time.ca/documents/A2010-1-2411184. which is oriented towards the most immediate monetary profit—stands in contradiction to agriculture. In O’Connor’s account. There is the contradiction between the productive forces and the relations of production. labor power (which includes training and degree of socialization).Cap Kritik 112/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Capitalism has an inherent contradiction between economic growth and environmental capacity – collapse is inevitable. 1999. air. capitalism has a contradiction between the production relations and the conditions of production. In the case of the environmental crisis. sending them to other places. With the introduction of trade to distant places and the concentration of population in cities. as in most Marxist accounts.) Capital uses and destroys these conditions of production. How can it be that the Rio Earth Summit. which manifests itself as the contradiction between production and the realization of value and surplus value. Marx (1981) himself argued that capitalism was not environmentally sustainable: But the way that the cultivation of particular crops depends on fluctuations in market prices and the constant changes in cultivation with these price fluctuations— the entire spirit of capitalist production. Organization Environment 2004. taking them away from the places they had evolved. 3) Capital accumulation is the most important feature of the capitalist system.” and that capitalism squanders “the vitality of the soil.tokyofoundation. with the exception perhaps of the Clinton administration. 754) This contradiction between capitalism and environmental sustainability expressed so clearly by Marx in the quote above is the central tenet of environmental Marxism. Amanda. Marx (1981) said that the social metabolism is “prescribed by the natural laws of life itself. the dominant ideology of the capitalist system sees the same contradiction. 17. Global Financial Crisis Shows Inherent Instability of Capitalism. Under this assumption. Ian. at least. Iwai 8 – Phd in Economics (Katsuhito. but capitalism has universal tendencies and makes this rift universal. This metabolic rift may have existed and exists in other noncapitalist societies. which has to concern itself with the whole gamut of permanent conditions of life required by the chain of human generations. The energy requirement for this distant trade is greater than that required by the local communities. As Foster (2003) said. But of course. 949). even when based on market levels. All American administrations. one of the most prominent ecological Marxists. the conditions of production are not produced by capital but by nature and society.10 has called the second contradiction. 2000). capital moves energy and matter from one place to another. (In mainstream approaches of sustainable development.

it is "wilful ignorance of what markets need" that is the problem. To hold money is. Consider carmakers. but at the same time it has the potential of causing great instability. The moral and intellectual failures of the capitalist class and its political apologists are not mere personal defects. The subprime loans that set off the crisis are extremely risky loans to people with low creditworthiness. are the cause and not merely one effect of the present crisis of capitalism. Ian. But when the subprime loans whose risks were concealed therein went bad. The awful and unbearable truth for capitalism's cheerleaders is that the crash of the western financial system is merely a symptom of the more profound collapse of capitalism currently under way. the purest form of speculation.the capitalist classes' assault on workers as "costs of production" . and faithfully manifest in the present situation. however. But bundling many such loans together and securitizing them made the risks seem diluted. Here again we see the workings of bootstrap logic: Everybody trusted the products as safe merely because everybody believed everybody else trusted them as safe. Harry. The Herald. elites and their apologists blame its leaders and financial experts for their "incompetence". "Capitalism itself is the cause of the worldwide economic crisis". they argue. we can see that money has two faces: It brings greater efficiency. They came to be seen as being like the money in which people place supreme trust. expanding markets. Rather than study real class relations . Amanda. it is not irrational to buy or sell more and move the price further up or down. and trust in it is based on circular. Rothenbaum. In this light. including markets for stocks. In a capitalist economy supported by money. are irrational and will promptly fall by the wayside. may be severely shaken. claim that speculation leads to stability. the key currency of the international monetary system. They build automobiles not for themselves but in the expectation that others will buy them to ride in. 2009. "greed" and individual defects. cowed labour and undue influence over state instruments have wrought the inevitable crisis of capital well known to students of Karl Marx. for example. This bootstrap logic of money also underlies the present financial crisis. the one described clearly in the classic formulation of Marx more DML. They buy and sell based not on their forecasts of long-term demand/supply conditions but on their observations of each other’s movements and readings of each other’s intentions. Milton Friedman and his followers in mainstream economics. bootstrap logic: Everybody uses money as money merely because everybody believes everybody else uses it as money. The more fundamental reason I believe that capitalism as a whole is speculative and inherently unstable is that the money on which it is based is itself speculative. the risks became invisible from the surface. rather than examine the causes and consequences of the generation of enormous. they began to be considered readily convertible to cash and other safe assets. leading to speculative bubbles and panics.Cap Kritik 113/194 Why is capitalism 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab unstable? Because it is fundamentally based on speculation. While holding no brief for the likes of Sir Fred Goodwin. This is the essence of the current financial crisis. Money has made the economy much more efficient by making it possible to conduct transactions without the trouble of exchanging on a barter basis. It is professional investors and investment funds that dominate the markets and compete with each other. Lexis) YOUR editorial ("What banks owe us: fairness and honesty". The instability of money as a purely speculative construct—a problem that has been concealed up to now—may come to the surface henceforth in the form of the crisis in the key currency. Because the risk of default on such loans is so high. April 4) reflects the current misconception that finance capital. Cap collapse inevitable – laundry list The Herald 9 (Don Ferguson. in other words. There is an element of speculation in this process.it is the abstract "market" populated by imaginary "rational" capitalists that is cited. and as a result of further bundling with numerous other financial instruments into big packages that were then dispersed around the globe. Rather than critique the power and influence of the capitalist class over the state. this will cause markets to be stable. As the financial products created in this way were traded more and more steadily among numerous parties. the activity in financial markets. A major difference between this and the Asian currency crisis and other financial crises that preceded it is that the value of the US dollar. unemployable surplus capital and profit. To avoid a critique of the capitalist system. with the people who accept it expecting that yet other people will accept it in turn. Clayton . Nor is there any understanding of how soaring profits. it is self-serving and erroneous to ignore the fact that the failed policies of political and economic leaders have their foundation in the very operation of capitalism itself. But. bonds. Thus. is of entirely different nature. Only the rational investors who buy low and sell high will survive. Jay. cheap credit. it is impossible for efficiency and stability to coexist as claimed by the neoclassical economists. I do not have space to discuss this problem here. Those investors who buy high and sell low. "failure of leadership" is blamed. trust in all financial products toppled like a row of dominoes. People are willing to hold it only because they expect other people to accept it in exchange for something else. But money has no intrinsic value. a single subprime loan by itself is unattractive as a financial product. When a price is expected to rise or fall. however. foreign currency and their derivatives. and casino banking. What they assert may apply to an idyllic market where investors mediate between producers and consumers.

along with its moral authority to govern in our name DML. wrong. Loss of confidence is an effect. As we move towards the end of the beginning. Clayton . Rothenbaum. Ian. of its fundamental connection with the public. The excesses of the past will be moderated and capitalism will change to fit the new circumstances. leading to crisis. Harry. its cause is the failure of the specific mechanisms of profit creation. This is an opportune time to modify our political system as it has run out of control. in the words of one arch-apologist: "You ain't seen nothin' yet.and transparent . Your conclusion that "the lesson is that what has been lacking is confidence. Democracy has lost much. REGARDLESS of the outcome of the present economic crisis. 3 Downfield Gardens. The link is more than coincidental.remuneration is an essential component" is. That can be restored by a new banking order in which fair ." Dr John O'Dowd. if not all. Bothwell. it is clear the system that created it will not be allowed to return.Cap Kritik 114/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab than 150 years ago. Jay. That cannot be repaired within the present paradigm. much in the way of the economic system. Amanda. I believe.

it is seemingly impossible to reconcile a growing global economy with a good likelihood of limiting global temperature rise to 2C. even with the most optimistic likely uptake of low-carbon energy. It's called cancer and tends to kill its host. We are on the cusp of several others. from birth until around six weeks old. chair of the Financial Services Authority and the Committee on Climate Change. you would be looking after a very hungry nine billion-tonne pet hamster. a hamster doubles its weight each week. 3C or even 4C characterisation of dangerous climate change. productive farmland. DML.Cap Kritik 115/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Growth Good Infinite growth will inevitably destroy itself – not focusing on expansion will allow more stable labor sources.uk/commentisfree/cif-green/2010/jan/25/uk-growthenergy-resources-boundaries) To avoid collapse the economy has to operate within thresholds that do not critically undermine the things that we depend on on a daily basis. Simms 10 – Policy director at new economics foundation (Andrew.1/25/10. like a sufficiently stable climate. If. it didn't stop and continued doubling each week. Rothenbaum. There is of course one thing in nature that grows uncontrollably. “Growth is good … isn't it?”. Both the desirability and possibility of never ending growth goes unquestioned in mainstream economics. Adair Turner. The New Economics Foundation study looks at by how much growth would need to be delinked from fossil fuels – the so-called carbon intensity of the economy – to reach the mark of climate safety suggested by Nasa climate scientist James Hansen. you may be inadvertently celebrating our acceleration toward an ecological cliff edge and an opportunity missed to find a new. On climate change. Amanda. Ian. the economist Herman Daly points out that full employment could be easier to achieve in an economy not addicted to growth because it would reverse "the historical trend of replacing labour with machines and inanimate energy". on its first birthday. to avoid dangerous climate change the fall in carbon intensity would need to improve by more than two hundredfold. The very contrary is the truth. fresh water and a healthy diversity of plants and animals. They're often interconnected. For example. because the world would be a very strange place if the same was applied in nature. Clayton . better direction. The other problem is the counter-intuitive rebound effect spotted by William Stanley Jevons in 1865 when he wrote. Jay. a new piece of research by the New Economics Foundation thinktank looks at which rates of global economic growth are compatible with prevention of a dangerous level of warming. In this context. The economic doctrine of growth collides headlong with the laws of physics and thermodynamics. So when those growth figures come out. Having improved steadily in the late last century. Other work by Professor Kevin Anderson of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research at Manchester University concludes that: "Economic growth in the OECD cannot be reconciled with a 2C. So. refers to the pursuit of growth for its own sake as a "false god". three of which had already been transgressed (climate change. if you find yourself cheering a return to growth. It shows that. Writing in the science journal Nature last year. It's odd." The problem is that growth drowns out the gains from increased efficiency and technological innovation. the agreed political objective of the European Union. biodiversity and the nitrogen cycle to do with farming).co. and widely considered the maximum rise to which humanity can adapt without serious difficulty. "carbon intensity" changes flatlined over the last decade and even worsened in some years. Harry. let's hope the government scans the results for what they really mean. Only so much energy efficiency can be squeezed from a system. "It is a confusion of ideas to suppose that the economical use of fuel is equivalent to diminished consumption. Against this trend. For example. http://www. a multidisciplinary group of scientists identified nine key safe-use planetary resource boundaries.guardian." Increased efficiency tends to lower costs and perversely drives up overall resource use. this week.

dml) The pro-space movement often links growth with freedom. but pro-space activists seem blind to this possibility. Jay. DML. Clayton . Historically.Cap Kritik 116/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Growth/Cap kt Freedom Nope! Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Ian. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 167. Rothenbaum. Amanda. growth and expansion has often had devastating effects on the freedoms of many groups of people. But it does not recognize that freedom is actually experienced by only some members of humanity as a result of growth.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Harry.

. but how best to prevent the weaponization of space. and not along the radical axis of two of the three world-views. Chief Negotiator at the Geneva Defense and Space Talks (Everett C.** Director of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization.ndu. Clayton . that space exploration and exploitation have been artificially stunted from what might have been.Cap Kritik 117/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Space cap good Capitalist ideologies will moot resource gains in space – aff can’t claim root cause claims. is to add the third point of a theoretical triangle in an arena where it had been missing. Amanda. Dolman and Cooper 11 – Professor of Comparative Military Studies at the School of Advanced Air and Space Studies at the Air University. so as to center the debate on a true midpoint of beliefs.edu/press/space-Ch19.. Accordingly.2 Hence. Jay. the realist view has been set aside (at least rhetorically) as states jockey for international space leadership. There has been little room for the view that state interest persists as the prime motivator in international relations. but how to ensure the spoils of space are nonappropriable and distributed fairly to all. then. in most academic and policy debates. Those who even question the blanket prohibitions on weapons or market forces in space exploration are ostracized. 2011. To actually advocate weaponization in space brings full condemnation. not whether space should be developed commercially. Rothenbaum. DML. http://www. It is for these reasons. or that state-based capitalist exploitation of outer space would more efficiently reap and distribute any riches found there. “Increasing the Military Uses of Space”. Our intent here. the debate has not been whether space should be weaponized. Ian. we insist here and in several other venues.html) Still. Harry. Henry F. a timely injection of realist thought may be precisely what is needed to jolt space exploration from its post-Apollo sluggishness.

covering countries as far apart as India. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 121. dml) Sociologists should not construct themselves as detached intellectuals. panopticism is also being extended to the monitoring of more exceptional threats to the social order. have a strong regional or local basis. very diverse. Resistance takes two forms – global and local – the alt is a local solution that must be kept separate from the global form of the plan in order to avoid cooption Dickens and Ormrod 7 . stopping by state authorities in many parts of the world. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 148. however. As Eyerman and Jamison (1998) argue. is typically of a more ‘expressive’ or emotional kind. Psychoanalytic theory could certainly provide additional insights into the workings of this expressive dimension of movement activity. if necessary. though the ways in which the unconscious is implicated must be the subject of further research. Resistance at the global level tends to have what Eschel and Stammers call an ‘instrumental’ form. Struggles and coalitions are typically organized at both the regional and the global scales. Africa and Latin America. Their concerns should be with revealing the suffering that results from social processes that serve the interests of those in power. more scientific argument. with local struggles informing those at the global scale and vice versa. the new social movements are made via loose-knit global and local networks.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. including programmes by the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. dml) Perhaps surprisingly for such a universal movement. If we win a link it means the perm fails – have to start with a critical standpoint Dickens and Ormrod 7 . with people articulating who they are. Resistance by trade unions may have been weakened or sidelined by the programme of ‘accumulation by dispossession’ but new. As Castells (2000a) describes. such as the field of DML. dml) Finally.1). is widespread. All these developments require monitoring and. music can have an important role in this (Box C. but should make their political commitments clear. Rothenbaum. Resistance to such developments can again. Members of the Yorkshire CND have been conducting weekly protests (see Yorkshire CND 2007). these two scales interact. There is a distinct danger that some fledgling projects to explore the relationship between society and the universe. Furthermore. There is most definitely an affective bridge between GN activists on a global as well as a local scale. Even leading activists in the Global Network have been subjected to surveillance in recent years. one with its own counter-hegemonic values and which regularly turns up at meetings of the World Trade Organization. kinds of struggle are now a regular feature of contemporary society. Institutions for global surveillance and defence such as the Echelon surveillance system and the so-called ‘star wars’ US missile defence system depend on interceptor missiles and tracking devices located in different regions throughout the globe. The rapidly growing antiglobalization movement. A programme of local events constitute the Global Network’s annual ‘Keep Space for Peace’ week. Certainly the movement to keep space for peace has engaged with international political arguments about the legality and desirability of legislation relating to outer space militarization. Amanda. Clayton . global surveillance. what they care about and why they are challenging the institutions of power. Ian. The interests of the movement are pursued by any possible means and particularly via rational. Jay. Resistance to privatization and commodification. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 183-184. requires regular. Harry.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James.Cap Kritik 118/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Perm Permutation gets coopted – the panoptic nature of space control shuts out possibilities for resistance Dickens and Ormrod 7 . therefore. the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space is a good example of how new social movements operate on local and global levels (Eschle and Stammers 2004). with the internet having a central role to play in making the links between the different scales. Resistance at the local level.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James.

"We create our own DML. The ethos of business and military blend into each other in the doctrine of perpetual war. despite its rhetoric of reason and law. and complete. do 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab little but reproduce hegemonic common sense about the benefits of space exploration and development (Ormrod 2005). always hope for resistance. for to the Prometheans. Space is the unifying concept in the expansion of the state territorially into the heavens and internally into the psyche. the Promethean state articulates the demigod. Ian. as scanners that probe mechanically. something that prevents those alternative social relationships from forming.1 (2006) 133-169. however. that operates through fear. Entrepreneurship presents itself less as a necessity of capitalism than as a spiritual ideal of initiative and strife. That this should happen is generally considered common Outer spatial fixes are part of a hegemonic solution to the world’s problems. Space technology itself plays a central role in disseminating a hegemonic Western culture in which a possessive individualism is promoted. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. a hierarchy in which business elites. as spy software that reads keystroke to keystroke the random fluctuations of inner space. with probing the outermost and the innermost. There is. hierarchy is the reality. Capitalism expands into outer space as a result of its inherent contradictions. capital being drawn from the primary circuit and invested in more speculative projects that extend the system in time and space through the secondary and tertiary circuits. Amanda. Although astrosociology may draw public attention to under-researched issues. that appears to its citizens as invisible satellite eyes in outer space. regressed cultures. as robot sensors. It is also behind the definition of everything outside the state as a lack needing to be remedied or filled. technocrats. Invisible. Property rights are central to this process as capitalism attempts a series of outer spatial fixes. populations present themselves as recalcitrant flesh to be disciplined and spiritualized through strife. the concept of space becomes central to the Promethean ideology. Their policies will always be tainted by militaristic global capitalism killing value to life. it will offer nothing if it does not do so critically. whether in the heavens or on earth. Rather than try to figure alternative social relationships. Into these gaps. Clayton . control remains anonymous and invisible. Sensing its own robot impunity and limitless expansiveness. as gaps in order. virtuous. It is articulated through the ethos of competition and the survival of the fittest. and their ideologues control the masses with the wand of propaganda (Laughland 2003).Cap Kritik 119/194 ‘astrosociology’ being developed by Jim Pass (2004). pg 77-78. it becomes inevitable. Through fear. Rothenbaum. the state inserts its rationality through the stealthy monitoring of a robotic technology. which represents the elimination of the human. Rajiva 6 – Masters in Economics. it arrives at that dangerous [End Page 161] solipsism. IWren) Taken together. In this fascination with collapsing the boundaries of spirit and body. Development and exploration of space is an uncritically capitalistic project that seeks quick fixes to structural problems. the Promethean betrays itself as romantic in its aesthetic. the state prefers a control that leaves no marks. the extension of the current socio-economic system into space is supported uncritically. necessarily precluding the exploration of alternative possibilities. University of Essex and **James. and for the moment it is to organic intellectuals within the Global Network and similar organizations that we must look for critical new visions of our relationship with the universe. the maintenance of distance between the elites and the masses. “Prometheus The Emergence of the Police State in America “) NAR Indeed. with dynamism and flux. reflected in such statements as. Doctoral work in international relations and political philosophy (Lila. as failed states.*Peter. Thus. In so expressing rationality without the inconvenience of undisciplined flesh. Harry. A war not merely to fatten defense budgets but to deplete the civilian. The New Centennial Review 6. Under the rhetoric of democracy and egalitarianism. our two theoretical starting points lead us to argue first that the humanization of outer space is a product of economic and social crisis and second that such humanization is a means of reasserting hegemonic authority. to act with impunity. Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Jay. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology.

This put the legal estate on the defensive. space exploration was local. external constraints become not merely ineffective but irrelevant. Jay. as much for the scientific culture in orbit as for the legal culture on the ground. Who controls space controls the world. At the same time. The recent “spatial turn in critical thinking”132 in the law and elsewhere should help us to appreciate that outer space was also a thoroughly politicized and socially constructed realm. As the Soviet and (Barton. Ian.Cap Kritik 120/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab reality. “ space” was a topic. and a new force for the construction of the future. Ludwig Teller attested to this construction of space in the New York Law Forum:Space is no longer an ordinary word of the English language. DML. space exploration helped establish science as a center of political and normative authority.com/documents/n-beebe. and challenged the traditional prerogatives of law’s empire itself. Amanda. Harry. Clayton .pdf) Leon Lipson was reportedly fond of saying that “ ‘space is a place. not a topic. outer space was also a metaphor for the profound challenges that this future presented to the status of legal knowledge. The scientific frontier in outer space promoted in the popular imagination on Earth an alternative language of command.www. space functioned primarily as a metaphor for the future.133Indeed. Yet outer space was more than just a geographical concept in the 1960s. and for the scientific worldview—be it capitalist or communist—that would dominate that future." In a world thus fashioned and driven from within. it opened up a new geography. Beebe 99 – Professor at NYU School of Law Spatialis”. a new standard of authority and competence. Rothenbaum. As the Sputnik crisis suggests. “Law’s Empire and the Final Frontier: Legalizing the Future in the Early Corpus Juris American culture industries of the time knew all too well. the geography of the future.1999. Perm can’t solve – plan isn’t compatible with the alt. It has taken on a secondary meaning identified with the science and technology of astronautics and expressive of the awesome responsibilities which missiles and satellites and flight beyond the earth’s atmosphere and into the mysterious reaches of outer regions have imposed upon us.’”131 Lipson’s remark may be understood as part of his attempt to reign in some of the especially fantastic ideations that characterized early space law.bartonbeebe. To the extent that it was a metaphor for the scientific future. that seemed intelligible only to scientific knowledge. By the unparalleled force of its technological spectacles.

For Lerner. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. University of Essex and **James. thought. Clayton . I will argue that the dominant social totality is based on inequality— not just inequality of power but inequality of economic access (which then determines access to health care. This epoch has had its own cosmic elite of not only scientists but also engineers. offer a guideline for praxis. The result of de-centring Earth through science. according to Sohn-Rethel. Sohn-Rethel’s argument is that ‘abstract’. Contrary to what Lerner implies during most of the book. It is a break alleviating a lot of the problems of the division of labour by relying on artisan and serf knowledge available to all.*Peter. Methodology must come first in order to solve cap Tumino 1 – *Professor of English at Pittsburgh (Stephen. and its employment actively sustains capital Dickens and Ormrod 7 . Red Critique. therefore. represents a break from the truly abstract philosophy of Plato. However. But first I must clarify what I mean by Orthodox Marxism. Galileo. Rothenbaum. The argument is that the existence of this abstract system justifies the existence of an elite of scientists capable of studying the system untainted by the practical knowledge of the worker. The scientific cosmological elite of today is still maintained by others’ labour. He goes on to argue. first say what I regard to be the distinguishing marks of Orthodox Marxism and then outline a short polemical map of contestation over Orthodox Marxism within the Marxist theories now. First. “What is Orthodox Marxism and Why it Matters Now More than Ever”. the very theoretical identity of Orthodox Marxism is itself contested—not just from non-and anti-Marxists who question the very "real" (by which they mean the "practical" as under free-market criteria) existence of any kind of Marxism now but. He points to parallels between Galileo’s law of inertial motion and the abstraction of the commodity exchange. its production is contingent on a specific separation of labor that privileges a small scientific and military elite. like the empiricists Copernicus and Brahe before him. the development of modern capitalism led to the sixteenth. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. perhaps more tellingly. scientific. p. knowledge first arose as part of the exchange relationship in what he calls ‘societies of appropriation’ or capitalist societies based on a high division of labour. DML. which operates independently of the needs and uses which the seller or buyer has in mind. pg 31-32. only Orthodox Marxism has been able to produce an integrated knowledge of the existing social totality and provide lines of praxis that will lead to building a society free from necessity. one might say ‘objective’. for Davidson. The latter. alienated from the exchange process.: 4). from within the Marxist tradition itself. based on such an interrelated knowledge. remains Earth-centred (as in Tycho Brahe’s model). Alfred SohnRethel (1975) and Frankel (2003) have argued that this more scientific mode of relating to the universe merely intensified rather than alleviated the alienation of the masses from the universe. The development of capital in two distinct epochs has led to corresponding developments in epistemology. IWren) It should be noted that. in which s/he comes to see his/her product in terms of an abstract exchange value. They are given ‘the freedom to abandon the constraints of the “ordinary” world’ (Ferguson 1990: 1). is the creation of ‘a cold mechanical world’ (ibid. I will argue that to know contemporary society—and to be able to act on such knowledge—one has to first of all know what makes the existing social totality. Lerner does not draw out a full criticism of the relationship between capital and cosmology that replaced it. Jay. Second. housing. that the abstract form of scientific knowledge was instrumental in legitimizing the division of mental and manual labour in modern capitalism.Cap Kritik 121/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Framework The affirmative’s knowledge is not value-neutral. Davidson argues. Ian. and possibly future capitalist exploitation of space resources) has not been an age of equality or celebration of the knowledge of the manual worker. education. Like all other modes and forms of political theory. Postone (1996) has argued similarly that ‘abstraction’ in general is central to capitalist societies. I will. Sohn-Rethel sees Galileo as representing a distinct break from his predecessors in instituting a new form of abstracted knowledge that severely heightens the mental/manual division of labour. online) Any effective political theory will have to do at least two things: it will have to offer an integrated understanding of social practices and. Davidson (1985) is also extremely critical of the development of objective scientific approaches to the universe that distance knowledge from people’s everyday experience of the universe. contrary to Lerner’s (1991) argument. and the military and the governments and corporations that control them. Harry. colonial capitalism based initially on practical knowledge of navigation (now satellites. My main argument here is that among all contesting social theories now. The person producing a commodity is. Amanda. the introduction of coinage in Ancient Greece led to Greek philosophy and mathematics. There are important differences between Sohn-Rethel’s account and Lerner’s. I will end by arguing for its effectivity in bringing about a new society based not on human rights but on freedom from necessity.and seventeenth-century scientific revolutions. as Marx described. This purely abstract system of thought represented in the form of money (‘a crude approximation of the underlying principle’) leads to abstract. and this forms a major focus of his and Lerner’s thesis. diet.

. yet also a politics." or "radical democracy. to develop alternative media. They accept a sunny capitalism—a capitalism beyond capitalism.” Interface 2:2. Ralph Nader. feminism. Jesse Jackson. and to foster more literate and critical readers of media texts. capitalism is here to stay and the best that can be done is to make its cruelties more tolerable. race. disability. . based on cultural equality but economic inequality. Only Orthodox Marxism recognizes the historicity of labor and its primacy as the source of all human wealth. . queeries. ethnicity. . 168-198. Here. As a political emergent. In a media-saturated world.. the extent to which movements take up democratic communication as a general interest is a measure their catharsis from fractured subalternities (with their characteristic foci upon single issues and narrow constituencies) to an ethicopolitical collective will. The question of autonomy Autonomy from old-left parties and unions. These are all secondary contradictions and are all determined by the fundamental contradiction of capitalism which is inscribed in the relation of capital and labor. All modes of Marxism now explain social inequalities primarily on the basis of these secondary contradictions and in doing so—and this is my main argument—legitimate capitalism. The politics of media democratization is necessarily multi-frontal and intersectional. . . . Such a society. has always been the not-sohidden agenda of the bourgeois left—whether it has been called "new left. the new includes a mediatized politics of everyday life. “Crisis. inequality in media access. both locally and translocally. focused upon state and capital. race. the centralization of power in media corporations. Clayton . Debate is the critical site of contestation against capitalism Carroll 10 – *founding director of the Social Justice Studies Program at the University of Victoria (William. . . This 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab systematic inequality cannot be explained by gender. as in proliferation of alternative media (often via the internet. Communicative democracy comprises a social vision in which the voices of citizens and communities carry into a vibrant and diverse public sphere. For all. Ian. Harry. capitalist organization of communication creates a multifaceted democratic deficit. ) to. Butler. was cited by NSM theorists of the 1970s and 1980s as a criterial attribute of the emergent movements of late modernity. a place where strategies might converge across issue areas and movement identities (Hackett and Carroll. Media now comprise a vast field of cultural struggle. Haraway. . This humanization (not eradication) of capitalism is the sole goal of ALL contemporary lefts (marxism. When we look at media activism ‘on the ground’ we find many of the rudiments of counter-hegemonic politics. wealth is produced by the human mind and is thus free from the actual objective conditions that shape the historical relations of labor and capital. Rothenbaum. That is. In pursuing this social vision on several fronts including those of state. . The formation of organic intellectuals is substantially caught up in this struggle to break the dominant class’s monopoly within the intellectual field (Thomas 2009: 418-19). All progressive-democratic movements have an stake in these struggles. In Jean Cohen’s (1985) classic. sexuality. counter-hegemony: in search of the new. the undermining of communities through commodification. The world of the early 21st century is densely networked by virtue of an unprecedented apparatus of communications.Cap Kritik 122/194 transportation. Jay. Harvey. homogenization of media content. and rather Americanized treatment. and from overweening regulatory states. ). Downing 2001 ). Activists see the struggle to democratize communication as a multi-frontal war of position that needs to be waged in conjunction with other movements." This is. media activism underlines the importance to counterhegemony of reclaiming or creating the means and forms of communication necessary for subaltern groups to find their voices and to organize. media democrats build a new nexus among movements. Amanda. discrimination and thus accept economic inequality as an integral part of human societies. ) to daily politics (Michael Harrington. ). movements. anti-racism. ‘Media activism’ can be read as a critical response that takes different forms depending on location in the media field. . these DML. evident for instance in the failure of mainstream media to create a democratic public sphere. more humane. . by the way. that presses for limits upon corporate power and for an opening of access to the means of communication (Hackett and Carroll 2006). the main reason for its popularity in the culture industry—from the academy (Jameson. Atton 2009) and the diffusion of culture jamming and other practices of media literacy. Why? Because such arguments authorize capitalism without gender. In this paper I argue that any emancipatory theory has to be founded on recognition of the priority of Marx's labor theory of value and not repeat the technological determinism of corporate theory ("knowledge work") that masquerades as social theory. corporate media and lifeworld.." "postmarxism. or nationality. to democratize media workplaces and labour processes. Such an understanding of social inequality is based on the fundamental understanding that the source of wealth is human knowledge and not human labor. 2006. dml) Mediatization and the struggle to democratize communication Many of the issues at stake in the politics surrounding the form and content of communications media comprise a special instance of the struggle to reclaim the commons. Media democrats struggle to limit corporate power and commercial logic. which has opened new possibilities both for bourgeois hegemony and for oppositional politics. and the corporate enclosure of knowledge.

