IUWNE

Implementing Cisco Unified Wireless Networking Essentials
Volume 1
Version 1.0

Student Guide
Text Part Number: 97-2697-03

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Students, this letter describes important course evaluation access information!

Welcome to Cisco Systems Learning. Through the Cisco Learning Partner Program, Cisco Systems is committed to bringing you the highest-quality training in the industry. Cisco learning products are designed to advance your professional goals and give you the expertise you need to build and maintain strategic networks. Cisco relies on customer feedback to guide business decisions; therefore, your valuable input will help shape future Cisco course curricula, products, and training offerings. We would appreciate a few minutes of your time to complete a brief Cisco online course evaluation of your instructor and the course materials in this student kit. On the final day of class, your instructor will provide you with a URL directing you to a short post-course evaluation. If there is no Internet access in the classroom, please complete the evaluation within the next 48 hours or as soon as you can access the web. On behalf of Cisco, thank you for choosing Cisco Learning Partners for your Internet technology training. Sincerely, Cisco Systems Learning

Table of Contents
Volume 1 Course Introduction
Overview Learner Skills and Knowledge Course Goal and Objectives Course Flow Additional References Cisco Glossary of Terms Your Training Curriculum

1
1 1 2 4 5 5 6

Wireless Fundamentals
Overview Module Objectives

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1-1 1-1

Introducing Wireless Networks and Topologies
Overview Objectives Wireless Today Wireless Usage and Topologies Ad Hoc Networks Infrastructure Mode Service Set Identifier Workgroup Bridge Repeaters Outdoor Wireless Bridges Outdoor Mesh Networks Summary

1-3
1-3 1-3 1-4 1-6 1-11 1-13 1-16 1-18 1-19 1-20 1-21 1-23

Introducing WLAN RF Principles
Overview Objectives RF Spectrum Frequency Wavelength Amplitude Free Path Loss Absorption Reflection Multipath Scattering Refraction Line of Sight Fresnel Zone RSSI and SNR Summary

1-25
1-25 1-25 1-26 1-27 1-29 1-30 1-32 1-34 1-36 1-37 1-40 1-42 1-43 1-44 1-46 1-48

Understanding Radio Frequency Mathematics
Overview Objectives Watts, Milliwatts, and Decibels Decibel Referenced to 1 Milliwatt dBi and dBd Effective Isotropic Radiated Power Summary

1-49
1-49 1-49 1-50 1-54 1-57 1-60 1-62

Describing Antennae
Overview Objectives Antennae Principles Polarization Diversity Antenna Types Omnidirectional Antennae Directional Antennae Antennae Accessories: Connectors Attenuators and Amplifiers Lightening Arrestor Splitters Summary References

1-63
1-63 1-63 1-64 1-66 1-69 1-71 1-73 1-77 1-80 1-82 1-84 1-86 1-87 1-87

Understanding Spread Spectrum Technologies
Overview Objectives Spread Spectrum Concept DSSS: Encoding DSSS Modulations: DBPSK and QBPSK DSSS Modulation: CCK Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing OFDM Modulations: BPSK and QPSK OFDM Modulation: QAM Channels and Overlapping Issues Summary

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1-89 1-89 1-90 1-93 1-95 1-97 1-99 1-101 1-103 1-105 1-107

Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications
Overview Objectives IEEE Wireless Standards The Wi-Fi Alliance Regulatory Bodies The FCC The ETSI The IEEE 802.11 Family of Protocols The 802.11 Standards for Channels and Speeds 2.4 GHz (802.11b/g) 5 GHz (802.11a) 802.11n The 802.11 Original Protocol The 802.11b Protocol The 802.11g Protocol 802.11b and 802.11g Coexistence The 802.11 a Protocol Channels The 802.11n Protocol 802.11n Components 802.11n Channel Aggregation 802.11n MAC Efficiency 802.11n: MIMO—Spatial Multiplexing 802.11n: MIMO—Transmit Beamforming 802.11n: MIMO—Maximal Ratio Combining 802.11n: MIMO Benefits Summary References

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1-109 1-109 1-111 1-113 1-114 1-115 1-119 1-124 1-126 1-126 1-127 1-127 1-128 1-129 1-131 1-134 1-136 1-138 1-141 1-142 1-143 1-144 1-146 1-147 1-148 1-149 1-150 1-151

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Examining Wireless Media Access
Overview Objectives Sending Data Frames Frame Shape and Speeds Frame Shape Frame Types Speed Management Frames: Discovering the Network Beacon Probes Management Frames: Connecting Management Frames: Managing the Connection Control Frames: Improving the Connection Power Saving Summary

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1-153 1-153 1-154 1-159 1-159 1-162 1-163 1-165 1-165 1-166 1-167 1-169 1-170 1-174 1-176

Understanding Non-802.11 Wireless Technologies and Their Impact on WLANs
Overview Objectives Bluetooth Cordless Phones ZigBee Other Non-802.11 Radio Interferers WiMAX Technology Summary References

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1-177 1-177 1-178 1-181 1-183 1-186 1-187 1-191 1-191

Reviewing the Wireless Frame Journey: End to End
Overview Objectives The Journey of a Wireless Frame VLANs VLAN Operation Understanding Trunking with 802.1Q Native VLAN Configuring VLANs and Trunks VLAN Creation VLAN Port Assignment 802. 1Q Trunking Configuration Summary Module Summary Module Self-Check Module Self-Check Answer Key

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1-193 1-193 1-194 1-209 1-210 1-211 1-212 1-214 1-215 1-217 1-219 1-222 1-223 1-224 1-231

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IUWNE

Course Introduction
Overview
Welcome to Implementing Cisco Unified Wireless Networking Essentials (IUWNE) v1.0, an instructor-led course presented by Cisco training partners to their end-user customers. This five-day course focuses on using, positioning, planning, implementing and operating Cisco wireless LANs (WLANs). Upon completing this training course, you should be able to help design, install, configure, monitor, and conduct basic troubleshooting tasks for a Cisco WLAN in small and mediumsized businesses (SMBs) and enterprise installations.

Learner Skills and Knowledge
This subtopic lists the skills and knowledge that learners must possess to benefit fully from the course. The subtopic also includes recommended Cisco learning offerings that learners should first complete to benefit fully from this course.

Learner Skills and Knowledge
Knowledge and skills equivalent to those learned in Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Parts 1 and 2 – Explain the OSI model and identify network components – Describe the switched LAN technology solution to Ethernet issues and how routing expands the network – Understand the host-to-host packet delivery process of TCP/IP – Install, configure, and troubleshoot a small network using the Cisco CLI Knowledge of the Cisco Lifecycle Services deployment Knowledge of the Service-Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) Basic knowledge of wireless standards (IEEE), wireless regulator environment (FCC, ETSI, and so on) and wireless certification (Wi-Fi Alliance)
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—3

Course Goal and Objectives
This topic describes the course goal and objectives.

Course Goal
“To help design, install, configure, monitor, and conduct basic troubleshooting tasks for a Cisco WLAN in SMB and enterprise installations”

Implementing Cisco Unified Wireless Networking Essentials v1.0

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

IUWNE v1.0—4

Upon completing this course, you will be able to meet these objectives: Describe wireless fundamentals, such as topologies, RF principles and math, antennae, spread spectrum technologies, frames and physics, wireless regulatory bodies, standards and certifications, and the non-802.11 wireless technologies and their impact on Wi-Fi Describe the Cisco Unified Wireless Networks basics and configure a Cisco Unified Wireless Network controller and a Cisco Mobility Express controller Describe and configure default operating system wireless client configuration tools, use the Cisco Aironet Desktop Utility and Site Survey Utility and the Cisco Secure Services Client (SSC), and describe the Cisco Compatible Extensions program Describe and configure wireless security Manage the wireless network from the Cisco Wireless Control System (WCS) Maintain and troubleshoot wireless networks

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General Administration
Class-Related
Sign-in sheet Length and times Break and lunchroom locations Attire Course Materials

Facilities-Related
Course materials Site emergency procedures Restrooms Telephones and faxes

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

IUWNE v1.0—5

The instructor will discuss the following administrative issues so that you know exactly what to expect from the class: Sign-in process Starting time and anticipated ending time of each class day Class break and lunch facilities Appropriate attire during class Materials you can expect to receive during class What to do in the event of an emergency Location of the restrooms How to send and receive telephone and fax messages

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Course Introduction

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Course Flow
This topic presents the suggested flow of the course materials.

Course Flow
Day 1
Course Introduction Wireless Fundamentals

Day 2
Wireless Fundamentals (Cont.)

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

A M

Basic Cisco WLAN Installation

Wireless Clients

Cisco WCS Administration

Lunch
Wireless Wireless Fundamentals (Cont.) Basic Cisco WLAN Installation (Cont.) WLAN Maintenance and Troubleshooting

P Fundamentals (Cont.) M

WLAN Security

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

IUWNE v1.0—6

The schedule reflects the recommended structure for this course. This structure allows enough time for the instructor to present the course information and for you to work through the lab activities. The exact timing of the subject materials and labs depends on the pace of your specific class.

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Additional References
This topic presents the Cisco icons and symbols that are used in this course, as well as information on where to find additional technical references.

Cisco Icons and Symbols
Tablet PC Card Wireless Transport Wi-Fi Tag

Access Point

Wireless Location Appliance

WiSM

Dual-Mode Access Point

Wireless Bridge

Wireless Router

Mesh Access Point

Lightweight Single-Radio Access Point Scanner Lightweight Double-Radio Access Point

PC

Router

EtherClient

WLAN Controller

Server

Workgroup Switch

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

IUWNE v1.0—7

Cisco Glossary of Terms
For additional information on Cisco terminology, refer to the Cisco Internetworking Terms and Acronyms glossary of terms at http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ita/index.htm.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Course Introduction

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Your Training Curriculum
This topic presents the training curriculum for this course.

Cisco Career Certifications
Cisco Certifications

www.cisco.com/go/certifications
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—8

You are encouraged to join the Cisco Certification Community, a discussion forum open to anyone holding a valid Cisco Career Certification (such as Cisco CCIE®, CCNA®, CCDA®, CCNP®, CCDP®, CCIP®, CCVP™, or CCSP®). It provides a gathering place for Cisco certified professionals to share questions, suggestions, and information about Cisco Career Certification programs and other certification-related topics. For more information, visit www.cisco.com/go/certifications.

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Learner Introductions
Your name Your company Job responsibilities Skills and knowledge Brief history Objective

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

IUWNE v1.0—9

Prepare to share this information: Your name Your company Your job responsibilities The prerequisite skills that you have A profile of your experience What you would like to learn from this course

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Course Introduction

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Module 1

Wireless Fundamentals
Overview
The size and number of wireless network deployments have exploded over the last few years. Beginning with a single access point (AP) replacing a cable on the floor, they have become a true extension of the LAN, sometimes spreading over entire warehouses or even campuses and providing network connectivity to thousands of laptops, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and phones simultaneously. As their size increases, so does the complexity of the network design correlated to their deployment. Understanding the principles behind wireless frame exchange is a key to installing and troubleshooting wireless networks efficiently. This module gives you these tools.

Module Objectives
Upon completing this module, you will be able to describe the fundamentals of wireless networks. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe wireless network types and topologies Describe WLAN RF principles Describe some basic mathematics that are used in wireless networks Describe antenna types and radiation principles Describe the spread spectrum technologies that are used to send a wireless frame Describe the main wireless regulation bodies, standards, and certifications Describe the main wireless frames and their physical characteristics Describe other wireless technologies and their impact on Wi-Fi networks Describe the journey of a frame from a wireless client card to the wired network

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Lesson 1

Introducing Wireless Networks and Topologies
Overview
In this first lesson, you learn about wireless networks, where they are used and what types of wireless networks can be built. This lesson also introduces some of the acronyms that are related to wireless networks.

Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe wireless networks and types of topologies. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the evolution of the wireless network Describe general wireless topologies such as WPAN, WLAN, WMAN, and WWAN Describe ad hoc networks Describe networks in infrastructure mode Describe SSID Describe WGBs Describe repeaters Describe outdoor wireless bridges Describe outdoor mesh networks

Wireless Today
This topic describes the evolution of the wireless network from its earliest beginnings to today.

Wireless Today
First wireless transmission in 1870 Proprietary solutions in 900-MHz band in 1980s Use of ISM band starts early 1990 Deployed today in multiple environments (outdoor links, mesh networks, office buildings, healthcare, warehouse, home)

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Wireless communication as a means to transmit information using radio waves is not really a new technology. The first wireless transmission happened in 1870. During the 20th century, many technologies were deployed to transmit “over the air.” During the 1970s and 1980s, with the development of binary coding, the information that was being sent shifted from analog voice to binary data using zeros and ones. However, these networks were not wireless in the same way that is meant when someone refers to Wi-Fi today. Most “networks” consisted of point-to-point communication done in the 900-MHz band. Some networks were access point (AP)-based, covering large areas, but the technologies were proprietary and the speed was slow by today’s standards. Speed was one concern, but regulations were another. Because wireless communications had long been used for emergency services and the army, the private sector did not have the right to use any frequency freely to send personal or corporate information. But with all the possible applications of “wireless” and (generally speaking) the need to use RF for nonmilitary-related applications (such as microwave ovens, which use an RF signal to cook) regulations were created that forbid most use of the RF spectrum for private use while reserving some frequency bands for industrial use. In the 1980s and 1990s, the agreement to allow frequencies for the use of RF electromagnetic fields for industrial, scientific, and medical purposes other than communications, became international, creating the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands.

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It was only in 1997 that the IEEE, an organization responsible for developing protocols, defined the first IEEE 802.11 standard describing how a signal would be sent over the ISM band to carry digital information from one electronic device to another. Most of the protocols that are being used today in wireless networks were defined between 1997 and 2003 after the original 802.11 standard was developed in 1997. Some emerging possibilities still do not have a definitive protocol to support them.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Wireless Fundamentals

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Wireless Usage and Topologies
This topic describes what applications of RF signals can be made to exchange information.

Wireless Usage and Topologies

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Wireless communications is the means by which information is exchanged using radio signals. There is, of course, a big difference between a citizens’ band (CB) relay and a TV relay, even if both fit the definition of wireless communications. To organize the different technologies in groups, different classifications of radio communications are used depending on the distance the communications must travel. This system creates logical ensembles; usage depends on distance: a 5-foot range is probably used for person-to-person communications, while a 150-mile range is more likely used for networkto-network exchanges.

