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# Chapter 1 Electromagnetic Radiation Behaving as Particles

Particle and wave

Classical Particles

Electromagnetic Waves Maxwell Equations Gauss’s law for electricity Gauss’s law for magnetism Faraday’s law Generalized Ampere’s law E field can be created by changing B field! B field can be created by changing E field!

Visible light was thus attributed to the EM wave. .Electromagnetic wave propagates at a speed of: This value coincided with the measured value of the speed of visible light.

Hertz’s Experiment Generating EM Waves .

. and had same properties as light wave. interference and polarization. refraction. The generated wave traveled at the same speed speed as light but a much larger wavelength.Hertz found that waves of electric field and magnetic field were created while there was electric current pulse in a discharge across the gap. like reflection.

Electromagnetic wave spectrum .

. the resultant wave disturbance at the position x and time t is given by y(x.t)+y2(x.t).t) and y2(x.t)=y1(x.t) passing through a point x at time t.Principle of superposition: If there are two waves y1(x.

. which can be deduced from the Superposition Principal.Young’s double slit experiment -  he observed interference pattern is a characteristic wave T phenomenon. -  Classical particle cannot have the similar phenomenon.

While charged particles accelerate. All materials thus emits EM waves because they contain charged particles undergoing random motion. The energy spectrum emitted depends on the average energy of the motion and thus is a function of the temperature. . The body that absorbs all the electromagnetic radiation incident on it is called a blackbody. EM waves emit.Blackbody Radiation .

Blackbody Radiation -The intensity dI of the emitted electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range f to f+df: is called the spectral energy density in volume V. .

Measurement of spectrum of thermal radiation .

.671×10-8 Wm-2K-4 is called the Stefan Boltzmann constant.Experimental results of blackbody radiation The total intensity integrated over all wavelengths was observed to follow: Stefan Boltzmann law σ = 5.

The frequency at which the observed spectral energy density dU/df reaches the maximum follows the Wien’s displacement law : .

. This resulted in the Rayleigh-Jeans formula: k = 1. Note that degree of freedom = number of mode of energy possession.•  Classical law of equipartition of energy: for system in thermal equilibrium at temperature T.381×10-23 JK-1 is call the Boltzmann constant.

Failure of Classical wave theory at high frequency: the ultraviolet catastrophe .

Planck’s suggestion: An oscillating atom can only absorb or emit energy only in discrete bundles called quanta: is called the Plank constant. . The so derived Plank’s formula fitted well with the experimental observation.

The maximum KE of the emitted electron is the given by: KEmax = eVS Work function of the metal Φ = the mimimum energy required to remove an electron from the metal . Stopping potential VS is the minimum ΔV needed to stop the photocurrent.The Photoelectric effect When a metal surface is illuminated by light. This phenomenon is known as the photoelectric effect. electron may be emitted from the surface.

. the maximum KE of electron emitted as derived from measuring the stopping potential is independent of the light source intensity. Doubling the light intensity for the same wavelength exactly double the current. This violates the classical wave theory. (2) There is no electron emitted at all if the light frequency of the light is below a value called the cut off frequency fc. This cut-off frequency is independent of the light intensity.(1) For a fixed wavelength of light illumination.

each of the photon carry the same energy F hf. Increasing the light intensity while fixing the wavelength implies increasing the number of photons having the same energy hf. KE such that KEmax=hf-Φ.Einstein idea of photon Absorption of light energy in form of discrete energy bundle called photon with the energy of: E=hf -  or a fixed wavelength f. -  y putting KEmax=0. we can obtain the cut off frequency: B . -  or photons hf incident on the metal: KE<hf-Φ. or there exists a F max.

. and then bring to stop by striking on a metal target like Cu.Production of X-ray X-ray are produced while the electrons are accelerated through high voltage ~10keV.

. Could not be explained by classical wave theory.It was observed the existence of a minimum wavelength λc such that no Xray having wavelength smaller than λc would emit.

e. The X-ray photon emitted during the collision: hν=K-K’ The emission of X-ray photon having the minimum wavelength λc (i. highest frequency) corresponds to the complete conversion of the electron’s KE to the X-ray photon.The electron striking into the metal are brought to stop by numerous collisions with the atoms. .e. i.

Light wave entering a matter would accelerate the electrons inside the material. However.Compton Effect According to classical wave theory. Compton observed an angle dependent decrease of the scattered X-ray wavelength. and thus electromagnetic wave having the same frequency would re-radiate. The scattering process thus results in decreasing the intensity while having the wavelength unchanged. .

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an object having a zero mass has the momentum of: Integrating with the photon theory: .According to the special relativity.