’ 6 As a sensibility that holds both visionary and strategic implications. we can consider the work of Kenneth Gergen (1995) and his proposal that all knowing arises in the social processes of language use and meaning-making. other roles and associated activities. Bacchi. January 2011. Here. should not be seen as an accurate portrayal of some DML. Mark Purcell.’ these activists resist the hegemony of global market society ‘by cultivating themselves as “autonomous” political subjects and organizing a movement considered to be an “autonomous” counter-power’ (G. defining autonomy as the ability of workers to define their own interests and to struggle for them – to go beyond mere reaction to exploitation. discursive practices involved in the production. policy can no longer be simply said to be understood and applied. who introduced the notion of autonomist Marxism into English-language academia in the 1970s (Cleaver 2001. Jay.5 Becoming aware is both an ongoing aspect of autonomous self-development and a movement-building praxis instantiated in a range of pedagogical activities – forums. ‘the world is not a commodity. The key question is how autonomy and other emergent features of activism might figure in a counter-hegemonic historical bloc. for example ‘professional’ and. then. drawing on Laclau and Mouffe (1985). in the wake of neoliberalism’s global triumph and in the midst of its global crisis. This view acknowledges the parts played by history and culture in determining specific ways of viewing the world whilst illuminating how understanding is dependent upon prevailing social and economic arguments (after Burr. Famous since their dismantling of a McDonald’s restaurant in 1999 and for the slogan. Rothenbaum. and many others in mind. Harry Cleaver.” Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education. as a manifestation of knowledge. Autonomy informs aspects of contemporary counter-hegemonic politics at the level of everyday life. but they move together and lean into one another. predicated it on an agency-centred analysis of the working class. Alternatively. William 2008: 63). such a view shifts our relationship with policy from a means by which the individual might comprehend the significance of the policy statement in terms of truth to an understanding that the language used within the policy statements itself actively constructs the world to which it pertains. Amanda. prefiguration is grounded in a moral imperative to ‘become aware’ and to act ‘coherently’ (2008:72) by living the ideals to which one aspires. Although activists can never be fully autonomous from the forms of power to which they are subject. it has become fashionable to describe policy in terms of discourse. 2000) policy as discourse does provide grounds for further consideration of the interplay between policy creation and response.Cap Kritik 123/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab movements were viewed as practitioners of a ‘self-limiting’ identity politics that rejected largescale projects. suggests that relations between elements of such a formation be conceptualized in terms of equivalence. ‘a concept that evokes relations of simultaneous interdependence and autonomy. 2003). distribution and consumption of policy. information evenings and media actions – designed to provoke public debate and to persuade people join the cause (G. 32: 1. Clayton . autonomy has roots not only in NSM theory. unbiased observations. Wright 2008:113). Ian. but in historical materialism. or to self defined ‘leadership’ and to take the offensive in ways that shape the class struggle and define the future (Cleaver 1993). the appeal of self-limiting politics is embarrassingly limited. This has meant not only maintaining independence from political parties and functioning in a ‘bottom-up’ or ‘horizontal’ manner but cultivating in themselves and others an autonomy that partly frees them from neoliberal ideology and the power of consumer society. Yet autonomy remains a lasting legacy of the so-called NSMs. as shown in Gwyn Williams’s (2008) ethnography of alterglobalization activism in the Larzac plateau of southern France. indeed. Policy. Analysis of discourse must precede analysis of policy – it’s key to understand both how policies are formulated and how to accurately respond to them without error replication – discourse necessarily shapes the ways policies are viewed and thought of meaning they are tied to what they said in the 1AC Adams 11 – *Lecturer in Education and Program Director. rather than construe policy as the accurate expression of dispassionate. Whilst by no means an agreed field (cf. “From ‘ritual’ to ‘mindfulness’: policy and pedagogic positioning. Centre for Educational Studies. sameness and difference’ (2009: 301). Williams 2008:72-3). Univ. Here. This stylization was never unproblematic as an empirical account. obligation and freedom. Put another way. of Hull (Paul. The movements and interests that comprise the bloc do not dissolve completely into it. Accordingly. unity and multiplicity. As a challenge to the view that policy. the struggle for autonomy is a crucial element in challenging hegemony and in bringing into existence what Gramsci (1971: 327) called a ‘new conception of the world … which manifests itself in action. dml) With such concerns. and wider social practices which delineate. this perspective construes policy as a representation of the interplay between the policy text (the material embodiment of the policy document and associated forms). Gergen’s view invites us to consider policy as having a ‘performative’ function and that that presented is neither a true representation of reality nor an accurate reflection of intent. 57-69. and several decades later. Harry. arises either in the individual or in the natural world.

Rothenbaum. [and] . In this regard. On this matter. but also about who can speak. 36). as Hastings (1998. (2000. ‘as much a way of knowing and a way of acting strategically as a form of description’ (Edelman. Jay. discourse presents a variety of representations from which action might be chosen: Discourses are about what can be said. the differential power of some actors’ (Bacchi. Second. . and on some groups rather than others as effected or constituted in discourse. DML. those who are deemed to ‘hold’ power are portrayed as the ones making discourse. this ‘highlights the instrumentality of the process of problem construction not only to successful policy making. culture and economics through which ‘problems’ to be solved are identified determine not only the mechanisms by which ‘reality’ might be understood but also the very ‘problems’ themselves. 2006. The lenses offered by history. Discourses embody the meaning and use of propositions and words. . policy as social construction. human agency occurs through the deployment of the subject’s exercise of choice from the discourses available. where and with what authority. as well as associated roles and identities. Amanda. 49). 2006. economic and social specificity. Third. and thought. but also to sustaining systems of belief about the nature of social reality’. Thus certain possibilities for thought are constructed. social. economic and social specificity. p. p. but rather as subjective realisations borne out of cultural. might be constructed. 52) This redistribution of voice constitutes certain voices as meaningful or authoritative (Ball. Crucially. Harry. much has been written from this perspective. p. . when. then. This view is not new. it is through the process of argumentation that certain solutions are presented as viable alternatives. 52) to act. and most importantly. Clayton . policy as discourse. 194) notes. a social construction given legitimacy through the permission it gives to speak. the mechanisms by which this is imported into the professional lifeworld and the prevailing social conditions which form the very language used to describe the policy itself. institutional and cultural contexts . 1988. In such a view. therefore. an interplay between ‘conceptual schema attached to specific historical. First. Further. determined by the availability of dominant discourses. 48) This world-to-person fit describes the ‘subject position’. it is clear that professional actions undertaken in relation to policy appear. Bacchi notes the tendency of this perspective to: Concentrate on the ability of some groups rather than others to make discourse. whereas those who are seen as ‘lacking’ power are described as constituted in discourse. that these lenses also provide the means by which solutions. (Ball. constrains the scope of both policy construction and policy response (Ball. This social construction of policy requires an appreciation that the processes of problematisation and argumentation are the lifeblood of policy existence. it articulates a view that ‘problems’ do not exist as pre-human issues to be addressed but rather that they are the products of political reasoning located in economic. not as objective responses to positions of truth. . Interpretational options are thus taken to be both pre-existing and available to the subject. p. through the act of locating oneself within a frame of predetermined potentialities. in short. With this in mind. the subject is said to exercise agentic action. To put the point briefly. Problem construction is. p. policy as discourse establishes a number of key principles. Policy as discourse attends to both the uses and effects of policy insomuch as it considers the influences pertaining to the creation of the policy text. historical. Ian. 2006).Cap Kritik 124/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab pre-existing status but is. Put briefly. 2000. that is to say the pronouncements ‘captured’ as policy imperatives. rather. through its recognition of cultural. cultural and historical ways of viewing the world. Policy as discourse is. historical. In short. p.

University of Cal. Subaltern epistemic perspectives are knowledge coming DML. 2011. Ian. 1(1). It is promoted and engaged in by intellectuals who are ‘organic’ to the space industry and the social movement that supports it.Associate Professor of Ethnic Studies. The “ego-politics of knowledge” of Western philosophy has always privilege the myth of a non-situated “Ego”. Harry. Decolonial Thinking.*Peter. linguistic. the maintenance of class relations. the geo-political and body-political location of the subject that speaks. is ‘organic’ to those resisting such common sense will demonstrate the ways in which it is actually being done. Reject their truth claims – without escaping their Eurocentric paradigm everything they say is suspect. perhaps unwittingly. University of Essex and **James. and Global Coloniality) NAR The first point to discuss is the contribution of racial/ethnic and feminist subaltern perspectives to epistemological questions. Ethnic/racial/gender/sexual epistemic location and the subject that speaks are always decoupled. conceals who is speaking as well as the geo-political and body-political epistemic location in the structures of colonial power/knowledge from which the subject speaks. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. Clayton . sexual. Decolonizing Post-Colonial Studies and Paradigms of Political Economy: Transmodernity. gender. 2006b) for the last 500 hundred years assume a universalistic. to use Gramsci’s word. our knowledges are always situated. Collins 1990) as well as Third World scholars inside and outside the United States (Dussel 1977) reminded us that we always speak from a particular location in the power structures. IWren) The second way in which space is involved in hegemonic struggles is that space development and settlement are widely supported as solutions to the economic and environmental contradictions of capitalism. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. and racial hierarchies of the “modern/colonial capitalist/patriarchal world-system“. The hegemonic Eurocentric paradigms that have informed western philosophy and sciences in the “modern/colonial capitalist/patriarchal world-system” (Grosfoguel 2005. TRANSMODERNITY: Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the LusoHispanic World. the growth of a militarized industry. In Western philosophy and sciences the subject that speaks is always hidden. But an intellectual who. spiritual.” This is not only a question about social values in knowledge production or the fact that our knowledge is always partial. increased social inequalities. Western philosophy and sciences are able to produce a myth about a Truthful universal knowledge that covers up. It also tends to be promoted by what Gramsci called ‘traditional’ intellectuals who claim to be politically unattached but who. that is. increased levels of nationalism and so on. It has been seen as ‘common sense’ that man (sic) should continue to explore and humanize the universe. objective point of view. perpetuate the social order. As feminist scholar Donna Haraway (1988) states. erased from the analysis. Jay. that is. following Fanon (1967) and Anzaldúa (1987). neutral. Nobody has forced a particular view of ‘common sense’ but it best serves the interests of dominant social orders. Grosfoguel 11 . It is important here to distinguish the “epistemic location” from the “social location. Berkley (Ramon. By delinking ethnic/racial/gender/sexual epistemic location from the subject that speaks. Black feminist scholars called this perspective “afro-centric epistemology” (Collins 1990) (which is not equivalent to the afrocentrist perspective) while Latin American Philosopher of Liberation Enrique Dussel called it “geopolitics of knowledge” (Dussel 1977) and. pg 69. Precisely. Nobody escapes the class.Cap Kritik 125/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Framework – Epistemology First Epistemology first—the space industry is sustained only by the knowledge and the intellectuals complicit in propagating and normalizing the hegemonic worldview that seizing space is a “natural” extension of resolving capital crises Dickens and Ormrod 7 . I will use the term “bodypolitics of knowledge. Chicana and black feminist scholars (Moraga and Anzaldúa 1983. concealed. It entails capital accumulation. Bruce Gagnon and leading members of the Global Network could be seen as ‘organic’ intellectuals in this sense. the withdrawal of funds from education and welfare. The main point here is the locus of enunciation. the success of the modern/colonial worldsystem consists in making subjects that are socially located in the oppressed side of the colonial difference. to think epistemically like the ones on the dominant positions. Rothenbaum.” The fact that one is socially located in the oppressed side of power relations does not automatically mean that he/she is epistemically thinking from a subaltern epistemic location. Amanda. geographical.

land space.g. Failing to question the epistemology of the aff leads to extinction. as part of the ‘Global War on Terror. 2000. Bonta 9 . rather than Pax Americana. outer space. While examining the precursors below.’ ‘Brilliant Warrior.’ ‘Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather.’ We should certainly remain unsure whether these are also the desired goals of non-American Empire and of the global market. 1987) are nothing new. see Project for a New American Century. I am not claiming an epistemic populism where knowledge produced from below is automatically an epistemic subaltern knowledge. preliminarily. where we can understand the desired goal of Empire for a group of operators. ocean space. and a renewed focus on Pax Americana. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies. as FSD would have it. most notably ‘Rebuilding America’s Defenses: Strategy. We need to examine the evidence for this to be able to state that the multitude has not infrequently been duped (recently. and resources for a new century’ (Project for a New American Century. Mindful of totalizing conspiracy theory. airspace. popularly referred to as ‘Neocons. and dreams of world conquest (e. and cyber space. and elsewhere). Amanda. Clayton . of global thermonuclear conflict. Air Force 2025 (US Air Force. Henry Luce’s imperial peace to be enforced. The disembodied and unlocated neutrality and objectivity of the ego-politics of knowledge is a Western myth. 2000). What I am claiming is that all knowledges are epistemically located in the dominant or the subaltern side of the power relations and that this is related to the geo. “The Multitude and its Doppelgänger: An Exploration of Global Smooth Space”.’ however!). one suspects. after a fashion. What is new. by more than profit and the bottom line. 245-277. there is much reinvention of Cold War nemeses. We will also see that the achievement of FSD appears to necessitate clashes with deep alternate centers of pouvoir such as China and Russia. the success and the sheer publicity of the latter’s synarchical constructive chaos is an anchoring point among the cognitive dissonances of Empire’s subjects— a bold plan that gives us some idea of the black hole of macro-fascism that is inspired. to have emerged since 9-11 into a dichotomized geopolitical discourse.’ ‘Peacespace Dominance. the US Air Force also provides numerous online reports relevant to the FSD vision (see US Air Force. perhaps. or perhaps wormhole. Georgia. and thus the black hole. henceforth ‘FSD’). Rothenbaum.’ who have had innumerable successes. is the possibility of attainment of global striation at a higher level of perfection through ‘smooth’ dominance over submarine space. Complementing the thinktanks’ online literature is the US Defense Department’s wealth of reports and plans at Defense Link. that FSD is the threat of the constitution of a Deleuzean ‘Full Body. Nevertheless.Cap Kritik 126/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab from below that produces a critical perspective of hegemonic knowledge in the power relations involved. In this grand project.and body-politics of knowledge. forces.’ Their network of thinktanks—prime among them the Project for a New American Century and the American Enterprise Institute—have made available online numerous policy statements and grand plans. Harry. at least on the part of the US. magus John Dee’s angelicallysuggested role for Elizabethan England: French. by what the Pentagon has called Full Spectrum Dominance (Shelton. 2009. the Federation of American Scientists’ website includes one of the most intriguing of these visions. in the color-coded revolutions in the Ukraine. we should emphasize the contrasts between the relative ‘mindlessness’ of capital flows and the clearly conspiratorial pouvoir of the Neocons’ militarism (not underestimating the ‘hidden hand of the market. could be the result (for the ‘threats’ posed by China and Russia. Jay. for example.’ Start-Tek [sic]-Exploiting the Final Frontier-Counterspace Operations. We could say. 1996)—just the terms embedded in the chapter titles give some idea of this particular future: ‘Worldwide Information Control System. 2000 and PNAC sections on East Asia and NATO/Europe).Associate Professor of Geography (Mark.’ an end-state of global organization (as opposed to the ‘Body without Organs’). 8 (2).’ ‘Global Battlespace Dominance. eventually. Ian.) NAR We are ‘fortunate. 2003). it is worth remembering that the (white man’s) ‘burden of civilization’ for the West is centuries old. DML.’ in a sense.

Jay. dml) The European imperial explorers who began excursions five centuries ago shifted expeditions to ‘the new world’ from the domain of speculation to that of physical and political practice. inhabiting it with stories and plans and dreams’. as Linda Billings (2006) asserts. a terra nullius. Rothenbaum. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. Political spatialities. yet. DML. ‘It is clear that we should seek some ethical guidelines in advance before we repeat our sorry history elsewhere’. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261. should Mars be claimable space. 7 It is these spatialities that are currently in flux. Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil. write McArthur and Boran (2004. Kim Stanley Robinson (1994. Ian. to attend to it critically. ‘as not just a matter of what we can do. however. Mars has moved out of science fiction and onto national budgets and the agendas of international legal bodies. along with fictional representations and media constructions. its areology. they have to defend their reps Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. And it is political spatialities that will ultimately underpin any future activities on the planet. Harry. ‘We have the opportunity to explore Mars’. Clayton . 149). and by whom? Martian colonization is beginning: it is time. but also what we should do’. or a space of intrinsic value? Second.Cap Kritik 127/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Framework (Mars Affs) In the context of Mars colonization your language is not neutral – the way they frame the plan is inextricably tied to plan action. before we begin to build. and if so. questions that are not yet answered: should Mars be regarded as a terra communis. constitute Mars’s current cultural geography. Vigorous scientific. as Fox (2006. policy makers in Space-faring nations in particular have given scant attention to the political spatialities of the planet (2006). how can it be transformed into a possession. is only barely initiated. In his quasifictional study of Martian colonization. Similarly. Two specific questions emerge from this article. and political energy is being channelled into the possibility of transforming Mars’s physical geography. technical. The task of the larger project of which this article is an early part. “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. precolonial stage. and not Mars’s physical terrain. 225) writes. What comes next is an application of lessons learned from terrestrial colonialism of the past to Martian spatiality in its current. 367) points up the importance of attending to these Martian spatialities now: ‘noosphere preceded biosphere – the layer of thought first enwrapping the silent planet from afar. Amanda. The task of this article has been to provide an analysis of its uneven terrain in the context of western political economic trajectories.

“Prophet of Boom (and Bust): Now will they listen to Ravi Batra?”. not paradigm [or] ideology. written by Kendall Anderson. including a couple of best-sellers. a Minneapolis-based journalist who has written for Fort Worth Weekly and The Dallas Morning News. DML. The veteran Southern Methodist University economics professor saw this storm approaching years ago and has written several books. about what the country should have been doing to handle it. to the mergers booms and soaring stock prices of the ’90s. he has a nearly 90 percent record of being right. and the stock market crash of 2000. In the futurist field. and an unprecedented.Cap Kritik 128/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab AT – Batra Unqualified Rishee’s dad is a genius FW Weekly 08 (Fort Worth Weekly. Greenspan said. Jay.com/content. bankruptcies of major companies are a daily occurrence. Amanda. Rajani Kannepalli Kanth. which he predicted in the 1960s. Ian. The New Golden Age — The Coming Revolution Against Political Corruption and Economic Chaos. he predicted an economic depression and the rise of a charismatic leader who might help dig the country out of that hole. He wrote Greenspan’s Fraud in 2005.S. he’s still trying to figure out. Ravi Batra is also shaking his head — but for different reasons. past or present … and he does it all by reference to recorded. Harry. In Dallas. a visiting scholar at Harvard University who specializes in political economy and social anthropology. And in his 2006 book. “Ravi is a phenomenon — the best predictive record of any economist. empirical facts. Even the iconic architect of the current economic system himself. IWren) The worst economic cycle in more than half a century has everyone from struggling homeowners to former Federal Reserve chairmen shaking their heads in disbelief. capitalism. Rothenbaum. Jobs are disappearing. http://archive. former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan. massive government bailout has failed thus far to unfreeze the credit system that is the lifeblood of U. from the rise of Islam. But what exactly is causing the current worldwide financial meltdown.asp?article=7369. Clayton .fwweekly.. told a Congressional panel several months ago that his deregulation and debt-is-OK approach was mistaken. retail sales are in the toilet. where a 65 to 70 percent accuracy rate is acceptable. In fact.” said Prof. the 65-year-old Indian-born academic has an amazing record of economic and social forecasting going back several decades.

Jay.Cap Kritik 129/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab **AFF STUFF** DML. Clayton . Amanda. Harry. Rothenbaum. Ian.

rational. quite local and familiar (not to mention familiar beings that are not what they seem).passing references. It is through these discursive figurings and alignments that capitalism is constituted as large. centered and centering. selfidentical. evolutionary scenarios of social development. Representations of capitalism are a potent constituent of the anticapitalist imagination. creative. and capable of conferring identity and meaning. organized and organizing.5 What difference might it make to release that brake and allow an anticapitalist economic imaginary to develop unrestricted?6 If we were to dissolve the image that looms in the economic foreground. victorious and ascendant. or binary patterns of thinking. Ian. upon inspection. At the same time. as a corollary. Amanda. self-reproducing. Harry. transformative. providing images of what is to be resisted and changed as well as intimations of the strategies. that deliberate attempts to develop noncapitalist economic practices and institutions must take place in the social interstices.as well as systematic and deliberate attempts to represent capitalism as a central and organizing feature of modern social experience. representations of capitalism that can be collated within this fictive summary identify the broad outlines of our project: to discover or create a world of economic difference. classical and contemporary political economy.8 The argument revisited: it is the way capitalism has been "thought" that has made it so difficult for people to imagine its supersession. It becomes difficult to entertain a vision of the prevalence and vitality of noncapitalist economic forms. academic social science. This we see as a first step toward theorizing capitalism without representing dominance as a natural and inevitable feature of its being. and essentialist. indeed. These depictions have their origins in the diverse traditions of Marxism. western philosophy and metaphysics. and.K. a new anticapitalist DML. powerful. phallocentric. Rothenbaum. in the realm of experiment. In this sense. Gibson-Graham 06 – J. But the point should emerge none the less clearly: the virtually unquestioned dominance of capitalism can be seen as a complex product of a variety of discursive commitments. dynamic. and to populate that world with exotic creatures that become. including but not limited to organicist social conceptions. persistent. active. constraining.Cap Kritik 130/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Gibson-Graham You’re doing it wrong—representations of capitalism as hegemonically dominant preclude the realization of actual social change. the book selectively traces the discursive origins of a widespread understanding: that capitalism is the hegemonic. In the chapters that follow. pg 2-5. colonizing. embracing. disciplining. expansive. real. lawful. we hope to foster conditions under which the economy might become less subject to definitional closure. Changing this view is a pre-requisite to the alt. or even the only. and in the context of such a vision. in an endless array of texts. to the capitalist system or to global capitalism . It follows from this prevalent though not ubiquitous view that noncapitalist economic sites. Clayton . systemic. modern historiography. Jay.7 In this book we focus on the practices and preoccupations of discourse. popular economic and social thought. techniques. progressive.9 It is therefore the ways in which capitalism is known that we wish to delegitimize and displace. self-rectifying. pen name shared by feminist economic geographers Julie Graham and Katherine Gibson (“The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It): A Feminist Critique of Political Economy”. The representati n. or of daily or partial replacements of capitalism by noncapitalist economic practices. of bringing to light images and habits of understanding that constitute "hegemonic capitalism" at the intersection of a set of representations. IWren) The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It) problematizes "capitalism" as an economic and social descriptor. but also as a brake upon. or in a visionary space of revolutionary social replacement. The process is one of unearthing. tracing some of the different. only a few of these are examined for the ways in which they have sustained a vision of capitalism as the dominant form of economy. positive. what shadowy economic forms might come forward? In these questions we can discursive artifact we call "capitalist hegemony" is a complex effect of a wide variety of discursive and nondiscursive conditions. depictions of "capitalist hegemony" deserve a particularly skeptical reading. must inhabit the social margins. self-expressive. If it were possible to inhabit a heterogeneous and open-ended economic space whose identity was not fixed or singular (the space potentially to be vacated by a capitalism that is necessarily and naturally hegemonic) then a vision of noncapitalist economic practices as existing and widespread might be able to be born. for example.4 Scrutinizing what might be seen as throwaway uses of the term . the anticapitalist imagination. protean. even incompatible.. heroic historical narratives. the very idea of a noncapitalist economy takes the shape of an unlikelihood or even an impossibility. "capitalist hegemony" operates not only as a constituent of. For in the vicinity of these representations. originating. or have contributed to the possibility or durability of such a vision. penetrating. present form of economy and that it will continue to be so in the proximate future. full. definite. or of capitalist retreats and reversals. and possibilities of changing it. traditions and infrastructures of meaning. if they exist at all. For this reason.

That the capitalist economy often escapes reconceptualization and so continues to function as an organizing moment. where it escapes the logic of sameness and is unable to maintain its ostensible self-identity (see chapter 10). discovering the surplus and contradictory meanings of the term. Harry. however. if it is always becoming what it is not. IWren) What interests me most here is the question of why the economism of which capitalism is the bearer is so difficult to moderate or excise. Taken together these strategies have the potential to undermine capitalism's discursive "hegemony" and to reconceptualize its role in social determination. definite forms of being. to that extent does the strategy of thinking overdetermination have the power to destabilize theoretical discourse and reposition the concepts within it. pg 43-45. When capitalism exists as a sameness. Complex processes of social development . Operating under an "imperative of unity" (Hazel 1994: 4) western conceptions of identity entail both the unity of an object with itself (its selfresemblance) and its one-to one relation with the sign by which it is known: one word with one meaning. Ian. One can also say. and an origin of meaning and causation in social theory. identities (like capitalism) can become visible as entirely constituted by their "external" conditions. not a sameness but a difference.37 But it testifies to the resilience of the dominant conceptual context (it should perhaps be called a mode of thought) in which the objects of thought exist independently of thought and of each other that an autonomous economy still exists and operates in social representation. Jay. to oppose and contradict). It is a testimony to the power of overdetermination that it has allowed certain post-Althusserian theorists to envision an "economy" that is not singular.36 Through the lens of overdetermination.K.. corresponding to one thing. if it incorporates difference within its decentered being. Rothenbaum. capitalocentric modes of thought Gibson-Graham 06 – J. industrialization. centered. cannot be understood as a simple theoretical omission. One can say that representations of the capitalist economy as an independent entity informed by logics and exclusive of its exteriors have allowed capitalism to hegemonize both the economic and the social field. none of which can definitively be said to be less or more significant. pen name shared by feminist economic geographers Julie Graham and Katherine Gibson (“The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It): A Feminist Critique of Political Economy”. To conceptualize capitalism/man as multiple and different is thus a condition of theorizing noncapitalism/woman as a set of specific. Amanda. that overdetermination is a discursive strategy that can potentially empty. and discrete (constituted by the exclusion of their outsides). A long shot Representing capitalism as a bounded. But that process. To the extent that we conceptualize entities as autonomous. Just as postmodernism obtains its power from modernism (its power to undermine and destabilize. the places where capitalism is inhabited and constituted by noncapitalism.34 If capitalism/man can be understood as multiple and specific. has hardly begun. fragment. Representations of society and economy cannot themselves be centered on a decentered and formless entity that is itself always different from itself. It is also a reassertion of the hegemonic conceptions of language and determination that overdetermination is uniquely positioned to contradict. decenter and open the economy. noncapitalism can only be subordinated or rendered invisible (like traditional or domestic economic forms). and as the unique referents that give each sign a stable and singular meaning. far from being over or even well on its way. monistic entity precludes noncapital alternatives and furthers hegemonic. and that obtains its shifting and contradictory identity from the always changing exteriors that overdetermine it. Overdetermination enables us to read the causality that is capitalism as coexisting with an infinity of other determinants. To such an essentialist reading of identity "capitalism" designates an underlying commonality in the objects to which it refers. different societies become the sites of a resemblance or a replication. and that therefore is not capitalism's exclusive domain. DML.) By virtue of their identification as capitalist settings. With an overdeterminist strategy we may empty capitalism of its universal attributes and evacuate the essential and invariant logics that allow it to hegemonize the economic and social terrain. then noncapitalism/woman is released from its singular and subordinate status. And what may account for the economic monism or hegemonism that accompanies most representations of capitalist society and development? Here a partial answer may be found in the metaphysics of identity that Althusser sought to undermine. if it is not a unity but a heterogeneity. bounded. It is easy to appreciate the strategic effectiveness of reading the texts of capitalism deconstructively. 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab politics might emerge. ordered or selfconstituting.commodification. a noncapitalist politics of class (whatever that may mean) might take root and flourish. Clayton . liberating discourses of economy and society from capitalism's embrace. Noncapitalism is to capitalism as woman to man: an insufficiency until and unless it is released from the binary metaphysics of identity (where A is a unified self-identical being that excludes what it is not). internationalization .35 so can an overdeterminist approach realize its power and strategic capacity by virtue of its oppositional relation to the preeminent modes of understanding both language categories and identity/being. But overdetermination can be used as an additional anti-essentialist theoretical strategy to complement and supplement the strategy of deconstruction. proletarianization.become legible as the signatures of capitalism rather than as unique and decentered determinations. while repositioning capitalism itself as an effect. There is no singularity of Form to constitute noncapitalism/woman as a simple negation or as the recessive ground against which the positive figure of capitalism/man is defined. Thus we are not surprised to encounter a capitalism that is essentially the same in different times and places (despite the fact that sameness as the precondition of meaning is exactly what various structuralist and poststructuralist traditions have sought to undermine.Cap Kritik 131/194 perhaps but one worth pursuing.

Amanda. Clayton . Jay. Ian.Cap Kritik 132/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab DML. Rothenbaum. Harry.