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Wireless Personal Area Network
WPANs provide connectivity in a personal area. Links are usually peer to peer or small networks. Applications range from simple (remote control) to complex (voice). WPANs meet the need for ease of use, low cost, and portability. Bluetooth is a typical example, running in 2.4 GHz.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

IUWNE v1.0—1-4

Wireless personal area network (WPAN): A personal area network (PAN) is a network that exists within a relatively small area, connecting electronic devices such as desktop computers, printers, scanners, fax machines, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and notebook computers. To connect these devices in the past required extensive cabling, connectors, and adapters. In March 1998, the WPAN Study Group was formed with the goal of investigating the need for a wireless network standard for devices within a personal operating area. Just two months later, in May 1998, the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) was formed and, ten months later, the WPAN Study Group became IEEE 802.15, the WPAN Working Group. The Bluetooth SIG, now led by nine promoting companies, continues to define the Bluetooth standard and promote the technology. The WPAN wireless communications standard focuses on the key issues of low power consumption (to lengthen the battery life of portable products), small size (to make the products easy to carry about or even wear), and low cost (so that the products can become as universal as possible). Obvious applications for WPANs are in the office, where electronic devices in a workspace are wirelessly networked together. These devices could include a desktop PC or notebook computer, a printer, a PDA, a cellular phone, a pager, or even a portable stereo. Because of the requirements to limit power and size, Bluetooth is not designed to extend farther than about 20 feet. Within this range, the use of the RF is completely controlled by the user, with no fee to pay and no external device to rely on. Therefore, interference is not a major issue, because within 20 feet, there will not be hundreds of users competing for RF access. WPANs are unlicensed, which means that users do not have to pay to use devices in the allowed frequency range, a fact that encourages the development of devices for this type of use.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Wireless Fundamentals

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Wireless LAN
Range larger than WPAN, spectrum 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz More power required Multiple users expected Designed to be flexible

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Wireless local area network (WLAN): In contrast to WPANs, WLANs provide more robust wireless network connectivity over a local area of approximately 100 meters between an access point and associated clients. The aim is not to connect one device to another, but to connect many devices to a network without the need for cables. WLANs today are based on the 802.11 standard and are referred to as Wi-Fi networks. The first commercially successful WLAN technology was the IEEE 802.11b. It operates in the 2.4-GHz frequency band at 11 Mb/s. By implementing a different data transmission method, data rates were increased to 54 Mb/s in 2003 with IEEE 802.11g in the 2.4-GHz band and IEEE 802.11a in the 5-GHz band. Today, “dual-band” Wi-Fi access points and client network adapters that support various combinations of 802.11a, b, and g are common. Highly integrated, single-chip solutions that are smaller than in the past and require less power (but still more than Bluetooth) have enabled new designs and applications. Once installed, the applications usually do not require any fee, unless they are hotspots. The cost involved is not related to the use of the wireless spectrum itself, but more to the fact that it is someone else’s network. WLANs are the main topic of this course. Since these networks are now everywhere, a wireless network administrator needs to understand how they work, how to configure them, and how to troubleshoot them. WLANs are more complex than WPANs because several users are typically expected to connect at the same time. Having simultaneous multiple users may create interference issues or competition for the spectrum. Because users are mobile, the administrator cannot control how many of them are accessing the same WLAN at the same time. Planning is a key requirement to being able to offer the best possible service for the optimal number of users at any given time. Automated technologies, such as controller-based WLANs, help in this task. WLANs are unlicensed, which means that users do not have to pay to use devices in the allowed frequency range, a fact that encourages the development of devices for this type of use.

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Wireless Metro Area Network
Backbone or user coverage applications Usually in licensed bands Unlicensed bands possible but interference issues

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

IUWNE v1.0—1-6

Wireless metro area network (WMAN): A WMAN is a wireless communications network that covers a large geographic area such as a city or suburb. In this type of area, the wireless signal often provides a backbone, point to point or point to multipoint. Traditionally, longdistance wireless technologies providing T1 or T3 data rates have been proprietary—owned and operated by major telephone companies, incumbent local exchange carriers (ILECs), and other providers. These long-distance wireless technologies are often used to link remote sites or large campuses. Today, wireless can be used to install links at a low cost: organizations just need two end devices pointing at each other instead of a complex and costly wired infrastructure. However, the speed is closer to that of broadband than to Ethernet and decreases as distance increases. The speed may be an important limitation, which is why the IEEE has standardized a new set of WMAN technologies that operate in licensed and license-exempt frequency bands. The best-known of these technologies is IEEE 802.16d, or WiMax; you will learn more about WiMax later in this module. When this type of network is installed by a service provider, users often have to pay a fee to access it. Here again, fees can be charged for anything from the right to use someone else’s network to the right to use a specific frequency. Many of these links operate in the “unlicensed band” and are free to use. Organizations may still need a professional to install and maintain them and would pay a fee for this service. The downside of this freedom is that if anyone else wants to use the same frequency in the same area, both networks would compete for access to the RF medium without it being possible to give priority to one or the other. For this reason, some MAN administrators prefer to use a “licensed” frequency. These frequencies require users to pay a fee for the exclusive right of using the frequency in a given area since there are only a few frequencies available. But the throughput is, of course, higher because of the lack of competition for access.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Wireless Fundamentals

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Wireless WAN
Large coverage areas Issues: bandwidth and number of users Cost based on usage duration or amount of information transmitted

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Wireless wide area network (WWAN): WWANs provide connectivity over a wide geographical area. Usually, WWANs are digital cellular networks used for mobile phone and data service and are operated by carriers. Until recently, data rates have been relatively low—115 kb/s—compared to other more localized wireless technologies. Two WWAN technologies—Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)—dominate WWAN deployments worldwide. The covered areas are wide, so the cost of deployment is high and the risk of having end users competing for the same frequency is likely. Because of the high cost and risk, users pay a fee to the network owner to use the frequencies. The fees are usually based on the duration of the “frequency occupation” or the amount of data sent or received, which is, in principle, the same.

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Ad Hoc Networks
This topic describes how wireless is used among a small group of host devices.

Ad Hoc Networks
Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) Exists as soon as two wireless devices communicate Limited in number of devices due to collision and organization issues

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

IUWNE v1.0—1-8

To create a wireless network, users need to have wireless-capable devices. As soon as two wireless-capable devices are in range of each other, they just need to share a common set of basic parameters (frequency and so on) to be able to communicate. Surprisingly, that’s all it takes to create a wireless network. A first station defines the radio parameters and a group name; the other stations just need to detect the group name. They will then adjust their own parameters to the parameters defined by the first station, and a group is formed. This is called an ad hoc network. Most operating systems are designed to make this type of network very easy to set up. When each computer provides access to the other, the official name of this behaviour is called “Basic Service Set.” A Basic Service Set (BSS) can be defined as the area within which a computer is reachable through its wireless connection. (Only physical reachability is being discussed here, without any consideration of authentication or authorization.) Since both computers are communicating without any other device (access point, switch, and so on), this BSS is called an Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS). “Ad hoc network” and “IBSS” are the most commonly used terms to describe a computer to computer wireless communication. They are also referred to as peer-to-peer (wireless) networks.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Wireless Fundamentals

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One technical limitation of this type of network is that all the stations must be in range of each other to be able to communicate. How is the conversation organized? Which of the computers should decide which computer speaks first? Only one computer can speak at a given time; otherwise, the radio waves the computers send would collide and both messages would be lost. This problem creates what is called a “half-duplex communication1.” Each computer uses one single radio to receive and transmit. The way a radio is built means it cannot send and receive at the same time. This has an impact on the throughput of wireless networks. Another issue is the organization of groups. If two ad hoc networks were to be created in the same area, how to differentiate which computers belong to which? They would have to use a system of “workgroup names,” but which computer would define the names? Can a computer share its access to the cable? Not really, because the stability of participation in the network is not granted. IBSS is limited by technical problems linked to the organization of groups.

1

This principle applies to all radio communications and is something that can be seen in everyday life. For example, if two radio stations were emitting on the same frequency, you could not understand either of them when setting your receiver to their common frequency.
Implementing Cisco Unified Wireless Networking Essentials (IUWNE) v1.0 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Infrastructure Mode
This topic describes wireless network topologies that are based on an AP.

Infrastructure Mode
The AP functions as a translational bridge between 802.3 wired media and 802.11 wireless media. Wireless is a halfduplex environment. BSA = wireless cell. BSS is the service provided by the AP.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Another way to create a wireless network is to install a device dedicated to centralizing the communication between machines. This central device would define the frequency and wireless workgroup values, and the machines would have to join the device to communicate through it, with the other machines of the group. This central device is called an access point (AP). It is very close in concept to an Ethernet hub, with regard to relaying communication but, as in an ad hoc network, all devices share the same frequency. Only one device would be able to speak at a given time, sending its frame to the access point, which would then relay it to its final destination. Although this system may be more complex than the simple peer-to-peer network, a benefit is that an AP is usually better equipped than a simple machine to handle congestion. It can also (and this is critical) connect a machine to another one in the same wireless space or to the wired network.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Wireless Fundamentals

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The comparison to a hub is made because of the half-duplex aspect of the communication. APs do have some cleverness that a wired hub simply does not possess. For example, an AP has the ability to address and direct wireless traffic. Managed switches maintain dynamic MAC address tables that can direct packets to ports based on the destination MAC address of the packet. Similarly, an AP is a portal device that directs traffic either to the network backbone or back into the wireless medium based on MAC addresses. The 802.11 header of a wireless frame typically has three MAC addresses, but it can have as many as four in certain situations2. The AP uses the complicated Layer 2 addressing scheme of the wireless frames to forward the upper-layer information either to the network backbone or back to the wireless space, towards another wireless machine. In a network, all wireless-capable devices are called stations. To differentiate one AP from the other, the end devices are often called client stations while the AP is often referred to as an infrastructure device. Like a PC in an ad hoc network, an AP offers a Basic Service Set (BSS), although not an IBSS, because the AP is (and does not rely on) a dedicated device. The area covered by the radio of this AP is called basic service area (BSA), or “cell.” Because the client stations connect to a central device, this type of network is said to use an infrastructure mode as opposed to an ad hoc mode. The wired section of the network that is reachable through the AP is called, from the perspective of the wireless side, the distribution system (DS), because it receives packets that are emitted by the wireless clients and distributes them wherever they have to be sent, even to another AP.

2

Ethernet uses “only” 2 MAC addresses, the source and the destination. But 802.11, understanding that a frame may be relayed by an AP between two end stations, also uses the concept of a transmitting station and next-hop MAC address. The group name on an AP is also a MAC address.
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Infrastructure Mode (Cont.)

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When the distribution system links two access points, or two cells, the group is called an Extended Service Set (ESS). This scenario is a very common in most wireless networks because it not only allows wireless stations in two separate areas of the network to communicate together, but it also permits (with a proper design) roaming. In a wireless network, “roaming” occurs when a station moves, leaves the coverage area of the AP it was originally connected to and gets to the BSA of another AP. In a proper design scenario, a station, before losing the signal of the first AP, detects the signal of the second AP and jumps to it. For the user, the experience is a seamless movement from connection to connection. For the infrastructure, then, the designer must make sure that there is an overlapping area between the two cells to avoid loss of connection. If an authentication mechanism exists (to make sure that only the authorized stations can communicate with the network), credentials can be sent from one AP to another fast enough for the connection not to be cut. Modern networks often use controllers, central devices containing the parameters of all the APs and the credentials of connected users. Since there is an overlap between the cells, it is better to make sure that the APs do not work on the same frequency (or channel). Otherwise any client of any AP staying in the overlapping area would affect the communication of both cells. This problem occurs because wireless is half-duplex. The problem is called Co-channel Interference, and must be avoided. It can be avoided by making sure that neighbour APs are set on frequencies that are far apart from each other.

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Service Set Identifier
This topic describes the concept of Service Set Identifier (SSID), Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID), and multiple BSSIDs (MBSSIDs).

Service Set Identifier

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For a client leaving a first cell to be able to access the network through a second AP, there must be a common pattern that signals this capability. The solution to this issue is the same one used in ad hoc networks: a wireless workgroup name that is common to both (or more) APs and that the client therefore tries to join when moving from one cell to another. This workgroup name is called Service Set Identifier or SSID. It has up to 32 ASCII characters, and is configured on both the AP and the client stations. But it also requires some kind of authorization to determine which station has the right to connect. The term used is often WLAN to define both the SSID and the associated parameters (security and others). When configured on a client station, the SSID is a name used to identify which WLAN the client station is associated with. The AP associates a MAC address to this SSID. This MAC address can be the MAC address of the radio interface itself, if the AP only supports one SSID, or derived from the MAC address of the radio interface if the AP supports several SSIDs. Since each AP has a different radio MAC address, the derived MAC address will be different on each of the APs for the same SSID name. This configuration allows a station staying in the overlapping area to hear one single SSID name and still understand that it is offered by two different APs. The name of the MAC address associated to an SSID is Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID). It identifies the Basic Service Set that is determined by the AP coverage area.

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Because this BSSID is a MAC address that is usually derived from the radio MAC address, it is very common for APs to be able to generate several values. This ability allows the AP to support several SSIDs in one single area. An administrator can then create several groups on the same AP: for example, the guest SSID and the internal SSID; the criteria by which a station is allowed on one or the other AP would be different, but the AP would be the same. This configuration is an example of Multiple Basic Service Set Identifiers (MBSSIDs). MBSSIDs are basically virtual APs. This means that all the SSIDs created still share the same physical device, which has a one half-duplex radio. As a result, if two users of two different SSIDs on the same access point try to send a frame at the same time, the frames will still collide. Even if the SSIDs are different, the wireless space is the same. Using MBSSIDs is just a way of differentiating the traffic reaching the AP, not a way to increase the capacity of the AP.

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Wireless Fundamentals

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Workgroup Bridge
This topic describes workgroup bridges (WGBs) and how they are used.

Workgroup Bridge
A WGB provides wireless connection from Ethernet port. Several devices can benefit if the WGB is connected to a hub or a switch.