Interaction of a X-ray photon with an electron initially at rest Einitial = Efinal (1) (2) (3) .

e. implying the scattered photon has a larger wavelength. .(2) and (3): (4) The relativistic relation between the electron’s energy and momentum: (5) Sub. or is red shifted (i. (2) X-ray particle behaves like particle having momentum p=hf/c. (1) and (4) in (5): (1) Notice that λ’-λ≥0. lower photon energy).

Relativity:Relativistic energy and momentum: For a stationary mass: .

.(Energy at rest) = γ u mc 2 − mc 2  u 2 −1/ 2 = 1. then we do not need to use the relativistic approach. KE ≈ mv 2 2 € If u<<c or KE<<mc2.KE = (Energy moving) .2  − mc 2  c  1 If u << c.

Positron is the anti-particle of electron.02MeV the photon giving rise to a pair production process is in the range of gamma ray. .Pair Production A photon having the energy of hν converted to an electronpositron pair. Conservation of relativistic energy: Since K+ and K. which would carry the recoil momentum for fulfilling the momentum conservation. having the identical mass but opposite charge to electron. Remark: Pair production cannot occur without the presence of an atom.are positive. hν ≥ 2 me c2 =1.

.+ e+  2γ’s photons There must be more than one gamma photon being produced in order to fulfill the momentum conservation.Annihilation Annihilation process is the conversion of a particle and its anti-particle to photon. An example is: e.

.Conceptual question 1 What assumptions did Planck make in dealing with the problem of blackbody radiation? Discuss the consequences of the assumptions.

Here the ''oscillator'' refers to the atoms or molecules that made up the wall of the blackbody cavity.) Answer: Planck made two assumptions: (1) Energy of radiating oscillator is quantized and (2) they emit or absorb energy in discrete irreducible packets.Conceptual question 1 (cont. These assumptions contradict the classical ideas that energy is continuously divisible. .

. (iii) The photoelectric current increases with increasing light intensity. (iv) The photoelectric current is independent of anodecathode potential difference ΔV for ΔV > 0. (vi) The stopping potential is independent of the light intensity. (v) The photoelectric current decreases slowly as ΔV becomes more negative.Conceptual question 2 Consider the following properties of the photoelectric effect: (i) The generation of photoelectrons. (ii) The existence of a threshold frequency.

Conceptual question 2 (cont. Which of these cannot be explained by classical physics? .) (vii) The photoelectric current appears instantly when the light is turned on.

) Answer: (ii). (vi) and (vii) cannot be explained by classical physics. .Conceptual question 2 (cont.

. draw and label curves for the following three situations: (i) The light intensity is increased. In each case. (iii) The cathode work function is increased. no other parameters of the experiment are changed.Conceptual question 3 The figure shows a typical current-versus-potential difference graph for a photoelectric effect experiment. (ii) The light frequency is increased (but no change in density of photon). On the figure.

Conceptual question 3 (cont.) Answer: (i) Maximum current ↑ (ii) |Vstop| ↑ (iii) |Vstop| ↓ .

a green light) undergo Compton scattering with a free electron? .Conceptual question 4 Must Compton scattering take place only between X-rays and free electrons? Can radiation in the visible region (say.

λgreen ≈ 10-6 m) is much larger than the Compton wavelength of the electron (λe = h/ mec ≈ 10-12 m). For visible light.) Answer: The wavelength of visible light (e. . So the change in wavelength of the visible light due to the Compton scattering would be too small to be measured. the Compton shift is negligibly small compared with its wavelength.g.Conceptual question 4 (cont.

Conceptual question 5 A beam of photons passes through a block of matter. What are the three ways discussed in this chapter that the photons can lose energy in interacting with the material? .

) Answer: Photoelectric effect.Conceptual question 5 (cont. Compton scattering and pair production. .

How would you convert the X-ray energy from 84 to 70 keV? . but for an experiment you need 70 keV X-rays.Conceptual question 6 You have a monoenergetic source of X-rays of energy 84 keV.

Moreover. So we can convert the X-ray energy by passing the X-ray beam on a block of matter. a scattered X-ray photon typically lose energy in the range of few eVs to 1MeV. the X-ray photons need to lose 14 keV energy.) Answer: To convert the X-ray energy from 84 to 70 keV. .Conceptual question 6 (cont. Then we adjust the scattering angle until the energy of the scattered X-ray photons have lost the desired amount of energy. The Compton scattering is the chief means by which X-rays lose energy when they pass through matter.

. (ii) Each photon has more energy.Conceptual question 7 The intensity of a beam of light is increased but the frequency of the light is unchanged. (iv) There are more photons per second. Which of these (perhaps more than one) are true? Explain. As a result: (i) The photons travel faster. (iii) The photons are larger.

Conceptual question 7 (cont. . light with a greater intensity means more photons per second. A more intense light delivers more light quanta to the surface and so ejects more photoelectrons per second in the photoelectric effect. Therefore.) Answer: Only (iv) is true.

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