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1K views16 pagesAttribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Name: ________________________________

Physics Diagrams

Here you can keep track of all of the diagrams that you have learned to draw. You can come back and update it after future models, if youd like. This list might come in handy when you start tackling complex goal-less problems. Name of Diagram Model Example Notes

Always use a protractor, ruler, and pencil when working with graphical vector constructions! 1. An object moving in a circular path with a constant speed of 2.0 m/s changes direction by 30 in 3.0 s. a. What is the magnitude of the change in velocity over the 3.0 s interval? Remember that velocity is a vector. Draw a vector diagram and perform the graphical construction to nd v .

b. What is the magnitude of the average acceleration over the 3.0 s interval?

Honors Physics / Unit 04 /in the gure below show three positions occupied by a dog moving 11. The vectors shown UBFPM

2.

across a eld in a general upper left to lower right direction. A coordinate system superimposed on in eld provides a frame of reference. The time by a dog moving The vectors shown thethe gure below show three positions occupiedinterval between across a eld in a general these positions is 2.0 s. upper-left to lower-right direction. A coordinate system superimposed on the eld provides a frame of reference. The time interval between these positions is 2.0 s. y m 20

15

10

R1 R2

R3

5 10 15 20 25 30 x m

a.

(a) What is the magnitude and direction of the dogs displacement from position Draw and label the displacement vector from 1 to 2. What is the magnitude and direction of the dogs R1 to position R2 ? Use the Pythagorean theorem and an appropriate inverse displacement from position 1 to position 2? Remember to use the scale to convert your answer into meters. trigonometric function to determine these. You may report the direction as a negative angle measured clockwise from the positive x-axis. (b) What is the magnitude and direction of the dogs average velocity over the time interval of the displacement in part (a)? Measure the angle in the same manner as in (a). (c) Estimate the dogs instantaneous velocity at the instant it is at position R2 . Use the double interval method. Give both its magnitude and direction.

b. (d) Is thisthe magnitude and direction of the dogs average velocity over the time interval of the displacement in What is motion feasible for a dog? Explain. Section part a? 4.5

c.

Estimate the dogs instantaneous velocity at the instant it is at position 2. Use the double interval method. Give both the magnitude and the direction.

3.

Topanga likes to swing on a tire tied to a tree branch in her yard, as in the gure. If Topanga and the tire have a combined mass of 82.5 kg, and Cory pulls Topanga straight back far enough for her to make an angle of 30 with the vertical, what is the tension in the rope supporting Topanga and the tire? a. Solve this problem with a graphical vector construction.

b. Solve this problem using vector components (trigonometry replaces the protractor).

Sketch and label the experiment setup:

Reading: Acceleration is Directly Proportional to Net Force and Inversely Proportional to Mass

Our experiments in the lab showed us that an object experiencing a constant force will have a constant acceleration, just as the object in the strobe photograph of a dry ice puck below.

Figure 1: The dry ice puck is being pulled to the right by a small, white elastic loop. You can see that the loop is stretched the same amount throughout the motion, indicating that the force to the right exerted by the loop on the puck is constant. We know from our studies of this photo in the previous chapter that the pucks acceleration is constant.

velocity ms

The velocity vs. time graph for the above motion is shown in the margin in gure 2. We see a constant slope of the velocity vs. time graph, which conrms that the acceleration of the dry ice puck is constant. Now lets see what happens if we attach two rubber loops identical to the rst to the dry ice puck. In the lab, you performed experiments using identical springs and low friction carts with the objective of measuring, quantitatively, the relationship between force and acceleration. Figure 3 is a stroboscopic photo of the same dry ice puck shown in gure 1, this time being pulled by two elastic loops. Thus, the force exerted on the puck to the right is twice what it was in gure 1.

0.5 0.4

0.0 0

Figure 2: The velocity vs. time graph for the puck in gure 1.

time s

Figure 3: The dry ice puck is now being pulled to the right by two elastic loops. You can see that the loops are stretched the same amount as the one loop in gure 1, meaning the puck is experiencing twice the force as in gure 1.

Taking data from this photo, we can create a table with time, position and velocity columns. Note that we used the double interval method for determining the velocity of the puck at each clock reading. Plotting the velocity and time data from the table gives us the velocity vs. time graph in gure 4. Included in the graph is a dotted line that corresponds to the velocity vs. time data for the puck when it was pulled with only one elastic loop. Note that the slope of the velocity vs. time graph is steeper when a greater force is applied to the puck (which we already knew would be the case). Lets now calculate the acceleration of the puck when it is pulled with two elastic loops by taking the slope of our velocity vs. time curve. Using the data from the graph:

t2.00s 2.0 s

Figure 4: The velocity vs. time graphs for the dry ice puck being pulled with one loop (dotted line without data points) and two loops. Note that the slope of the curve (that is, the pucks acceleration) is doubles when the force is doubled.