Laclau and Mouffe leave the economy theoretically untouched. Ian. capitalism is rendered as the "subject" of history.) By itself. Jay. As the inadvertent result of their theoretical silence. and unfixing society from its economic base. For various reasons. capitalism both has and is an essence. IWren) This representation of capitalism in Hegemony and Socialist Strategy is notable not only for the extraordinary transformative capacity with which capitalism is endowed .K.27 Laclau and Mouffe's capitalism is the protagonist of a unified narrative of development that sets the political stage. it can therefore be seen as "an abstraction with concrete effects" (in Laclau and Mouffe's wonderful critical phrase) rather than as a discursive moment that is relationally defined. and the heroic role they assign to it.Cap Kritik 133/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Gibson-Graham Link – Cap as Subject Their representation of capitalism as a subject that acts on the social field denies the true situational and external factors that create capitalism in individual contexts. Clayton . When it is not overtly theorized. Rothenbaum. In this sense it exists outside overdetermination. No "exteriors" (discourses in which it has other meanings) operate to subvert its unity and self-resemblance." Instead it claims the terrain of the social as the arena of its self-realization. it will write itself into every text of social theory. It remains positive and homogeneous. including the "retreat" from economism inspired by Althusser. Harry.but also for the familiarity and unremarkability of the depiction. an agent that makes history but is not correspondingly "made. polity. in familiar and powerful ways.28 DML." If it is affected and shaped by its social contexts. pen name shared by feminist economic geographers Julie Graham and Katherine Gibson (“The End of Capitalism (As We Knew It): A Feminist Critique of Political Economy”. a disproportionate effectivity.. and culture (or some other such partition) continues to function as the general conceptual frame within which particular social discourses are inscribed. Amanda.it is given sole responsibility for a thoroughgoing historical transformation . In a diverse array of texts and traditions. But the "failure" to theorize the economy is inevitably associated with certain problematic effects. Unlike other social practices and processes in Hegemony and Socialist Strategy. Until it’s retheorized as the object of social relations it will always recreate itself dominantly in social discourse—that turns their advocacy Gibson-Graham 06 – J. it is now the case that post-Marxist and cultural theorists often avoid constituting the economy as a theoretical object (perhaps theoretical avoidance is anti-economism's highest form. it defines itself as capitalism because it lacks another name. The immutable logics at the core of its being are independent of its social contexts (they always operate and are not fully susceptible to being abridged). is a remnant or borrowing (from other parts of the Marxian tradition) rather than a product of their own theoretical elaborations. or until it is deconstructively or positively rewritten. pg 38-39. But the capitalism they describe. since it would be impossible to problematize every social dimension and practice. This gives capitalism. Its definition and operations are independent of articulatory practices and discursive fixings. In the rendition of recent economic and social history quoted above. capitalism inhabits the present as a concrete embodiment of its abstract description. Its internal imperatives of growth and expansion are manifest in history as its external form. it is not equivalently "subjected. Unless the economy is explicitly written out. and by extension the economy. inhabited by a set of logics that increasingly define the character of the social landscape (Diskin and Sandier 1993). It is a cause without being to the same extent an effect. for example.26 While undoing the closed and singular social totality. this is not a fatal "omission" or a necessary source of theoretical deformations. The language of social instances that divides society into economy. the economy has a fixed (if atheoretically specified) identity and capitalism itself has a fixed and transparent (or generic) meaning.

As I have suggested elsewhere (Carroll 2007). Jay. Gramsci’s adage that while the line of development is international. respectively. “Crisis. however. It will take much hard work and politics on a mass scale to forge new social alliances. has helped facilitate self-organization on the shop floor. ‘left to themselves … are easily dominated by the power of capital to coordinate accumulation across universal but fragmented space’ (Harvey 1996: 32). Much of the energy of anti-capitalist politics is centred within what Raymond Williams (1989) called militant particularisms – localized struggles that. The ultimate aim of this must be a relationship with the universe that does not further empower the already powerful. Catharsis. As a rule. counterpoised to neoliberalism’s transnational historical bloc. counter-hegemony: in search of the new. the greater is the likelihood that workers from different countries will learn from each other’. Clayton . movements. in this context. and in the growth of transnational movement organizations and of a ‘democratic globalization network’. Rather. Philosophy and sociology are only tools for uncovering how reality is structured and for freeing up the discussion of feasible alternatives. illustrates the limits of transnational activism that radiates from advanced capitalism to exert external pressure on behalf of subalterns in the global South. which often lead to valuable localized actions as well as greater transborder solidarity’ (2009: 424). the mainland-based migrant workers’ association. Ian. well-intentioned practices of solidarity reproduced a paternalism that failed to inspire local collective action. In the former case. Indeed. as Marie-Josée Massicotte suggests. These moments of resistance and transborder activism do not yet combine to form a coherent historical bloc around a counter-hegemonic project. 168-198. Carroll 2010) – counter-hegemony has also taken on transnational features that go beyond the classic organization of left parties into internationals. The alt alone is coopted – you need a multitude of standpoints means the perm solves Carroll 10 – *founding director of the Social Justice Studies Program at the University of Victoria (William. DML. workers taking direct action on their own behalf. Rothenbaum. Perm solves—only combining both hard science and social insight can reveal the link between the two. such as the successful international effort in 1998 to defeat the Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI). enabling transnational counter-hegemony to gain a foothold (Rahmon and Langford 2010: 63). ‘the more such solidarity work involves grassroots initiatives and participation.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. to contest the terrain of global civil society. still has currency. with external support.Cap Kritik 134/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Perm Critique alone fails – integration of actual solutions key Dickens and Ormrod 7 . in initiatives such as the World Social Forum. takes on a spatial character. in the latter. must be grounded in local conditions and aspirations. transcending traditional national boundaries’ (Butko 2006: 101). an incipient war of position is at work here – a bloc of oppositional forces to neoliberal globalization encompassing a wide range of movements and identities and that is ‘global in nature.” Interface 2:2. Yet the same group. ‘we are witnessing the emergence and re-making of political imaginaries…. dml) Just as hegemony has been increasingly organized on a transnational basis – through the globalization of Americanism. Harry. the construction of global governance institutions. counter-hegemonic ideologies and space projects that benefit oppressed populations. through its support for its ally. the emergence of a transnational capitalist class and so on (Soederberg 2006. Friedman recounts how a campaign by the Hong Kong-based group of Students and Scholars Against Corporate Misbehavior to empower Chinese mainland workers producing goods for Hong Kong Disneyland failed due to the lack of local mobilization by workers themselves. The scaling up of militant particularisms requires ‘alliances across interrelated scales to unite a diverse range of social groupings and thereby spatialize a Gramscian war of position to the global scale’ (Karriem 2009: 324). that address issues of North-South solidarity and coordination (Smith 2008:24). Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 190. led to ‘psychological empowerment’ and movement mobilization (Friedman 2009: 212). dml) Explanatory critique can only go so far. Such alliances. Eli Friedman’s (2009) case study of two affiliated movement organizations in Hong Kong and mainland China. Reducing everything to social constructionism is counterproductive. Amanda. What Sousa Santos (2006) terms the rise of a global left is evident in specific movementbased campaigns. the origin point is national.

all social structures to discourse’ (Latour 1993: 64). whether for tactical reasons or from principled agreement. Harry. An honest reappraisal of the relationship between parties and movements would allow the social forums to play to their strengths. Editor of International Socialism AND ** Chris Nineham. However much retrospect is coloured by Bertinotti’s subsequent right turn.isj. Autonomous anti-capital movements fail—only combining social mobilization with political action can unite large populations and create a political driving force Callinicos and Nineham 07 . helped mobilize thousands in protests in Genoa (“At an impasse? Anti-capitalism and the social forums today”. the ongoing attempt by scientists to construct a theory of everything runs counter to this kind of ontology. involving not merely Rifondazione but also smaller parties of the radical left such as the LCR and the Socialist Workers Party as well as more radical elements of Italy’s centre-left Left Democrats. The truth is that cooperation between the two actually strengthens both. the high points of the European movement at Genoa and Florence were informed by this cooperation. former drummer for the indie pop band The June Brides. Likewise.Cap Kritik 135/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Dickens and Ormrod 7 . for example. IWren) The physical and natural sciences have often historically denied that their attempts to know the realities with which they are concerned are in any way dependent on the social world. not at any of the Porto Alegre Forums. Archer et al. 2 July 07. The peak so far reached by the WSF took place. The two most successful forums—Florence and Mumbai—were ones where opposition to the “war on terror” was a dominant theme. 1998. These points are related to the fundamental tenets of critical realism as outlined by Roy Bhaskar and others (Bhaskar 1986. Ian. The same is true at a global level. but in Mumbai in January 2004. But as Bruno Latour says. The result of this should be a theory that reduces the universe to neither the merely physical nor the purely social. 1997. to launch a very high DML. Amanda. But a break is required by an honest appreciation of the interplay between political parties and social movements. Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Cosmic Society: Towards a sociology of the universe. This was proved by the success of last year’s “polycentric” WSF in Caracas. thus privileging the kind of knowledge held by the social sciences over that of other disciplines. Affiliated Lecturer in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Sociology. whilst explaining the importance of material reality. the physics of subatomic particles to a text. in the social sciences in the last few decades there has often been a suggestion that our understandings of the physical and natural worlds are mere social constructions. We recognize that causal mechanisms operate on a number of different levels within the universe. But recognition of both the principled significance and the mobilising power of anti-imperialism needs to be built into how the social forums operate. founding member of the UK Stop the War Coalition. The ideal of science is of an objective discipline that is value-free and guided by its own criteria of progress. Saying this does not mean returning to the tedious and sterile argument— either the war or the “social question”. subway systems to rhetorical devices. Venezuela. in order to understand the dialectic between social and physical worlds. Jay. http://www. It was taken for granted among the tens of thousands of mainly Latin American activists assembled there that the US poses a real and present threat to the gains being made by movements in Bolivia. played a critical role both in making the forum possible and in restraining themselves from trying to dominate the forum or competing too openly among themselves. It should have been possible. Rothenbaum. Clayton . The social influences on the theories and methods of science are therefore ignored. infused as it was by both a strong anti-imperialist consciousness and the movements of India’s vast poor. President Hugo Chávez echoed many others when he spoke there of the importance of the movement against the Iraq war in weakening the US’s ability to act in what it regards traditionally as its own backyard.org. combining that with sociological understanding.1). a product of the society in which they were created.*Alex Callinicos. But the two key organisations of the Indian left—the Communist Party (Marxist) and the Communist Party of India—alongside various Maoist organisations. Opposition to both neoliberalism and war are constitutive themes of the anti-capitalist movement. Director of the Centre for European Studies at King’s College London. University of Essex and **James. pg 41. an ontology is necessary that explains how insights from both the social and physical sciences can be combined. Unfortunately. and argue that the job of the social scientist is to work with the knowledge produced by physicists and the like. Venezuela and Ecuador. Too often the left has taken its stand within the framework of that ideology. We maintain that. Yet the Caracas forum also showed up the limitations of the WSF process.*Peter. ‘it is hard to reduce the entire cosmos to a grand narrative. 1998) (see Box 1. in the International Journal of Socialism.uk/?id=337. IWren) This understanding has to involve an open break with the ideology of autonomous social movements.

We believe that the concept of the united front. There is unlikely to be agreement between the different tendencies in the movement in the short or medium term over general political alternatives. It is precisely this kind of unity in action that many people are looking for in the current situation.27 Another important figure on the left of the movement. The development of the movements necessarily generates political disagreements that cannot be kept separate from party organisations. Such cooperation is essential. provides a better guide to building democratic. such alliances can be politically inclusive and maximise the chances of practical campaigning agreement. Moreover.Cap Kritik 136/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab profile. Respect in Britain—shows the extent to which activists recognise the need for a political voice as part of the development of opposition to neoliberalism and war. This is the way to break movements away from abstract position taking or sectarian point scoring.26 Amin’s pronouncements are sometimes redolent of nostalgia for the high tide of Third World nationalism between the 1950s and 1970s: “The reconstruction of a ‘front of the countries and peoples of the South’ is one of the fundamental conditions for the emergence of ‘another world’ not based on imperialist domination”. LAW and negotiation”. Documents of the left within the movement tend to espouse versions of radical reformism. Jay. these forces will have disagreements about political programme.29 Striking the right balance between disagreement and cooperation once again requires a break with the ideology of autonomous social movements. shows a similar approach in his calls for “deglobalisation”. dynamic movements than does the model that has prevailed so far. Many present were suggesting it. high powered campaign from the forum calling on all the movements round the world to pledge defence of the gains of the Chavista experience so far. But because of the autonomist principles so jealously guarded by the WSF leadership. Rothenbaum. But at a time when the anger against neoliberalism is growing everywhere and so many people are reassessing their political loyalties. Clayton . But it needs to be accompanied by open debate about the nature of the enemy that we are confronted with and of the alternatives that we should be seeking. they can be a testing ground for different tactics and strategies. whether revolutionary or reformist. so providing a framework in which political debate and practical organising can fruitfully interplay. Ian. the Left Party in Germany. A much more principled organisation. the LCR. In breaking out of this impasse. A united front involves the coming together of different forces around a common but limited platform of action. should working together in order to fight to give the movement a more strategic and focused direction. it seems to us that the anti-capitalist left needs urgently to try such methods if it is to reach out and connect with its potential audience. This is no simple matter.28 Such formulations do not sufficiently address the reality that confronting imperialism as a system will require global social transformation based on the collective power and organisation of the oppressed and exploited in the North as well as the South. This ideology conceives social movements as a neutral space somehow beyond politics. and nowhere is free of the antagonisms of wider capitalist society. Pierre Rousset and Sophie Zafari have played important roles in the movement at global and/or European levels). The Bamako Appeal’s first plank is. the left within the movement. Through the experience of such campaigning. new political coalitions can emerge. Amanda. has kept aloof from the anti-capitalist movement as an organisation. Precisely because they are different. despite the very positive role they played in the Mumbai WSF. participate in neoliberal coalitions at the all-India and state levels: the Left Front government in West Bengal has violently clashed with workers and peasants in recent months. they may also differ over how to pursue the common actions that have brought them together. it will be necessary to define precisely what the radical left is within the movement. But fighting neoliberalism and war is necessarily a highly political affair. and openness and humility on the other. no such centralised initiative was taken. Because they are focused round action. But so long as they come together round limited and relatively specific aims. Constructing such united fronts is not easy: it requires initiative and clear leadership on the one hand. Walden Bello of Focus on the Global South. Harry. developed by the revolutionary Marxist tradition. The emergence of new anti-capitalist political formations that are at least partly the product of movements of resistance—Portugal’s Left Bloc. DML. But we can reach constructive agreement on the many issues—opposition to neoliberalism and war—that unite a large spectrum of forces. “For a multipolar world founded on peace. None of this should prevent cooperation among different forces on the left seeking to give the anti-capitalist movement a more coherent and strategically focused direction. because of its acceptance of a version of the ideology of autonomous social movements (although individual LCR members such as Christophe Aguiton. The big Indian Communist parties. The sorry record of Rifondazione has already been discussed.

Amanda. we need to recognize that the language we use." Look to history for examples: the end of slavery. or avoid direct action. Anti-reformism dooms any movement away from capitalism Burrows 1 – author and publisher from the SMAC lecture series New Colonist Paul. when was the last time I reached out to someone who didn’t already share my politics. Online we need revolutionary strategy that links diverse.” is in my opinion. None will single-handedly dismantle capitalism or other systems of power. The dismantling or seizure of the State is usually a reflection of a deep revolution already occurring at the grassroots. Of course. full of shit. we need to start by asking such questions. hard struggles. without sacrificing either. making mistakes. embargo. or could care less about the U. A non-reformist reform is determined not in terms of what can be. the Old Left needs to recognize that all the same criticisms apply equally to themselves. Jay. As Gramsci pointed out we need to maintain an optimism of will. everyday struggles and demands to long-term radical objectives. The struggle of the Spanish anarchists and communists offers many lessons—not the least of which is that revolution is a long-term agenda. (But this doesn’t imply that we should turn a blind eye to human rights violations in Cuba. is at least as important as the substance of our message. if our efforts are to be sustained beyond youthful idealism into the rest of our lives. Harry. The Spanish Revolution of 1936-39 didn’t just happen because the Spanish were more “radical” or “committed” than we are. Now consider contemporary struggles: amnesty for undocumented immigrants. These and many more are arguably non-reformist reforms as well.” Get real!) From an organizing perspective alone. Ultimately. In other words. and by articulating them in a language that’s real. socialist or not) needs to build or expand upon its own institutions. indigenous sovereignty. factory committees. Andre Gorz. and in the process. Instead of saying everyone else isn’t revolutionary enough (while we sit on our ass waiting for the Revolution. but each has the potential to escalate struggles and sharpen social contradictions. activist community (young and old. We need to think hard about the meaning of solidarity. he critically cites one of the examples in my essay: demanding authentic contends. In addition to saying “talk minus action equals zero. Participation in radical unions. "a struggle for non-reformist reforms--for anti-capitalist reforms--is one which does not base its validity and its right to exist on capitalist needs. the state. (Not many people are interested in the subtleties of the “dialectical relationship between base and superstructure.newcolonist. what are we really doing to foster solidarity. expansive environmental protections. and Activism”. the mannerisms. Any anarchist who says they won’t support Cuban solidarity efforts. even if we have a pessimism of mind.com/altcap. socialized health care. Younger activists especially need to take this seriously. methods. “pure” but alone). a little less quick with our judgements and dismissals. a sense of their own competence. and collectives for decades. and believing that revolution is a long-term agenda. because the Cuban revolution is “Statist” and “authoritarian. and gave them direct experience with collective organizational principles. and the experiences of veteran activists. Instead of saying “Anything short of complete ‘Revolution’ is reformist” (and then going home to watch TV).S. style. this isn't to say that every so-called 'progressive' ballot initiative or organizing campaign is necessarily radical or strategic.html I think that if we want to build a popular movement. we need to strike a balance between hope and reality—something that is absolutely necessary. simply because we’re worried about the declining number of post-capitalist experiments to support. It can be damaging to individual people. and more importantly. making 'adjustments' to a fundamentally flawed system. But some can fundamentally shake systems of power. It doesn’t imply that we should refrain from criticism of Cuba’s economic system from a socialist and working-class perspective. “Reflections on Privilege. leading to enlarged gains and greater space for further advances. enabled Spanish workers to develop knowledge of their enterprises. Talk minus action is zero. they created new prospects for revolutionary change. http://www. And we shouldn't misinterpret these efforts as simply meliorative incrementalism. Ian. and rationales. refers to these as "non-reformist" or "structural" reforms. Yet they all struck at the foundations of power (in these cases. politics.” younger activists need to simultaneously pay more attention to history. and more concerned about our own political relevance. is not an excuse to stuff our nests. but it’s also true that action minus well-thought-out ideas and principles can be less than zero. white supremacy. and none were endpoints. and goals differ from our own. We need to have a little humility — we need to be a little less attached to our conclusions. just because they’re relatively non-existent compared to the rest of Latin America (or Canada for that matter). we need to look in the bloody mirror. we need to recognize that no revolution begins with the overthrow of the State. criteria. the alternatives we create must embody the values we profess to hold. Chris. theory. observing that the state-capitalist system is powerful. Reformism. All were born from long. building a popular base. He To bolster his critique of 'reformism. think that militancy alone (regardless of popular support) will bring about a fast demise of capitalism. desegregation. progressive. It was the culmination of almost 70 years of organizing. the eight-hour workday. but what should be. Solidarity is NOT about supporting those who share your precise politics. Pre-existing structures and worker organizations made possible a workers’ takeover of much of the Spanish economy (especially in Catalonia). in his seminal book Strategy for Labor. however.) DML. when was the last time I actually had an impact on someone?” Instead of saying “those young anarchists don’t know how to build institutions” (and then calling them “reformist” or “parochial” or “bourgeois” when they do). and create an alternative to capitalism. Reforms are not all created equal. a culture of resistance. and it can hinder the growth of a radical movement.Cap Kritik 137/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Perm – Reformism Good Reformism from with-in solves Dixon 1 – Activist and founding member of Direct Action Network Summer. Rothenbaum. and tone we adopt. It’s about supporting those who struggle against injustice—even if their assumptions. community and workplace level. At the same time. we need to be less concerned about the alleged failings and ignorance of others. The entire Left. We need to ask ourselves “What are we really doing to create a welcoming movement. Clayton . a little more questioning of our assumptions.' for instance. because they tend to Unrealistic expectations are a fast road to burnout and despair. and capitalism).

Cap Kritik 138/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab DML. Amanda. Clayton . Harry. Ian. Rothenbaum. Jay.

new forms of local resistance and local expression emerge. The global economy today has become more functionally integrated and interdependent than ever (Perraton et al 1997. Jay. Dicken 1998. DML. which has also become increasingly 'placeless'. it is now fashionable among business gurus. It is defined as an economy in which there is close economic inter.dependence among and between the leading nations in trade. Because of this increasing convergence of production. firms. 1995b. Globalization is conceptualized as a complex process of interrelated tendencies (Dicken et al 1997). and in which there are relatively few artificial restrictions on the cross-border movement of people. the nation state ceases to be a political institution capable of exerting influences on the activities of capital. Horsman and Marshall 1994. Reich 1991. and the multiplicity and hybridization of social life at every spatial scale (Amin 1997. Olds et al forthcoming. Levy 1995). The end result is the demise of geography and national boundaries. much counterglobalization literature has focused on pro. globalization does not destroy them. international economists and liberal politicians to assert that the world is 'borderless' (Ohmae 1990.3 Such 'borderless world' and 'end of geography' theses may seem inevitably valid in today's globalizing world. national institutions and social systems (Mueller 1994). While not denying some of the broader empirical global trends identified by Ohmae4 and other ultraglobalists. constituted by the relativization of scale. The convergent effects of globalization and cross-border organizational learning have rapidly outpaced the divergent effects of cultures. cf Hirst and Thompson 1996). it is worthwhile to pause for a moment and re-examine critically the analytical constructs in these theses. Ian. Cox 1997. Instead. Amanda.Cap Kritik 139/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Link Turn Link Turn: Exploring space leads to the building of a global economy and the eventual destruction of capitalism.2 In such a 'borderless' world. this paper aims to analyze the underlying logic(s) of globalization and to show that globalization tendencies neither result in a 'borderless' world nor lead to the end of geography. 129) observes that one of the most distinctive features of the world economy of the early 1990s is the ease with which the kinds of assets and intermediate products that determine a nation's prosperity and growth are able to move across national boundaries. These tendencies towards homogenization and differentiation reflect continuous tensions between capital and the state in the (re)production of space. Keller et al forthcoming). Harry. To them. they claim. which no longer make a difference in the 'borderless' world. however. Clayton . typically through cross-border investments and trade spearheaded by transnational banks and transnational corporations (TNCs).viding evidence to show that the world is not yet globalized. reinforcing the interconnectedness of the Henry Waichung Yeung local and the global. 23. the geopolitics of capitalism have become irrelevant in an allegedly 'borderless' world. State and Space: Contesting the Borderless World”. Globalization can therefore be seen as a dialectical process of homogenization and differentiation. The end-state of globalization is often perceived as an economically. Julius 1990. Blackwell Publishing. however. JSTOR)//AW The late twentieth century has witnessed extensive globalization of economic activities. how. Scott 1997. the fortunes of individuals. circulation and consumption over space. Dunning 1997). “Capital. Dicken 1998. MNEs [multinational enterprises] remain in a class of their own. As a vehicle for housing and controlling the organization and location of these resources and competencies. Brown 1997. assets. Amidst such 'globalization fervour'. the dialectical response to this has been the affirmation of difference. Cox 1997). and cooperative commercial relationships. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. No. Sassen 1996a. instead. Dunning (1993. Though it invades local contexts of action. Weiss 1998. 3. if lacking the material force of. goods or services. socially and culturally homogenized world. Rothenbaum. Such tensions. the apparently dominant homogenizing tendencies (Cox 1996). O'Brien 1992. (Dunning 1995. relatively little has been said about the underlying logic(s) and tendencies of globalization as an ongoing process. Mittelman 1996a. Hirst and Thompson 1996. Although the neoliberal 'end-state' view of globalization has been critically refuted in recent literature (Boyer and Drache 1996. industries and even nation states are so intertwined with ongoing events in the global economy that it becomes almost impossible to define the nation state without reference to the broader economy (Baylis and Smith 1997. Yeung 98—Professor of Economic Geography at the National University of Singapore (Henry Wai-chung.dependence of national economies at a global scale.ever. 135)1 Because of this increasing integration and inter. which is equally present as. investment. 1995a. Vol.

Rather. Clayton . Harry. There seems to be a continuous transformation of global flows and local embedding through the relativization of scale. Ian.Cap Kritik 140/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab are not materialized at the polar scale of the global and the local. Amanda.5 DML. much to the disappointment of global-local dialecticians. when what appears to be a local phenomenon can simultaneously be a regional or global event elsewhere. Jay. they transcend the global-local scale and are problematized by the relativization of scale. Rothenbaum.

with which any citizen has a right to differ. It also in a sense replaced them. this does not mean that democracy was the “absolutely inevitable” outcome of the development of biopolitics.Cap Kritik 141/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Biopower Good Biopolitics is necessary to solve capitalism. Another is the provision of a rising standard of DML. but rather through the modulation of subjectivities and behaviors in the open. and the visible and astonishing success of that project has been crucial to all Western democracies since 1945. In the networked society. as any kind of power. in addition to being the age of biopolitics and totalitarianism. and hence the imperative of individual rights as the political mechanism for getting them met. and governance are three of the main families of power technologies in the society of control. One of those things. Jay. there is a deeper connection between the two. In this sense. I would argue that there is also a causal fit between cultures of expertise. It was deployed in the so called insitutions of enclosement. not through the tayloristic organization of time and space. “Biopolitics. Technologies of biopower in the age of networks are different from those of the industrial era. flexibly and creatively. has to be understood as a strategy and as a relation. ’11 – [The Hackitectura Workshop in Athens. such as factories. social. No. but they do so. and in a democratic system there is therefore a bias toward pragmatic. of technocracy. democratic social and political orders are also implicitly and often explicitly expected to do something positive and tangible to enhance the well-being of their citizens. “On Biopower and Biopolitics. offices and homes. Ian. “scientism” subverted the real. Third. Central European History. schools. First. Control functions through the modulation of these conditions. led by Pablo de Soto and Jose Perez de Lama. or “scientism. human dignity. too [by Hardt. Scientific “fact” is democracy’s substitute for revealed truth. fluid fields of networks. biopolitical production is used. fairness. Of course. and those values are part of their strength. Negri. 1 2004] Why was Europe’s twentieth century. (2) The main aim of biopower. Amanda. has historically been a cornerstone of some strategies of social management. Rothenbaum. the rule of law). professor at the University of Cincinnati. it aims to produce the totality of social life. Facism. Hackitectura Workshop. expertise its substitute for authority. coined by writer William Burroughs and commented upon by Gilles Deleuze [1990]. technological and social protocols. The Greek term “biomechania” describes effectively the biopolitical dimension of industrial society.” published in Central European History. again. (3) We can better understand the technologies of contemporary biopower by comparing them to the technologies of [bio]power in the industrial society. subjective ecologies] alternative to. the vulnerability of explicitly moral values in democratic societies creates a problem of legitimation. but to make populations productive. but it does mean that it was “one among other possible outcomes of the crisis of modern civilization. but it rather deals with the production of the real. also the age of biopolitics and democracy? How should we theorize this relationship? I would like to offer five propositions as food for thought. historical ideological underpinnings of authoritarian polities in Europe in the nineteenth century. being part of capitalism. They are often described by the term society of control. as in the sense addressed by the Greek term “biomechania”.” published 1/28/2011. biopolitical production would describe the production of forms of life [technical. people become productive when they are able to operate autonomously.” Second. (5) Production of subjectivity. of course. is not to repress people. The diagram of power technologies in the industral society is the panopticon.” and democracy. Hardt and Negri] to describe the form of power in contemporary networked society. to describe the kind of politics and political actions that oppose capitalist biopower. Dickinson ‘4 – professor at UCincinnati [Edward Dickenson. Lazzarato and others]. Biopower. it is deployed through technics or technologies. laws and norms. Democracy. 37. and later detailed by Deleuze. Harry. the concept of the essential legitimacy and social value of individual needs. The age of democracy is the age of professionalization. this is not merely a matter of historical coincidence. “objective” or naturalized answers— since values are often regarded as matters of opinion. (6) Biopolitics would describe on one end the technologies of power that relate to biopower. Democratic citizens have the freedom to ask “why”.com/2011/01/28/on-biopower-and-biopolitics/ ] Jay (1)We use “biopower” [in the sense defined by Foucault. Clayton . and confrontational with capitalism Democracy limits the effects of biopower – ensures it can’t cause violence. To borrow a phrase from Detlev Peukert. Of course there are moral values that all democratic societies must in some degree uphold (individual autonomy and freedom. http://mappingthecommons. (4) Society of control technologies aim to make people productive. is simply to provide a rising standard of living. as we already mentioned. Vol. But as people’s states. where bodies and minds were disciplined in space and time. Biopolitical production would refer to the production of forms of life. Biopower is not aimed at prohibiting and punishing.wordpress. However.

and economic life rose steadily. one in five children died before reaching the age of one year. By 1913 it was 15 percent. but this was potentially a democratic “Wahn. it seems to me that an assessment of the potentials of modernity that ignores the ways in which biopolitics has made life tangibly better is somehow deeply flawed. Amanda. that the new model of German modernity is even more relentlessly negative than the old Sonderweg model. in the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the expected level of the average citizen’s active participation in European political. Vol. and more on the different ways that biopolitical thinking circulated within German society more broadly. 1 2004] This understanding of the democratic and totalitarian potentials of biopolitics at the level of the state needs to be underpinned by a reassessment of how biopolitical discourse operates in society at large. on the other. “Biopolitics. I would like to try to offer here the beginnings of a reconceptualization of biopolitical modernity. Even in the late 1920s. Fifth. nor is it accurate to focus only on the “inevitable” frustration of “deleusions” of power. Biopower enables the modern methods of survival we have now. No. It would be bizarre to write a history of biopolitical modernity that ruled out an appreciation for how absolutely wonderful and astonishing this achievement – and any number of things like it – really was. In the new model. more or less healthy and physically capable. a connection between political citizenship on the one hand.7 percent. But at least there was an opposition. measurable. and extraordinary ways. oppressive thing. medicalizing. And modern social reform — “biopolitics” defined very broadly—seemed to offer the possibility of creating the human foundation for a society ordered by autonomous participation. and in the long run. many social engineers could and did look with reat satisfaction on the changes they genuinely had the power to accomplish. DML. professor at the University of Cincinnati. technocratic. the democratic welfare state has “delivered the goods” in concrete. Ian.” published in Central European History. Biopolitics is almost never conceived of – or at least discussed in any detail – as creating possibilities for people. and sometimes intrusive. Everywhere biopolitics is intrusive.Cap Kritik 142/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab health. Rothenbaum. at the “prepolitical” level. it was precisely the democratizing dynamic of modern societies that made the question of the “quality” of the mass of the population seem— and not only in the eyes of the dominant classes — increasingly important. The citizen’s capacity for moral reasoning is the legitimating postulate of all democratic politics. top-down. Of course. premodern elites were constantly triumphing over the democratic opposition. 93 The expansion of infant health programs – an enormously ambitious. it is not really accurate to call it a “Wahn” (delusion. which in fact embodied the historical movement of modern-ization. historically there has been a clear connection between the concept of political citizenship and the idea of moral autonomy. In that older model. Clayton . social engineering project – had a great deal to do with that change. to insist on considering the fact that modern biopolitics has “worked” phenomenally well. as did the expected level of her effective influence in all these spheres.who is an object of state action) is also a moral subject. This too was part of the Machbarkeitswahn of modernity. Harry. To give just one example. cultural.” not only an authoritarian one. limiting. constraining. bureaucratic. Again. In that sense. Fourth. 92 And that consenus is almost always fundamentally a nasty. more or less socially competent. therefore. There was a reason for the “Machbarkeitswahn” of the early twentieth century: many marvelous things were in fact becoming machbar. time was on the side of that opposition. rather than by obedience. The regulation of sexual and reproductive life has long been understood in European societies to be among the most fundamental issues of morality. as expanding the range of their choices. 37. or indeed as doing anything positive for them at all. Jay. at the most simple-minded level. or. The political “subject” (or citizen — as opposed to the political subject. there is virtually a biopolitical consensus. Facism. as empowering them. it may not be so simpleminded. Democracy. Central European History. and the sexual and reproductive autonomy implied in the individual control that is a central element of the modern biopolitical complex. after all. social. in other words. and here again. one that partakes in crucial ways of the essential quality of National Socialism. and by 1929 (when average real purchasing power was not significantly higher than it 1913) it was only 9. more or less moral and self-disciplined. then. It is striking. one that focuses less on the machinations of technocrats and experts. infant mortality in Germany in 1900 was just over 20 percent. This made it a matter of increasing importance whether the average person was more or less educated and informed. In this sense. Dickinson ‘4 – professor at UCincinnati [Edward Dickenson. craziness) at all. There is.