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Devices may be located in places where it is not feasible to put an Ethernet cable because the devices are supposed to be moveable or because of the environment (such as in a warehouse or in an old and protected building where drilling new holes is forbidden). Wireless is a natural way to provide access to the network, but these devices may not have a slot for a wireless card. They may only have an Ethernet connection. In such a case, a special device called a workgroup bridge (WGB) can be used to connect to an Ethernet port and provide access to the wireless network. To use a WGB with multiple MAC addresses, the WGB must be connected to a hub or switch with an Ethernet patch cable. All users must connect to the hub or switch. If the WGB is connected directly to an Ethernet client node, an Ethernet crossover cable must be used. Cisco provides two forms of workgroup bridges: autonomous WGB and universal WGB. Support for the autonomous WGB began with the Cisco IOS Software Release 12.4(3G)JA. The WGB will establish a single wireless connection for multiple Ethernet clients to an upstream AP to appear as a nonstandard client. The protocol used is proprietary, so an autonomous WGB could communicate only with Aironet access points. Universal WGB was implemented later, starting with Cisco IOS Software Release 12.4(11)XJ, to support one Ethernet client connected through a WGB to an AP from another vendor to appear as a single normal client

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Repeaters
This topic describes wireless repeaters and when they are used to increase the AP range.

Repeaters
Extends the AP coverage Dual radio can create dual halfduplex Overlap of 50% required Throughput impacted when single frequency used

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IUWNE v1.0—1-13

Extended Service Sets (ESSs) can connect AP, but in some large areas, such as warehouses, it may not be possible to pull a cable to the middle of an open space to install an AP, or the maximum distance of 100 meters of cable length may be exceeded. The area may still have power. A WGB may not be the right solution because the devices are mobile (laptops, barcode scanners) and just need a wireless connection to the network. Therefore, a solution might be to install a repeater. A wireless repeater is simply an AP that is not connected to the wired backbone. It uses its antenna to receive the signal from an AP that is connected to the network, and repeats this signal for the clients that are close to it but too far away from the first AP to connect directly. For this setup to work there must be a 50 percent overlap between the AP on the backbone and the wireless repeater. The time needed to receive and retransmit data will decrease because of data rates. The repeater must be on the same channel as the root (the AP connected to Ethernet). Some APs that are in repeater mode may have two radios. The APs are able to send on one radio while they receive on the other. These APs are sometimes called “full-duplex repeaters,” but keep in mind that each radio is half-duplex. The APs simply act on two radios at the same time; they are sometimes humorously called “dual half-duplex” because two halves do not make one full duplex. This “repeater” feature is available with the Cisco Aironet standalone APs, but a Cisco access point must be used for the root AP because this technology is beyond the 802.11 protocol scope.

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Outdoor Wireless Bridges
This topic describes interconnecting buildings that use wireless bridges.

Outdoor Wireless Bridges
Extend the LAN by linking LANs Usually a few miles range Point to point or hub and spoke

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The wireless network can be extended beyond the LAN to link LANs together. This link is referred to as a “bridge.” These LANs are typically located in buildings that lie within a few miles of each other. This linking is the most common use for a wireless bridge, but there are other uses as well. Some bridges, such as the Cisco Aironet 1300 Series Wireless Bridge can be used as a hybrid both to communicate with wireless clients and link two networks. This bridge operates in the 2.4-GHz frequency range and can be a bridge with or without end stations. Some other models are used for bridging purposes only, and do not communicate with clients. Cisco Aironet bridges operate at the MAC address layer (data link layer), which means they have no routing capabilities. A router must be put in place if IP subnetting is needed within the network. A bridge can be point-to-point, simply linking two networks, or point to multipoint, where several smaller LANs connect to a central one. In this topology, as per the role of each bridge, spokes cannot communicate with each other directly; they have to connect through the central point. Outdoor networks present some specific challenges, such as the impact of humidity or lightning strikes, and specialized help is usually needed for good deployment.

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Outdoor Mesh Networks
This topic explains wireless mesh networks.

Mesh Networks
Devices are connected with redundant connection between nodes; no single point of failure

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Bridges, as defined in the previous section, (even when they are point-to-multipoint) are usually deployed in a rather static configuration where the central point is always the same and the path taken by the spokes to communicate with the other networks over the air is very predictable. The downside of this topology is, of course, that if the central point gets disconnected, or if its bridge is disabled for any reason (such as power or Ethernet connectivity issues, radio interference), the spokes will be isolated and will not be able to connect to the other networks anymore: not to the central point, and not to each other, because the central point is required for this purpose. In a larger deployment, a network may be needed where the main purpose is connectivity of the spokes, not necessarily with a central point, but with each other. Using the ability that some antennas have to send and receive to and from any direction, such a topology is possible and is called a mesh network. Each AP in this topology is called a node. Mesh nodes act as repeaters to transmit data from nearby nodes to peers that are too far away for a manageable cabled connection. In a mesh network, many possible paths are determined from any given node to other nodes. Paths through the mesh network can change in response to traffic loads, radio conditions, or traffic prioritization. If one node drops out of the network, because of hardware failure or any other reason, its neighbours simply find another route. Extra capacity can be achieved by adding more nodes.

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Some of the nodes have a connection to the wired network, and a special algorithm is used by the nonwired APs to determine the shortest path to the cable. This topology is available with the Cisco controller-based WLANs3.

3

The 802.11 standards committee is currently working on mesh networks under the number 802.11s.
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Summary
This topic summarizes the key points that were discussed in this lesson.

Summary
The wireless revolution started 10 years ago with the first protocols. Wireless topologies can be classified as WPAN, WLAN, WMAN, and WWAN according to their range. When two machines communicate over a radio, they create an ad hoc network. Adding a centralized and dedicated device, the AP, increases the networking possibilities. The SSID provides a “workgroup” type of structure. Devices lacking a wireless card can use a WGB. A repeater can extend the range of an AP. Bridges allow creation of point-to-point or point-to-multipoint links. Mesh networks are more robust than other types of networks.
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—1-16

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Lesson 2

Introducing WLAN RF Principles
Overview
To fully understand the IEEE 802.11 technology, it is necessary to have a clear concept of how wireless works at the first layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. RF communications is at the heart of the physical layer. This lesson gives you the tools that you need to understand what happens when a device sends a wave.

Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the principles of wireless LAN (WLAN) RF. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the concept of wireless spectrum Describe frequency Describe the concept of wavelength Describe the concept of amplitude Describe free path loss model Describe absorption Describe reflection Describe multipath Describe scattering Describe refraction Describe line of sight Describe the Fresnel zone Describe RSSI and SNR

RF Spectrum
This topic describes the concept of the RF spectrum.

Wireless Spectrum
Wireless networks use RF signals. Radio frequencies are electromagnetic waves. Spectrum defines wave sizes, grouped by categories. Wireless network radio range is in the microwave segment.

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Many devices use radio waves to send information. A radio wave can be defined as an electromagnetic field that radiates from a sender. It propagates to a receiver, which receives its energy. Light is an example of electromagnetic energy. The eye can interpret light and send its energy to the brain, which in turn transforms it into impressions of colors. Different waves have different sizes that are expressed in meters. Another unit of measurement, hertz (Hz), expresses how often a wave occurs per second. Waves are grouped by category, each group matching a size variation. The lowest waves are in the sonic category, and the highest waves are in the Gamma ray group. We use the waves that a human body cannot perceive to send information. Depending on the type of information being sent, certain wave groups are more efficient than others in the air because they have different properties. Because of different needs and different regulations that arose over time, it became necessary to create subgroups.

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Frequency
This topic describes frequency and how it relates to wavelength.

Frequency

The frequency determines how often a signal is seen. One cycle per second equals 1 Hz. Low frequencies travel farther in the air than high frequencies.
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—1-3

A wave is always sent at the speed of light because it is a magnetic field. This means that the wave takes a shorter or longer time to travel one cycle depending on its length; if a signal wavelength is 5 mm long, it takes less time to travel a cycle than one that is 400m long because the speed is the same in both cases. Since a longer signal takes more time to travel one cycle than a shorter signal, the longer signal goes through fewer cycles in one second than the shorter signal. A direct relationship exists between the frequency (how often it is seen) of a signal and the wavelength (the distance the signal travels in one cycle) of the same signal: the shorter the wavelength, the more often the signal repeats itself over a given time, and therefore, the higher its frequency. When the signal occurs once a second, it is a 1-Hz signal. A signal occurring ten times a second is a 10-Hz signal; a million times a second, a megahertz (MHz), and a billion times a second, a gigahertz (GHz). This fact plays a role in wireless networks because lower-frequency signals are less affected by the air than high-frequency signals.
Note This effect that air has on sound is something that can be seen in everyday life. When a car that is playing loud music approaches, the first sounds that you hear are the drums and the bass because lower frequencies travel farther than the higher ones without being affected by the air.

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Note

Wireless networks use the 2.4-GHz band and the 5-GHz band. The 5-GHz band has less coverage than the 2.4-GHz band and less coverage than the frequencies used for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), such as 900 MHz.

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Wavelength
This topic describes the concept of wavelength.

Wavelength

The signal generated in the transmitter is sent to the antenna. The movement of the electrons generates an electric field, which is the electromagnetic wave. The size of the cycle pattern is called the wavelength.
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—1-4

An RF signal starts with an electrical AC signal generated by a transmitter. This signal is sent through a cable to an antenna where it is “radiated” in the form of an electromagnetic wireless signal. Changes of electron flow in an antenna, otherwise known as current, produce changes in the electromagnetic fields around the antenna and transmit electric and magnetic fields. An AC is an electrical current where the direction of the current changes cyclically. The shape and form of an AC signal—defined as the waveform—are known as a sine wave. This shape is the same as the signal radiated by the antenna. The physical distance from one point of the cycle to the same point in the next cycle, is called a wavelength, which is usually represented by the Greek symbol λ (lambda). In other words, the physical distance covered by the wave in one cycle is the wavelength. Wavelength distance is very important because it determines some of the properties of the wave; some environments and obstacles affect the wave, but the impact is high or low depending on the wavelength and the obstacle encountered. This phenomenon is covered in more detail later in this lesson. Some AM radio stations use a wave 400 or 500 meters long. Wireless networks use a wave a few centimeters long. Some satellites use waves about one millimeter long.

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Wireless Fundamentals

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Amplitude
This topic describes the concept of amplitude.

Amplitude

Amplitude is the vertical distance, or height, between crests. For the same wavelength and frequency, different amplitudes can exist. Amplitude represents the quantity of energy injected in the signal. The value of the amplitude is usually regulated because it can affect the receivers.
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—1-5

Another important factor that affects how a wave is sent is amplitude. Amplitude can be defined as the strength of the signal. In a graphical representation, it is seen as the distance between the higher and lower crest of the cycle. The Greek symbol γ (gamma) is the common representation of amplitude. Amplitude also affects the signal because it represents the level of energy that is injected in one cycle. The more energy injected in a cycle, the higher the amplitude.
Note An easy way to represent this concept is to play the children’s game where a rope is tied to something solid, such as a wall. The player then shakes the free end of the rope, which creates a wave on the rope. It requires more energy to generate a big wave with the rope than to generate a small one.

The amplitude can be increased; this increase is called amplification. Amplification can be active, via an increase of applied power, or passive, which is accomplished by focusing the energy in one direction, through the use of an antenna. Amplitude can also be decreased; this decrease is called attenuation. Finding the right amplitude for a signal can be difficult. The signal weakens as it moves away from the emitter. If the signal is too weak, when it arrives at the receiver, it can be unreadable, but if the signal is too strong, it requires too much energy to generate it (which makes it very costly to generate). It also may be too strong for the receiver, which could damage the receiver.

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Note

This is another game children play, where they shout at each other. If they are too far away, they may not hear each other. But if they are too close and shout too loud, they may deafen each other. This demonstrates that there is an appropriate volume for the usual distance of a normal conversation.

Regulations exist that determine the right amount of power that should be used for each type of device, depending on the expected distance that the signal will be sent. Following these regulations helps to avoid problems created by using the wrong amplitude.
Note Amplitude can be modified dynamically by the transmitter; this modification is called amplitude modulation, or AM. Some radio stations use this modulation to encode the information they send to a radio receiver. Others prefer to change the frequency of the signal to encode the information; this is called frequency modulation, or FM.

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Free Path Loss
This topic describes how a signal loses power after being sent.

Free Path Loss

As the wave spreads away from the emitter, it gets weaker.
– The quantity of energy declines as the distance increases; the quantity of energy available on each point of the circle is less as the circle is larger, and the receiver catches only part of this energy.

Determining a range is determining the energy loss depending on the distance.
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—1-6

A radio wave emitted by an access point (AP) is radiated in the air. If the antenna is omnidirectional, the signal will be emitted in all directions, just as when a stone is thrown into water and waves radiate in all directions from the point where the stone touches the water. If the antenna is directional, the beam will be more focused. But as the signal, or wave, travels away from the AP, it will be affected by the obstacles it encounters on the way. What the effect will be differs depending on the type of obstacle the wave encounters. Even without encountering any obstacle, the first effect of wave propagation is strength attenuation.
Note Continuing with the example of the stone being thrown in the water, the wave circles that are generated have higher crests close to the center than they do farther out. As the distance increases, the circles become flatter, until they finally disappear completely.

The attenuation of the signal strength on its way between a sender and a receiver is called free path loss. The word “free” in the expression refers to the fact that the loss of energy is simply due to the distance, not to an obstacle blocking the signal. It is very important to use the correct word because RF engineers also talk about path loss, which takes into consideration other sources of loss.

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Keep in mind that what causes free path loss is not the distance itself; there is actually no physical reason why a signal would be weaker farther away from the source. The cause of the loss is actually the combination of these two phenomena: The signal is sent from the emitter in all directions. The energy has to be distributed over a larger area (a larger circle), but the amount of energy originally sent does not change. Therefore, the amount of energy available on each point of the circle is higher if the circle is small (with fewer points) rather than large (with more points among which the energy has to be divided). The receiver antenna has a certain physical size, and the amount of energy collected depends on how large it is. A large antenna collects more points of the circle than a small one. But the antenna will never be able to pick up more than a proportion of the signal originally sent, especially since this process occurs in three dimensions (whereas our stone in water example occurs in two dimensions); the rest of the energy that is sent will be lost. The combination of both factors causes free path loss. But if energy could be emitted towards a single direction, and if the receiver could catch 100 percent of that sent signal, there would not be any loss at any distance because there would not be anything along the path to absorb any of the signal strength. Some antennas are built to focus the signal as much as possible, to try to send a powerful signal far away from the AP. But, at present, the focus is still not like that of a laser beam, and therefore, receivers do not capture 100 percent of what is sent.

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Absorption
This topic describes how obstacles absorb wave energy.