v 0.53 m/s = = 0.265 m/s2 t 2.0 s Just as you saw with your own experiments, the acceleration of an object appears to be directly proportional to the net force applied to that object. In fact, you took data for several different forces (integer multiples of the force exerted by a single spring) to determine that this direct proportionality was a fact. Figure 5 is a generic graph of acceleration as a function of applied net force, similar to what you measured in the lab. It might, at rst sight, seem puzzling that we say the relationship between acceleration and force is directly proportional, since the graph does not pass through the origin. But we determined that the curves offset from the origin could be easily explained in terms of the small amount of friction the cart was experiencing. a avg = In fact, elaborate experiments designed to reduce friction forces to negligible values conrm our conclusion that an objects acceleration is directly proportional to the net force exerted on the object. These experiments, along with our experiments, allow the following mathematical representation: a Fnet or a = kFnet (1) Our experiments included the study of how acceleration depends on the mass of the object. We kept the net force on the object constant throughout our experiments, increasing the mass of our carts by adding bricks. After using units of kilograms to measure the mass of the cart and bricks, we found a relationship between acceleration and mass that looks like it might be an inverse relationship. We linearized our data by plotting the reciprocal of mass (that is, one over the mass) as our independent variable and acceleration as our dependent variable. The result looked something like the generic plot shown in gure 6. Our experimental results (which are conrmed by many other experiments over the ages) allow us to write the following mathematical representation: 1 1 a or a = k (2) m m Combining the results of our two experiments, we arrive at the one dimensional version of Newtons Second Law. a Fnet m (3)

acceleration mss

velocity ms

Figure 5: Experiments show that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the total net force on that object. Our graph shows a non-zero intercept only because we did not take into account the friction force.

force springs

acceleration mss

1 mass

kg

1

where Fnet is the net force acting on an object whose inertial mass m can be treated as being concentrated at a single point.

4. The 80 kg box travels to the bottom of the 2 m long ramp with a constant speed of 1.4 m/s. a. What models apply to this situation and why? (See the italics + bold + underline? That part is way important!)

b. Draw at least four diagrams/graphs to illustrate the situation. Choose the diagrams and graphs that you nd most useful. Draw these BIG enough to be useful and annotate them like crazy. The diagrams are key.

c.

Using the models you have chosen, solve for any unknown quantities. Use more than one method to nd the same answers whenever possible. Show your work and use units. Always start with a variable expression (that is, your rst line should always start with symbols only, and you should plug in things that you know in a later step).

5.

The 80 kg box starts from rest and travels to the bottom of the 2 m long ramp, but its motion is opposed by a 150 N frictional force. Follow the same general procedure as in the previous problem: tell which models apply, draw and annotate diagrams, solve for unknowns.

6.

The 80 kg box starts from rest and travels to the bottom of the 2 m long, frictionless ramp. Again, follow the same general procedure.

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7.

In the preceding three problems, was the contact normal force that the incline exerted greater than, less than or equal to the weight of the box? Explain.

8.

In problem 6, suppose the incline were tilted at a greater angle. How would your answers change? Use a sideby-side comparison of two vector addition diagrams as part of your explanation.

9.

In problem 4, determine the unbalanced force on the cart at the instant its velocity is 1.4 m/s.

In problem 6, determine the unbalanced force on the cart at the instant its velocity is 1.4 m/s.

Are your answers to the above two questions the same or different? If they are the same, explain how this is so even though there is no friction in problem 3. If they are different, explain how this is so even though the cart has the same instantaneous velocity of 1.4 m/s.

10. Suppose the cart in problem 6 were given a shove so that it started sliding up the ramp with a velocity of 3.0 m/s. How far up the ramp would it go?

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Solve the following problems with the same approach as you did for the goal-less problems on Worksheet 1. List the models that apply (and why!), draw and annotate a lot of diagrams (at least four, but probably more), and then use the models to solve for as many unknown quantities as you can. 11. Three blocks are in contact with each other on a frictionless horizontal surface. A person applies a horizontal force of 18 N to the smallest block. Hint: there are multiple ways to dene your system here. You could draw several FBDs for the same instant (snapshot).

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12. A 70.0 kg box is pushed by a 400 N force at an angle of 30 to the horizontal. Starting from rest, the box travels 15.0 m in 2.78 seconds.

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13. A 70 kg box is pulled by a 400 N force at an angle of 30 to the horizontal. Starting from rest, the box travels 15 m in 2.47 s.

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14. Compare the contact normal force that the ground exerts on the box in problems 12 and 13. In which case does the box experience a greater force?

15. In problem 13, suppose that the person pulled at a greater angle from the horizontal (meaning the angle in the drawing would be greater than 30). How would your answers change? Use a side-by-side comparison of two vector addition diagrams as part of your explanation.

16. In problem 12, suppose that the person pushed with a greater angle from the horizontal. How would your answers change? Use a side-by-side comparison of two vector addition diagrams as part of your explanation.

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