Amanda. Jay. Harry.Cap Kritik 143/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab DML. Ian. Clayton . Rothenbaum.

Satellites. Rothenbaum. Jay. dml) Most obviously. can also be useful for monitoring climate change and other forms of environmental crisis such as deforestation and imminent hurricanes. have helped open up phone and Internet communications for marginalized people. First. Clayton . for example. Rather. including satellites manufactured by capitalist companies. Satellites have even been commissioned by the United Nations to track the progress of refugees in Africa and elsewhere DML. November 2010. especially those not yet connected by cable. This is not to say. it should be addressed toward ameliorating the many crises that face global society. Is $2 billion and upwards to help the private sector find new forms of space vehicles really a priority for public funding. Satellites. There are many serious crises down here on Earth that have urgent priority when considering the humanization of outer space. Monthly Review Vol 62.Cap Kritik 144/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Satellites Good Even if there are problems with satellites – they help the disempowered Dickens 10 – *Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex (Peter. Harry. Amanda. however. Ian. No 6. They have proved useful in coordinating humanitarian efforts after natural disasters. “The Humanization of the Cosmos – To What End?”. especially at a time when relative social inequalities and environmental conditions are rapidly worsening? The military-industrial complex might well benefit. that public spending on space should be stopped. the technology allowing a human presence in the cosmos would be focused mainly on earthly society. but it hardly represents society as a whole. there is the obvious fact of social inequalities and resources.

they will strive to maximize their power. Humans endured because natural selection gave them the right behaviors to last in those conditions. whether races.edu/againsthate/Journal1/waller. Moral constraints are less powerful in groups than in individuals. domination. Niebuhr argued that there is a “basic difference between the morality of individuals and the morality of collectives. There is a diffusion of responsibility within groups that can make evildoing a relatively simple matter. was another vocal proponent of individual regression in groups. My argument is that anarchy is even more important than most scholars of international relations recognize. operationalizes. classes or nations. http://guweb2. Evolutionary theory explains why individuals are motivated to act as offensive realism expects.”9 What is this basic difference? In short. pg. Darwin and International Relations: On the Evolutionary Origins of War and Ethnic Conflict. who taught for many years at Union Theological Seminary in New York City. and narcotizes the emergence of man’s various and often unsavory selves. legitimates.”10 The voluminous psychological literature on group dynamics certainly affirms that groups can develop characteristics that create a potential for extraordinary evil. although individuals are capable of goodness and morality. whether an individual is a captain of industry or a conquistador. Mearsheimer advances a powerful argument that anarchy is the fundamental cause of such behavior. Amanda. 2004. shelter.” 2001/02. thus. As Israel Charny writes: “It is a human being who operates through the mechanisms of group behavior to do what he does to fellow human beings. 75-76) The central issue here is what causes states to behave as offensive realists predict. “Perpetrators of Genocide: An Explanatory Model of Extraordinary Human Evil. groups are inherently selfish and uncaring. and forging and maintaining alliances. Jay. This is what neorealists call a self-help system: leaders of states arc forced to take these steps because nothing else can guarantee their security in the anarchic world of international relations. even if they must hurt other humans or risk injury to themselves. first published in 1932. or other resources). as offensive realists expect them to behave.” he writes.Cap Kritik 145/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Competition Inevitable Realism and the self-help theory are rooted in human nature – anarchic worlds from the dawn of time to today created an impetus for realist thought. “when we proceed from the life of individuals to that of social groups. Darwin and International Relations: On the Evolutionary Origins of War and Ethnic Conflict. This environment produced the behaviors examined here: egoism. a clear distinction between the character of people acting in large social groups as opposed to their character as individual people. and the in-group/out-group distinction. In addition. “The proportion of reason to impulse becomes increasingly negative. Rothenbaum. I argue that evolutionary theory also offers a fundamental cause for offensive realist behavior. encourage the abandonment of the individual self. Thayer 2004 – Thayer has been a Fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and has taught at Dartmouth College and the University of Minnesota (Bradley. 70-71) DML.pdf) Reinhold Niebuhr. The fact that there is no world government compels the leaders of states to take steps to ensure their security.gonzaga. There is. 2004. not particularly strong or swift—survived and evolved to become what we consider human. Niebuhr argued. Clayton .empirically proven Thayer 2004 – Thayer has been a Fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and has taught at Dartmouth College and the University of Minnesota (Bradley. in the proper circumstances. Harry. such as striving to have a powerful military.groups inevitably trend toward selfishness and self-interest Waller 1. through wealth or leadership) or control over ecological circumstances (such as meeting their own and their family's or tribes need for food. Even if individuals aren’t biologically selfish. In his provocatively titled Moral Man and Immoral Society. Ian. aggressing when forced to do so. These specific traits arc sufficient to explain why leaders will behave. but it is the mechanism of group experience that potentiates. groups have a power to repress dissent and.”11 Humans are biologically selfish. among whom a common mind and purpose is always more or less inchoate and transitory and who depend therefore upon a common impulse to bind them together. our ancestors lived in a state of nature in which resources were poor and dangers from other humans and the environment were great—so great that it is truly remarkable that a mammal standing three feet high—without claws or strong teeth. That is. The human environment of evolutionary adaptation was anarchic. pg. defined as either control over others (for example.Professor and Chair of psychology at Whitworth College (James.

or Somali warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid. Dawkins focuses his analysis on the gene. principally reproduction and food consumption. Evolutionary theorists now recognize. an acceptance of or conformity to a particular status quo lowers the risk of conflict in a dominance hierarchy. Over time. among others. cooperation. albeit more slowly. evolutionary theory provides an explanation for what is commonly known. Similarly. or to religion. Egoism thus becomes a trait or adaptation in animals. Third. if the child were a first cousin. realists and. and leaders such as Julius Caesar. but less so in their behavior toward genetic relatives. complex social behavior among unrelated individuals can be seen as the interaction of selfish individuals. Humans are inherently selfish."72 Three factors cause this ease of indoctrination. and these contributed to fitness. such as humans. and so the behavior spreads. as a result of William Hamilton's idea of inclusive fitness. Louis XIV. above that of other members of the social group. Jay. suggest that humans readily give allegiance or submit to the state. and psychologist Donald Campbell. Rothenbaum. Irendus Eibl-Eibesfeldt.O. Clayton . Beginning with chemicals in a primordial "soup. evolutionary theory can explain egoism and suggests why cooperation between unrelated individuals is very often difficult and remarkably unlike the behavior one encounters within the family. shelter. in parent-offspring and sibling relationships. rational choice theorists also do not expect individuals or states to show this type of behavior beyond their own self-interest." For these reasons. and Hamilton. that aids survival. the group could fall apart and then die out because of predation from its or another species. Some cells became specialized.research proves Thayer 2004 – Thayer has been a Fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and has taught at Dartmouth College and the University of Minnesota (Bradley. This is because close relatives share at least fifty percent of their genotype—one-half for siblings and parents.77 Biology makes us inherently self-interested-disproves all other theories.76 Political institutions. conformity helps keep groups together!' If group conformity becomes too weak. and one-eighth for cousins. however. such as the formation of a thin membrane that held the contents of the molecule together to become a primitive cell. and most evolutionary theorists expect no tendency toward solidarity. Haldane wrote in 1955.O. that individuals favor those who are close genetic relatives. that egoism is more complex than Darwin envisioned. onequarter for aunts. could flourish as long as the child were his offspring or sibling. Genes did not want to create or inhabit people. egoistic behavior contributes to fitness. But again. the gene that inclines a man to jump into a river to save a drowning child. DML. Hamilton recognized that individuals are egoistic. The concern for survival in a hostile environment also requires that in a time of danger or great stress an individual organism usually places its life. Consequently. Dawkins. These understandings have great consequences for the study of politics. Darwin and International Relations: On the Evolutionary Origins of War and Ethnic Conflict. and so on— are satisfied so that it can continue to survive. uncles. or tribe. Ian. belonging to the group is better—it increases chances of survival— than existing alone. and in time efficient copy makers emerged. as we will see below. whether monarchies or aristocracies.S. 2004) One result of the evolution of our mental architecture is the ability to indoctrinate humans.74 Thus.54 They made mistakes. because evolution has produced a need to belong to a dominance hierarchy!' An overview of human history provides context: much of it is a record of threats of force or wars to gain territory and resources. Second. its survival. Albert Somit and Steven Peterson. The gene creates an instinctual or genetic basis for egoism because it is concerned only with satisfying its wants.Cap Kritik 146/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Evolutionary theory offers two sufficient explanations for the trait of egoism. even if belonging requires subordination. and thus to take a one-in-ten chance of dying. The organism evolved largely to satisfy the wants of the gene. As E. survival in an anarchic and dangerous world dictates membership in a group and produces a fear of ostracism from it. Wilson. but the process continued nonetheless. The fundamental point here is that "selfishness" of the gene increases its fitness. or to ideologies like liberalism or communism. As the great evolutionary theorist J. the pack. creating organs and ultimately animal bodies. First. As a result of the ideas of Darwin. herd. Indeed." The gene could also spread." different types of molecules started forming. As I discussed in chapter 1. for most primates. there is no intentionality in this process.B. these "survival machines" became more sophisticated due to evolution. Harry. Thus. Amanda. or altruism beyond what is in the interests of the animals. Wilson writes: "human beings are absurdly easy to indoctrinate—they seek it. and in a similar manner egoism evolves through a population. since the cousin shares an average of one-eighth of his genes. E. as I stressed in the previous chapter. such as government bureaucracies and the military. It has to ensure that its physiological needs—for food. not the organism. and grandparents. The first is a classic Darwinian argument: Darwin argued that an individual organism is concerned for its own survival in an environment where resources are scarce. The selfish gene theory of evolutionary theorist Richard Dawkins pro vides the second sufficient explanation for egoism. Haldane captured this point well when he wrote that he would give his life to save two of his brothers (each sharing half of his genotype) or eight of his cousins (each sharing one-eighth of his genotype). typify dominance hierarchies—as do the modern state and its many institutions.

And suppose two societies A and B are in competition with one another for food.was protection from the predatory effects of other groups'. say. were worth it in the biological sense of enabling them to enhance their reproductive success. For suppose we have three non-kin related societies A. individuals would have joined groups which. Then if. Ian. despite their costs. A makes an alliance with C in order to conquer B and succeeds. on this view. Alexander advances the idea that 'at some early point in our history the actual function of human groups . 161. ensnared and forcibly run to ground just as in a chase. in any event. shelter and other resources necessary to survival and differential reproduction. “Political realism in international theory” p.the significance for their individual members . Rothenbaum. a brand of warfare.deceived. Alexander calls this 'the Balance-of-Power hypothesis'. and it is easy to see why a term from the lexicon of international relations is appropriate in accounting for the rise of large states.peting human units. it will have significantly expanded its relative resource base. a hunt in which people were treated as prey . To protect themselves.. Harry.Associate Professor of Politics at Monash University (Robert D. JSTOR) As alternative. The guiding thought here. Amanda.Cap Kritik 147/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Spegele 96. groups or institutions . B and C. provides biological content to Martin Wight's incisive observation: 'The idea of balance arises naturally in considering any relationship between com. Jay.28 Early life was. 29 DML. Those societies in the past which learned how to engage successfully in balance of power politics would have been naturally selected for and have expanded from smaller groups to larger groups. Clayton .

there is every hope that the benefits of space exploration and development may be made available to everyone. Ian. It depends on which interests are doing the humanizing. The rocks of Mars would have a right to remain unchanged.*Visiting Professor of Sociology at the University of Essex AND **Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Brighton (Peter and James. Harry. arguing that it only leads to further human self-aggrandizement and a continuing denial of humanity’s spiritual links with the cosmos. These values are contested by social movements such as the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space. Cosmic Society: Towards a Sociology of the Universe pg 157-158. would we not be morally obliged to try to prevent asteroid collisions in space? And what if the survival of life on Earth really did depend on changing the climate on other planets? Surely upholding the rights of lifeless planets is absurd? Ultimately. we should return to the Earthly world of political economy if we are to get a more accurate picture of what lies behind the privatization and colonization of outer space. as its name implies. socially and politically made. DML. It does not necessarily entail a view that humans are masters of the universe. How is populating Mars to be weighed against human lives that could be saved on Earth with the money involved in reaching the planet? What if spreading life to Mars destroys what little life may be there already? Similarly. Amanda. And more often than not they are an expression of power relations. Yet. asocial way. Like this movement. The deep ecology-type position does not demand that life be spread to Mars. both positions raise important dilemmas. An anthropocentric standpoint is. As in Naess’s (1989) ‘deep ecology’. This is not to say that the humanization of outer space is an inherently bad thing. this can mean attaching value to human and non-human life for its own sake. Crucially. Jay. as McKay notes. These values are. The values are all inevitably human. however. Clayton . for values are social constructs. we cannot identify cosmic need in a disinterested. Privatizing outer space would only enhance the power of the already powerful.Cap Kritik 148/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Link turn – Deep Eco Affs Deep ecology resists privatization that allows for space control Dickens and Ormrod 7 . is perfectly clear where its priorities lie. inescapable. Perhaps there are some lessons here from Earth to outer space. Rothenbaum. Individuals and institutions are straightforwardly attempting to protect their investments. if the universe is treated with care and respect rather than as a resource to be exploited. which. The universe has no ‘value’ except that ascribed to it by society. dml) The other perspectives McKay forwards hinge around ‘intrinsic worth’ being attached to non-human nature. The latter position would appear to reject planetary engineering as ‘life has no precedence over non-life’ (1990: 192). Tarnas (2006) disagrees strongly with this position. This is abundantly clear when we consider the legal rights being demanded by those attempting to own part of the Moon or Mars. were we to take the cosmocentric ethic seriously. even though this would be at odds with the deep ecological principle of non-interference. as Val Plumwood (2001) recognizes in relation to Earthly environmental ethics. Or it can mean a ‘cosmocentric’ ethic in which value is extended to inanimate objects like dead planets and asteroids. in the end. At first glance McKay notes that the former position would seem to advocate planetary engineering on the basis that we have a duty to maximize Mars’s ‘biological potential’.

Yet frustratingly. Amanda. Australia AND **Director of the Institute for Creative Industries and Innovation and Professor in Culture and Communication at QUT (Christy and Phil. the discursive production of its spatiality. not one deals with Antarctica. there is a curious critical silence. But this does not automatically eliminate Mars from the field of colonial spatiality. A survey of leading postcolonial journals demonstrates this refusal: of the hundreds of articles in these publications.Cap Kritik 149/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Aff – Alt Fails – Mars A postcolonialist analysis of Mars fails – it’s different from historical conditions Collis and Graham 9 – *Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty. Ian. 3 And while there are clear similarities between past and present colonialisms. 60) points out in his discussion of the difficulty of accommodating contemporary Antarctic colonialisms within existing postcolonial theoretical frameworks. the planned colonization. when it comes to new colonialisms. and spatial production of Mars are decidedly unlike British practices of the last few centuries. Indonesia. and not one addresses Space. For example. To generalize. European epistemologies. ‘post-colonial studies are too preoccupied with a linear account of liberation in certain countries’. Harry. dml) Postcolonial spatial theory is an analytical lens through which to view Martian spatiality in its historical character: it allows for a useful view on the cultural construction of the planet. Clayton . viii) argues. Rothenbaum. Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. despite the fact that Australia has laid contentious claim to 42 per cent of Antarctica since 1933 – a claim solely based on acts of imperial exploration and flagraising. and Canada have emerged. exploration. and the ways in which established power groups work to prefigure the planet as an object of capitalist commodification and strategic managerialism. Or as Dodds (2006. DML. As Ferro (1997. postcolonialism is inherently Eurocentric because it focuses almost entirely on European empires. and ongoing colonization – the voluminous field of Australian postcolonial studies has refused or failed to acknowledge this situation. despite the proliferation of postcolonial analyses of past colonial spatialities. postcolonialism tends to figure imperialism and colonialism and their associated spatialities as historical European phenomena from whose ruins nations such as Australia. Jay. “Political geographies of Mars: A history of Martian management”. and European spaces of the past. MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY Vol 4(3): 247–261.

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Aff – AT – Patriarchy
Spread of capitalism is key to women’s equality Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO
Johan Norberg, In Defense of Global Capitalism, pg. 23

Growing prosperity gives women more opportunity to become independent and provide for themselves. Experience from Africa and elsewhere shows that women are often leading entrepreneurs for various kinds of small-scale production and exchange in the informal sector, which suggests that, absent discrimination and regulation by the government, the market is their oyster. And indeed, the worldwide spread of freer conditions of service and freer markets has made it increasingly difficult for women to be kept out. Women today constitute 42 percent of the world's work force, compared with 36 percent 20 years ago. Capitalism doesn't care whether the best producer is a man or a woman. On the contrary, discrimination is expensive because it involves the rejection of certain people's goods and labor. All studies have shown that respect for women's rights and their ability to exert influence in the home are closely bound up with their ability to find employment outside the home and earn an independent income.

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Aff – AT – Invisible Committee
They have it backwards, revolutions aren’t a threat to global empire, they sustain it. Bonta 9 - Associate Professor of Geography (Mark, “The Multitude and its Doppelgänger: An Exploration of Global Smooth Space”, ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, 2009, 8 (2), 245-277.) NAR In the postmodern era (1945-present), two spectral networks—International Communism and International Terrorism (Sageman, 2004)—have had life breathed into them and have served, in concert with the ‘Evil Empire’ and certain ‘rogue states,’ to instill microfascisms in many a democraticand freedom-loving body in the USA, while in realpolitik advancing the spread and penetrations of Empire. The grand International Communist Conspiracy, with roots in the late 1800s, was the earlier of the two, and it served its purpose well all the way up to the end of the 1980s. To keep the Reds at bay, the secret state infiltrated the Left as successfully as the Right (Quigley, 1966), coming to saturate the media, academe, and public relations (Saunders, 2000), though often passing itself off as inept, inefficient, and even relatively powerless. During this time, subversive revolutionary movements both domestic and foreign were not necessarily decapitated as often as they were made safe, channelled into ‘more productive’ operations; or, if need be, as described above, swung in the other direction, steered and tricked into spectacular false flag operations that gave excuses for jailtime, invasion, toppling of regimes, or at least sanctions or discrediting. Authoritarian/communist/police states with eyes everywhere became necessities not only because of
internal paranoia and the ‘nature of totalitarian State power’ but also because of the myriad sabotages practiced by the ‘free world’— the experience of Gladio (Blum, 2004) is extremely instructive here, and the case of Castro’s Cuba comes to mind as well. Terrible questions are suggested, such as if some political prisoners really are plotting to violently overthrow the regime, then should the regime, to prove its ‘commitment to democracy,’ let them go? The newer menace of international Islamic

terrorism is built on the premise of a network that arose out of two secretive groups— Wahabism, based in Saudi Arabia, and the Muslim Brotherhood, engendered in Egypt—that coalesced in the 1980s

through resistance to the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. Emboldened by the withdrawal of the USSR, the foreign mujahedin returned to their countries and were rebuffed, if not detained and tortured, by the regimes in power, who did the bidding of the US. Thence, led by Osama bin Laden, they turned on the West (Esposito, 2002; Scheuer, 2003; Sageman, 2004). But

the very existence of a selfnamed and cohesive ‘Al Qa’eda’ network, which was named at the behest of FBI agent John O’Neill (Frontline, 2002), has been questioned, most notably and effectively in the BBC documentary ‘Power of Nightmares’ (Curtis, 2005), which argues that International Terrorism is the ultimate bugaboo narrative that serves to bolster the power of governments that no longer provide us with comfort and positive achievement (capitalism does that) and so have refashioned themselves as our protectors from nightmares. ‘Al Qaeda’ has, nevertheless, taken on a monstrous existence, just as the International Communist Conspiracy did in the days of McCarthy—perpetrating devastating crimes such as 9-11-2001 and 3-11-2003 and 7-7-2005 (intriguingly, the only person to ever be convicted of 9-11 plotting was released in early 2006 in Germany—the US government was unwilling to provide prosecutors with requested evidence: Agence France-Presse, 2006). Ahmed (2006) provides a solid argument for Al Qa’eda as intricately interwoven with what we are calling Empire. The evidence for the perpetrators behind 9-11, as well as other terror events, points back to Empire’s networks (conservatively put, ‘rogue elements of X’), and particularly,
as gagged whistleblower Sibel Edmonds has it (www.justacitizen.org; see Rose, 2005, and other literature on her case), to networks of far-right mercenaries (which of course Osama bin Laden always was in any case) duping other cells of mercenary-terrorists connected not to ‘rogue states’ like Iraq, Iran, and North Korea but to major Western powers and allied states, to NGOs and drug trafficking, money-laundering, influence-peddling, and other P2/IranContra/BCCI/Gladio-type operations. Needless to say,

massive funds are poured into the US’s ‘black budget’ and its open budget to better fight this terrorist menace, possibly by infiltrating its cells and pushing its operatives to carry out acts they might not otherwise choose to, horrendous crimes that give Empire an excuse to further its agenda (Hess, 2002).

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Aff – AT – Epistemology
Prefer our evidence – their evidence is futile intellectual pride Saunders 7

Peter, Adjunct Professor at the Australian Graduate School of Management, Why Capitalism is Good for the Soul, http://www.cis.org.au/POLICY/summer%2007-08/saunders_summer07.html Andrew Norton notes that disaffected intellectuals since Rousseau have been attacking capitalism for

its failure to meet ‘true human needs.’(26) The claim is unfounded, so what is it about capitalism that so upsets them?Joseph Schumpeter offered part of the answer. He observed that capitalism has brought into being an educated class that has no responsibility for practical affairs, and that this class can only make a mark by criticising the system that feeds them.(27) Intellectuals attack capitalism because that is how they sell books and build careers. More recently, Robert Nozick has noted that intellectuals spend their childhoods excelling at school, where they occupy the top positions in the hierarchy, only to find later in life that their market value is much lower than they believe they are worth. Seeing
‘mere traders’ enjoying higher pay than them is unbearable, and it generates irreconcilable disaffection with the market system.(28) But the best explanation for the intellectuals’ distaste for capitalism was offered by Friedrich Hayek in The Fatal Conceit.(29) Hayek understood that capitalism

offends intellectual pride, while socialism flatters it. Humans like to believe they can design better systems than those that tradition or evolution have bequeathed. We distrust evolved systems, like markets, which seem to work without intelligent direction according to laws and dynamics that no one fully understands. Nobody planned the global capitalist system, nobody runs it, and nobody really comprehends it. This particularly offends intellectuals, for capitalism renders them redundant. It gets on perfectly well without them. It does not need them to make it run, to coordinate it, or to redesign it. The intellectual critics of capitalism believe they know what is good for us, but millions of people interacting in the marketplace keep rebuffing them. This, ultimately, is why they believe capitalism is ‘bad for the soul’: it fulfils human needs without first seeking their moral approval. Their attempt to blame corporate exploitation on capitalism is misinformed and continues false teachings that result in corporate bureaucrats. Vance 5 – adjunct instructor in accounting at Pensacola Junior College, Mises
Laurence M. Vance, http://mises.org/story/1887

The all-too familiar circle of the government regulating an industry, creating a "crisis," and then intervening even more to solve the crisis, thus making things worse, is no where more apparent than DiLorenzo's examples from the energy industry. The book concludes with a look at "the never-ending war on capitalism" by government intervention, regulations, agencies, and bureaucrats. DiLorenzo also includes university professors, politicians, and lawyers in his indictment. "American universities devote an inordinate amount of time and resources to teach potential business leaders not how to be capitalists but how to be corporate bureaucrats." Politicians "view businesses as cash cows to be plundered for the benefit of their own political careers." "Lawyers now have incentives to spend their lives digging up cases and evidence against corporations because some consumers stupidly misused their products." DiLorenzo also briefly reviews three anticapitalist but best-selling books: Eric
Schlosser's Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, Barbara Ehrenreich's Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America, and Michael Moore's Stupid White Men and Downsize This! He finds that the capitalism attacked in these books

is not capitalism at all, it is socialism, mercantilism, interventionism, and assorted anticapitalist myths. Although these "reviews" are an added bonus to the book, they would be even better if they were lengthened and made into
a series of appendices.

Their authors scapegoat capitalism – hold them to a high standard of causal evidence Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO
Johan Norberg, In Defense of Global Capitalism, pg. 290-291

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Harry. It contains all the anonymous forces that have served this purpose throughout history: other countries. Globalization does not speak up for itself when politicians blame it for overturning economies. even positive changes can have troublesome consequences in the short term. other races and ethnic groups. Amanda. It is preferable to be able to blame someone else. So if the trend toward greater globalization is to continue. DML. increasing poverty. Rothenbaum. or when entrepreneurs say that globalization. an ideological defense will be needed for freedom from borders and controls. cut jobs. Ian. Globalization does not defend itself. Then there are plenty of people willing to accept full responsibility for the course of events. sometimes justifiably so. the economy runs at high speed and poverty diminishes. is forcing them to pollute the environment. the uncaring market. Jay. rather than their own decisions. or raise their own salaries.Cap Kritik 153/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab All change arouses suspicion and anxiety. Decisionmakers are unwilling to shoulder responsibility for failures and problems. And globalization doesn't usually get any credit when good things happen— when the environment improves. and enriching a tiny minority. Clayton . Globalization makes an excellent scapegoat.