Absorption

Absorption takes energy from the wave. This energy is dissipated as heat in the obstacle. When 100% of the energy is taken, the wave stops. The effect of absorption is to reduce amplitude. The signal is therefore less powerful, but the same wavelength and frequency are maintained.
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—1-7

As a signal travels away from the AP, it loses energy not only through free path loss but even more by passing through different types of material. Each material takes part of the energy just like the copper cable. In the air, dust and humidity (water drops) are warmed up by the signal, thus weakening it. The signal also encounters other materials or objects, such as walls. Because the density of an obstacle is usually higher than the density of air, a higher proportion of the wave energy is lost while crossing the obstacle. This process is called absorption.
Note This effect is something that can be observed in everyday life. For example, when someone hears people talking in another room, the voices sound softer than they would if those people were standing at the same distance, but without the wall, because the wall absorbs part of the wave energy. The wave received by an ear has the same frequency and wavelength as originally emitted, but its amplitude (strength) is lower.

If the absorption is high, that is, 100 percent, then the whole wave stops inside the obstacle. If it is less than 100 percent, only part of the original wave gets to the receiver. If the wave, or signal, is too weak (its amplitude too flat), then the receiver may not be able to understand what was sent and will just hear “noise.” Absorption plays a very important role in wireless networks because all buildings are full of obstacles. But not all obstacles absorb the signal in the same way: a concrete wall absorbs most of the signal energy, while a plaster wall only absorbs a portion.

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It is common for site surveys to be conducted to position APs while the building is empty. When the furniture is brought in to the building, the wireless network suddenly is not as efficient as it was before; new obstacles change the pattern. Crowds can also have affect absorption. If, for example, a site survey for a fair is done before the fair starts, when the fair begins and people arrive, the coverage may be reduced because the human body is full of water, which absorbs the signal.

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Reflection
This topic describes how a signal can bounce off obstacles.

Reflection

Part of the energy is reflected. Part of the energy may be transmitted. The angle of reflection is the same as the initial angle. Reflection depends on the roughness of the material relative to the wavelength and the angle. Amplitude has no impact.
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—1-8

Absorption has to be taken into consideration when designing a wireless network, but another major phenomenon that affects wireless signals must be taken into consideration as well: reflection. When a signal hits an obstacle, what happens depends on the nature of the obstacle. For example, porous materials absorb part of the energy, and rough materials (where rough is relative to the wavelength) tend to reflect it, with an angle equal to the one at which it was received. Rough in this instance refers to the surface texture. A flat surface reflects the signal because the wave tends to bounce uniformly on it; a more irregular texture (rough) would partly reflect the signal and partly absorb it. The quantity of energy that is absorbed, and then either transmitted through the material to the other side of the obstacle or reflected back, depends on the angle at which the wave was received and the type of obstacle. For example, metal cabinets reflect more energy than carpet or plaster does. A given obstacle may not be a source of reflection for a signal at one frequency, but may be a high source of reflection for the same signal sent at another frequency. Reflection also depends on the frequency: “rough” is relative to the wavelength. Reflection, then, depends on the angle at which the signal is received. This also relates to roughness. The intensity of the reflection off a window will differ according to whether a signal is received at an acute angle or if it hits at a low angle.

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Multipath
This topic describes the multipath issue.

Multipath

Occurs when a signal reflects from surfaces and signals arrive at the receiver at different times Delayed multiple copies of the same signal hit the receiver Depends on the wavelength and the position of the receiver
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—1-9

Multipath: Phase

Two signals are in phase when the crests of their cycles coincide. Being out of phase weakens both signals or cancels them if amplitude and wavelength are the same.
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Another way reflections affect wireless networks is through the phenomenon called multipath. When a signal is sent as a wave, one portion of the wave travels in a straight line from the sender to the receiver. This part is the main signal. But part of the same wave hits obstacles and is reflected, some of it towards the same receiver. That part of the wave reaches the same destination slightly later because this second wave has to travel a longer distance, since it does not travel in a straight line. As a result, the first wave, the main signal, gets mixed up with its own reflection. This effect can cause major problems in wireless networks. The first problem is that the received signal is distorted and more difficult to understand. If the alteration is too great, the receiving station may not be able to understand the signal at all, even if the sender is close and the signal strength good enough. The second problem is that the signal may actually be weaker than it should be. This effect results in the signal being out of phase, which results in downfade. Phase refers to the relationship between two signals that are at the same frequency. A wave has a particular amplitude, which is the height of the crests. Downfade occurs when the difference between the primary wave and secondary wave signal is 121 to 179 degrees. If a signal is received twice at exactly the same time, then the secondary wave adds its power to the primary wave, so that the receiver gets twice the positive energy (positive crest) at the same instant, then twice the negative energy (negative crest) at the same instant. The result is that both waves add up to twice the amplitude (energy) of one single wave. Both signals are inphase, resulting in upfade. While the final received signal level can never be stronger than the original transmitted signal, it is stronger than it would originally have been at reception without upfade. The upfade occurs when the difference between primary and secondary wave signal is 0 to 120 degrees. But if both signals are not sent at exactly the same time, the receiver may get the first positive crest. Then, as the receiver receives the first subsequent negative crest, it may receive the second positive crest, receiving a positive signal to which the same exact negative signal is added resulting in a neutral signal or in no signal at all.
Note An everyday example of this would be the noise cancellation that occurs when using a headset. This device usually contains an electronic system that detects, or captures, the surrounding noise as it gets close to the ear and dynamically plays the opposite wave with the same amplitude: the result is silence.

The signals are out of phase, resulting in nulling, with an angle of 180 degrees. A 180 degree angle means that when the high crest of the first signal reaches the endpoint, the low crest of the second signal reaches the same endpoint at the very same time. The signals are exactly the opposite, and the receiver gets no signal (if both signals have the same amplitude and wavelength). Most of the time, the difference between both signals is not 180 degrees, which means that the receiver does receive a signal, but the original signal is jammed by the second one, or the third, or more, depending on how many reflected signals make it to the receiver.

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Physical position is another key issue. When the source of reflection is a flat metallic ceiling, reflection may occur in most places. But when the source of reflection is a smaller obstacle, reflection will depend on the relative positions of the sender and the receiver and on the wavelength: an emitted signal that has a longer wavelength does not hit an obstacle at the exact same position, and therefore does not bounce in the same way. The result is that a given signal at a given frequency may be very badly affected by reflections at a given position, while it will not be affected at all a few centimeters away. (Remember that the Wi-Fi wavelengths are a few centimeters long.)
Note Here is an example of the effect physical position can have. As a car pulls up to a stop sign, the driver may notice static on the radio. But as the car moves forward a few inches or feet, the station starts to come in more clearly. By rolling forward, the antenna is moved away slightly from the point where the multipath signals converge.

Another result is that a signal at a given frequency may be very badly affected by reflections at any given position, while it will not be affected at all when at the same position but using another frequency.

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Scattering
This topic describes the concept of scattering.

Scattering

Scattering occurs when microparticles deviate the wave in multiple directions. It affects shorter wavelengths more than longer ones. It can weaken the signal or block it.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Reflection has to do with major obstacles, but reflection also occurs in the air itself. If the radio wave and the air particles could be seen, it would show that some of them, such as dust or micro drops of water (humidity), would affect the wave. These multiple reflections are described as scattering.
Note An effect close to scattering occurs when a light beam is sent to a disco mirror ball.

Scattering affects signal quality because the received result is weaker (because part of it was reflected in other directions along the path) and more diffuse (as many of these micro reflections may hit the receiver). Dust and humidity are not the only things that cause scattering. It can also be caused by other types of droplets, bubbles, density fluctuations, roughness of the surface on which a reflection may occur (part of the signal will be reflected in one main direction, part of it in many directions, thus scattered), or cells in organisms (such as the human body). Here, again, the effect of scattering will depend on the frequency. When crossing the same environment, some frequencies will be highly scattered while some others will be mostly unaffected.

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Note

The effects of scattering can be seen almost every day. When the light from the sun crosses the atmosphere, the air scatters the higher frequencies, such as blue, a lot more than the other frequencies. As a result, the blue frequency is reflected in all directions and the sky itself looks blue from the ground. This is called the Rayleigh scattering (so called because Lord Rayleigh was the first to understand it). But at sunrise and sunset, sunlight enters our atmosphere at a shallow angle and travels a long distance before reaching our eyes. During this long passage, most of the blue light is deflected away and virtually all that you see from the sun is its red and orange wavelengths, which is what the sky looks like at sunset unless the humidity in the atmosphere is high. Then the scattering effect is more uniform and the evening sky looks yellow.

Scattering can cause two effects in wireless networks: The first effect is a degradation of the wave strength and quality of the signal at the receiver. This effect is usually easy to predict, because the degradation is relatively consistent in the atmosphere. The effect is more complex to determine in nonheterogeneous environments, for example, in long-range radio links crossing highly polluted urban air. The second effect occurs when a wave crosses uneven environments, such as tree leaves, or when the wave reflects off uneven surfaces such as moving water or a rocky terrain. The effect on the wave at the receiver will be harder to predict because it depends on how the reflections occurred.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Wireless Fundamentals

1-41

Refraction
This topic describes how a signal can change direction under certain conditions.

Refraction
Refraction occurs when a wave passes from one medium to another, causing the wave to change direction. Refraction has a minor effect on indoor networks. It can have a big impact on outdoor long-range links.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Refraction is a phenomenon that occurs when a wave changes direction. This change in direction usually happens when a wave passes from one medium to another.
Tip This effect can be seen when looking at a spoon or a straw in a glass: it looks like it has been cut instead of being a continuous straight object inside and outside the glass. The light goes through the liquid and the glass itself and gets refracted. The change of direction in the light beam creates this illusion.

Refraction generally has only a minor effect on indoor networks. It may have more of an effect on long-range wireless links that cross areas of the atmosphere that have different densities and humidity. Drier air typically bends the signal away from the earth, while more humid air bends it towards the earth.

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Line of Sight
This topic describes how obstacles between two locations may prevent a signal from being properly received.

Line of Sight

Line of sight is necessary for good signal transmission. Earth curvature plays a role in the quality of outdoor links, even with a distance of a few miles (depending on the elevation of the transmitter and receiver). Visual obstacles may or may not prevent radio line of sight.
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—1-13

As a signal travels in a straight line towards a receiver, it is received in good condition if there is clear line of sight between the sender and the receiver. If there is an object in the path of the wave, such as a tree or a building, then the attenuation (absorption) and other phenomena will prevent communications from occurring. In an outdoor link, if the receiver is placed beyond a certain distance, the curvature of the earth also plays a role. For a 6-foot (183-cm) person, the horizon appears at about 6 miles (about 10 km). Its disappearance is determined by the height of the observer. If there are two 10-foot (3meter) structures, the top of one will have a line of sight to the other up to about 16 miles (26 km), but it will have minimum clearance at the horizon point. This is why it is said that a signal will be received in good condition if the receiver is in the line of sight of the sender. But the line of sight mentioned here is a radio line of sight rather than a visual line of sight. The two concepts are closely related, but are different, For instance, there may be no visual line of sight, because the antenna is hidden behind a light object such as roof tiles, and yet there will still be a radio line of sight because the signal reaches the receiver in a condition good enough for it to be decoded. In some extreme conditions, the signal may reflect on an object or the atmosphere and be received in a place from which the sender could not be seen.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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1-43

Fresnel Zone
This topic describes the Fresnel zone and how to calculate it.

Fresnel Zone
Determines an area around radio line of sight where reflections have most negative impact on the signal Should be at least 60% free from obstacles

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The radio line of sight, even when it matches the model of a straight line or a visual line of sight, is actually more than a simple line. If there are obstacles that are not on the path itself (understood to be a direct line between the sender and the receiver), but close to the path, the radio waves reflecting off those objects may arrive out of phase with the signals that travel directly to the receiver. This problem reduces the power of the received signal or causes the signal to arrive in or out of phase. Objects and their reflections most commonly decrease the signal. One way to mitigate these interferences is to ensure a minimum distance between the direct line of the signal and the closest obstacle; but how do you calculate what this “minimum distance” should be? It depends on the distance between the two points and the frequency of the signal, because individual frequencies are affected differently by travel through the air and by reflections. Augustin Fresnel (pronounced fray-NELL), a 19th century physicist, provided a method for calculating where reflections will be in phase and out of phase around the direct line between the sender and the receiver. He created the corresponding “zones.” In the first zone, closest to a direct line, reflections cause signals that will be 0 to 90 degrees out of phase, thus negatively impacting the signal. In the second zone, which surrounds the first one, the signals will be 90 to 270 degrees out of phase, and in the third zone, the signals will be 270 to 450 degrees out of phase and so on. Odd-numbered zones are constructive to the signal and even-numbered zones are destructive to the signal strength. Theoretically, there are an infinite number of zones, but the area of main concern is the first zone. It should be kept largely free from obstructions to avoid interfering with radio reception.

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Some obstruction may be acceptable, but at least 60 percent of this first zone should be free from any interference; 80 percent is recommended. To determine the Fresnel zone, think of the radio signal as a rugby ball or an American football. A sender and a receiver are at each end of the ball, and there is an imaginary line from one to the other1. Calculating the Fresnel zone involves trying to determine the maximum radius of the ball. It will be at its largest exactly midway between the ends. There is an equation that determines, at midpath, what the radius of the ball is2. The Fresnel zone mostly affects outdoor links. When indoors; distances are usually too short for obstacles to be a major issue.

1

It is this shape because of reflection angles. For example: suppose that a sender and a receiver are 100 meters (or yards) apart, on a 2-meter (yard) pole. If a reflection source is 3 meters (yards) away from the sender on the ground, the signal would have to drop from the sender to hit it. It would then reflect with the same angle, sending it to the sky. It would have to be a very strange shape for the reflection to be deviated close to 90 degrees and follow the earth’s curve to finally get to the receiver. But if the reflection source is exactly in the middle, assuming the reflection occurred at the same angle at which it was sent, the signal will go straight to the receiver. So the middle part of the ball is more widely affected by reflections than the ends. This is why Fresnel determined that zones would have this ball shape. In other words, the distance that should be kept between the direct line and the first obstacles, depends on the distance between the sender and the receiver (the longer the ball, the larger it will be), and the frequency of the signal: b = 0.5 x √ λ x d

2

Where b is the radius of the zone at mid-distance, d is the distance between the sender and the receiver, and λ is the frequency of the signal. There are many online tools that will do this calculation, such as: http://www.terabeam.com/support/calculations/fresnel-zone.php#meters
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. Wireless Fundamentals 1-45

RSSI and SNR
This topic describes Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and how they are used in combination to determine the signal quality.