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Imperialism Good
Spreading American values is good – allowing for a plurality of cultures causes genocide Rothkopf 97 – *adjunct professor of international affairs at Columbia
(David, “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?”, Foreign Policy no. 107 (Summer 1997) pg 38-53, JSTOR, dml)

Culture is not static; it grows out of a systematically encouraged reverence for selected customs and
habits. Indeed, Webster's Third New International Dictionary defines culture as the "total pattern of human behavior and its products embodied in speech, action, and artifacts and dependent upon man's capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations." Language, religion, political and legal systems, and social customs are the legacies of victors and marketers and reflect the judgment of the marketplace of ideas throughout popular his- tory. They might also rightly be seen as living artifacts, bits and pieces carried forward through the years on currents of indoctrination, popular acceptance, and unthinking adherence to old ways. Culture is used by the organizers of society politicians, theologians, academics, and families to impose and ensure order, the rudiments of which change over time as need dictates. It is

less often acknowledged as the means of justifying inhumanity and warfare. Nonetheless, even a casual examination of the history of conflict explains well why Samuel Huntington, in his The Clash of Civilizations, expects conflict along cultural fault lines, which is precisely where conflict so often erupts. Even worse is that cultural differences are often sanctified by their links to the mystical roots of culture, be they spiritual or historical. Consequently, a threat to one's culture becomes a threat to one's God or one's ancestors and, therefore, to one's core identity. This inflammatory formula has been used to justify many of humanity's worst acts. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWS-FoXbjVI Rothkopf 97 – *adjunct professor of international affairs at Columbia
Many observers

(David, “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?”, Foreign Policy no. 107 (Summer 1997) pg 38-53, JSTOR, dml)

contend that it is distasteful to use the opportunities created by the global information revolution to promote American culture over others, but that kind of relativism is as dangerous as it is wrong. American culture is fundamentally different from indigenous cultures in so many other locales. American culture is an amalgam of influences and approaches from around the world. It is melded-consciously in many cases into a social medium that allows individual freedoms and cultures to thrive. Recognizing this, Americans should not shy away from doing that which is so clearly in their economic, political, and security interests and so clearly in the interests of the world at large. The United States should not hesitate to promote its values. In an effort to be polite or politic, Americans should not deny the fact that of all the nations in the history of the world, theirs is the most just, the most tolerant, the most willing to constantly reassess and improve itself, and the best model for the future. At the same time, Americans should not fall under the spell of those like Singapore's Lee Kuan Yew and
Malaysia's Mahathir bin-Mohamad, who argue that there is "an Asian way," one that non-Asians should not judge and that should be allowed to dictate the course of events for all those operating in that corner of the world. This argument amounts to selfinterested political rhetoric. Good and evil, better and worse coexist in this world. There are absolutes,

and there are political, economic, and moral costs associated with failing to recognize this fact. Repression is not defensible whether the tradition from which it springs is Confucian, Judeo-Christian, or Zoroastrian. The repressed individual still suffers, as does society, and there are consequences for the global community. Real costs accrue in terms of constrained human creativity, delayed market development, the diversion of assets to
enforce repression, the failure of repressive societies to adapt well to the rapidly changing global environment, and the dislocations, struggles, and instability that result from these and other factors. Americans should promote their vision for the

world, because failing to do so or taking a "live and let live" stance is ceding the process to the not always-beneficial actions of others. Using the tools of the Information Age to do so is perhaps the most peaceful

and powerful means of advancing American interest. If Americans now live in a world in which ideas can be effectively exported and media delivery systems are powerful, they must recognize that the nature of those ideas and the control of those systems are matters with which they should be deeply concerned. Is it a threat to U.S. interests, to regional peace, to American markets, and

to the United States's ability to lead if foreign leaders adopt models that promote separatism and the cultural fault lines that threaten stability? It certainly is. Relativism is a veil behind which those who shun scrutiny can hide. Whether Americans accept all the arguments of Huntington or not, they must recognize that the greater the cultural value gaps in the world, the more likely it is that conflict

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will ensue. The critical prerequisite for gaining the optimum benefits of global integration is to understand which cultural
attributes can and should be tolerated-and, indeed, promoted-and which are the fissures that will become fault lines.

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development. a community of international bureaucrats is emerging. The community of nations increasingly accepts that such supranational entities are demanded by the exigencies of the times. For example. The global marketplace is being institutionalized through the creation of a series of multilateral entities that establish common rules for international commerce. Santiago. as it is called in some parts of the Middle East. Foreign Policy no. 107 (Summer 1997) pg 38-53. but it would be a mistake conclude that the implications of globalization will be limited primarily to the commercial arena. “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?”. Rome. Paris. Seoul. with that acceptance also comes a recognition that the principal symbol of national identity – namely sovereignty-must be partially ceded to those entities. and product safety and labeling standards brought into line. business is the primary engine driving globalization. the United States was involved in creat ing the World Trade Organization and now undermines its effectiveness by arbitrarily withdrawing from its efforts to blunt the effects of the Helms-Burton act. fly the same airlines. disclosure rules must be the same. These governments are the heirs of King Canute. These countries will fare no better. China has set up a "Central Leading Group" under the State Planning Commission and the direct supervision of a vice premier to establish a similar system that will exclude more than just what might be considered obscene. while satellite dishes are technically against the law. is a hub in a global network of business centers in which the lives of the elites are virtually identical. Clayton . the infamous monarch who set his throne at the sea's edge and commanded the waves to go backward. for example. If goods are also to move unimpeded. In China. Mexico City. Singapore. Foreign Policy no. Johannesburg. and commercial laws harmonized. Ian." In these countries. Istanbul. and redress transparent. New Delhi. Still. Amanda. Moscow. immigration controls standardized. In politics. they have realized that to compete in the global marketplace they must conform to the culture of that marketplace. tariff laws must be consistent. "news pollution. In many ways. These players are as comfortable operating in the international environment as they would be at home. the environment. Jay. customs standards harmonized. health. They need look no further than their own elites to know this. “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?”. as international organizations arise to coordinate policy among many nations on global issues such as trade. dml) Some find the idea that Americans would systematically seek to pro mote their culture to be unattractive. and Tokyo all read the same newspapers. and the organizations that they represent in effect establish glob al standards and expectationsfacilitating the progress of globalization. Tel Aviv. Harry. They are concerned that it implies a sense of superiority on Americans' part or that it DML. While the people of their countries remain divided by culture. the control of new media that give previously closed or controlled societies virtually unlimited access to the outside world is a high priority. mores. and listen to the same music. dml) France and Canada have both passed laws to prohibit the satellite dissemination of foreign meaning American-content across their borders and into the homes of their citizens. settlement procedures consistent. 107 (Summer 1997) pg 38-53. JSTOR. drive the same cars. the leading entrepot of Southeast Asia. stay in the same hotels. eat the same food. Hong Kong. The Soviet Union fell in part because a closed society cannot compete in the Information Age. Singapore has sought to filter out certain things that are available over the Internet essentially processing all information to eliminate pornography. Cap is awesome and key to make sure we don’t fall behind in the world Rothkopf 97 – *adjunct professor of international affairs at Columbia (David.fundamentalist Iran communist China. air transport agreements need to be established. Rothenbaum. and almost half of the people of Guangzhou have access to satellite-delivered programming. prosperous world. Not surprisingly} in many other countries . approximately one in five citizens of Beijing has access to television programming via a dish. the recognition that sometimes there are inter ests greater than national interests is a crucial step on the path to a more peaceful. Singapore. and the closely managed society of Singapore-central governments have aggressively sought to restrict the software and programming that reach their citizens Their explicit objective is to keep out American and other alien political views. If capital is to flow freely. New York. Frankfurt. and crisis management. wear the same suits. Los Angeles. Business leaders in Buenos Aires. And if people are to move easily from deal to deal. The United States in particular seems to have problems with this trend.Cap Kritik 157/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Imperialism Good – Satellites Oppressive governments are trying to limit out satellite access – we should increase it to spread the awesomeness of capitalism Rothkopf 97 – *adjunct professor of international affairs at Columbia (David. and. JSTOR.

Clayton . Amanda. Jay. defining software standards. and leading in the related development of the global trade in services are as essential to the well-being of any would-be leader as once were the resources needed to support empire or industry. DML.Cap Kritik 158/194 makes an uncomfortable value judgment. Ian. But the 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab realpolitik of the Information Age is that setting technological standards. Rothenbaum. producing the most popular information products. Harry.

Cap Kritik 159/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Resilient Capitalism is too adaptive to be overcome Serwetman 97 – JD Suffolk Law Will.com/writing/marx. If stereo manufacturers can no longer find a market for their goods. Despite Marx's predictions. has been prevented by legislation and unionization. How many buffalo-fur coat business es do we see? Despite the various crises of the past century. Amanda. Marx also never took into account the effect government regulation and welfare would have on the capitalist system.ninjalawyer.html Marx utilizes the Hegelian dialectic in his attempt to prove that capitalism will inevitably collapse from the crisis of overproduction and the class conflict caused by enmiseration and alienation. but when that is achieved. Capitalism. There is a Darwinian process to capitalism. Successful capitalists are smart enough to plan for long-term profits in addition to the short-term. he felt. Ian. While Rosa Luxemberg wrote that while the capitalism will inevitably consume itself and that socialism is a possible option . such as cable television or computers. http://www. Any business naturally desires monopolies over its markets. The capitalist that Marx evokes in his work is only a caricature of the behavior of capitalists and does not reflect reality as history has shown it to be. The final stage of capitalism. Like anyone else. the consequences are disastrous. in which trusts and monopolies prevent the economy from running naturally and efficiently. Even the Russian and Chinese revolutions cannot be viewed as results of capitalism collapsing. Clayton . Jay. capitalism is perfectly capable of inventing new markets to replace saturated ones. I go so far as to question the Marxist logic that capitalism is doomed to collapse. they close down and invest their money in a new industry. The crisis of overproduction will never happen because capitalism is flexible and will sacrifice it's short t rm goals to achieve its long term ones. nor can they be seen as socialist states because they retain post-revolution ary class structures and are not radical democracies. Rothenbaum. and those unable to account for factors beyond their short-term profits will be replaced by those who can. None of the problems Marx predicted are unavoidable as long as we do not sink to the level of sharks. they will make mistakes and learn from them. Harry. would inevitably be replaced by socialism. and it never has. capitalism thrives and shows no major signs of strain. DML. Marx died waiting for this revolution to come about.

Capitalism and Human Nature. 1 Property Rights are Natural The problem of distributing scarce resources can be handled in part by implicitly coercive allocative hierarchies. suggests that the human mind evolved specialized modules for making judgments about moral transgressions. they argue. hunter-gatherer life is not "a kind of retro-utopia" of "indiscriminate. Evolutionary psychology can help us to understand that property rights are not created simply by strokes of the legislator's pen. whether the local Star Trek fan club or the city council. A free society therefore requires that positions of dominance and status be widely available in a multitude of productive hierarchies. as is the division of labor. Productive hierarchies are those that organize cooperative efforts to achieve otherwise unattainable mutually advantageous gains. which helps us to guard against the concentration of power in too few hands.) aren’t mere legislative creations – they are intrinsic to human nature -recognizing inevitability prevents escalating wars Wilkinson 5 – Academic Coordinator of the Social Change Project and the Global Prosperity Initiative at The Mercatus Center at George Mason University Will. hunting. 1 Emory professor of economics and law Paul Rubin usefully distinguishes between "productive" and "allocative" hierarchies.Cap Kritik 160/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Inevitable Resistance to capital is futile and dangerous – natural hierarchies of power are inevitable and sustain peace Wilkinson 5 – Academic Coordinator of the Social Change Project and the Global Prosperity Initiative at The Mercatus Center at George Mason University Will. Recognition of such rudimentary claims to control and exclude minimizes costly conflict. Property rights are prefigured in nature by the way animals mark out territories for their exclusive use in foraging. Although the nation-state can perform productive functions. and that opportunities for greater status and dominance through predation are limited by the constant vigilance of "the people"—the ultimate reverse dominance hierarchy. New scientific research provides even stronger evidence for the existence of such property "instincts. Cato Policy Report Vol. Aristocracies and dictatorships are extreme examples. XXVII No. thereby somewhat satisfying the human taste for hierarchical status. Rubin warns that our natural wariness of zero-sum allocative hierarchies." Cosmides and Tooby point out that. thereby threatening the viability of enterprises that tend to make everyone better off. and Christine Prehn. Capitalism’s products (property. That. exchange. A flourishing civil society permits almost everyone to be the leader of something. recent experimental work by Oliver Goodenough. Jay. Cato Policy Report Vol. Harry. etc. Mutually Beneficial Exchange is Natural Trade and mutually beneficial exchange are human universals. In their groundbreaking paper. Some forms of hunter-gatherer trading can involve quite complex specialization and the interaction of supply and demand. Allocative hierarchies. but to no one's serious detriment. An alternative solution to the problem of distribution is the recognition and enforcement of property rights. Capitalism and Human Nature. which by itself provides a strong evolutionary reason to look for innate tendencies to recognize and respect norms of property. points to the DML. like corporations. there is the constant risk that it becomes dominated by allocative hierarchies. we are unable to solve formally identical puzzles that do not deal with questions of social exchange. However. "Cognitive Adaptations for Social Exchange. the accounting of costs and benefits. contrary to widespread belief. and transgressions against property in particular. There is no way to stop dominance-seeking behavior. a neuroscientist. Ian. a legal theorist. XXVII No. Cosmides and Tooby have shown through a series of experiments that human beings are able easily to solve complex logical puzzles involving reciprocity. egalitarian cooperation and sharing. Most impressive. and the detection of people who have cheated on agreements. is often directed at modern positive-sum productive hierarchies. on the other hand. We may hope only to channel it to non-harmful uses. Clayton . Rothenbaum. and mating. Amanda. Business organizations are a prime example. exist mainly to transfer resources to the top." The archeological and ethnographic evidence shows that hunter-gatherers were involved in numerous forms of trade and exchange." For example.

when subjected to scrutiny.html Karl Marx's work laid the foundation for the theories that redefined the left in the nineteenth century. By compassion. and takes a more Nietzschean view. the self-consuming nature of capitalist society. by our ability to reason. Because Marx's materialist view on humanity does not acknowledge our nature. Their survival instinct won't let them. human beings respond at a very basic level. the human mind is "built" to trade. Survival instinct and conscious thought can be proven. When we face danger or discomfort. greedy. If one disagrees with the way Marx sees manki nd. though. and it cannot be inhe rent to man unless it's in our genes. At this point.com/writing/marx. then most of what Marx wrote will be consistent. Competition isn't just good for men--it's necessary. since it ignores the role of individuals and looks only at groups. If there were no do more than just sit there and exist. that we have not yet found in our DNA. Our will to power drives us to accumulate food. This argument makes some sense but it ignores two things: the infinite and contradictory variety of experiences any society will produce and the evidence that [h]man's behavior will always be guided by certain instincts. the Marxist ideal is a prescription for disaster. Fear and desire are perfectly natural to us. Marx's first set of assumptions regards the nature of [hu]man[s]. as he feels it can simply by changing our society that we live in. While the species might survive. so the existence of a will to power is hard to ignore. He bases his materialist conception of human nature on that of B. which precede capitalism. any of whi ch would make the continuation of our species impossible. When Marx argued that there is no single nature of man because we're simply products of our society." In other words. Man not only chooses which experiences to learn from. Some of the details have been addressed by modern Communists and Socialists. Clayton . In a single day. content-dependent cognitive adaptations for social exchange. and we can live better. or committing suicide when we're upset. Which experiences influences us most and the degree of their influence is dependent upon our choices. but the basic underlying assumptions of his work. Natural survival instince makes capitalism unovercomable and desirable – sex edited Serwetman 97 – JD Suffolk Law Will. Nietzsche's most sensible argument was that conscious thought coupled with our survival instinct generates what he called a "will to power. Rothenbaum." The individuals responsible for these achievements were generally not DML. If it's not known to be in our DNA. the forces that drove it would lead to its inevitable collapse and replacement wi th communism. his theories are inherently flawed. I refer to our general distaste for watching other human beings suffer--those that enjoy suffering cannot function in society. While Marx gave the world a great deal to think about and has influenced billions. Jay. Looking at human history. he seemed to be overlooking the forces that made man what he is today. We will never be able to adjust to life in a Marxist society. Jeffery Dahmer and Martin Luther King were products of the same society. we can't prove that it exists in all men. Man is a product of evolution. All living organisms possess a survival instinct. attitudes. It allows us to formulate strategies for survival and act upon them. Ludwig Fuerbach. his ideal reflects the same mistakes. Even Marx acknowledges the human will in "Alienated Labor. Marx's economic theory is flawed as well. it would not progress. If one accepts the materialist conception of the world at face value." although it plays no role in his theory." "Will to power" is the application of conscious thought to our survival instinct. money. Every individual's beliefs. humans will not motivate themselves to do anything unless there is a reward. seem to conflict with reality. If human nature can be changed. The genius of a few individuals is all that has kept mankind raised from the life in nature that Hobbes called "brutish. Both men believed that a [hu]man[s are] is a product of his society. Due to our naturally distrustful. http://www. but it there is no reason to believe tha t any given individual would embrace it. without a survival instinct there would be nothing to prevent us from starving ourselves out of negligence. there must be a starting point. That starting point is our subconscious and our base instincts. not accounted for by the will to power. nasty and short. Amanda. and control in order to competition for the things we need. and ideas a re absorbed at an early age by exposure to those of the world around him. Humans are no exception. hurling ourselves off of cliffs. and the viability of a communist society. Those choices are the only thing that separates the Dahmers and Martin Luther Kings of the world. why should we live with the inequities of capitalism? The problem is that his assumptions are backed by no credible arguments. We are separated from other living things. At some age. He analyzed capitalism and concluded that while it was productive. humans acquire the ability to learn and make their own decisions. Ian. No theory of human nature is plausible unless it has definitive survival value. Marx believed that man could acquire compassion and genuine concern for his comrades simply by making it important in post-capitalist society. a human being has bi llions of experiences. Natural selection weeds out people who cannot live wit h others. This would not only take generations to instill in society. and so do not reproduce as often. we can empirically observe a sense of compassion in men that helps us build the great societies that we have.ninjalawyer. However far into the childhood or the womb you take back our chain of experiences. we are free and can develop any way we choose. and he will learn from many of them. and ambitious natures. Competing for resources forces us to establish our identities and maximize our chances of survival and reproduction. These assumptions lead me to question his conclusions regarding the forces that drive history. without which life could not exist. however. As long as our nature remains unchangeable. but what he learns. Harry. It is possible that there are other elements of human nature.Cap Kritik 161/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab existence of "functionally specialized. we would just take them and copulate and nothing else.

Cap Kritik 162/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab rewarded until the advent of capitalism and is industrial revolution. Harry. animal-lik e existence. If these few contributors weren't punished for their differences . they spent their lives working humbly under the "patronage" of feudal lords. DML. Jay. which has increased our rates of progress exponentially. Ian. Amanda. raising all of mankind higher and higher from our natural. Rothenbaum. Clayton . Capitalism encourages individuals to make their contributions and spread them throughout the world.

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Cap Sustainable
Capitalism is progressive, self-correcting, and wealth-generating – ensures sustainability Goklany 7 – Julian Simon Fellow at the Political Economy Research Center
Indur, Now For the Good News, http://www.reason.com/news/show/119252.html Environmentalists and globalization

foes are united in their fear that greater population and consumption of energy, materials, and chemicals accompanying economic growth, technological change and free trade—the mainstays of globalization—degrade human and environmental well-being. Indeed, the 20th century saw the United States’ population multiply by four, income by seven, carbon dioxide emissions by nine, use of materials by 27, and use of chemicals by more than 100. Yet life expectancy increased from 47 years to 77 years. Onset of major disease such as cancer, heart, and respiratory disease has been postponed between eight and eleven years in the past
century. Heart disease and cancer rates have been in rapid decline over the last two decades, and total cancer deaths have actually declined the last two years, despite increases in population. Among the very

These improvements haven’t been restricted to the United States. It’s a global phenomenon. Worldwide, life expectancy has more than doubled,
young, infant mortality has declined from 100 deaths per 1,000 births in 1913 to just seven per 1,000 today. from 31 years in 1900 to 67 years today. India’s and China’s infant mortalities exceeded 190 per 1,000 births in the early 1950s; today they are 62 and 26, respectively. In the developing world, the proportion of the population suffering from chronic hunger declined from 37 percent to 17 percent between 1970 and 2001 despite a 83 percent increase in population. Globally average annual incomes in real dollars have tripled

poverty has halved since 1981, from 40 percent to 20 labor in low income countries declined from 30 percent to 18 percent between 1960 and 2003. Equally important, the world is more literate and better educated than ever. People are freer politically, economically, and socially to pursue their well-being as they see fit. More people choose their own rulers, and have freedom of expression. They are more likely to live under rule of law, and less likely to be arbitrarily deprived of life, limb, and property. Social and professional mobility have also never been greater. It’s easier than ever for people across the world to transcend the bonds of caste, place, gender, and other accidents of birth. People today
since 1950. Consequently, the proportion of the planet's developing-world population living in absolute

percent. Child

work fewer hours and have more money and better health to enjoy their leisure time than their ancestors. Man’s environmental record is more complex. The early stages of development can indeed cause some environmental

deterioration as societies pursue first-order problems affecting human well-being. These include hunger, malnutrition,
illiteracy, and lack of education, basic public health services, safe water, sanitation, mobility, and ready sources of energy. Because greater wealth alleviates these problems while providing basic creature comforts, individuals and societies initially focus on economic development, often neglecting other aspects of environmental quality. In

time, however, they recognize that environmental deterioration reduces their quality of life. Accordingly, they put more of their recently acquired wealth and human capital into developing and implementing cleaner technologies. This brings about an environmental transition via the twin forces of economic development and technological progress, which begin to provide solutions to environmental problems instead of creating those problems. All of which is why we today find that the richest countries are also the cleanest. And while many developing countries
have yet to get past the “green ceiling,” they are nevertheless ahead of where today’s developed countries used to be when they were equally wealthy. The point of transition from "industrial period" to "environmental conscious" continues to fall. For example, the US introduced unleaded gasoline only after its GDP per capita exceeded $16,000. India and China did the same before they reached $3,000 per capita. This progress is a testament to the power of globalization and the transfer of ideas

and knowledge (that lead is harmful, for example). It's also testament to the importance of trade in transferring technology from developed to developing countries—in this case, the technology needed to
remove lead from gasoline. This hints at the answer to the question of why some parts of the world have been left behind while the rest of the world has thrived. Why have improvements in well-being stalled in areas such as Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arab world? The proximate cause of improvements in well-being is a “cycle of progress” composed of the

mutually reinforcing forces of economic development and technological progress. But that cycle itself is propelled
by a web of essential institutions, particularly property rights, free markets, and rule of law. Other important institutions would include science- and technology-based problem-solving founded on skepticism and

free and open societies prosper. Isolation, intolerance, and hostility to the free exchange of knowledge, technology, people, and goods breed stagnation or regression.
experimentation; receptiveness to new technologies and ideas; and freer trade in goods, services—most importantly in knowledge and ideas. In short,

Capitalism can modify into a mixed economy – ensures it’s sustainability Noble 3 – chair of the department of Political Science and director of the international studies program at the California State
University Charles, Why Capitalism Needs the Left, http://www.logosjournal.com/noble.htm

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In combination,

7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab

free market and capitalism have also helped usher in and sustain fundamental political changes, widening the scope both of personal freedom and political democracy. Because of this system, more people get to choose where to work, what to consume, and what to make than ever before, while ancient inequalities of rank and status are overturned. The spread of market capitalism has also laid the foundation for the expansion of democratic decisionmarket capitalism is not a

making. With the establishment of private property and free exchange, political movements demanding other freedoms, including wider access to government, have proliferated. To be sure, capitalism cannot guarantee personal liberty or political democracy. It has produced it share of dictatorships too. But, to date, no society has been able to establish and maintain political democracy without first establishing and securing a market capitalist system. The large corporations that stand at the heart of contemporary capitalism have proven indispensable in this transformation. They are the essential intermediaries in the modern economy, linking financial capital, expertise, technology, managerial skill, labor and leadership. They are spreading everywhere in the world not only because they are powerful, but also because they work. But

machine that can run on its own. It , limits, and above all else stewardship. Partly because the system feeds off of people's darker instincts, partly because it is a machine, and therefore indifferent to human values, and partly because there is no central planner to assure that everything works out in the end, there must be some conscious effort to bring order to this chaos, however creative it might be. Left to its own devices, unfettered capitalism produces great inequities, great suffering, and great instability. In fact, these in-built tendencies are enough to destroy the system itself. Karl Marx figured this out in the mid-19th century and built his revolutionary system on the

needs rules

Marx underestimated our ability to use politics to impose limits on the economic system itself. At one time, and still in other places, even conservatives knew this to be true, and offered themselves up as responsible social stewards. Whether out of a sense of noblesse oblige or enlightened self interest, they volunteered to lead a collective effort to reform the system so that capitalism could survive and continue to serve human interests. From the 1930s through the 1970s, American corporate leaders and a fair number of Republicans seemed to understand this too. They made their piece with "big" government, seeing in the New Deal and even the Great Society a way to forge both social peace and political stability through the creation of a "mixed" economy.
expectation that these dark forces would prevail. But

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Space Cap Sustainable
Space makes cap more sustainable. Autino et. al., ’11 – Chairman of the Greater Earth Initiative

[Adriano Autino, member of the International Astronautic Federation and Chairman of the Greater Earth Initiative; Patrick Collins; Alberto Cavallo; Michael Martin-Smith; Charles Radley; authors for the Space Renaissance Initiative; “Call for a World Space Renaissance Forum;” accessed 6/21/2011; http://www.spacerenaissance.org/papers/CALL_FOR_SR_FORUM.pdf ] Jay

The global economy is entering a deep crisis, the worst since 1929. This is the second act of the "Crisis of
Closed-World Ideologies", which has been developing throughout the XX Century. In 1989, the fall of the Berlin wall was the Crisis of Collectivist Ideology. The recent massive failure of the financial system is the Crisis of Neo-Liberal

Ideology. Both these ideologies failed because they are based upon a closed-world, terro-centric philosophy. There are now almost 7 billion humans making massive demands on planet Earth: we urgently need to open the frontier, and move to a wider vision of our world, so as to access geo-lunar system resources and energy. In short, we need a new "Open World Philosophy". The alternative would be the implosion and collapse of our civilization. The most promising event of the current time, the emerging
countries' industrial revolution, will very soon have to face the dramatic insufficiency of the energy and other resources of the Earth. Because of this they are destined to fail if they remain locked within our planetary boundaries. There are some encouraging signs, pointing the way out of such confinement: in 2004, Scaled Composites proved that low-cost space travel is feasible - as it has been for 50 years. And both China and India have the Moon in their sights: they seem to understand clearly that space offers an alternative to a darkening future. This is because it is now evident that any closed-world strategy will result in

tragedy, as the 1930s depression ended with World War II. Today, since the energy and resources of planet Earth are not enough, it is far too likely that this crisis will end with a terrible holocaust, if we do not reach outside our world to obtain new resources and energy. Consequently if
G20 discussions are to solve the economic crisis, they must include plans for geolunar system industrialization, as the only sustainable direction for development, since this will make non-terrestrial resources and energy available. If governments are to give out financial aid, it should not be to obsolete industrial segments! Help should be given to the most promising industrial revolution of our age: the ignition of the space economy, which can only be based on low-cost space travel. This means, initially, rapidly developing low-cost space travel, industrialization of the Moon, space solar power supply, and accessing extra-terrestrial resources from asteroids and cometoids! There need be no depression if we aim high! If we want our civilization to continue, and to reach a higher ethical level, a new Renaissance is necessary and urgent - a Space Renaissance, the industrial and cultural revolution of our age! Stock exchanges are burning billions each week, but what are they burning? Only bits of information in bank accounts. Real

wealth is not money, but technologies and the potential for work: with 7 billion intelligences, Humanity has
never been so rich! The above is clearly evident to all astronautic humanists, but not to our political leaders!