RSSI and SNR

RSSI is the signal strength indicator. The dBm value is obtained from a signal grading coefficient, which is determined by the vendor. RSSI usually a negative value, the closer to 0 the better. SNR is signal strength relative to noise level. The higher the SNR, the better.
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—1-15

Because the RF wave may have been affected by obstacles in its path, it is important to determine how much signal will be received by the other endpoint. If sender and receiver are compatible devices (for example, two bridges, or an AP and a client WLAN adapter) the signal will probably not be too strong, but it can be too weak to be heard or detected as an actual signal by the receiver. The value that indicates how much power is received is called Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI). It is usually expressed in dBm (a unit of relative power measurement against milliwatt). Calculating the RSSI is a complex problem since the receiver does not know how much power was originally sent. RSSI, therefore, expresses a relative value determined by the receiving card while comparing received packets to each other. The RSSI is, in fact, a grade value, which can range from 0 (no signal or no reference) to 255 max. But many vendors use a maximum value lower than 255 (for example 100 or 60). The value is relative because a magnetic field and an electric field are received, and a transistor transforms them into electric power; current is not directly received. How much electric power can be generated depends on the received field as well as the circuit that transforms it into current.

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From this grade value an “equivalent dBm” is displayed, which here, again, depends on the vendor. If a vendor determined that the RSSI for a card would range from 0 to 100, 0 being represented as -95 dBm and 100 as -15 dBm, and if another vendor determined that 0 to 60 would be used, 0 being – 92 dBm and 60 being – 12 dBm, you could not really compare powers when reading RSSI = - 35 dBm on one vendor and RSSI = -28 dBm on the second vendor3. Therefore, RSSI is not a means of comparing cards, but more a way to help understand, card by card, how strong a received signal is relative to itself in different locations. This method is useful for troubleshooting or when comparing same vendor cards values. On Cisco cards the utility also displays a grading of the RSSI (such as good, poor, and so on). An attempt is being made to unify these values with the received channel power indicator (RCPI). Future cards may use it instead of the RSSI, and it will be the same scale on all cards. Measuring the strength of the signal is one metric. Another important metric is the SNR, or signal-to-noise ratio. SNR determines how much stronger the signal is than the surrounding noise; the higher the SNR, the better.
Note An example of SNR in everyday life is when someone speaks in a room, and a certain volume is enough to be heard and understood. But if the same person spoke outside, surrounded by the traffic noise, the same level of voice might not be enough to be understood. The voice might be heard, but the words would be lost in the traffic noise.

Because the SNR is built on the RSSI (it compares RSSI level to noise level), it is also a relative value. It determines the ability of the receiver to read the received signal and decode its zeros and ones. This is why the SNR is generally seen as more universal than the RSSI. A good SNR depends on the RSSI. In other words, a relatively low SNR is acceptable if the environment is globally quiet, but a higher SNR is needed in a noisy environment.
Note In a very quiet room, a whisper can still be heard: although the voice is almost inaudible, because it is the only sound present, it is easy to understand. In an outdoor, noisy environment, it would be harder to isolate the voice from the surrounding noise, and so it would need to be much louder than the surrounding noise to be understood.

You will see in the lesson “Examining Wireless Media Access” from this module what the recommended values are. They depend not only on the background noise, but also the speed to be achieved. A final term to discuss in this lesson is the link budget. It is a value accounting for all the losses from the sender’s transmitter to the receiver circuit. The link budget determines how much power needs to be sent out of the transmitter for the receiver to get a signal that can be interpreted. The link budget is used in all wireless networks, but the term will be encountered more often in reference to outdoor links than to indoor networks.

Keep in mind that with negative numbers, the closer to zero, the higher the number. Therefore, -28 dBm is a lot more than -95 dBm. An easy way to remember this fact is to think about temperatures: -1 degree is a lot more than -20.
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. Wireless Fundamentals 1-47

3

Summary
This topic summarizes the key points that were discussed in this lesson.

Summary
The wireless spectrum expresses the range of radio waves. Frequency is how often the same cycle repeats per second. Wavelength is the distance of the same points in a signal cycle. Amplitude is how strong the signal is and how high the wave. Once radiated, some energy will be lost as the signal spreads, incurring free path loss. As the signal goes through obstacles, absorption weakens it. The signal can also bounce on objects, which is reflection.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Summary (Cont.)
When reflection occurs and several signals arrive at the receiver, a multipath issue occurs. Scattering occurs when the signal is reflected in many directions by small obstacles. Refraction occurs when the signal goes from one medium to another and changes direction. For a signal to be transmitted in good condition, radio line of sight should exist between endpoints. Around the line of sight, a zone, the first Fresnel zone, should be mostly free from obstacles. RSSI determines received signal strength and SNR determines the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Lesson 3

Understanding Radio Frequency Mathematics
Overview
This lesson gives you the tools you need to understand the mathematics that are used in wireless networks. It is not intended to be a comprehensive analysis of all the equations that are used in the wireless world, but rather to provide some basic references that can help you understand how power is applied to wireless devices.

Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to understand the basic mathematics that are used in the wireless world for power comparison. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe watts, milliwatts, and decibels Describe dBm Describe dBi and dBd Describe EIRP

Watts, Milliwatts, and Decibels
This topic describes the common values that are used to describe power in an RF environment.

Watts, Milliwatts, and Decibels

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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A key problem in wireless network design is determining how much power should be sent, or actually is sent from a source and, therefore, what power is, or should be, received by the endpoint. The distances that can be achieved depend on this determination. The power sent from a source also determines the device that will be installed, the type of access point (AP) that will be used, and mainly, the type of antenna that should be used. The first unit of power used in power measurement is the watt (W), which is named after James Watt. It is a measure of the energy spent (or emitted, or consumed) per second; 1 W represents 1 joule (J) of energy per second. A joule is the amount of energy generated by a force of 1 newton (N) moving one meter (m) in one direction. A newton is the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram (kg) at a rate of 1 meter per second squared (m/s2). Everything is a question of familiar reference, and the last definition is probably more understandable because it uses a known reference (kilogram). Another way to represent 1 W is to say that it is 1 volt (V) with 1 ampere (A) power.
Note To give an everyday example, breathing consumes 40 W and climbing a ladder, 200 W. A Boeing 747 consumes 140 000 000 W on average. In electrical terms, a CD-ROM laser uses 0.005 W, a typical incandescent household light bulb uses between 40 and 120 W, and a PC between 300 and 400 W.

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It is surprising that a CD-ROM laser uses only 0.005 W. In RF terms, as with a CD-ROM reader, the power consumed is used to move an object or to produce light, only to transmit a signal that can be interpreted. This is why the strengths are usually low and use units of one thousandth of a watt, or a milliwatt (mW).
Note A typical access point can have a power of 100 mW. But this varies depending on the context (indoor, outdoor) and the country, because there are some regulations in this field. You will learn more about these regulations in the lesson “Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications.”

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Decibels
Compares powers, originally sounds 0 dB = same power 3 dB = twice the power -3 dB = half the power 10 dB = 10 x the power -10 dB = 1 tenth of the power

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Watt or milliwatt is an absolute power value. It simply expresses power consumption. It is also useful in comparing devices to one another. Another value very commonly used in wireless networks is the decibel (dB). It is a familiar term regarding sound levels. A decibel is a logarithmic unit of measurement used to express the amount of power relative to a reference. Understanding decibels is easy; calculating them is sometimes more challenging. The term derives from bel. At the beginning of the 20th century, Bell Laboratories needed a value to represent losses on a telephone line, so they invented the bel to represent the typical loss from their lines over a mile. The unit was later standardized. A decibel is a tenth of a bel. An important and often misunderstood part of the decibel concept is that it is a relative value. A 1 bel loss was a loss over a mile compared to the originally emitted sound level. When talking about decibels for sounds, the reference level is the minimum sound that a human ear can perceive. All the other sound levels are compared against this reference. But because the decibel is a power scale, it can be used to compare sounds or anything else. It is used to compare relative powers or strength, and decibel would be followed by the relevant unit expressing the strength. dBJ would compare joules, dBHz compares hertz, and so on. The decibel scale is logarithmic, a progression that is sometimes a little difficult to comprehend. To simplify the task, below are some key values to remember: 0 dB: A measurement of 0 dB is the reference value. In other words, as decibels compare one value to another value that is used as a reference, if the value compared against the reference is 0 dB strong, it means that it has nothing more and nothing less than the reference: It is the same. 10 dB: When the power is 10 dB, the source being examined is ten times more powerful than the reference value. This process also works the other way round: if the examined object is 10 times less powerful than the reference value, it will be written as -10 dB.
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3 dB: Remember that decibels are a logarithm. The third quick rule is that if the power is 3 dB, the source being examined is twice as powerful as the reference value. With the same logic, if the examined object is half as powerful as the reference value, it will be written -3 dB. This progression has some consequences: a power increase of 6 dB means that the second device is four times as powerful as the first one: a 3 dB increase makes it twice as powerful, and another 3 dB is added, making it “twice as powerful as twice as powerful,” which is four times as powerful. In the same logic, a power increase of 9 dB means that the second device is eight times as powerful as the reference source: 3 dB to be twice as powerful, 3 dB to be four times as powerful, and 3 dB again to be twice as powerful as four times, which is eight times. A 9 dB increase would mean the device was eight times as powerful and a 10 dB increase would mean the device was 10 times as powerful.

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Decibel Referenced to 1 Milliwatt
This topic describes how to apply the decibel scale to electric power.

dBm
Used for AP transmitters Same scale as the other dB 0 dBm = 1 mW 30 dBm = 1 W - 20 dBm = 0.01 mW

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Decibels are used extensively in wireless networks to compare powers. There are two types of powers that may be compared: the electric power sent by a transmitter, and the power of an antenna. Since the signal emitted by a transmitter is an AC current, the power levels used are expressed in milliwatts. Comparing powers between transmitters is comparing milliwatts. Following the rule on the previous page, and keeping in mind that a decibel expresses a relative value, you can establish these facts: If a device sends 0 dBm (decibel referenced to milliwatt), it sends the same amount of milliwatts as the reference source (and since the power reference is 1mW, the device sends 1 mW). If a device sends 10 dBm, it sends 10 times more power (in milliwatts) than the reference source of 1 mW; therefore the device sends 10 mW. If a device sends -10 dBm, it is one tenth as powerful as the reference source, so it sends one tenth of a milliwatt or 0.1 mW. If a device emits at 3 dBm, it is twice as powerful as the reference source and sends 2 mW. If a device emits at – 3 dBm, it is half as powerful as the reference source and therefore sends 0.5 mW. In the same logic, if a devices sends 6 dBm, it is four times as powerful as the reference source: adding 3 dBm makes it twice as powerful, and adding another 3 dBm makes it twice as powerful a second time, four times in total, which is 4 mW.

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To convert dBm to milliwatts, calculate that each addition of 10 dBm multiplies the power by ten. Then, each addition of 3 dBm doubles the result. For example, consider 36 dBm. It can be written as 10+10+10+3+3 dBm. Each addition of ten multiplies the power by ten. As 3 additions of ten are in this number, the power should be multiplied by ten three times. The reference power being 1 mW, it can be written (((1mWx10)x10)x10), which is 1000 mW. Then each addition of 3 doubles the result. The result will be doubled twice here. Starting from 1000 mW, doubling twice gives 4000 mW, or 4 W. Therefore 36 dBm = 4 W. To convert milliwatts to dBm, try to determine if the value to convert can be divided by ten to get an integer as close to 1 as possible. Each time you can divide it by ten, add 10 dBm. Then, try to divide the remaining value by 2. Each time you can divide it by 2, add 3 dBm. For example, consider 40 mW. It can be divided by 10, giving 4. It contains 10 dBm. Four cannot be divided by ten anymore and give an integer, but it can be divided by 2, giving 2, and again, giving 1. As you do it twice, two times 3 dBm are present in this number. The total gives 10+3+3 = 16 dBm.

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These rules help perform an easy calculation of power levels. The following table will help you find some intermediates values.
dBm -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4.5 -4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 mW 0.0100 0.0125 0.0158 0.0200 0.0251 0.0316 0.0398 0.0501 0.0631 0.0794 0.100 0.126 0.158 0.200 0.251 0.316 0.355 0.398 0.447 0.500 0.562 0.631 0.708 0.794 0.891 1 dBm 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 mW 1 1.12202 1.2589 1.4125 1.5849 1.7783 1.9953 2.2387 2.5119 2.8184 3.1623 3.9811 5.0119 6.3096 7.9433 10.0000 12.5893 15.8489 19.9526 25.1189 31.6228 39.8107 50.1187 63.0957 79.4328 100.0000

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dBi and dBd
This topic describes how to apply the decibel scale to antenna power.

Decibel Referenced to Isotropic Antenna
dBi refers to an isotropic antenna. This antenna is theoretical and does not exist in reality dBi is used as a reference point to compare antennae. The same logarithm progression applies to dBi as to the other decibel scales.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Decibel referenced to isotropic antenna, or dBi, compares power as far as current is concerned, which is very useful in many scenarios (as seen in most of the remaining lessons of this module), but wireless engineers also need to compare the power of antennae. An antenna does not send an electric current as such, but an electric and a magnetic field. Wireless engineers and others need to use a tool that compares the power of antennae without the need to use the indirect value of the current that was sent. To achieve this goal, a reference antenna was created. It is a spherical antenna one dot large1 that would be radiating in all directions. Such an antenna is theoretical and does not exist in reality for two reasons: An antenna one dot large is almost impossible to produce because something would need to be linked to the antenna to send the current to it. An antenna usually does not radiate equally in all directions because its construction means that it sends more signal in some directions than in others. This theoretical antenna does not exist, but it does not matter; it is simply used as a reference to which the other antennae, that really exist, will be compared. This theoretical antenna allows comparison of one antenna to another since the antennae will be labeled in reference to the same point of comparison.

1

How large is a dot? It is actually a mathematical concept that defines a theoretical sphere, with a radius of zero.
Wireless Fundamentals 1-57

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This theoretical antenna is called an isotropic antenna because it radiates equally in all directions. (It comes from the Greek tropos, meaning “to turn,” and iso, meaning “equal.” It is a signal encircling the emitter equally in all directions). Comparing powers radiated out of antennae using this scale will therefore be called dBi (“i” standing for isotropic). The logarithm progression of the dBi scale obeys, of course, the same rules as any other decibel scale: 3 dBi means twice as powerful as the reference theoretical antenna, 6 dBi means 4 times as powerful, and 10 dBi means 10 times as powerful. Using the same logarithm progression allows antennae to be compared; if an antenna is 6 dBi and another one is 9 dBi, the second one will be 3 dBi more powerful than the first one, and therefore twice as powerful.

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Decibel Referenced to Dipole Antenna
Refers to dipole Is simplest antenna Also called rubber duck 0 dBd = 2.14 dBi
Logarithm scale same as the other dB scales

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The industry also uses another scale to compare antennae since the theoretical 0 dBi reference antenna does not exist; some wireless professionals prefer to use an existing antenna as the reference, taking the simplest possible antenna, called a dipole antenna. So a scale is used that is expressed in dBd (the d at the end standing for dipole). How do you relate dBd to dBi? Simply by determining how many dBi equivalents are emitted by this simple dipole antenna. Because it is an antenna, its power can be compared against the reference theoretical antenna; this measurement is 2.14 dBi2. Converting one to the other is then simply a matter of adding or taking away 2.14: dBd = dBi - 2.14 dBi = dBd + 2.14 For example: Antenna#1 = 5.4 dBd will be 7.54 dBi (5.4 + 2.14 = 7.54). Antenna#2 = 13.8 dBi will be 11.66 dBd (13.8 – 2.14 = 11.66).

There will, in any case, be a 6.26 dB difference between these two antennae3, which means that the second one will be a little over four times more powerful than the first one. This power comparison is what really matters to determine which antenna to use in a given situation.

Some vendors use the value of 2.2. If expressed in dBi, powers would be 11.66 dBi compared to 5.4 dBi, which gives a difference of 6.26 dB. If expressed in dBd, powers would be 13.8 dBd compared to 7.54 dBd, which is still 6.26 dB difference. As long as the units are the same, dBi or dBd can be used to compare powers and will give the same ratio.
3

2

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Effective Isotropic Radiated Power

Effective Isotropic Radiated Power

EIRP: Effective Isotropic Radiated Power

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Comparing antennae gives a measure of what is called their gain. The antenna is a passive device, which means that it does not add to the energy received from the cable. The only thing it can do is to radiate this power, in one or several directions. An easy way to understand this concept is to take the example of a balloon. The quantity of air inside it is the quantity of energy to be radiated. The balloon can be left as a sphere, in which case the energy will be equally distributed in all directions. Imagine that the access point (AP) is at the center of the balloon and radiates in all directions like the isotropic antenna. The balloon can also be pressed to change its shape to look like a sausage; the AP can even be placed at one end of this sausage. The quantity of air present in this new shape is still the same, but there will be more air in one direction (along the sausage) than in the others. The same principle applies to antennae: when they concentrate the energy received from the cable in one direction, they are said to be more powerful (in this direction) than the one that radiates in all directions because there is “more signal” in this direction. In this sense, describing the power of antennae is like comparing their ability to concentrate the flow of energy in one direction. The more “powerful” an antenna, therefore the higher its dBi or dBd value, the more it focuses or concentrates the energy received in a narrower beam. But the total amount of power radiated will not be higher because the antenna will not actively add power to that which is received from the transmitter. Nevertheless, in the direction toward which the beam is more concentrated, the received energy is higher because the receiver gets a higher percentage of the energy emitted by the transmitter. And, if the energy emitted by the transmitter is itself higher, the result will be higher again.

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Wireless engineers need a way to determine how much energy was actually radiated from the antenna towards the main beam; this measure is called the Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP). One key concept to keep in mind is that the EIRP is named “isotropic” because it is the amount of power that would have to be emitted by an isotropic antenna to produce the peak power density observed in the direction of maximum antenna gain. In other words, it tries to express in isotropic equivalents how much energy is radiated in the beam, but to do that, it, of course, takes into consideration the beam shape and strength, the antenna specs. In mathematical terms, the EIRP, expressed in decibel milliwatt (dBm), is simply the amount of power emitted by the transmitter, plus the gain (in dBi) of the antenna. However, since the signal may go through a cable, through which some power may be lost, the cable loss has to be deducted: EIRP = Tx power (dBm) + Antenna Gain (dBi) – Cable Loss (dB) The EIRP is very important from a resulting power and regulations standpoints: most countries allow a maximum Tx power of the transmitter, and also a final maximum EIRP value, which will be the resulting power once the antenna has been added. This limitation creates a constraint on which type of antenna can be used, depending on the power to be injected. You will learn more about these regulations in the lesson “Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications.”

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Summary
This topic summarizes the key points that were discussed in this lesson.

Summary
1 W represents 1 J of energy per second; 1000 mW = 1 W. Decibels are used to compare relative powers. dBm compares milliwatts. dBi compares antennae to a theoretical isotropic antenna. dBd compares them to a basic 2.14 dBi dipole antenna. The EIRP (dBm) is the power of the transmitter (dBm), minus the loss of the cable (dBm), plus the gain (dBi) of the antenna.

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Lesson 4

Describing Antennae
Overview
An antenna is needed to transmit RF signals. Several types of antennae are available. Which antenna you decide to use will depend on where and how you want the signal to be received. This lesson guides you through an investigation of the different types of antennae.

Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe wireless antennae. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe antenna principles Describe polarization Describe diversity Describe the main antenna types Describe omnidirectional antennae Describe directional antennae Describe connectors Describe attenuators and amplifiers Describe lightening arrestors Describe splitters

Antennae Principles
This topic describes the different types of antennae and the tools that can be used to compare them.

Antenna Principles
The radiation pattern describes coverage shape. RF radiation pattern is described by Eplane (elevation chart) and H-plane (azimuth chart). Expressed in dB. Each antenna design produces different RF radiation patterns.

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There are many types of antennae and many vendors. What is most important when choosing an antenna is exactly how a wave is radiated from a given antenna, which has an impact on the strength of the signal and its range. It also has legal implications because it is not permissible to radiate certain signals on certain frequencies. An antenna is a piece of equipment that can receive an AC current and, by letting a flow of electrons move back and forth, can transform this energy into an electromagnetic field. Depending on the material used to build the antenna and on its thickness, shape, length, and physical characteristics, the antenna will generate fields that have various shapes. This result is expected: the antennae makers create specific radiation shapes to match specific needs. For example, a maker might create the following: A circular shape to cover a conference room A long, thin shape to cover a long corridor The shape is rarely simple. The internal components of antennae can cause a shape with small zones that radiate more in one place and less in another. The first task in choosing an antenna is to precisely determine its radiation shape: the shape is called a radiation pattern. One way to determine the radiation pattern is to install the antenna, then move around it with a wireless device such as a laptop to determine where the strongest Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is found. This method allows lines to be drawn showing where and how far a given RSSI occurs. This method is tiresome: the radiation pattern would be discovered only after having purchased the antenna and interferences could render the readings unreliable. The operation would have to be repeated a number of times to confirm a valid reading.
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To facilitate the decision of which antenna someone should buy, most vendors publish drawings showing the radiation pattern analysis and the antenna specifications. The analyses are done in controlled environments to avoid interference issues. An antenna radiates in a three-dimensional (3-D) environment but providing a 3-D view of the radiation pattern is not possible unless the person intending to purchase the antenna has software capable of viewing something in 3-D. Therefore, vendors usually provide two views: a horizontal plane and an elevation chart (seen in the figure for this section). The H-plane (horizontal plane), or azimuth chart, represents the radiation pattern as seen from the top; it shows how the signal spreads ahead, behind, on the right and on the left, but not up and down and it provides a flat or horizontal view. The E-plane (elevation plane), or elevation chart represents the radiation pattern seen as if standing on the side of the antenna; it shows how the signal spreads ahead, behind, on the top and the bottom, but not on the right and left; it provides a top down view of the signal shape Both charts together help deduce the rest of the beam in a 3-D extrapolation. In all cases, the antenna is supposed to be in the center of the chart, but it is usually not represented. However, in most cases this position is obvious. The strength of the radiation pattern is expressed in dB, but it does not show an actual distance reached in certain directions: increase power and the distance will increase. Instead, vendors take a reference point, which is usually chosen in the main beam of the field, in front of the antenna, in the direction in which the signal is strongest. This reference point is labeled 0 dB, and all the other (weaker) points are drawn in relation to this reference point. The strongest signal is at this point. The other points are labeled –X dB depending on how much weaker the signal would be in the given area than at the strongest point. Some vendors use a double representation. A peak point labeled 0 dB and another point shown as – 3 dB means that at the same distance, but on the side, the signal will be 3 dB weaker. The line itself represents a line of equal power relative to the distance from the antenna. In other words, following the line, you would read the same RSSI all along the circle as you go around the antenna. But if you go around the antenna in a perfect circle, maintaining the same distance from the access point (AP), the value in dB shows how the signal strength varies.

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Polarization
This topic describes the different types of polarization.

Polarization
Polarization describes the orientation of the electric field. It can be linear or circular. The magnetic field is on the right of the electric field. Wireless antennae can use any polarization, but consistency is required. Vertical polarization is common.

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Magnetic Field
90 degrees perpendicular to the electric field

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The H-plane and the E-plane are usually different. This fact implies that the antenna does not radiate the same way in all three dimensions. The reason for this difference is linked to the fact that the required coverage is not uniform in the space, but also based on the fact that the electric field is polarized. This is an important factor. The antenna will be radiating an “electromagnetic” field, which means an electric field and a magnetic field. The electric field is the actual wave; it is defined as a variation in the electric characteristics of the space surrounding an electric charge.
Note Electric and magnetic fields are all around us. The earth radiates a strong field that protects us from space particles, and helps our body orient its cells. On a much, much smaller scale, TV and radio signals are fields, and each power cord radiates a tiny electromagnetic field around itself.

Because the electric field is the wave, it can move in different ways: In vertical polarization, the wave goes up and down in a linear fashion. In horizontal polarization, the wave goes left and right in a linear fashion. In circular polarization, the wave circles as it moves forward. This polarization is determined by the antenna. Perpendicular to this electric field is a magnetic field, generated at the same time by the radiation phenomenon. The magnetic field is always on the left of the electric field when the electric field is going upward. In other words, if you extend the thumb, index finger, and middle finger on your right hand, when the electric field is going up and towards the front, following your thumb and index finger directions, the magnetic field direction is shown by your middle finger, which would be pointing towards the left. Antennae in wireless networks are often vertically polarized, which means that the electric field should be vertical. The vendor always represents how the antenna should be placed for the field to be sent with the right angle, and the indications should be followed carefully. The orientation is usually intuitive: an antenna having a tube shape usually should be positioned vertically, but some antennas may have different characteristics (or their polarization can be changed), so it is always verify the orientation.
Note There is a historical reason why antennae are vertically polarized. In the 1950s, the first TV signals were sent in New York City, with a much longer wavelength than the future wireless. The experiment showed that a horizontal polarization would be more efficient to go around the interferences caused by the skyscrapers. Later, when the first RF signals were used for data transmission, the RF engineers decided to use vertical polarization to point away from the TV signals.

If the orientation of the antenna is wrong, the receiving antenna, instead of seeing a field going up and down, receives a varying value, even though the receiving antenna has minimal movement. As a result, the receiving antenna has much more difficulty recomposing the signal: the loss resulting from wrong orientation is commonly a loss of 20 dB or more. This loss means that the received signal is at least 100 times weaker than it should be. Outdoor links are impacted by this loss, but indoor deployments are as well. If an antenna should be pointed downward and if, for aesthetic or security reasons (to be hidden for example), it is positioned flat, the signal to and from it will be considerably degraded.

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In indoor environments, though, other factors such as multipath interferences may have more impact than the antenna orientation. In outdoor links, antenna orientation is a critical factor.

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Diversity
This topic describes diversity and how it is used in wireless networks.

Diversity
Some wireless technologies use diversity to choose, on a per-client basis, which antenna to use to receive and which to answer. Antennae should be the same type and in the same area.

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Another point to consider regarding antennae is diversity. A problem that occurs with indoor wireless networks is the propagation phenomenon, multipath. A way to solve this problem is to move the client away from the zone where reflection affects the signal the most. The problem of where to locate an AP is usually solved by permanently mounting it on a ceiling or wall, which provides service to several clients without needing a network administrator to check the signal quality or move it slightly. Another common technique used to solve the problem is to use two antennae placed one wavelength away from each other for the best result. When a client sends a frame, it contains a preamble (the way an Ethernet frame does). Upon receiving the frame, the AP alternates between both antennas to check which one has better reception. The AP has the possibility of alternating this way because the preamble does not contain active data. The AP then receives the rest of the frame from the antenna that gives the best results and answers back to the client using the same antenna.
Note The AP has no real possibility of guessing which antenna would be the best one to use to send the signal back, especially since the client might be moving. If the path taken and the position of the client remain the same, the AP just assumes that the same antenna that was the best for receiving would give the best result on the way back.

Most APs that use diversity have one single radio to which two antennae connect. An internal switch allows the AP to use one antenna or the other. But the AP will not use both of them at the same time.

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An important point to understand about diversity is that the algorithm used by an AP compares the signals the AP hears from both antennae. This fact implies that the client signal must be heard on both antennae for diversity to work, even if one antenna has a very poor signal. The need to hear the signal on both antenna results in the following two important issues: First, the two antennae should be used in one area to provide better coverage. They should not be used to cover two different areas. Otherwise, a client in one area would not be heard by the second antenna, which usually results in an error message in the AP log rather than in better coverage1. The client needs to be heard on both antennae, not just one. Second, the antennae attached to the access point should be the same as each other, for the same reason. If you use a “weak” antenna on one side and a “powerful” one on the other, a client that is only heard by the “powerful” antenna will generate an error message. The coverage pattern may also be different, which implies that a client might be heard on the “weak” antenna and not on the “powerful” antenna just because of its position relative to the APs.

For example, in a worst-case scenario, a client sending ping messages may see only every other packet succeed because the AP is busy using its antenna in the other area.
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Antenna Types
This topic describes the different specifications used to describe antennae.

Antenna Types

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The two main families of antennae are omnidirectional and directional. Omnidirectional antennae send a signal of the same strength in all directions, although an antenna can never be completely omnidirectional. Directional antennae concentrate the beam in one or more directions. When using a directional antenna, the amount of energy radiated is the same as when using an omnidirectional antenna. The main difference is that the beam is focused in one direction. Because a directional antenna is stronger in a specific direction, the antenna is said to add more gain—in other words, to be more powerful (in that specific direction) than the omnidirectional antenna. Its rating in decibel referenced to isotropic antenna (dBi) will be higher. Another way of representing this change in the radiation pattern is to talk about angles. An omnidirectional antenna radiates all around itself equally, or 360 degrees. A directional antenna radiates toward a certain direction, but the beam might be wide or narrow. It will be said that its angle is more or less narrow.
Note A flashlight provides an analogy to beamwidth and energy levels. By adjusting the focus of a flashlight, the beam of light can be made to be more concentrated, but the flashlight will still emit the same quantity of light.