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The irony is that in practice. but by concentrating solely on individual instances. and it is not good for everyone all the time. Such things do happen. Clayton . As in a war. Government – the Communist Party – was above any law. But someone who condemns the system as such is obligated to answer this question: What political and economic system could manage things better? Never before in human history has prosperity grown so rapidly and poverty declined so heavily. but rejecting all systems is not an option. when Marxists control states. either in history or in the world around us. environmental. it’s short-sighted to reject the free market without a specific and viable solution Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. They believed without a shred of doubt that they knew the truth. To the ruling Marxists. but this isn't the full picture. noncombatants would unfortunately get caught in the battle. because some people drown and some get burned to death. fatal deportations. the goal of a communist utopia was enough to justify all the deaths. The Killing Machine that is Marxism. that of Marxism has been by far the bloodiest – bloodier than the Catholic Inquisition. the rich and landlords. Harry. a wage that has been reduced. man-made famines. one may miss the larger reality of how a political or economic system generally works and what fantastic values it confers on the great majority compared with other alternatives. Ian. emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii Rudolph. including World Wars I and II. Online Of all religions. and that to realize this utopia. as in a real war. In practice. note that all domestic and foreign wars during the 20th century killed around 35 million. In Defense of Global Capitalism." intellectuals. Jay. It left in its wake an economic. secular and otherwise. the various Catholic crusades. that they would bring about the greatest human welfare and happiness. and the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Their Marxism was married to absolute power. In total. A myopic focus on capitalism's imperfections ignores the freedom and independence that it confers on people who have never experienced anything but oppression. It also disregards the calm and steady progress that is the basic rule of a society with a market economy. religions. Is there any evidence. By that method water or fire can be proved to be bad things. Rothenbaum. achieve for its poor citizens. pg. imperialism and inequality – and. There is nothing wrong with identifying problems and mishaps in a predominantly successful system if one does so with the constructive intent of rectifying or alleviating them. bourgeoisie. at this most bloody cost in lives? Nothing positive. traditions and sentiments were expendable. deadly purges. There would be necessary enemy casualties: the clergy. counterrevolutionaries. tyrants. to suggest that another system could do as well? Alternatives to Capitalism end in war and genocide Rummel 4 – prof. social and cultural disaster. Amanda. extrajudicial executions and fraudulent show trials. but these deaths would be justified by the end. For perspective on this incredible toll. "wreckers. Nothing could be allowed to stand in the way of this achievement. and the Thirty Years War between Catholics and Protestants. Hunting down negative examples of what can happen in a market economy is easy enough. even after decades of total DML. All other institutions. 98 Capitalism is not a perfect system. Marxism has meant bloody terrorism. lethal prison camps and murderous forced labor. Marxism is more deadly then all the wars of the 20th century. The Khmer Rouge – (Cambodian communists) who ruled Cambodia for four years – provide insight into why Marxists believed it necessary and moral to massacre so many of their fellow humans. And what did Marxism. rightists. cultural norms. millions might die. Problems are found in every political and economic system. outright mass murder and genocide.Cap Kritik 166/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab 2AC Cap Good Frontline Of course capitalism has its problems – however. The Marxists saw the construction of this utopia as a war on poverty. this greatest of human social experiments. That is. Marxist regimes murdered nearly 110 million people from 1917 to 1987. exploitation. capitalists. they had to mercilessly tear down the old feudal or capitalist order and Buddhist culture. as in the defeat of Hitler in World War II. and then totally rebuild a communist society. Critics of globalization are good at pointing out individual harms—a factory that has closed down.

The more power a government has to impose the beliefs of an ideological or religious elite. had been wiped out. and the rest died as an unintended result of Marxist collectivization and agricultural policies. As a government's power is more unrestrained. DML. the more likely it is to kill its own citizens. It is not by chance that the world's greatest famines have happened within the Soviet Union (about 5 million dead from 1921-23 and 7 million from 1932-3.Cap Kritik 167/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab control. Clayton . in the last century almost 55 million people died in various Marxist famines and associated epidemics – a little over 10 million of them were intentionally starved to death. Jay. Harry. as its power reaches into all corners of culture and society. Overall. emptying it of all human beings. This is almost incomprehensible – it is as though the whole population of the American New England and Middle Atlantic States. Ian. And that around 35 million people escaped Marxist countries as refugees was an unequaled vote against Marxist utopian pretensions. Marxism did not improve the lot of the average person. or California and Texas. Rothenbaum. including 2 million outside Ukraine) and communist China (about 30 million dead from 1959-61). but millions of deaths. the more likely human lives and welfare will be sacrificed. or decree the whims of a dictator. There is a supremely important lesson for human life and welfare to be learned from this horrendous sacrifice to one ideology: No one can be trusted with unlimited power. but usually made living conditions worse than before the revolution. What is astonishing is that this "currency" of death by Marxism is not thousands or even hundreds of thousands. Amanda. Its equivalent would be everyone fleeing California.

” 1/5/07. one can signal by “burning money.edu/~egartzke/publications/gartzke_ajps_07. Ian.1%). Liberal theory emphasizes the pacifying effect of cross-border economic linkages. as national economies become more integrated with each other.org/pub_display. Gartzke. http://dss.Cap Kritik 168/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – War Capitalism prevents conflict through information Gartzke 7.pdf) How many wars occur between “capitalist” countries? It is not obvious how to condense the bundle of factors discussed above into a single variable. requires that we move beyond cross tabs. With trade comes more travel. Li. since market integration combines mechanisms for revelation and coercion. those nations have more to lose should war break out. and Boehmer 2001). The expansion of capitalism makes war less likely Griswold 5. trade and globalization have reinforced the trend toward democracy. Clayton .associate professor of political science at UC San Diego (Erik.ucsd.1491 for the two dummy variables).php?pub_id=5344) First. “Peace on earth? Try free trade among men.627)=6. Thus. This is the closest ordinal value on the scale to a value at least two standard deviations above the mean (3. though the smaller sample of cases for which data on financial openness are available means that only about a quarter of the wars are accounted for in the sample (54 wars. “The Capitalist Peace.” 1/5/07.associate professor of political science at UC San Diego (Erik. Rothenbaum. Anarchy makes it difficult for states to compel honest answers from one another except through the threat or imposition of harm.pdf) While policy differences or resource competition can generate conflict. globalization has dramatically raised the economic cost of war. determining more about these relationships. to exaggerate capabilities or resolve. more contact with people in other countries. OPEN score is at least six. War in a globalized world not only means human casualties and bigger government. and more exposure to new ideas. Markets are arguably most relevant as mechanisms for revealing information. and their relative impact on war. satellite TV.9% of the available sample of observations. almost two thirds of the world's countries today are democracies -. Third.To extend this very crude test a bit further. An economically integrated target can be coerced by the threat of losing valuable exchange. I add zeros to round out missing observations so that the capitalist and democracy samples are the same size and all 222 wars appear in the sample. A leader’s threats against another state become costly when threats spark market repercussions.” expending valuable resources autonomously. forcing actors to choose between bearing the burden of competition and backing down. In short. Jay.a record high.” 12/28/05. Still.edu/~egartzke/publications/gartzke_ajps_07.ucsd. When I do this. Interestingly. they need not produce contests if states can resolve differences diplomatically. Two economically integrated states can more often avoid military violence.PhD. “The Capitalist Peace. Freedom to trade nurtures democracy by expanding the middle class in globalizing countries and equipping people with tools of communication such as cell phones. Competition creates incentives to bluff. and the Internet. both democracies and capitalist dyads appear never to fight wars.cato. http://www.PhD. rather than for adding to the risks or costs of fighting (Gartzke and Li 2003. however. while tactics such as burning money only harm the initiator. Of course. http://dss. the capitalist dyads again contain no wars and the relationship is highly significant (0. Second.006+2×(1. Harry. there are no wars in the capitalist dyads either. It also produces a subsample of capitalist dyads that is about 6. Tactics that impart costs only as a byproduct of imposing costs on an opponent can produce relative gains.26). IMFFIN. Participants learn from watching the reactions of leaders to the differential incentives of economic cost and political reward. Pr=0. Amanda.0. Studies prove. globalization allows nations to acquire wealth through production and trade rather than DML. but a nonintegrated initiator cannot make its threats credible or informative. but also ruptured trade and investment ties that impose lasting damage on the economy. but such acts create a relative as well as absolute loss. a globalized initiator can signal but has little incentive to hamper its own markets when a nonintegrated target does not suffer (Gartzke 2006b). Still.045). States with economies integrated into global markets face autonomous investors with incentives to reallocate capital away from risk. Conversely.OPEN. Let me arbitrarily define capitalist dyads as those where the lower IMF FIN. not much different from that for democratic dyads (R = 0. (LOW) is probably the best candidate for such a test.capitalism prevents war Gartzke 7. Thanks in part to globalization. and democracies don't pick fights with each other. Contests inform by being costly._2=4.Director of the Cato institute center for trade policy studies (Daniel.

” 11/10/05. That doesn't mean that nothing can be done. nuclear deterrence. democracy alone doesn't yield peace. Of course. wealth is measured in terms of intellectual property.is the best means to encourage peace as well as prosperity. either. He explains: "Democracy does not have a measurable impact. provides a coercive step short of war to achieve foreign policy ends. Those are assets that cannot be seized by armies. France. but then.Former assistant to president Regan. while nations with very low levels of economic freedom are 14 times more prone to conflict than those with very high levels. Ian. It long has been obvious that democracies are willing to fight. Peace advocates have long championed factors thought to make war prohibitively expensive. and helped to usher in a world war.civil and economic. Powell 1999). a general war in Europe is now unthinkable. territory). an avid proponent of the democratic peace theory. "liberal political systems. for instance. spreading capitalism . The spread of capitalism alone solves wars and conflicts Bandow 5.org/pub_display. exacerbated global tensions. then it also is true that "states with advanced free market economies never go to war with each other. neither is democracy. in and of themselves. Thus. "representative governments are unlikely to contribute directly to international peace. while "democracy is desirable for many reasons. Free-flowing capital markets and other aspects of globalization simultaneously draw nations together and raise the economic price of military conflict.empirically proven Gartzke 7. Senior fellow @ the Cato institute (Doug.pdf) Conflict is inherent in the allocation of resources among two or more parties. claimed optimistically that “Should war break out between two great nations I have no DML. Out of the ashes of that experience. Senior fellow @ the Cato institute (Doug." Gartzke responds in detail.” 11/10/05. created by the Fraser Institute. In this framework. “The Capitalist Peace. a mutual preference for peace requires that the value of winning be small relative to the cost of fighting (Morrow 1989.edu/~egartzke/publications/gartzke_ajps_07. and other Western European nations to form a common market that has become the European Union. free trade and globalization do not guarantee peace.precludes the impacts of the kritik Bandow 5. Capitalism prevents conflict escalation." That is.PhD." The point is not that democracy is valueless. To believe is does is dangerous: There's no panacea for creating a conflict-free world. the relationship between economic liberty and peace remains. Jay. Markets generate economic opportunities that make war less desirable. for example. Author R. Hot-blooded nationalism and ideological fervor can overwhelm cold economic calculations. Although the causes of conflict vary. But deep trade and investment ties among nations make war less attractive. Clayton . Trade wars in the 1930s deepened the economic depression." he notes in a chapter in the latest volume of Economic Freedom in the World. Cobden. Capitalism prevents war and disincentivises conflict. Imagine two countries attempting to divide up a bundle of goods (resources. they can acquire them peacefully by trading away what they can produce best at home.associate professor of political science at UC San Diego (Erik. Territorial aggrandizement no longer provides the best path to riches." Capitalism is by far the more important factor. financial assets.” 1/5/07. Rummel.that is. If people need resources outside their national borders. Comparison of available allocations is zero-sum. Increasingly. and human capital. but need not result in violence if the stakes are literally “not worth fighting over” or when bargains preempt fighting. Moreover. sanctions.cato. and regional differences. Rothenbaum. noting that he relied on the same data as most democratic peace theorists. which interfere with economic prosperity. “Spreading Capitalism is good for Peace. However. challenges Gartzke's methodology and worries that it "may well lead intelligent and policy-wise analysts and commentators to draw the wrong conclusions about the importance of democratization. the United States urged Germany. http://dss. If it is true that democratic states don't go to war.ucsd. Amanda. say oil or timber or farm products. Contends Gartzke." Gartzke considers other variables.org/pub_display. http://www.cato.php?pub_id=5193/) Positive economic trends are not enough to prevent war. Free political systems naturally entail free elections and are more likely to protect other forms of liberty . just usually not each other. poorer democracies perform like non-democracies. “Spreading Capitalism is good for Peace. including alliance memberships. Harry.php?pub_id=5193/) But Gartzke argues that "the 'democratic peace' is a mirage created by the overlap between economic and political freedom.J.Former assistant to president Regan. http://www. any shift from one allocation to another benefits one country only at the expense of the other country. In large part because of their intertwined economies." In particular.Cap Kritik 169/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab conquest of territory and resources. But promoting open international markets . have no impact on whether states fight. The shift from statist mercantilism to high-tech capitalism has transformed the economics behind war. democracies typically have freer economies than do authoritarian states. His conclusion hasn't gone unchallenged.

”30 Increasing the cost of fighting. Rothenbaum. and which after.31 As the U. If soldiers are expensive. but not whether a contest occurs (Levy andMorgan 1984). making war more expensive will affect who wins. Clayton . Development can alter these incentives if modern production processes de-emphasize land. 2005. even as occupation costs increase. the value of resources in dispute is small or varies with ownership. then states can prefer to buy goods rather than steal them. minerals. if war is a process where competitors inflict costs on one another.32 DML. Amanda. if fighting is prohibitive. and subdue foreign populations. then nations can be better off “outsourcing occupation” to local leaders and obtaining needed goods through trade. invasion of Iraq illustrates. but do not tell us which bargains are forged before warfare. and to a lesser extent citizens. or alternately increasing the benefits of peace—even when possible— shape what each actor will accept in lieu of fighting. prospered as the state extended its domain. Sovereigns. Even the prospect of nuclear annihilation did not deter disputes during the cold war (Schelling 1960). If the rents from conquest decline. Nations have historically used force to acquire land and resources. Harry. Yet. or how long fighting lasts. and power. then states can be disinclined to fight. If. Rosecrance 1996). countries will make themselves a “nice little war. occupying a reluctant foreign power is extremely labor intensive. Jay.S. War or treaties that shifted control of territory changed the balance of resources. Ian.Cap Kritik 170/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab doubt that the immense consumption of material and the rapid destruction of property would have the effect of very soon bringing the combatants to reason or exhausting their resources” ([1867] 1903. and rooted labor in favor of intellectual and financial capital (Brooks 1999. on the other hand. War costs are also endogenous. 355).

In particular. and civil society.” “vermin. Jay. Rothenbaum. Human needs theory is closely identified with the seminal work of John Burton. 3-4) The notion that deprivation of human rights contributes to protracted social conflict draws from the theory of basic human needs. political reform. the most economically open countries today are more than three times as likely to enjoy full political and civil freedoms as those that are relatively closed. Such was the case in Rwanda in 1994. in so doing. Harry.org/pub_display.. and pursue an overwhelming victory that will cause one's opponent to simply disappear. This sort of into-the-sea framing can cause DML. as Tutsis in exile violated the rights of Hutu leaders even as Hutus in power dehumanized and slaughtered Tutsis at home. (Julie and Jeffrey W. since old resentments and distrust can keep tensions higher between groups or countries.cato." July 2003 24 May 2008 http://www. Amanda. Leaders who emphasize ends over means are not likely to hesitate before violating human rights in pursuit of their goals.associate director of Cato's Center for Trade Policy Studies (Dan. communications. like unmet human needs. Rwanda’s history of social tensions. Ian. prolonging a struggle and making an enduring peace more difficult to attain. Human rights abuses. http://www. freedom.” or “evil incarnate” and thereby setting the stage for future human rights abuses. Economic liberalization provides a counterweight to governmental power and creates space for civil society. Terrorism and War: The Process of Solving Unsolved Social and Political Problems that unsatisfied human needs are the root cause of many of the most violent conflicts.beyondintractability. “Trading Tyranny for Freedom: How open markets till the soil for democracy. so too have democracy and political and civil freedoms. And by promoting faster growth. Politicians and militaries can use that fear to stoke their campaigns and further their agendas.associate director of Cato's Center for Trade Policy Studies (Dan.cato. Capitalism empirically leads to increased freedom and democracy Griswold 4.org/pub_display.” 1/6/04. As trade and globalization have spread to more and more countries in the last 30 years. widespread killings. Nations that have followed a path of trade reform in recent decades by progressively opening themselves to the global economy are significantly more likely to have expanded their citizens' political and civil freedoms.Cap Kritik 171/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – Freedom Capitalism promotes democracy. 03 ( Michelle. Deputy Director for Education at the United States Institute of Peace. trade promotes political freedom indirectly by creating an economically independent and political aware middle class. threaten the security of individuals and social groups and. “inhumane treatment deepens the antagonism and the desire to continue the struggle and even to seek revenge. and Helsing. and democratic ideas. who theorized in Deviance. "Dehumanization. Memoirs can likewise evoke violent responses.” 1/6/04. “Introduction: Exploring the Intersection between Human Rights.” Some ideologies use dehumanizing imagery to exclude “enemy” groups. Protecting freedom is key to prevent dehumanization Mertus 6-Associate Professor of International Relations at American University. “Trading Tyranny for Freedom: How open markets till the soil for democracy. Those that are closed are nine times more likely to completely suppress civil and political freedoms as those that are open. Clayton . and democracy. create cycles of dehumanization based on fear.php?pub_id=3630) The reality of the world today broadly reflects those theoretical links between trade. free markets. For example.empirically proven Griswold 4. is frequently counterproductive. Increased trade and economic integration promote civil and political freedoms directly by opening a society to new technology. describing other peoples as “animals.php?pub_id=3630) Political scientists have long noted the connection between economic development. Dehumanization leads to Genocide and multiple wars Maiese. as Louis Kreisberg notes.” pg.org/essay/dehumanization/) Parties may come to believe that destruction of the other side is necessary. but also. intended to intimidate and suppress the enemy. and long-standing human rights abuses fueled the genocidal massacres of the 1990s. and political and civil freedom. Not only do human rights abuses lead to the onset of conflict. http://www. The callous and indiscriminate use of violence.

php?krieger) Jonathan Tepperman’s article in the September 7. then every invasion of freedom must be emphatically identified and resisted with undying spirit. Amanda. venal. and concludes “that all states are rational. 2009 issue of Newsweek. Syria. Ask Milovan Djilas. Russia has a long way to go in esA similar pattern is at work 33 tablishing democratic institutions that can assure transparency in government behavior and hold government officials accountable for their actions. It’s striking and against all historical precedent that for that substantial period. Vietnam and Afghanistan. Although not classified as an autocracy. and nuclear weapons programs—North Korea. Indeed. p.wagingpeace. and genocide. Iran. 99) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. who Tepperman describes as “the leading ‘nuclear optimist. making it more difficult to solve their underlying problems and leading to the loss of more innocent lives. The countries that have been the most active proliferators of materials for chemical. “Still Loving the Bomb After All These Years”. Clayton . “it’s led to what’s known as the nuclear peace…. Nuclear Age Peace Foundation and Councilor – World Future Council (David. which it isn’t. Russia is also on the list.” Actually. if one believes in freedom as a supreme value and proper ordering principle for any society aiming to maximize spiritual and material welfare. Harry. he is asking us to do more than trust in the rationality of leaders." Thus. That road leads to chaos. Protecting rights is a priori – it cannot be sacrificed for anything Petro 74 -. it is unacceptable to say that the invasion of one aspect of freedom is of no import because there have been invasions of so many other aspects. 2005. 480) However. and some near disasters. he is asking us to gamble the future on this proposition. independent scrutiny. a University of California professor emeritus of political science. make the world more dangerous…. Jay. and unacceptable. the development of empathy. Proliferation risks global nuclear war and extinction Krieger ‘9 . https://www. Toledo Law Review. such as those in Korea.org/articles/2009/09/04_krieger_newsweek_response. Dangerous logic! Tepperman builds upon Waltz’s logic." And it is always well to bear in mind David Hume's observation: "It is seldom that liberty of any kind is lost all at once.” even though their leaders may have a lot of bad qualities. Pakistan. dehumanization often paves the way for human rights violations. biological.’” Waltz expresses his optimism in this way: “We’ve now had 64 years of experience since Hiroshima. including being “stupid. despotism.” Tepperman argues.Senior Vice President of the Center for American Progress and Director of the Open Society Policy Center. it certainly is not one on which to risk the future of civilization. inevitable. war crimes. because these weapons make “the costs of war obvious.” He asks us to trust that rationality will always prevail when there is a risk of nuclear retaliation. in Tepperman’s world. there has not been any war among nuclear states. one may still insist on echoing Ernest Hemingway – "I believe in only one thing: liberty. Ian. and the pursuit of common goals. One irrational leader with DML. Cambodia. even evil…. “Why Obama Should Learn to Love the Bomb. Democracy prevents WMD proliferation Halperin 5 . It is thought that the psychological process of dehumanization might be mitigated or reversed through humanization efforts. Libya.” Actually. tyranny. the establishment of personal relationships between conflicting parties. (Morton Halperin et al.” But if this is a peace worthy of the name. and adherence to established international regulations in closed political systems allow them greater leeway in pursuing programs to acquire them. Rothenbaum. the dehumanization of the Jews ultimately led to the destruction of millions of people.” Tepperman shares this world with Kenneth Waltz. “The iron logic of deterrence and mutually assured destruction is so compelling.” Rather. and concluding that so far it looked so good that others should try it. “The bomb may actually make us safer.[9] Similar atrocities have occurred in Rwanda. 9-4. Ask Solzhenstyn. petty. Waltz’s logic is akin to observing a man falling from a high rise building. and the end of all human aspiration. In sum. there were a number of proxy wars between nuclear weapons states.” provides a novel but frivolous argument that nuclear weapons “may not. p. For example.Pres.Cap Kritik 172/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab lasting damage to relationships between the conflicting parties. Belarus. and noting that he had already fallen for 64 floors without anything bad happening to him. in fact. Spring 1974. “The Democracy Advantage”. The lack of openness. in WWII. and Sudan—are all run by dictators.professor of law at Wake Forest (Sylvester Petro. the most notable being the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. and the former Yugoslavia.

The principal bargain of the NPT requires the five NPT nuclear weapons states (US. Rothenbaum. Tepperman calls for providing any nuclear weapons state with a “survivable second strike option. that would be serious.” “Nuclear peace. and the International Court of Justice interpreted this to mean complete nuclear disarmament in all its aspects. UK. but finds the security of these weapons to trump human security. in fact. and that nuclear weapons. These countries joined together in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. or would do so in the future. For example.) the conditions under which A will retaliate with nuclear weapons. at least to some extent. (96) whereas such events are common in authoritarian and totalitarian states. but they never agreed to maintain indefinitely a system of nuclear apartheid in which some states possess nuclear weapons and others are prohibited from doing so. (97) More generally. democracy serves as a check on self-dealing by political elites and helps ensure. Yes. and I would certainly be one of them. made most prominently by Kenneth Waltz. he not only favors nuclear weapons. that the spread of nuclear weapons makes the world safer.Cap Kritik 173/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab control over a nuclear arsenal could start a nuclear conflagration.” Those who oppose Tepperman’s favorable disposition toward the bomb. If some additional states. our species and our future. it is striking that no democratic nation. he refers to as “nuclear pessimists. C. no matter how poor. Tepperman finds that when viewed from his “nuclear optimist” perspective. he concludes that wouldn’t be so bad “given the way that bombs tend to mellow behavior. it is only an unproven supposition that nuclear weapons have prevented wars. democratic accountability also plays a crucial role in preventing major public policy disasters.” It is a theory based upon threats that must be effectively communicated and believed. Ian. The longer that nuclear weapons are not used. etc. We have certainly come far too close to the precipice of catastrophic nuclear war. The more that Country A bullies other countries. because of their threat. Questia) Finally. Amanda. France and China) to engage in good faith negotiations for nuclear disarmament. Most of the countries in the world reject the argument. Harry. Stanford Law Review. make efforts at non-proliferation unnecessary and even unwise. including Iran. “rests on a scary bargain: you accept a small chance that something extremely bad will happen in exchange for a much bigger chance that something very bad – conventional war – won’t happen. the greater the incentive for these countries to develop their own nuclear arsenals. Do we really want to bet the human future that Kim Jong-Il and his successors are more rational than Mr. Pakistan and any other nuclear weapons states that come along so that they will feel secure enough not to use their weapons in a first-strike attack. Tepperman? Democracy acts as a backstop against all of their impacts – no democratically elected leader will allow policy disasters McGinnis and Somin 7 – Professor of Law @ NU and Georgetown Respectively (John and Ilya. The leaders of the other countries must understand and believe the threat from Country A will. the more other countries may come to believe that they can challenge Country A with impunity from nuclear retaliation. has ever had a mass famine within its borders. He also doesn’t make the case that in a world without nuclear weapons. who see nuclear weapons as presenting an urgent danger to our security. that leaders enact policies that serve the interests of their people. Presumably he would have President Obama providing new and secure nuclear weapons to North Korea. As an ultimate celebration of the faulty logic of deterrence.” These would be the people. Russia.” he tells us. since elected leaders know that a highly visible catastrophic failure is likely to lead to punishment at the polls. DML. Deterrence is unstable and therefore precarious. “nuclear weapons start to seem a lot less frightening. the prospects of conventional war would increase dramatically. Jay. Tepperman celebrates “the iron logic of deterrence. be carried out.” Thus. resulting in a global Hiroshima. developed nuclear arsenals. Clayton .” but deterrence is a theory that is far from rooted in “iron logic.” But the “extremely bad” thing he asks us to accept is the end of the human species. “Should International Law Be Part of Our Law?”. After all. Tepperman seems to be arguing that seeking to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons is bad policy. Leaders of Country A with nuclear weapons must communicate to other countries (B.

" And it is always well to bear in mind David Hume's observation: "It is seldom that liberty of any kind is lost all at once. 480. Nor can he coerce employees into working for him: he cannot command their services by edict. http://www. 1974 – Prof. if someone plans to start a business. despotism. then every invasion of freedom must be emphatically identified and resisted with undying spirit. Clayton . Under complete socialism. tyranny. In sum. he goes broke). Published Originally in 1971." Thus. For.com/archives/200304/0783.ism the state would eventually wither away. and no one will stop him.self "not free to become a professor" but the fact is simply thatothers choose not to avail themselves of his services.html] However. as absence of coercion. In both systems there will always be people who disagree. all this is different. and consumers voluntari. For " .. Spring.. It is precisely under a socialist state that the least liberty can exist. if one believed in freedom as a supreme value and the proper ordering principle for any society aiming to maximize spiritual and material welfare. and his plan is un. Someone who wants to be a college professor and isn't. Harry. and the end of all human aspiration. In a free economy. Law @ NYU [Sylvester. the government must force him to go there. is not necessarily unfree. that the state is and must be closest to omnipo. Ask Solzhenitsyn. He may not get the job he wants. The manufacturer of the product cannot coerce the consumer. Rothenbaum. even those who disagree with the whole system. he may call him. can still find employment.."I believe in only one thing: liberty. Amanda. 249-250 In a free-enterprise society. In a socialist so. When we discuss "freedom to choose one's job" we mean freedom in its primary sense. his employees). There. of course. it is unacceptable to say that the invasion of one aspect of freedom is of no importance because there have been invasions of so many other aspects. with a natural motive for providing the best possible product at the lowest possible price. pg. does all the planning and assigns and controls all the jobs.ing to buy his services because he is ignorant. liberty for the individual is simply impossible. Libertarianism: A Political Philosophy for Tomorrow. Ask Milovan Dijas. That road leads to chaos. so that his product will outvote that of his competitors in the economic plebiscite of the consumers. but with socialism the political leader has the power to shut up the opposition..ciety.. but only by paying them at least as much as the going wage for the type of work in question. In a centrally planned economy. PETRO 74 Petro.ndtceda. No one forces him to start the business. If nobody is will. This pro. "4 In a free-enterprise economy. p. where the state owns all the means of production. Ian. he goes bankrupt. But in a socialist system all such choices would be coerced.ly choose to buy his product (if they don't. echoing Ernest Hemingway . in fact. not as the power to do something. it is above all under socialism. because of the power of unlimited government. the worker must ultimately lose his freedom to choose his own line of work. one may still insist. The worker voluntarily chooses to work for him.al be in a position where his income is independent of the government. of course. In Russia what happens is that an economic demand is "created" for a worker in the salt-mines of Siberia. people who disagree with the government. DML. Jay. but he is still free because he is uncoecced. It must control the worker along with the work. Perhaps the most foolish thing that Marx ever said was that under social.wise or short-sighted. Only in a free- enterprise economy can the individu. the consumer determines the economic fate of the manufacturer (and with him. They can in fact usually earn their living by attacking the existing state of affairs.Cap Kritik 174/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – Alt=Coercion Strong state economics ensures totalitarianism and unlimited government coercion Hospers 7 – Professor Emeritus of Philosophy @ USC John.tence . Toledo Law Review. if no one wants to go to a certain area for a certain type of job and the government determines the wages. people who disagree with the government can easily be disposed of.vides the manufacturer.

market uncertainties. and extraterrestrial resources. Such activities aimed at making near-Earth space habitable are the logical extension of humans' historical spread over the surface of the Earth. and natural DML. Environmental Protection. Amanda.Cap Kritik 175/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Space Tourism Cap expansion in space causes space tourism Livingston 2K – adjunct professor in the Graduate School of Business at Golden Gate University (David. “Space Tourism After Dennis Tito. When astronauts return to Earth. a term coined by Frank White. All those who completed the survey recognized that commercial opportunities are possible in outer space.shtml)//AW Investment in low-cost orbital access and other space infrastructure will facilitate the establishment of settlements on the Moon. plagues or growing pollution. traffic management. inexperienced space company management. Culture and World”. mortgage financing and insurance. actually help make the case for humans in space. communications.com/archive/what_the_growth_of_a_space_tourism_industry_could_contribute_to_employment_econ omic_growth_environmental_protection_education _culture_and_world_peace. dml) The horrific events of September 11. author of the Overview Effect: Space Exploration and Human Evolution. Second Edition. **Space Future Representative and Editor (Patrick and Adriano.com/archive/space_the_final_financial_frontier. of which the inhabitants will add to the wealth of different cultures which humans have created in the many different environments in which they live. successful space-tourism industry could bring perhaps millions to space who would. these opportunities may encounter problems in financing and implementation. perhaps even more so than it was prior to September 11.shtml. As mentioned earlier. restrictive government policies. 2001. bringing its people together and forming partnerships from former enemies as space remains outside the framework of human violence. including property/usufruct rights. Their concerns centered around the high cost of getting into space. space tourism. individuals in space experience the well-documented effect known as the overview effect. and war. Clayton .” http://www. Mars. Economic Environment Research Lab. share this experience with others. high insurance expenses. published in 1998. http://www. Harry.shtml. It also solves every impact ever Collins and Autino 09—*PhD.” http://www. Its importance goes beyond its potential economic value as a new industry when it can facilitate a new view of our world. development of new regulatory infrastructure in various Earth orbits. 2009.com/archive/space_tourism_after_dennis_tito. hostilities. These horrors include both man-made disasters such as nuclear war. Economic Growth. Education. pilotage. The most frequent follow-up comment was that because of the various risks associated with commercial space ventures. Ian. This publication describes the transformational experience that commonly follows observation of Earth from space-Earth free of borders and conflicts. Space tourism is key to the overview effect – solves all violence Livingston 2 – adjunct professor in the Graduate School of Business at Golden Gate University (David. The most likely commercial opportunities cited have remained constant over the years and include launch services. This could have a powerful positive impact on our world. dml) In all three surveys the venture capitalists expressed concerns about commercializing outer space. Jay. in turn. Rothenbaum.spacefuture. and what may still come. and complex legal issues. high risks of funding with the requirement for equally high returns. Space Future. A growing. Space tourism is as important as ever. microgravity projects. In the first phase. “$pace: The Final Financial Frontier. Environmental Policy Dept. “What the Growth of a Space Tourism Industry Could Contribute to Employment. As trade spreads through near-Earth space.spacefuture. infrastructure. long development times. policing and other services will enable the population living in Earth orbits to grow very large. remote sensing. real estate. settlements are likely to follow. asteroids and in man-made space structures. Success of such extra-terrestrial settlements will have the additional benefit of reducing the danger of human extinction due to planet-wide or cosmic accidents [27]. they all typically share the same transformational experience.spacefuture.

the space industry would be enormously more developed than it is today. away from the path which would have been followed if capitalism and democracy operated as intended. at the present time. Hence.Cap Kritik 176/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab disasters such as super-volcanoes or asteroid impact. Summary As discussed above. appear to be achievable only through the development of a vigorous space tourism industry. Harry. Ian. if space travel services had started during the 1950s. The achievement of this depends on low space travel costs which.It is hard to think of any objective that is more important than preserving peace. Clayton . and have such horrific. Hence the failure to develop passenger space travel has seriously distorted the path taken by humans' technological and economic development since WW2. Weapons developed in recent decades are so destructive. reducing the incentive to use these weapons by rapidly developing the ability to use space-based resources on a large scale is surely equally important [11. Technological know-how which could have been used to supply services which are known to be very popular with a large proportion of the population has not been used for that purpose. Amanda. 8.16]. DML. Rothenbaum. long-term sideeffects that their use should be discouraged as strongly as possible by the international community. while waste and suffering due to the unemployment and environmental damage caused by the resulting lack of new industrial opportunities have increased. Jay.

which we have seen only a few times before in history. rather than hold them back.Cap Kritik 177/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – World Peace Space globalization key to move away from cold war mentality and achieve space peace Dudley-Rowley and Gangale 6 – *CEO and Founding Researcher. AIAA Member (Marilyn and Thomas. and others with whom they collaborate. India. and where they can wheel and deal and buy any resource to get them where they want to go. OPS-Alaska. When Americans hear Chinese and Indian space authorities claim they will send humans to the Moon or launch space stations. working in a collective way toward large-scale mutual goals. Their large populations. As with the latent functions of the Space Race of the Cold War that produced the post Cold War transformation. Sustainability Public Policy Challenges of Long-Duration Space Exploration. Clayton . Jay. the latent functions of the negotiation of this new world order will open the Cosmos to China. Harry. DML. these societies are quantum-leaping into a state of advanced industrialization on a world stage where capitalism is globalizing. Rothenbaum. Ian.astrosociology. For.pdf. AIAA member AND **Executive Director. dml) The context of the reshaping world order is re-organizing the space exploration endeavor and empowering those who risk to explore.org/Library/PDF/DudleyGangale_PublicPolicy. They see still-highly agrarian economies with their Cold War Era eyes. Amanda. drive them forward. where the world system of societies is interdependent. A key feature of the post Cold War world that makes their progress possible is an interdependence among the world system of societies that requires a level of international cooperation. they tend to hear with the ears of the Cold War world . OPS-Alaska. http://www.