The angle is fixed for each antenna type, and is shown in the radiation pattern. This angle is called the beamwidth. It is directly correlated to the strength of the signal in the main beam: the narrower the beam, the higher the strength of the signal in the beam, and therefore the higher the gain.

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Some antennae are said to be high gain because they concentrate the beam, allowing the antennae to reach far away points with a good signal.
Note A typical example of a high-gain antenna is the dish type. It can send a signal over long distances. The world record is a Wi-Fi signal sent 382 km (237 miles) away.

Wireless antennae radiate their electric and magnetic fields in the air, but they could also work in the vacuum of space. Fields, electric or magnetic, do not depend on the material they travel through, even though it may impact the signal speed slightly. The wave, or the electromagnetic signal speed, travels at the speed of light, which is close to 300000 km/s.

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Omnidirectional Antennae
This topic describes some classical omnidirectional antennae and how to choose the right type depending on the area to cover.

Basic Omnidirectional
“Rubber Duck” 2.14 dBi Dipole

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Omnidirectional antennae are “omnidirectional” at least on one plane, usually the azimuth plane. They will radiate around themselves as seen from the top, but not necessarily in the vertical plane. The most basic omnidirectional antenna is the 2.14 dBi dipole, also called “rubber duck” because of its shape. It is not very powerful and is typically designed for an indoor environment, with APs or client cards. It will radiate everywhere on the H-plane to be able to reach clients in the whole room or surrounding premises, but will have a certain vertical angle because it is expected to work in a “floor” logic, where the AP destination is supposed to be on the same floor. This makes the shape of its radiation pattern more like a donut than a pure sphere. This shape is very common for many indoor omnidirectional antennae, the difference being the thickness of the donut.

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Omnidirectionals
AIR ANT 1728, Ceiling Mount Omni 5.2 dBi

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When it is necessary to cover a large area, the 2.14 dBi antenna may not provide enough gain to the cover the area. For instance, it may not reach all the corners of a large conference room. An antenna that might meet this need is the AIR ANT 1728, ceiling mount omni 5.2 dBi which provides more gain. It is typically mounted on ceilings (pointing downward to respect polarity) to cover a large hall. It has a higher gain than the rubber duck, 5.2 dBi (it is therefore twice as powerful as the previous one). But this gain is still passive because the antenna does not contain an active amplifier. This gain is achieved by reducing the E-plane angle, to make it flatter. Based on the antenna’s design, and because the antenna is placed on ceiling, it provides very good coverage on its sides and, to some extent, below itself. But it will not provide coverage very far below itself and not high above itself. The ceiling material (usually concrete) between the antenna and the next floor should absorb most of the upward emissions. It is important to respect the mounting specifications because the shape of the upward radiation and the shape of the downward radiation are not the same.

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AIR ANT 2506/24120

5.2 dBi Omni Mast Mount 12 dBi Omni Mast Mount

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If an antenna is to be mounted on a mast instead of a ceiling, It is possible to design several antennae with the same gain but with a different radiation pattern (the form of the donut) to allow mounting head-up on a mast instead of head-down on a ceiling. A second 5.2 dBi omnidirectional antenna covers the sides and up and down equally and can be installed on a mast in the middle of an open space. It is possible to increase the gain to cover an even larger area than the conference room mentioned, but the increased coverage comes at the cost of a reduction of the thickness of the donut. Coverage up and is poorer with the 12 dBi omnidirectional antenna, but the range is far longer, being more than four times as powerful as the 5.2 dBi. There are many models of antennae to match most coverage scenarios.

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Special “Omnis”
Dual Patch Omnidirectional 5.2 dBi, Pillar Mount

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This last example of antenna is a special design. It is actually made up of two patch directional antennae back to back. The aim is to provide access to a hall, using a pillar in the middle to fix the antennae. The result is an omnidirectional type of coverage, here again using “one floor coverage” logic. This configuration is very common. Although both antennae are a directional patch, the result is still called omnidirectional (a shortcut to design this setting is an omnidirectional patch). These antennae use the diversity transmission technique, which means that for best results the antennae should be placed an integer time of the wavelength from each other (12.5 cm for 2.4 GHz band).

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Directional Antennae
This topic describes some typical directional antennae.

Directional Antennae
8.5 dBi Patch, Wall Mount

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A directional antenna is designed to cover one specific direction. In an indoor environment these antennae are typically placed on walls, providing coverage in a long room. This first example shows a patch antenna. It is ideal for an indoor environment because it is flat. Its appearance is very discrete and does not draw attention. It radiates slightly toward its back. This backward radiation is useful when positioning this kind of antenna over doors: access is possible as soon as users reach the door. If the antenna is positioned on a wall without a door, the wall absorbs most of the backside signal. A directional antenna provides more gain than a basic omnidirectional rubber duck resulting in 8.5 dBi directional instead of 2.14 omnidirectional. The shape of the antenna’s coverage pattern shows that it is still following “one floor coverage” logic, where the beam does not have a very large vertical range.

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Directional
13.5 dBi Yagi Ude Butterfly Effect, Polarization

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The second type of directional antenna covered in this lesson is called Yagi or Yagi Ude (because it was invented by H. Yagi and S. Ude in Japan, in 1926). It is the same type of antenna that is used for TV reception, with a comb shape. In wireless networks, the “comb” is usually hidden in a tube, but the active part is the internal “comb” encased by a protective cylinder. Its pattern is specific: rather thin on the vertical and horizontal planes, reaching far in a narrow beam. It has slight radiation at the back, due to the manufacturing process. Most Yagis have this small radiated field at the back, which is called the butterfly effect. The manufacturing process also creates side lobes, thin coverage areas on the side of the main field. The gain of this antenna is rather high, 13.5 dBi. It is well adapted to covering long corridors or large warehouses (if several Yagis are installed next to each other). One issue to consider when installing this type of antenna is the polarity. With a patch, which is a rectangle, the polarity is quite intuitive, but with a Yagi, the base of which is square, you should read the vendor specifications to see how it should be mounted. There is often a sign (a black dot on the picture in the figure) showing what should be used as the side and what should be used as the top

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Directional (Cont.)
21 dBi Parabolic Dish

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The next example of classical directional antenna is called the parabolic dish. Its shape makes it very adaptable to long-range outdoor links, mainly in a point-to-point scenario. Since the beam is very focused, its gain is very high: its 21 dBi makes it almost one hundred times more powerful than a rubber duck antenna. Like the Yagi, it has a visible butterfly effect. Here again, this is a result of the manufacturing rather than a desired coverage shape. It is still useful to test the antenna link from the ground next to the antenna. Polarization has to be thought of here again, but the logo position usually helps. Some of these antennae can have their polarization changed.

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Antennae Accessories: Connectors
This topic describes accessories that can be added to an antenna to change its specification or performance characteristics.

Cables and Connectors

“RP-TNC” connector is used on most Cisco APs.

“RP-SMA” connector is used on some Linksys products.

“N” connector is used on the 1500 Mesh and 1400 Bridge.

“SMA” connector is used on “pig-tail” type cable assemblies.

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Connecting antennae to an AP is more than just a matter of connecting the appropriate antenna gain and beamwidth to the AP supplying the transmit power. Access point and antenna deployment is also a matter of respecting the country regulations. Too strong a signal could jam other networks. The power of the AP is factory-limited to comply with local regulations, but it is possible to plug in an antenna with a very high gain and still exceed the allowed threshold. To avoid this situation, most countries have regulations requiring that each AP manufacturer use a specific connector to connect its antennae to its APs. It is possible to build a cable and buy the necessary connectors and still follow the regulations. The regulations exist to prevent unintentional mistakes, not to make breaking the law impossible. Depending on the APs (indoor or outdoor), Cisco devices use a connector called reversepolarity threaded Neil-Concelman, or RP-TNC and another one called N connector (invented in the 1940s by Paul Neill in Bell labs), thus making sure that the right connector to match the AP is used. Some other connectors that can be commonly found on other vendors’ devices are the Subminiature version A (SMA) and its variants, reverse-polarity SMA (RP-SMA) and SMA Reverse Sex (SMA-RS), and multipoint controller (MC) and MMCX connectors on PC Cards. There are quite a few others, but these are the main families.

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Whichever connector is used, both ends of the cable have to match the exact type of plug needed. A match to just the family is not sufficient. For instance, a TNC plug will not work on an AP that needs an RP-TNC variant of the TNC plug. If the antenna is not connected directly to the AP, it can be linked to the AP using a cable. Here again, the cable should be obtained from the AP and antenna vendor or an accredited partner to ensure that you have the right connector. It is possible to make a cable if the right connectors are used. When you buy the cable, the vendor will include the “cable loss specification,” which is usually expressed in dB lost per 100 feet. You will then need to calculate the exact loss, which depends on the actual length of cable used. But the connectors will also induce a loss, which is usually higher with a connection that is not factory built.

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Attenuators and Amplifiers
This topic describes how attenuators and amplifiers can change the strength of the signal sent to the antenna.

Attenuators and Amplifiers
An attenuator would be positioned in the same way as the amplifier, but it would not require a power supply.

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Sometimes the signal an antenna receives is too weak because of the length of the cable, for example. If a signal is too weak, the level of power generated in the transmitter can sometimes be increased. But in some cases, increasing the power is not enough to reach the level needed. Another solution is to add and active amplifier between the AP and the antenna. Adding an active amplifier will add gain to the signal. The amplifier is a small device that can be connected anywhere between the AP and the antenna and to a power source (usually AC/DC). It will increase the signal it reads on one end before forwarding it to the other end. Some of the devices have a precise gain (for example 1 W or 30 dBm); some others can have a configurable gain. The amplifier needs to be an active amplifier, not a passive one. In other words, its function is not to focus the beam (that is the role of the antenna), but to increase the strength of the signal transmitted to the antenna. When using such a device, the resulting power injected into the antenna is increased. The power limitations implemented by the AP manufacturer are bypassed. As a result, the signal may be too strong and break the local regulations. Wireless administrators should make sure that when the active gain of the amplifier is added to the AP transmitting power and the antenna gain along and after deducing the loss of the cable, the signal strength still complies with the maximum EIRP allowed in the area where the amplifier is used. Some regulatory domains do not allow the use of the amplifier itself.

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If the signal is too strong rather than too weak, an attenuator can be used to reduce transmitter signal strength. Like the amplifier, it is a small device that creates a connection between the AP and the antenna. However, it does not need an external source of power and, by its circuitry; it reduces the power of the signal that crosses it. Some attenuators have a precise loss (for example 3 dBm); some of them offer several possibilities by adding or removing elements inside the device. Attenuators may be used when the signal sent from the antenna is too strong for the location that needs to be covered and the signal bleeds too far out, thus disturbing other networks. For example, a corridor needs coverage and the shape of the area requires a Yagi. But the corridor is smaller that the actual signal, so the signal bleeds through the walls to a neighboring network. An attenuator can be used to get the precise amount of power needed.

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Lightening Arrestor
This topic describes lightening arrestors and their use in wireless networks.

Lightening Arrestors
Model to Insert Between Antenna and Cable

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Lightening Arrestors (Cont.)

Fiber Interface

Ethernet Lightening Arrestor
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Lightening strikes are a worrying issue when using an AP to create an outdoor network, whether the network is a point-to-point network, point-to-multipoint network using a bridge, or a mesh network. A lighting bolt hitting an AP may transfer its energy along the copper cable and could damage the entire LAN connected behind the AP. The only way to protect the network is to insert a medium on the path that will not conduct electricity, for instance, a fiber section of about a yard (or a meter) long without any loops. This setup means having a copper to fiber transponder and another one the other way round at the other end, which is costly and not always easy to install, but always cheaper than losing all the devices connected to the LAN. Lightening arrestors are another device that can be used. They usually connect to the antenna or the cable between the AP and the antenna, although the lightening arrestors do not always stop direct strikes. If the lightening strikes nearby, and if the surge is not too high (common models protect up to a surge of 50 volts in 100 nanoseconds), the lightening arrestor may burn and protect the rest of the network. In any case, good grounding is necessary because its very difficult to predict where a lightening bolt might strike. Where it will strike is not just related to the height of the building.

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Splitters
This topic describes splitters.

Splitters
Splitters divide the signal between two antennae, but considerably reduce range: a 21 dBi dish loses 4 dBi. Its range drops from 33 to 21 km on each side.

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A splitter is a device sometimes used in wireless networks, mainly outdoors. The splitter allows a signal coming from one cable to be split in two, so that the signal can be sent to two cables. A common use for splitters is to receive a signal coming from one direction and forward it through another antenna, connected to the same AP, towards another direction. This process allows two directional antennae to be used back-to-back without the need to invest in a second AP. An important downside is the loss of power on the cable. The use of splitters usually adds a loss of about 4 dB (with a good-quality splitter) to the system. This loss is seen at both antennae (each antenna suffers a 4 dB loss). At 2.4 GHz, this loss reduces the gain of a dish from 21 to 17 dBi, providing some distance advantage, but not twice the amount. When reducing the gain on one antenna to 17 dBi, the distance drops from 20.5 miles, or 33 km (at 11 Mb/s), to approximately 13 miles, or 21 km. A second drawback is that the throughput is reduced by approximately 50 percent because the repeater must receive, buffer, and transmit the data on the same channel. Using a splitter is generally not recommended.

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Summary
This topic summarizes the key points that were discussed in this lesson.

Summary
Each antenna radiates in a unique way. Wireless uses vertical polarization. Some APs use diversity to offer better resistance to multipath issues. Antennae can be directional or omnidirectional. Omnidirectional antennae radiate 360 degrees in the H-plane. Directional antennae focus their beam more or less depending on models. Connectors are usually specific to a vendor. Attenuators and amplifiers can be added to change the power transmitted to the antenna. Lightening arrestors can mitigate the impact of surrounding lightening strikes on the AP and the network. Splitters can be used to split the signal of one AP to two antennae.

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References
For additional information, refer to this resource: http://www.cisco.com/web/ANZ/cpp/refguide/hview/wireless/antenna.html

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Lesson 5

Understanding Spread Spectrum Technologies
Overview
This lesson gives you the tools you need to understand how information can be sent using a wireless frame and explains the technologies the creators of wireless protocols chose to help prevent the problem of interference.

Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the spread spectrum technologies that are used to send a wireless frame in a wireless network. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe spread spectrum technology Describe DSSS Describe the DSSS basic modulations, DBPSK and QBPSK Describe the DSSS advanced modulation, CCK Describe OFDM Describe the OFDM basic modulations, BPSK and QPSK Describe the OFDM advanced modulation, QAM Describe the issues linked to channel overlaps and channel reuse

Spread Spectrum Concept
This topic describes the concept of spread spectrum technology.