This destruction of species by humans will eventually lead to a destruction of the human species through natural selection.000 years. it has only been since the industrial revolution that the impact has been global rather than regional. have been young adult men. Unemployed. Expanding populations also create rising demands for food.with rich nations causing less environmental damage and poor ones consuming more.org/biod/population/human_pop1. In the US. energy and materials. Although this does not appear to be an immediate danger. At the same time. faculty at Stanford University. Extinction Otten 1 Edward Otten. jeopardising food production among many other problems. While human beings have had an effect for the last 50. This global impact is taking place through five primary processes: over harvesting. Western European nations have tended to accept limited immigration from developing countries as a way to augment their workforce.Cap Kritik 178/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Overpop Expanding Capitalism to space solves population growth Zey 98.ecology. poverty. they contend. 2000-2001. numbers of young working-age people are rising by up to 3 per cent per year. opinions on immigration are already sharply divided. “Seizing the Future: The Dawn of the Macroindustrial Era. Politicians and the public seem utterly oblivious to what will be required to maintain crucial ecosystem services and an adequate food supply in the face of rapid climate change and an accelerated loss of biodiversity. Second Edition. with unevenly distributed resources and a ravaged environment. Harry. disaffected young men provide both public support and cannon fodder for terrorism. is having a grave impact on biodiversity. poor healthcare. 9-30-2006. making humans the dominant species on the planet. still split between rich and poor. Here too illegal immigration is increasingly a problem. Imagine a well-armed world. the complaint may arise that we simply have too few people to populate these new worlds and staff the jobs in interstellar cities.2 billion in the industrialized world. and outright habit destruction..Executive director of the expansionary institute. http://www. The future looks grim. sparking tension both within and between nations as increasing numbers of young people migrate to cities and to wealthier countries looking for a better life. limited education.. Revolutions and political unrest most often occur in developing nations with growing populations. 90 ) Zero population growth proponents consistently fret that a rampant population increase will eventually lead to global overcrowding. Rothenbaum. The strain this puts on ecosystems and resources in developing countries is compounded by demands from industrialised nations keen to exploit everything from timber and tropical fruits to metals and petroleum. Dissatisfaction is inevitable where populations of mostly young people face high unemployment. NJ (Michael G. as the species begins to migrate and establish settlements. where large numbers of illegal immigrants enter the country in search of work. at least two more Earths would be needed to support everyone. Professor of Management at Montclair State University in Upper Montclair. It seems likely that by 2050 nuclear.html The exponential growth of the human population. Shortages of fresh water are increasingly common. future generations will not have to imagine. mounting evidence of global warming makes reducing fossil-fuel use imperative. eventually the species will have to confront the possibility that we will simply run out of room for comfortable habitation. And global wars Ehrlich and Ehrlich 6 Paul Ehrlich and Anne Ehrlich. This is also the demographic group responsible for most crime globally. which also poses a threat to successful development. Ironically. Ian. alien species introduction. pollution. but adopting the newest. habitat fragmentation. cleanest and most efficient technologies for energy use and production of goods and services. Unless we act now. Professor of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics at the University of Cincinnati. Rising oil prices may now be signalling the end of cheap energy. Amanda. The majority of terrorists behind 9/11 and attacks in Europe. The exploration and colonization of other spheres potentially offers limitless possibilities for the numerical growth of the human species. Clayton . Jay. New Scientist Much of today's population growth is occurring in rural regions in the developing world. In many developing countries. unless patterns of consumption change . for instance. as thousands of people flee overcrowded labour markets in poor African and Asian countries in search of jobs. Pg. If the 5 billion-plus people in developing nations matched the consumption patterns of the 1. inequity and repressive government. Capitalism solves overpopulation DML. biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction will be in the hands of most nations and many subnational groups.” 1998.

Clayton . pastures.tating for the resource." What better way to capture open-access resources than to have as many gatherers as possible? Higher fertility is a way to do this. he continues. Many developing countries have poorly specified or poorly enforced property rights.access resources into private property. Amanda. pg. these institutions indirectly affect fertility." DML. This condition is generally labeled the "tragedy of the commons. Formal analysis of the data indicates that these differences are not merely random. the community. Rothenbaum. When fuel wood and fodder are not owned and formal laws of possession do not govern their harvest and use.Cap Kritik 179/194 Norton 4 – Professor of Business at Wheaton College Seth. 159-160 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab The relationship is a powerful one. They have an incentive to appropriate resources at the fastest rate possible. Harry."This.sive harvest. But there also is evidence that these growth-enhancing institutions affect fertility for other reasons. Fertility rates are more than twice as high in countries with low levels of economic freedom and rule of law compared with countries that have high levels of those measures. You Have to Admit It’s Getting Better. and other forest products. people do not hear the full cost of their consumption. Jay. 151) observes that "most contributions by children consist of capturing and appropriating open-access natural resources such as water. and clearing open-access land for cultivation. Ian. often leading to exces."Yet this could "become devas. makes "the number of children the decisive instrument in the hands of the household: The household's share of open-access property depends on the number of hands it employs to convert open. and eventually the individual household." The link between these institutions and fertility partly reflects the impact of economic growth-by encouraging economic growth. fodder. fuel wood. fish.Theodore Panayotou (1994.

war and strife solve nothing. . Heppenheimer observed.” science author T."8 When asked by the interviewer how it changed his understanding of God.”29 The overview effect solves all war.”27 With a renewed commitment to space. To me. Heppenheimer even suggests that “we may see the return of the Cherokee or Arapaho nation — not necessarily with a revival of the culture of prairie. This diversity would serve as a tool of survival. “The Ethical Commercialization of Outer Space”. "I think the minute I saw the view for the first time was really one of the most memorable moments in my entire life.”26 Zubrin likewise claims that Mars colonization will promote cultural diversity in a world where it is increasingly threatened by proximity and overcrowding. opportunities that were last seen. but unfortunately absent on Earth. http://taylordark. . the United States touched greatness. When the Saudi-Arabian Prince Sultan Bin Salman al-Saud went into orbit in June 1985 he said. September 19th 2006. the troubles all over DML. . . Ian. of technology as a tool for human betterment and not a gun on a hair trigger pointed at our heads?” A rare exception to the spread of gloomy visions. “On Earth it is difficult for . They seem the squabbles of mites on a plum. Rothenbaum.” In a burst of multicultural enthusiasm. The experiences of the few become new information for the many. . in the original settlement of the New World and the American frontier. http://www. . an enthusiasm for the future . Livingston 2 – M. . "It really strengthens your convictions. but in the founding of self-governing communities which reflect the Arapaho or Cherokee customs .%20Dark%20--%20NASA%20conference%20paper. argues for the existence of what he calls an “overview effect” in which humans who are launched into space achieve a veritable breakthrough in human consciousness. or any other religion. its hereditary predispositions. Amanda. energy. Sagan writes that “the unexpected final gift of Apollo” was “the inescapable recognition of the unity and fragility of the Earth.com/publications/The_Ethical_Commercialization_of_Outer_Space. Those who wish to found experimental communities. Harry. Space migration will also enlarge the pool of positive images of the future available to humanity – images that space advocates consider essential to motivate and guide purposeful activity. to try new social forms and practices.A. They will start at a place we have labored to attain over several millennia. in Business (David.” White also suggests that “the multiplier effect means that sending a limited number of people into space can lead to a broad-based social transformation.pdf) Others have argued that the diffusion of human beings off the planetary surface will open up new opportunities for social experimentation. “RECLAIMING THE FUTURE: SPACE ADVOCACY AND THE IDEA OF PROGRESS”. and buffalo. and for many others as well. to set up their own colonies .” Sagan continues: “I’m struck again by the irony that spaceflight – conceived in the cauldron of nationalist rivalries and hatreds – brings with it a stunning transnational vision. Those living in space “will be able to see how everything is related. . cultural differences would be cherished and exaggerated. they suggest. “But in space it will become easy for ethnic or religious groups.Cap Kritik 180/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Overview Effect Space exploration allows for universal peace. and what appears to be ‘the present’ is merely a limited viewpoint to one looking from a higher level. Dark the Third 6 – Associate Professor in Political Science (Taylor. Often their commentaries show a world that is united in space. Many space advocates complain that optimistic images of the future have been displaced in recent decades by far more negative views.davidlivingston.D. You spend even a little time contemplating the Earth from orbit and the most deeply ingrained nationalisms begin to erode. and breadth of vision that did capture the imagination of the world .pdf) Most astronauts claim to view Earth differently after having been in space. . that what appears to be ‘the world’ to people on Earth is merely a small planet in space. will have the opportunity to strike out into the wilderness and establish their ideals in cities in space.” Space dwellers will become aware that “we are one.”28 Another space enthusiast. Looking at it from here. according to Sagan. was the space program of the 1960s: “Apollo conveyed a confidence. it's an opportunity to prove that there is no conflict being a Muslim. the psychological and cultural health of America and humanity in general would surely improve. ”25 Carl Sagan also sees more cultural diversity as humanity establishes new civilizations on different planets and other celestial bodies: “Each society would tend to be proud of the virtues of its world. Sagan writes: “Where are dreams that motivate and inspire? Where are the visions of hopeful futures. Frank White. people to form new nations or regions for themselves. Space advocates also foresee a new era of peace and mutual understanding arising as a result of space travel. horse. the Sultan said. its planetary engineering. we are all in this together. Clayton . Necessarily. serving as fuel for social evolution. It inspired an optimism about technology.com/T. People who live in space will take for granted philosophical insights that have taken those on Earth thousands of years to formulate. With Apollo. Jay. its social conventions. .

Bigelow replied: I'm not so sure exactly who the Klingons are.11 DML. Amanda. Jay. Bigelow understands the limitations of our perceptions and the way we do things. When asked during his interview if his cruise liner would have defenses onboard in case of a meeting with a hostile ET.S. I think you have some type of meeting where your technological maturity is met to some degree with spiritual maturity. Rothenbaum. especially since we have technology that enables us to do so much."9 U. said upon his return: "If the superpower leaders could be given the opportunity to see the Earth from the perspective from which I saw it—perhaps at a summit meeting in space in the context of the next century—they might realize that we're all in this with a common denominator.”10 Such space-based perspectives and their spillover effects on those of us unable to experience space firsthand may ultimately have a greater influence on our commercial space business practices than anything we do or say on Earth. Harry. I think the jury is still out on whether or not it’s the human race. It would have a positive effect on their future decisions concerning war and peace. while at the same time this century we compare that against the path of our technological advancements. and not just the Middle East. I think we have a huge divergence between our paths of improvement on spiritual maturity. I think in order to be a member of a species that is a space-faring species that other species shouldn't fear. Congressman Bill Nelson. Clayton .Cap Kritik 181/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab the world. look very strange as you see the boundaries and border lines disappearing. You have to have some harmony. who went to space in January 1986. Robert Bigelow of Bigelow Aerospace of Las Vegas was recently interviewed about his announcement to invest $500 million of his own money over the next several years to build a space cruise liner for Earth to moon tourism. Ian.

Rothenbaum. Obama's end-state of a 'borderless' world is achieved. DML. State and Space: Contesting the Borderless World”. [b]y increasing the range of possible substitutions within a given production process. 23. in which capital becomes 'state. 145) notes that. Yeung 98—Professor of Economic Geography at the National University of Singapore (Henry Wai-chung. four dimensions of spatial practice by capital are suggested (Gottdiener 1987. when space is seemingly commanded and 'consumed' by capital (represented by TNCs) for further accumulation. and (re)production of space. Harry. Amanda. Clayton . Lefebvre 1991. capitalists can increasingly free themselves from particular geographical constraints. “Capital. Ian. Blackwell Publishing. Space therefore remains integral to the (re)production of capital and capital accumulation. No. In the radical literature. Harvey (1985.Cap Kritik 182/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Overview Effect – Extensions Capitalism in space creates a “borderless world” in which people can free themselves from geographical constraints. appropriation and use of space. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. Vol. 3. This 'consumption' of space by capital is manifested in the spheres of circulation (transport and communication) and production (factors of production). Yeung 1998a): accessibility and distanciation. This is particularly true during the internationalization of capital.less' and 'placeless'. JSTOR)//AW Second. Jay. When this 'consumption' of space by capital is completed. domination and control of space. Swyngedouw 1992. Harvey 1989. a proper theorization of the spatial dynamics of globalization should address the fundamental relationship between capital and space.

Without U. a robust monetary regime. Harry. Building global reach capabilities constrains economic innovation in the short run but contributes to its expansion in a longer run. During the Cold War. the liberal order created by the United States will end just as assuredly. power. Trade. Everything we think of when we consider the current international order--free trade. Economic innovation is key to maintaining US hegemony.. there is every reason to believe that the Moon and probably Mars will themselves become sources of energy and material that will serve humanity on Earth. For instance. p. it is important to note what those good things are. such as in Darfur. a finding that supports the Modelski and Thompson (1996) twin peak idea and one that speaks against the generic war/postwar economic contraction assertion that some analysts have posited over the years. Rothenbaum. “In Defense of Primacy. Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota. Hitler succeeded the order established at Versailles. American primacy within the international system causes many positive outcomes for Washington and the world. 89) Various products for consumer and industrial application are spun off from the research and development activities of the space program. growing democratization--is directly linked to U. and Systemic Leadership. Ian. military mobilization increases leading sector growth rates and shares. Growth. Both at Indiana University. particularly war's worst form: great power wars. increasing respect for human rights. Pg. Amanda. Scholars and statesmen have long recognized the irenic effect of power on the anarchic world of international politics. As country and western great Ral Donner that the current system can be maintained without the current amount of U. Today.S. Heg collapse causes global nuclear war Thayer 6. Retrenchment proponents seem to think collapse. More importantly.” 1998. In addition to ensuring the security of the United States and its allies.Cap Kritik 183/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Economic Innovation Expanding Capitalism to space will foster economic innovation Zey 98. Second Edition. Reuveny and Thompson 4.Executive director of the expansionary institute. Lexis) THROUGHOUT HISTORY. the new superlightweight materials now used in wheelchair construction are a derivative of NASA’s advanced material research.S. Every space environment makes possible the growing of crystals that may help in the fight against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other deadly diseases. The Dark Ages followed Rome's collapse. Britain or the United States today. American primacy helps keep a number of complicated relationships aligned --between Greece and Turkey. power behind it.. Indonesia and Australia." Consequently. most notably France and West Germany.*Professor of Public and Environmental Affairs and **Professor of Political Science (Rafael and William.S. Wars still occur where Washington's interests are not seriously threatened. Israel and Egypt. 32-37. Clayton . “Seizing the Future: The Dawn of the Macroindustrial Era. power. peace and stability have been great benefits of an era where there was a dominant power--Rome. p. 77) The results establish that the United States has exhibited positive economic and political inertia as historical values exert significant effects on their own contemporary values. In that they are dead wrong and need to be reminded of one of history's most significant lessons: Appalling things happen when international orders sang: "You don't know what you've got (until you lose it). but a Pax Americana does reduce war's likelihood. leadership reduced friction among many states that were historical antagonists . This is not to say it fulfills Woodrow Wilson's vision of ending all war.. World economic leadership is a prerequisite to attaining political leadership in the form of global reach capabilities.” National Interest. India and Pakistan.Professor of Defense and Strategic Studies @ Missouri State University. Duluth (Bradley A. U. The communications industry as we know it could not exist without the species’ achievements in space satellite technology. Nov/Dec2006 Issue 86. NJ (Michael G. The first has been a more peaceful world. DML. Domestic economic innovation is a prerequisite to attaining world economic and political leadership. Jay.S. Importantly. Professor of Management at Montclair State University in Upper Montclair. South Korea and Japan.

Second Edition. the new superlightweight materials now used in wheelchair construction are a derivative of NASA’s advanced material research. Since its recognized appearance in 1981. “Seizing the Future: The Dawn of the Macroindustrial Era. As we enter the twenty-first century. but a fundamental security problem for the species as a whole. so far. Malaria. The threat of infectious pathogens is not just an issue of public health. Professor of Management at Montclair State University in Upper Montclair.Cap Kritik 184/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Space Cap Good – Disease Expanding capitalism into space solves disease Zey 98. Winter 1997/1998. ASP.. Throughout history. and scientific advances that expand the capability for the deliberate manipulation of pathogens are all cause for worry that the problem might be greater in the future than it has ever been in the past. some 20 variations of the HIV virus have infected an estimated 29. For instance. In the long course of evolution.” 1998. pp. Amanda. “Biological Weapons: A Plague Upon All Houses. including nearly one-quarter of Western Europe's population at the time. Every space environment makes possible the growing of crystals that may help in the fight against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other deadly diseases. An infectious agent believed to have been the plague bacterium killed an estimated 20 million people over a four-year period in the fourteenth century. and cholera . the unprecedented freedom of movement across international borders. tuberculosis. Pg. But evolution is a sword that cuts both ways: New diseases emerge. More importantly. 85-96. Harry.are now making a comeback.) It is a considerable comfort and undoubtedly a key to our survival that.once thought to be under control .4 million worldwide. there have been epidemics during which human immunity has broken down on an epic scale. 89) Various products for consumer and industrial application are spun off from the research and development activities of the space program. the human body has developed physical barriers and a biochemical immune system whose sophistication and effectiveness exceed anything we could design or as yet even fully understand. The communications industry as we know it could not exist without the species’ achievements in space satellite technology. while old diseases mutate and adapt. Rothenbaum. Steinbruner. NJ (Michael G. the main lines of defense against this threat have not depended on explicit policies or organized efforts. with 1.” FOREIGN POLICY n. changing conditions have enhanced the potential for widespread contagion. there is every reason to believe that the Moon and probably Mars will themselves become sources of energy and material that will serve humanity on Earth.5 million people currently dying of AIDS each year. Clayton . 109. Jay.. The rapid growth rate of the total world population. Disease causes extinction Stienbruer 98 – Senior fellow at the Brookings institute (John D. DML.Executive director of the expansionary institute. Ian.

economic growth purported by capitalism is key to preventing disease Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. Thus. Further improvements in human well-being will depend largely on the development of human and capital resources and encouraging the development and deployment of new risk-reduction technol.ogies. things that westerners can afford to worry about and pay for. being expensive. excess profit is used for philanthropy Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. Substantial additional improvements in infant mortulitv and life expectancy are possible in developing countries if they become wealth. blinding thousands every year. as free trade and the market economy promote greater prosperity in poorer countries. pg. and agricultural technologies are more widely spread (Lomhorg 200 I. In Defense of Global Capitalism. might be increasingly unaffordable. Capitalism is not the cause of misplaced disease research – rather. This criticism is understandable. How. which are not necessarily trivial to the people afflicted with them. the rule of law. and transparent government and bureau. Harry. the Third World can inexpensively share in the research financed by wealthy Western customers. solutions to remuining pro hi ems (such as AIDS and the diseases of affluence). and depression. As a result those states have now rid themselves almost completely of a parasite that formerly affected something like a million people. The Merck Corporation gave free medicine to a project to combat onchocerciasis (river blindness) in 11 African states. You have to Admit It’s Getting Better. Without capitalism and the lure of profit. Amanda.~) 1. we shouldn't imagine that everyone would have obtained cures for their illnesses. Capitalism gives companies economic incentives to help us by developing medicines and vaccines. their needs and desires will play a larger role in dictating the purposes of research and production. which include free markets. it is critical to focus on strengthening the domestic and international institutions that will boost technological change and eco.” a strain of rice enriched with DML. freer trade. improvements in well-being have not yet run their full course. pg. This is not money that would otherwise have gone to researching tropical diseases—the pharmaceutical companies simply would not have had these resources otherwise. baldness. In Defense of Global Capitalism.oping country. Clayton . sometimes paying nothing for it. In many fields.ier and if existing-but-underusedsafe_water. such as malaria and tuberculosis. On the contrary. Jay. for example. not for needs. If wealthy people in the West demand help for their problems. that is something that has proved to be a benefit. 334-. 187 It is not a problem for the Third World that more and more diseases have been made curable in the Western world. And. The unfairness exists. once the easy and relatively cheap improvements in health and life expectancy have been captured. and not just because a wealthier world can devote more resources to helping the poor. pharmaceutical companies devoting huge resources to research and medicines to do with obesity. This means. In fact. individual property rights. 22 The Monsanto Corporation allows researchers and companies free use of their technique for developing “golden rice. but capitalism is not to blame for it.ever. Empirically. pg.nomic development. whereas only a fraction is devoted to attempting to cure tropical diseases afflicting the poorest of the world's inhabitants. Ian. sanitation. 186 One common objection to the market economy is that it causes people and enterprises to produce for profit. Rothenbaum. 76 Notably. far fewer would do so than is now the case. whether one lives in <J developed or devel.cractes. their resources can be used to research and eventually solve those problems.Cap Kritik 185/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – Disease Capitalism solves disease – free trade and IPR encourage tech transfer that lowers cost of solutions Goklany 4 – Julian Simon Fellow at the Political Economy Research Center Indur. That westerners spend money this way does not make things worse for anyone.

Ian. A number of pharmaceutical companies are lowering the prices of inhibitors for HIV/AIDS in poor countries by up to 95 percent. on condition that the patents are preserved so that they can maintain full prices in wealthier countries. Rothenbaum. Jay. Clayton . Harry.Cap Kritik 186/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab iron and beta carotene (pro-vitamin A). which could save a million people annually in the Third World who are dying of vitamin A deficiency diseases. DML. Amanda.

what we might call a “California effect. and when they have still more resources they also begin regulating air quality. Four researchers who studied these connections found “a very strong. The worst forms of air pollution have diminished in their cities during the period of globalization. because globalization has caused different countries to absorb new techniques more rapidly. most environmentally friendly technology immediately to retrofitting it. in particular. Harry. whereupon those states again ratcheted up their requirements. Mexico. in a compilation of essays on DML. 225-237 All over the world. What firms are primarily after is a good business environment—a liberal economy and a skilled workforce— not a bad natural environment. Environmental quality is unlikely to be a top priority for people who barely know where their next meal is coming from. it can develop environmentally friendly technologies—wastewater and exhaust emission control. the better control they gain over air pollution. first introduced in the 1970s and tightened since. their preferences will have no impact. and so it is in the developing countries today. Jay. whereas no fewer than 80 percent of the multinationals do so. economic progress and growth are moving hand in hand with intensified environmental protection. easy compliance. if the governments of the world were to phase out the incomprehensible tariffs on environmentally friendly technology. When they grow richer. And they prefer assimilating the latest. 20 This finding undermines both the arguments put forward by companies against environmental regulations and those advanced by environmentalists maintaining that globalization has to be restrained for environmental reasons. and California would soon be obliged to repeal its regulations. Because car companies easily comply with the exacting requirements of other states. Abating misery and subduing the pangs of hunger takes precedence over conservation. Because they are restructured more rapidly. Global environmental development resembles not so much a race for the bottom as a race to the top. Researchers have investigated steel manufacturing in 50 different countries and concluded that countries with more open economies took the lead in introducing cleaner technology. Brazil. and the new techniques are generally far gentler on the environment. tech development. Amanda. and China—the three biggest recipients of foreign investment—have followed a very clear pattern: the more investments they get. they could more Anti-globalists usually claim that the profit motive and free trade together cause businesses to entrap politicians in a race for the bottom. positive association between our [environmental] indicators and the level of economic development. One out of every 10 foreign companies maintained a standard clearly superior to that of the regulations. they have more modern machinery. In Defense of Global Capitalism. needed the wealthy California market. 21 Sometimes one hears it said that. for environmental reasons. Such was the case earlier in western Europe. and they are more willing to comply with environmental legislation. market adjusting to scarcity. otherwise. at great expense. Rothenbaum. When our standard of living rises we start attaching importance to the environment and obtaining resources to improve it. 19 A number of factors cause environment protection to increase with wealth and development. manufacturers all over the United States were forced to develop new techniques for reducing emissions. Ian. trade. Clayton . pg. Production in those countries generated almost 20 percent less emissions than the same production in closed countries. when environmental regulations are tightened up.Cap Kritik 187/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – Environment Capitalism empirically shields the environment – eight reasons – wealth. This phenomenon occurs because compliance with environmental rules accounts for a very small proportion of most companies' expenditures. Many prophets of doom predicted that firms and factories would move to other states. not least because they have brand images and reputations to protect. For example. requires that people live in democracies where they are able and allowed to mobilize opinion. Progress of this kind.” The state of California's Clean Air Acts. they start to regulate effluent emissions. however. Incipient signs of the California effect's race to the top are present all over the world. The California effect implies the opposite: free trade enables politicians to pull profit-hungry corporations along with them in a race to the top. Having done so. were stringent emissions regulations that made rigorous demands on car manufacturers. But it is the fact of prosperity no less than a sense of responsibility that makes environmental protection easier in a wealthy society. A wealthier country can afford to tackle environmental problems. When Western companies start up in developing countries. Environmental destruction is worst in dictatorships. This development would go faster if economies were more open and. Only 30 percent of Indonesian companies comply with the country's environmental regulations. regulation of externalities. But instead the opposite happened: other states gradually tightened up their environmental stipulations. private property Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. their production is considerably more environment-friendly than the native production. democracy. This process is being driven by multinational corporations because they have a lot to gain from uniform production with uniform technology. A review of research in this field shows that there are no clear indications of national environmental rules leading to a diminution of exports or to fewer companies locating in the countries that pass the rules. Countries usually begin protecting their natural resources when they can afford to do so. for example— and begin to rectify past mistakes.” A country that is very poor is too preoccupied with lifting itself out of poverty to bother about the environment at all. the poor countries of the South must not be allowed to grow as affluent as our countries in the North.

Heavy metal emissions have been heavily reduced. air quality in the enormous cities of China. and people are living longer. Jay. compiled statistics and facts about the world's environmental problems. But that information is just about as interesting as if a Raw material consumption is not static. and it prosperous Stone Age man were to say that.000 people die from air pollution when using wood. but even that represents a 50 percent reduction in 10 years. resources are not running out. more than 6. the price of DML. quite contrary to the picture one gets from the media. we start looking for ways of using other raw materials. would not suffice for the whole world if everyone consumed the same things. but at every level of growth annual particle density has diminished by 2 percent in only 14 years. To his astonishment. did not agree at all with official empirical data. because they can learn from more affluent countries' mistakes and use their superior technology. In 1900 the price of electricity was eight times higher. Prices are falling. instead of large-scale deforestation. 24 The same trend is noticeable in the rest of the affluent world—for example.24 million to 43.04 million square kilometers between 1950 and 1994. In relation to wages. Pollution and emission problems are still growing in the poor developing countries. the turning point generally comes before a country's per capita GDP has reached $8. This improvement has coincided with uniquely rapid growth. its price goes up. Metals have never been as cheap as they are today. a few decades ago. where. The oft-quoted. What is more. The trend over the last few decades of falling raw material prices is clear. The cities with the worst problems are not Stockholm. He finds that there has never been any large-scale tree death caused by acid rain. nitrogen oxides have diminished by almost 30 percent and sulfur emissions by about 80 percent.500 species a year. then. In the United States.000. salt.Cap Kritik 188/194 Environmentally Significant Consumption published by the National Academy of Sciences. natural resources today are half as expensive as they were 50 years ago and one-fifth as expensive as they were a hundred years ago. which are the most heavily polluted in the world. In the developed world. such as ameliorating hunger and sparing people the prosperity beyond a certain critical point can improve the environment. it is in the developing countries that we find the gravest. chips. most harmful industrial emissions. we 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab find anthropologist Richard Wilk fretting that: If everyone develops a desire for the Western high-consumption lifestyle. Some years ago. refuse problems are diminishing. And claims that we would need this or that number of planets for the whole world to attain a Western standard of consumption— those “ecological footprint” calculations—are equally untruthful. As for the problem of garbage. Today it is unhealthy for fewer than 10 days a year. and rightly so: the air was judged to be unhealthy for 100–300 days a year. He found instead that air pollution is diminishing. When growth in a very poor country gathers speed and the chimneys begin belching smoke. But when prosperity has risen high enough.300. the steady deterioration of the global environment. All the fresh water consumed in the world today could be produced by a single desalination plant. or Slovenia. The picture that emerges there is an important corrective to the general prophesies of doom that can so easily be imbibed from newspaper headlines. and furs to go around. New York. phosphorus emissions into the seas have declined drastically. UNDP estimates that no fewer than 2. to believe that growth automatically ruins the environment. environmental problems. enabling closed swimming areas to reopen. this is also due to the economic structure changing from raw-material-intensive to knowledge-intensive production. Amanda. the environment suffers. more and more people are mindful of environmental problems such as endangered green areas. even without recycling. in terms of how long we must work to earn the price of a raw material. the Danish statistician horror of watching their children die. energy use. waste.000. consulting firms. In the 1970s there was constant reference to smog in American cities. Ian. and a half ago. It is a mistake. if everyone attained his level of consumption. The documented cases of extinction during the past 400 years total just over a thousand species. But our interest in finding better energy sources led to methods being devised for using oil. Lomborg shows that air pollution and emissions have been declining in the developed world during recent decades. not so much with emissions and pollution. This result is already “disastrous” and far more destructive than atmospheric pollution and It is not true that pollution in the modern sense increases with growth. is concerned. the next hundred years worth of Danish refuse could be accommodated in a 33-meter-deep pit with an area of three square kilometers. Clearly. In the form of silicon—which makes up a quarter of the earth's crust— it is a key component in computer which suggests that demand does not exceed supply. certain of the raw materials we use today. pollution follows an inverted Ucurve. Such a claim is usually made by environmentalists. Apart from its other positive effects on the developing countries. A century There is a simple market mechanism that averts shortages. South Korea. Sand has never been all that exciting or precious. According to one survey of available environmental data. the relentless growth in consumption. Instead. In addition. the environment has consistently improved since the 1970s. in Tokyo. If a certain raw material comes to be in short supply. In our affluent part of the world. this turning point is now occurring progressively earlier in the developing countries. with the exception of Los Angeles. in finding more of it. Tying people down to that level of development means condemning millions to premature death every year. This makes everyone more interested in economizing on that resource. the environmental indicators show an improvement instead: emissions are reduced. of which about 95 percent are insects. Mexico City. and possibly a bit more than that. the world's forest acreage increased from 40. heavy. bacteria. Lomborg thinks it is closer to 1. and viruses. as with resources running out if everyone were to live as we do in the affluent world. and agricultural waste in their homes as heating and cooking fuel. Lomborg gathered publicly available data from as many fields as he could find and published them in the book The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World. and Zürich. 23 That is roughly the level of prosperity of Argentina. oil was just something black and sticky that people preferred not to step in and definitely did not want to find beneath their land. For example. coli bacteria concentrations in coastal waters have plummeted. and air and water show progressively lower concentrations of pollutants. Here as well. In a modern economy.000 species going extinct every year is traced by Lomborg to its source—a 20-year-old estimate that has been circulating in environmentalist circles ever since. the figure is roughly 80 days. Clayton .4 percent of the Sahara Desert. and we are attaining a level of prosperity that makes this possible. the computer. There.2 million people die every year from polluted indoor air. dirty industry is to a great extent superseded by service enterprises. dung. per capita GDP is about $36. Rothenbaum. New innovations make it possible for old raw materials to be put to better use and for garbage to be turned into new raw materials. On the contrary. in reusing it. has steadied since the mid-1980s and in several cases has slowly improved. With more and more people achieving a high level of prosperity. but rather Beijing. that is. and today it is one of our prime resources. Banks. and in trying to find substitutes for it. more people are eating their fill. powered by solar cells and occupying 0. At $10. Every day in the developing countries. In addition to the factors already mentioned. in presentday quantities. Humanity is constantly improving technology so as to get at raw materials that were previously inaccessible. and E. the researchers found a positive connection between increased growth and better air and water quality. he found that what he himself had regarded as self-evident. and New Delhi. but today it is a vital raw material in the most powerful technology of our age. and Greenpeace member Bjørn Lomborg. but erroneous statement about 40. doomsayers believed that oxygen masks would in the future have to be worn all around the city because of the bad air. Harry. and emissions may be disastrous. 22 But studies show this to be colossal misapprehension. Lomborg shows that. with about 10 of his students. Lomborg illustrates how increased prosperity and improved technology can solve the problems that lie ahead of us. and information technology corporations do not have the same environmental impact as old factories. there would not be enough stone.

where all ownership was collective. If the property is collective or government-owned. It was because they were common lands that the rain forests of the Amazon began to be rapidly exploited in the 1960s and 1970s and are still being rapidly exploited today. because otherwise they will have allowed to become as prosperous as we in the West because we can find theoretical risks of shortages occurring is both stupid and unjust. because factories were government-owned.4 (Production stopped shortly after the Berlin Wall came down. Rothenbaum. Amanda. it is important to realize that efforts in this quarter will be facilitated by a freer. there was little incentive to produce any cars at all in East Germany. technology developed instead. By simple Technological advance can outstrip the depletion of resources mathematics. no one has any such long-term interest. must not be The environmental question will not resolve itself. Not many years ago. Goods are produced in the places where production entails least expense and least wear and tear on the environment. but the problem can be rectified with more efficient transport and purification techniques. it is better to have resources and advanced science than not to have them.org/publications/article. Indeed. who are dying by the thousand every day from supremely real shortages. everyone was convinced of the impossibility of the whole Chinese population having telephones. With modern production processes. even though in practice Indians possess and inhabit large parts of them. and there trade can make a positive contribution. It is more environmentally friendly for a cold northern country to import meat from temperate countries than to waste resources on concentrated feed and the construction and heating of cattle pens for the purpose of native meat production. as well as emissions fees to make the cost of pollution visible through pricing. partly because of the use of lighter aluminum. Clayton . had been introduced in 1964.Manufacturers could not reap a profit from making a better car. Owners can obtain financial rewards from using resources productively and they have a strong incentive to reduce costs by conserving on their use of each resource.The Trabant was so bad partly because its design was basically the same as it had been when the car was first manufactured in 1959. soil. the EPA refused to let it be driven on public streets. Systems of emissions fees are needed to give polluters an interest in not damaging the environment for others. then. Private property is key to environmental protection – government has zero incentive to protect public lands Stroup and Shaw 9 – *Prof. When talking about the market and the environment. and wrong. that resource will never be exhausted. fiber optics and satellites began to supersede copper wire. 25 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab The risk of shortage is declining all the time. with all the consumption of resources that would entail. the 601. The introduction of private property creates owners with long-term interests. Very often. In a world where technology never stops developing. 97 percent less metal is needed for a soft drink can than 30 years ago. Before that had time to become a problem. business firms have a strongincentive to implement new resourcesaving technologies. The latest model. and it didn’t have a gas gauge. Lomborg establishes that if we have a raw material with a hundred years' use remaining. after nomads had overexploited the common lands and then moved on. The price of copper. Proper rules are needed for the protection of water. from both a natural and a human viewpoint. But the supply of manpower did not run out. for example. A car today contains only half as much metal as a car of 30 years ago. that the most large-scale destruction of environment in history has occurred in the communist dictatorships. Then it was declared that nationwide telephony for China was physically impossible because all the world's copper wouldn't suffice for installing heavy gauge telephone lines all over the country. There are several:3 1. . In order to meet those challenges.independent. To claim that people in Africa. the people’s car produced in East Germany between 1959 and 1989. it is better for production to take place where the technology exists. Owners have incentives to use resources productively and to conserve where possible. even aside from Trade leads to a country's resources being used as efficiently as possible. because that would require several hundred million telephone operators. One-third of the world's steel production. noisy. it had no discernible handling. Carbon dioxide emissions. of Economics @ Montana State University AND **Senior Associate at the Political Economy Research Center To understand why. This proved to be an area of privately owned land where the owners of the farm prevented overexploitation and engaged in cattle farming that was profitable in the long term. So few automobiles were available that DML. then with the right technology most substances can be recycled. Consider the Trabant. Ian.) The Trabant provided basic transportation and was easy to fix. cleaner technology that would give better performance.Cap Kritik 189/194 coal seven times higher. static calculations are uninteresting. 26 Trade and freight are sometimes criticized for the general effect it has on growth. the land was parched yellow. Everywhere. But on the few occasions when this has happened. everyone then has an interest in using up the resources quickly before someone else does. not open. a commodity that people believed would run out. a 1 percent annual increase in demand. whether they continue using the land or intend to sell it. and was essentially unchanged 25 years later. http://www. it has generally affected isolated. Therefore. But in the midst of this desert environment could be seen a small patch of green. If shortages do occur. The exhaust was so noxious that West Germans were not allowed to own Trabants. growing economy capable of using the best solutions. tend to increase rather than diminish when a country grows more affluent. and a 2 percent increase in recycling and/or efficiency. for example. a satellite image was taken of the borders of the Sahara. environmental improvements are due to the very capitalism so often blamed for the problems. On the contrary. No wonder. The biggest environmental problems are associated with production and consumption. But it was slow (top speed 66 mph). because new finds and more efficient use keep augmenting the available reserves. poor places. which confront us with entirely new challenges. A few years ago. and the price of oil five times higher than today. When the magazine Car and Driver brought one to the United States. Only about a 10th of forests are recognized by the governments as privately owned. has fallen continuously and is now only about a tenth of what it was 200 years ago. Landowners must see to it that there is good soil or forest there tomorrow as well. where the desert was spreading. Harry. and air from destruction. no income later on. affluent ones. People in most ages have worried about important raw materials becoming exhausted. An Environment Without Property Rights. That is why the amount of raw materials needed to make a given product keeps diminishing as productive efficiency improves. it spewed a plume of oil and gray exhaust smoke. it Richard and Jane.asp?id=196 is helpful to look at the reasons why private property rights protect the environment.Such incentives were absent in the Eastern bloc under socialism. is being reused already. In the pursuit of profits. It is the absence of definite fishing rights that causes (heavily subsidized) fishing fleets to try to vacuum the oceans of fish before someone else does. Jay. destroying the environment. instead of each country trying to have production of its own. so they had no incentive to adopt new. Many environmental issues also require international regulations and agreements.

In a society of private ownership. For example. such protection was absent. even for owners whose personal outlook is short-term. Jay. In fact. But government planners had no incentive to protect it. Rothenbaum. Clayton . The industrial sources of the metals were known. Property rights provide long-term incentives for maximizing the value of a resource. the farmers had no actionable claim against those causing the problems. DML. Amanda. Once known for its purity. not on producing them—for a good reason. Peter J. the owner of lake property would envision a place that would attract tourists and homebuyers. its value falls today.Lake Baikal is the largest and deepest freshwater lake on Earth. If a resource is well cared for. the emphasis was on using up resources. resources were routinely wasted. To make sure that the pilots had flown the required number of hours. If using a tract of land for the construction of a toxic waste dump reduces its future productivity. Ian. minus the costs required to generate the revenues (and both discounted to present value terms). A story is told about a part of Estonia where the underground water is flammable because vast quantities of aviation fuel were dumped into the ground and they seeped into the water. Such an owner would have a strong incentive to maintain the value of this property by preventing its deterioration.6 mentioned above.Cap Kritik 190/194 people waited an average of 13 years to get their Trabant 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab . Without a system of redress through the courts. Private ownership of property provides an incentive for good care that is lacking under government control.7 4. it will be more valuable and add more to the personal wealth of its owner.8 Clearly. To evade detection. If the owner allows the resource to deteriorate or be harmed by pollution. Private property rights also provide the owner with legal rights against anyone (usually including a government agency) who invades—physically or by pollution—and harms the resource.Throughout the Soviet Union under Communism. A resource owner has legal rights against anyone who would harm the resource. the effluent is discharged directly into the lake and has created a polluted area 23 miles wide. The private owner of a resource has more than just the incentive to preserve the value of that resource. According to one source. they falsified their reports. Harry. the military superiors monitored the amount of fuel the pilots used.5 That is because using them was a sign that work was being done. A private owner could probably have stopped the dumping of aviation fuel on the Estonian farmland ground. but the farmers had no recourse. the use of fertilizers and herbicides was high.But in the Eastern bloc. The private owner of a forest or a farm will not sit idly by if someone is cutting down trees without permission or invading the property with hazardous pollutants. and lawsuits can be used to protect those rights. they got rid of the fuel by dumping it onto the 3. That happens because land’s current worth reflects the net present value of its future services—the revenue from production or services received directly from the land.2. The fuel was assigned to a nearby Soviet military station to be used for flying practice missions. Hill reports that in Bulgaria heavy metals in irrigation water lowered crop yields on Bulgarian farms. When the pilots did not want to fly the required hours. it is now heavily polluted because Soviet planners decided to build paper mills at its edge and failed to reduce the emission of pollutants into the water. Central planners often measured the use of inputs to determine whether a factory or other entity was carrying out the central plan. says Hill. Ann-Mari Satre Ahlander reports that despite the low per capita production of agricultural crops. reducing the owner’s wealth.the value of the lake and its surrounding land has been seriously diminished by pollution. even though excessive use of these chemicals could have harmful effects. he or she personally bears the cost of that negligence in the form of a decline in the value of the resource.

Harry. Ian. with their distribution of privileges and monopolies to favored groups. 90 That economic freedom is not an enemy of equality comes as a surprise to everyone who has been told that capitalism is the ideology of the rich and the privileged. It is in the regulated economies. Amartya Sen argues that the struggle against corruption would be a perfectly good reason for developing countries to deregulate their economies even if no other economic benefits would accrue from doing so. for investments. and bureaucrats will oblige in return for generous bribes. that privilege can become entrenched. In a market economy. When regulation raises barriers to necessary activity. Those who have the right contacts can afford to pay bribes. Many firms will use their resources— resources that could otherwise have been used for investment— to coax politicians into adapting the rules to their needs.” If the goal is to have impartial rules and incorruptible officials. for exports. this is precisely backward.Cap Kritik 191/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – Corruption No risk of offense – strong-state systems will be bought off by the same corporations that are allowed to control the system in capitalism* Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. 2 Only capitalism ensures a fair shot for all – strong-state will be hindered by corruption Norberg 3 – Fellow at Timbro and CATO Johan Norberg. Amanda. Rothenbaum. there is no better means than substantial deregulation. Jay. DML. The easiest way of corrupting a nation through and through is to demand that citizens get bureaucratic permission for production. the more numerous thieves and bandits become. “The more laws are promulgated. for imports. In Defense of Global Capitalism. As the Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu declared more than two and a half millennia ago. Clayton . Those who have the time and knowledge to plow through bulky volumes of regulations can start up business enterprises and engage in trade. Many will be tempted to take shortcuts. especially in poor countries where salaries are low and regulatory systems more or less chaotic. pg. If this proves too burdensome. The free market is the antithesis of societies of privilege. all people with ideas and willpower are at liberty to try their luck. not even of starting small businesses like bakeries or corner shops. In a capitalistic society. In Defense of Global Capitalism. the only way of holding on to a good economic position is by improving your production and offering people good products or services. pg. 70 -We still get offense because resources devoted to buying off bureaucrats are inefficiently wasted and won’t produce innovations or products Such rules are also harmful in another way. In fact. thereby depriving themselves of legal protection for their business dealings. The poor never have a chance. even if they are not the favorites of the rulers. a large portion of a firm's time—time that could otherwise be devoted to production— ends up being spent either complying with or circumventing the rules. people join the informal economy instead.

there is much to discuss and decide. everyone works and almost everyone acquires the essentials of human sustenance. A series of natural experiments were conducted on a scale that every social scientist must envy. Fall However one judges that debate. The attack takes various forms . Amanda. after all. and Vietnam . it only remains vulnerable on cultural and moral grounds. in evaluating consequences. the capitalist part out-produced. capitalist societies. on occasion. but at too high a price in human suffering and social injustice. one must reckon up not simply the costs but the costs set against the benefits. (I stress "feasible" because I tire of hearing critics compare capitalist reality to socialist . and so the welfare-state debate proceeds. (By "capitalist. asserting the incommensurability of cultural forms. No. When ideals are converted into reality. The evidence is not in dispute. Because morality is meaningless. an elaborate black market.Cap Kritik 192/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – Ethics/Morals Capitalism is comparatively the most ethical system – sparks democracy and opportunity Wilson 95 – Professor of Public Policy @ Pepperdine James. Similarly with respect to the environment: Only rich (that is. but they have done so only by creating non-market inequalities . the argument goes. Many nations have claimed to eliminate market-based inequalities. capitalism is arbitrary. of course. To liberals. Clayton . Most critics of capitalism. rejecting the possibility of textual meaning. but every nation that is democratic is. or elevating the claims of non-western (or non-white or non-Anglo) traditions. by contrast. That is. Not every nation with something approximating capitalism is democratic. By whatever route it travels. Among prosperous nations.) If capitalism is an economic success and the necessary (but not sufficient) precondition for democracy. when books were being written explaining how Fidel Castro could achieve by the use of moral incentives" what other nations achieved by employing material ones-kristol and Bell saw that the great test of capitalism would not be economic but moral. as postmodernists pretend not to. because capitalism is mere power. capitalist) nations can afford DML. when certain American economists (and the CIA!) were suggesting that the Soviet economy was growing faster than the American. if you are going to offer a moral criticism of capitalism. Several nations-china. the failure of capitalism lies in its production of unjustifiable inequalities of wealth and its reckless destruction of the natural environment. His book was an effort to explain why "the system of natural liberty" would produce both prosperity and inequality and to defend as tolerable the inequality that was the inevitable (and perhaps necessary) corollary of prosperity. Except for a handful of American professors. and exchange takes place primarily through voluntary markets. Participants in this debate sometimes forget that the only societies in which such a debate can have much meaning are those that have produced wealth that can be redistributed and that have acquired a government that will do so democratically in short. the question is not whether capitalism has consequences but whether its consequences are better or worse than those of some feasible economic alternative. Harry. capitalist. Liberal critics recognize. contemporary radicalism ends with a rejection of the moral claims of capitalism.denying the existence of any foundation for morality. Indeed. oppressive. Smith certainly succeeded in the first task but was less successful in the second. and capitalism was installed in one part and "socialism" in the other. In addition. I do not deny that capitalism has costs.were sawed in two. In every case. who reminded us that there is no such thing as a free lunch. it is striking that in 1970 . one must count as benefits the tendency of an economic system to produce beliefs and actions that support a prudent concern for mitigating the unreasonable costs of the system. a ruling military elite. but they tend to be "so miserably poor" that they are reduced.at a time when socialism still had many defenders. he began The Wealth of Nations by setting forth a puzzle that he hoped to solve.) And. Time has proved them right. in "the savage nations of hunters and fishers" (what we later learned to call euphemistically "native cultures" or "less-developed nations"). everyone here and abroad now recognizes that capitalism produces greater material abundance for more people than any other economic system ever invented. the non-capitalist one. at least to judge by the number of people who believe that inequality can be eliminated without sacrificing prosperity. or corrupting. Capitalism may produce material abundance.or communitarian or cooperative . are not radicals.) For people worried about inequality or environmental degradation.a Soviet nomenklatura. or because markets and corporations destroy culture. every human activity has them. to killing babies and abandoning the elderly and the infirm. that. or a set of non-cash perks. Jay. it has become clear during the last half century that democratic regimes only flourish in capitalist societies. Between unconstrained market inequality and the lesser inequality achieved by some redistribution. Moreover. Ian. (It was a defender of capitalism. to some significant degree. 121. It was this. Inequality is a feature of every modern society. why today's radical intellectuals have embraced the more extreme forms of multiculturalism and postmodernism. many people do not work at all and many more live lives of great luxury. Adam Smith expected that it would be a particular feature of what we call capitalism. These doctrines are an attack on the hegemony of bourgeois society and the legitimacy of bourgeois values. of course. Korea. practical alternatives to capitalism do not seem very appealing. they tend not to look so ideal. Capitalism and morality” Public Interest." I mean that production is chiefly organized on the basis of privately owned enterprises. yet the general level of prosperity is so high that even the poorest people are better off than the richest person in a primitive society.ideals. Germany. Capitalism and public policy By these tests. by a vast margin. you had better believe that moral judgments are possible and can be made persuasive. Rothenbaum.

and Smith would have had no use for any of them. If anyone doubted this. none of these was located in a nation that could be fairly described as capitalist. foundation executives. but wrongly suppose that this is especially true of capitalist cities. People with these views can find much support in The Wealth of Nations. of the weakening of village ties. But to the extent that a society is capitalist. but. a close student of Smith's writings. and. privately financed voluntary associations. Sao Paulo. referred to them) when he drew his picture of the alienation man would suffer as a consequence of private property had confused the consequences of modernization (that is. for the most part. the rise of mass markets. legal action.but they will scarcely exist in non-capitalist ones. of industrialization and urbanization) with the consequences of capitalism. most of these states were barely democratic (the USSR not at all). they may not operate well enough. the advent of large-scale enterprise. and moral suasion. Capitalism creates privilege. of these tendencies toward degradation and depravity. or the baker that we expect our dinner. he can be forgiven for not having foreseen the tendency of free markets to substitute capital for labor in ways that relieve many workers of precisely those mindlessly repetitive tasks that Smith supposed would destroy the human spirit. These arise from economic rivals. would not exist in a non-capitalist regime. When Smith suggested that the increased division of labor would turn most workers into unhappy copies of Charlie Chaplin in Modern Times. one must be able to make proposals to people who do not want to hear such proposals. because it requires private property. capitalism offers the best possibility for checking some.that is. Rothenbaum. it is an immoral system that glorifies greed but. Mexico City. either socialist or mercantilist. Lacking either a truly private sector or a truly democratic regime. Because he wrote long before the advent of modern technology. but only democratic capitalist regimes make it at all possible. and capitalism. At best. At worst. need to spend some time in Moscow. And capitalism permits (but does not require) the emergence of democratic institutions that can (but may not) respond to such proposals. Capitalism. and do all of this only to the extent that the gains in human welfare are purchased at acceptable costs. and only democratic (that is. They Show people the road to wealth. they were surely convinced when the Iron Curtain was torn down in 1989. No regime will make this result certain. environmental policies in capitalist systems will vary greatly . Capitalism creates what are often called "post-material values" that lead some private parties to make environment-protecting proposals. Rio. but not all. They were state-dominated economies.from the inconsequential through the prudent to the loony . given a commanding position. even Smith) had made an error. and private-sector activists who. government regulation. and the "low profligacy and vice" that will attend upon the growth of large cities. Rio de Janeiro. DML. Or to put it simply. it is amoral. a government will distort or destroy the former and corrupt or oppress the latter." not the "benevolence. Amanda. Vaclav Havel explained why: A government that commands the economy will inevitably command the polity." Should they study the book more carefully. or power. capitalist) nations have governments that will listen to environmentalists. Eastern Europe had been turned into a vast toxic waste dump. Karl Marx. in some careless passages. The average worker employed in repetitive tasks will become "stupid and ignorant. Harry.Cap Kritik 193/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab to worry much about the environment. or possibly even facilitates. indeed. Hardly anyone regards it as moral. But Marx (and. Americans who rightly think that high rates of crime are characteristic of big cities. and they will rush down that road. socialism creates privilege. a profligate and self-serving elite will spring up to seize the benefits supplied by aristocratic or socialist or authoritarian or free-market systems. An "invisible hand" leads him to promote the public good. And. sustains a distinction between the public and the private sphere and thereby provides a protected place for people to stand who wish to make controversial proposals.and modernity may have non-capitalist as well as capitalist sources. and an improvement in transportation . and Mexico City. the incessant seeking after monopoly benefits and political privilege that will follow from the expansion of manufacturing. professors." the successful merchant living in a big city will become personally licentious and politically advantaged. grasp power. the brewer. by happy accident. the making of desirable public policies but reject the idea that this is because there is anything moral about it. Men and women everywhere will seek advantage. and Moscow have long been among the dozen largest cities in the world. in the routine aspects of ordinary morality. Among the feasible systems of political economy. To compel people engaged in production and exchange to internalize all of the costs of production and exchange without destroying production and exchange. reformist and meliorist tendencies designed to counteract the adverse consequences of massive urbanization were not much in evidence. primitivism creates privilege. until quite recently (and still quite uncertainly). status. being non-capitalist. Urbanization is the result of modernity . mercantilism creates privilege. it is more likely than its alternatives to sustain challenges to privilege. they will come across passages predicting the degradation of the human spirit that is likely to occur from the division of labor. Jay. Clayton . But they operate clumsily and imperfectly. a tool for the achievement of human wants that is neither good nor bad." of the butcher. As with inequality. and create hierarchies. and democratically elected power-holders. Capitalism and the good life Many readers may accept the view that capitalism permits. he thought that only public education could provide a remedy. many will do some rather unattractive things along the way. The division of labor can be furthered and large industrial enterprises created by statist regimes as well as by free ones. people will flock to cities to seek opportunities conferred by socialist as well as capitalist economies. giving the West its first real look at what had been hidden behind the Berlin Wall. Ian. and monitor performance by people who do not like monitors. they operate through market competition. They will recall the famous passage in which Smith points out that it is from the "interest. environmental action arises out of the demands of journalists. though this is "no part of his intention. occasionally makes possible popular government and pays the bills of some publicinterest lobbies that can get on with the business of doing good. induce action among people who do not want to act. had these passages in mind (and.

Most of today's intellectuals reflexively condemn self-interest.htm Stated in more fundamental terms. capitalism is practical because it relies on the inexhaustible motive-power of self-interest.moraldefense.com/Philosophy/Essays/The_Moral_and_the_Practical. Ian. This is the answer to the dilemma of the moral vs. Clayton . Harry. Under capitalism. The reward for these virtues—and for the political system that protects and encourages them—is an ever-increasing wealth and prosperity. The answer is that capitalism is a system of virtue—the virtues of rational thought. and pride in the value of one's own person. productive work. They are driven by the idea that one's own life is an irreplaceable value not to be sacrificed or wasted.Cap Kritik 194/194 7 Week Seniors 2011 BBFJR Lab Cap Good – AT – V2L Capitalism best ensures value to life – don’t endorse sexist language Tracinski 8 – editor of the Intellectual Activist Robert. The fundamental characteristics that make capitalism practical—its respect for the freedom of the mind and for the sanctity of the individual—are also profound moral ideals. Amanda. DML. http://www. Jay." It is only capitalism that recognizes this right. people are driven by loyalty to their own goals and by the ambition to improve their lives. not a mere cog in the collective machine to be exploited for the ends of others. Rothenbaum. But this is also a crucial moral principle: the principle that each man is an end in himself. The Moral and the Practical. yet this is the same quality enshrined by our nation's founders when they proclaimed the individual's right to "the pursuit of happiness. the practical.

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