Spread Spectrum
Narrowband and spread spectrum are the two main ways of sending a signal. Spread spectrum uses less energy at peak. The bandwidth required depends on the amount of information to be sent.

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When you send a wave, or signal, an electric field is emitted at a certain frequency, with a certain wavelength. The only element that cannot be controlled is the interference level of the medium through which the wave is transiting. Many devices may also be using the frequency range, or band. Because wireless networks use the unlicensed bands called industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) some “nonwireless” appliances may be radiating in the same frequencies as the signal you send. For example, microwave ovens work in the same 2.4-GHz band as the ISM bands. However, the power of a microwave oven is closer to 1000 W as opposed to the 100 milliwatts (mW) of an access point (AP). Although the wave energy of a microwave is constrained to the inside of the oven, if only 0.5 percent of it should bleed outside the oven, there would be a radiating source of 500 mW on the path, whereas the transmit power of an AP is more commonly 100 mW, or five times less than the power of the microwave oven. If the APs signal traveled close to the oven, it would probably be jammed. Electric engines, power adaptors, and many other devices might radiate a signal in a frequency that is far from the range or your signal or right in the spectrum your device is using. One of the main problems for the creators of the wireless protocols was to get rid of the interference caused by other devices or to mitigate the impact of interference on the signal. To meet this need, a transmission technology was invented: spread spectrum.

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If a signal at a defined frequency, for example, 2.412 GHz, is emitted and a device nearby emits a signal at the same frequency (even if this second signal is not intended to carry data, but is just a result of a magnetic field due to the activity of an electric engine), the first signal will collide with the second signal and the message the first signal carries will be jammed. But if the signal can emit in a range of frequencies or a band, there are these two alternative methods of emitting that can prevent the signal from being jammed: The signal can be sent at different frequencies, one after the other. The signal can be sent over a larger frequency than just the needed peak 2.412 GHz. With the first technique, the interference source may still affect the signal, and it is difficult to predict at which frequency interference will occur. But since you will stay at that frequency just for a short time (typically 300 to 400 milliseconds) and then go to another one, the interference source impacts only a small amount of data. This method or technology is called frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS). The term “spread spectrum” comes from the fact that the emission will be spread over a larger spectrum than just one peak frequency. In the second technique, interference is overcome by sending a signal around the interference. So instead of sending one signal at the peak frequency, such as the 2.412 GHz mentioned in the example, the signal is spread over a larger frequency band.: The same information is sent but on all frequencies ranging from 2.401 GHz to 2.423 GHz. If the interference affecting the emission is still at 2.412 GHz, it is likely that the message that is sent around this disturbed frequency will still be heard. This technology is called Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS). The term “direct sequence” comes from the fact that the signal is spread over one large frequency in a directly larger signal instead of hopping from one frequency to another.
Note An example of the use of DSSS is found in the way radio stations transmit their signals. When you tune a radio to a station, each station can be heard over a range of frequencies: it is weak at the edge and clearer towards the middle. Radio stations send their signal over a range to avoid it being disrupted by a narrow interference. When the speaker announces the station frequency, only the peak frequency is usually mentioned.

In both FHSS and DSSS, since more than the peak frequency is used, the signal is spread over a larger part of the spectrum, and is therefore called spread spectrum.

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FHSS Versus DSSS
FHSS is a time-based narrowband hopping of frequencies. DSSS is a broadband use of frequencies.

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Which technology is best? Both avoid interference that is centered on one precise frequency, a type of interference called narrowband interference. If the timers of the sending and the receiving stations are properly set, devices using FHSS hop to the same frequency at the same time and stay tuned. Because it is hopping, the signal from the device using FHSS may lose only a few packets every now and then, whereas the signal from the device using DSSS may be more durably affected if the interference is right in the middle of its emission zone. On the other hand, an FHSS will more likely cross an interference zone than a DSSS signal that may be away from the interference and will not move from the frequencies around which it is spread. From a pure interference point of view, it is difficult to determine which one is more efficient because it depends on the circumstances. DSSS can still achieve a higher speed than FHSS because it uses a larger bandwidth to send its data. When the number of senders increases, DSSS offers more resistance to multiple devices in the same spectrum as FHSS. For these, and a few other technical reasons, DSSS is the technology developed and currently used in wireless networks.

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DSSS: Encoding
This topic describes how DSSS works in a wireless environment.

DSSS: Encoding
Each bit is transformed into a sequence, called “chip” or “symbol.” In this example, the chipping code is called Barker 11. Up to 9 bits can be lost.

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Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), as its name states, is a technology used to send a signal over a spectrum that is wider than the one needed just for signal density use. It is not the aim of this course to give in-depth training on signal theories. To keep things simple, consider that the net bit rate, that is to say how many bits per second are being sent, is usually close to half the raw bit rate: in other words, (and without considering any specific techniques) a 2 MHz-wide signal allows about 1 MHz of useful data to be sent. When using a spread spectrum, a 1-MHz signal is sent over a bandwidth that is larger than 2 MHz. But what should be sent? The technique used in wireless networks consists of encoding the real information to send. If a “1” is to be sent, it will be encoded—that is, transformed— into a sequence of numbers, and it is this sequence of numbers that will be sent in parallel to represent this “1.” The process of converting the signal into data “1” and “0” is known as encoding. The first encoding system used in wireless networks is called Barker code 11, from the name of its inventor. The Barker code is an 11-bit sequence of numbers, 10110111000, which has some interesting properties that are designed to minimize autocorrelation (that is, to avoid a situation in which one signal being misunderstood results in other parallel signals also being misunderstood). Each digit of information that is sent is run with an exclusive OR (XOR) operation against this Barker code 11. An XOR is a mathematical operation where: 0 XOR 0 = 0

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0 XOR 1 = 1 1 XOR 0 = 1 1 XOR 1 = 0 When a “one” is to be sent, transforming it with the Barker code will give the sequence: 01001000111. When a “zero” is to be coded, the result will be: 10110111000. These long sequences, representing one digit, are called chips. Using the Barker code 11 (there are some other Barkers, such as 2, 5, 13 and so on) with DSSS means that whenever “1” is to be sent, the sequence 01001000111 will be sent instead, in parallel. When a “0” is to be sent, 10110111000 will be sent instead, in parallel. In examining these numbers, it is possible to see that up to nine digits of any chip can be lost, and the receiver can still understand if a 0 or a 1 was sent. Because each signal uses 2 MHz, a 22-MHz-wide band is needed to send a wave of 11 chips..

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DSSS Modulations: DBPSK and QBPSK
This topic describes how a wave is modulated to represent chips.

DSSS Modulations: DBPSK and DQPSK
When using DBPSK, the phase shifts with 180° angles; each shift represents 1 bit.

When using DQPSK, shifts are 90°; each shift represents 2 bits.

DBPSK allows 1 Mb/s. DQPSK allows 2 Mb/s.

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The Barker code allows you to send a chip of 11 digits (or symbols) instead of the value itself, so that the signal can go through interference and still be understood. Because the signal is spread over 22 MHz and contains 11 symbols representing only one digit, it can lose up to 9 of them going through interference of up to 18 MHz and still be read as intended. These 11 digits are sent in parallel, over a 22-MHz-wide channel. But the code does not specify how each part of the chip will be represented in the wave, or in other words, how the wave will be altered for the receiver to understand that a 1 or a 0 is being transmitted. This process is called modulation.
Note Chipping, or encoding, is the way a digit is transformed in a longer sequence so that part of the sequence could be lost and the message could still be understood. Modulation is the way each of these symbols is represented inside the wave.

The first technique that is used to modulate a wave is called Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying (DBPSK). The name looks complex, but the operation is simple. A wave is a signal that goes up and down at a regular pace. Keying means representing the zeros and ones, and to shift phase means to change the orientation of the wave; if the wave is going up, make it go down. It is done in binary, which means simply up or down (no other possibility), depending on what is being sent. The DBPSK rule simply states: When the next value to send is a zero, do nothing special: continue sending the wave without alteration. When the next value to send is a one, change direction 180 degrees. This means that if the wave was going up, it should suddenly go down instead. If the signal was going down, it should suddenly go up.

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In a best case scenario, where only zeros are being sent, the signal would be an undisrupted wave. However, if only ones needed to be sent, the signal would change direction permanently. This simple technique works very well because the rhythm of the transmission is known: one digit is sent each microsecond (μs), with 11 digits sent in parallel. The receiver just needs to listen to the shape of the wave for the next microsecond to understand if the next value is a “0” or “1.. If the next microsecond is unreadable because of interference issues, 10 other signals are available in parallel to confirm or refute the nature of the next symbol. Sending one symbol every microsecond means sending one million symbols per second, or 1 Mb/s.
Caution Do not get confused by the chipping code: 11 symbols are sent in parallel, each at a rate of 1 per microsecond, or 1 Mb/s. But because 11 symbols are used to represent one digit, a wave that is 22 MHz large and contains 11 parallel symbols will still result in 1 Mb/s of real data throughput.

A data rate of 1 Mb/s is, of course, too slow for modern networks. To increase the speed, DSSS allows you to use the same Barker 11 chipping process with another modulation called Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK). Although there is only a one letter difference between the two names, “B” for “binary” and “Q” for “quadrature,” the rule for DQPSK is a little more complex, which allows more data to be sent. The data is sent using two steps. Step 1: DQPSK starts by grouping the individual bits of the symbol in groups of two. If, for example, the chip flow that is sent is 11001010010100, DQPSK determines the groups 11, 00, 10, 10, 01, 01, and 00. Here again, we are talking about the symbols that are used to send one bit after the other. We will still send 11 symbols in parallel. Step 2: DQPSK determines one alteration of the wave to represent a group of two symbols1. With one single alteration of the wave, you can represent two symbols instead of one, which doubles the speed of the transmission. Of course, because there are four possible combinations (00, 01, 10, and 11), there needs to be four possible alterations of the wave. The DQPSK rule therefore says: If the group to transmit is 00, do nothing (carry on sending the wave as it is). If the group to transmit is 01, “turn 90 degrees.” This means that if the wave was going up, the signal should carry on from the top of the wave. If the wave was going down, the signal should carry on from the bottom of the wave. If the wave was on the high crest, the signal should carry on going down from the zero line, and so on. If the group to transmit is 10, “turn 270 degrees” (or -90 degrees, which is the same). In other words, do the opposite to the 01 sequence. This means that if the signal was going up suddenly, the signal should carry on from the bottom. If the wave was going down, the signal should carry on from the top, and so on. If the group to transmit is 11, “turn 180 degrees,” which is shifting phase just like DBPSK: if the wave is going up, go down, if it is going down, go up and so on. This clever system allows a speed of 2 Mb/s while still using the same 22-MHz-wide signal and an 11-chip Barker code for each bit to send.
Symbols are the unit of a chip. DQPSK does not encode the data flow; it simply groups the individual bits of the resulting chip, the symbols, before altering the wave to represent each group.
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DSSS Modulation: CCK
This topic describes how different types of modulation and encoding are used to achieve higher speeds.

DSSS Modulation: CCK
With CCK, each symbol of 6 bits is associated to a unique code sequence as shown on the example here. Coding 4 bits per symbol allows 5.5 Mb/s, coding 8 bits per symbol allows 11 Mb/s.

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A speed of 2 Mb/s is still not fast enough. However, it is not possible for a signal to go faster by keeping the same Barker 11 encoding, and not possible to shift more than 90 degrees (an eight shifting technique would present too many risks of missing one shift and no longer understanding what is sent). To increase speed, a new technique is used, called Complementary Code Keying (CCK). CCK uses groups of 4 bits, and encodes them in chips of 6 bits each (where Barker was using an 11-bit chip to represent 1 bit of data). Within the data flow, CCK creates groups of 4 bits and creates a 6-bit-long chip to represent them. It then associates a complex and unique resulting symbol for each chip, which is a combination of phase changes using DQPSK (that is, 4 angle “rotations” of 90 degrees). Each symbol is a precise and unique sequence of phase shifts in the wave: DQPSK is closely associated to CCK, because CCK uses DQPSK to represent the symbols. Because there are 6 bits in each symbol, there are 64 (2 to the power of 6) different symbols, each one representing a unique 6-bit chip. To each 6-bit chip, two other bits are added, making the total number of chips to be sent an 8-bit-long code symbol. The 2 bits at the beginning are added to represent the orientation of the beginning of the symbol, so that if a symbol is not received in good condition, part of it, plus the first two bits, will be enough to recompose the whole symbol. The wave is sent over 22 MHz at a speed of 1.375 millions of code symbols per second, each representing 4 bits, resulting in a speed of (1.375 x 4) 5.5 Mb/s throughput. This result is far better than Barker + DQPSK.
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In a later version, CCK uses the 2 bits that come before the 6-bit chip not only to give the orientation of the symbol, but to allow the same symbol to represent two different values depending on the symbol’s initial 2-bit orientation. This process allows you to code 8 bits instead of 4 bits in each 6-bit chip, which means a doubled speed of 11 Mb/s instead of a speed of 5.5 Mb/s. The higher the speed, of course, the more sensitive the wave becomes to interference and multipaths. When CCK is used at 11 Mb/s, altering the first 2 bits is enough to render the chip unreadable, which means that a full octet will be misunderstood. As a result, the frame check sequence (FCS) will probably not match what is expected. With 5.5 Mb/s, it takes 3 to 5 consecutively missed symbols to corrupt a chip (depending on which symbol), whereas Barker allows 7 to 9 consecutively missed symbols before corrupting the frame. This result is why the speeds depend on the quality of the connection, which is a ratio between the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). (SNR refers to how clear the signal is and how much better the signal is than the noise surrounding it.) When conditions are good and the risk of missing symbols low, the WLAN adapter uses CCK at 11 Mb/s. As soon as the conditions degrade, because of multipath or the distance to the receiver, the adapter will fold back to DQPSK. If conditions were to degrade again, or if the distance were to increase, the adapter would revert to DBPSK, before finally reaching a point beyond which it could not transmit . DSSS is not necessarily uniquely tied to these encoding and modulation techniques; any time a signal is spread over a larger frequency range to avoid interference, the DSSS technique is in use. This lesson presents the modulations and encoding used with DSSS in wireless networks.

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Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing
This topic describes how OFDM is used to increase speed and resistance to multipath.

Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing
Of 64 subcarriers: 12 zero subcarriers (in black) on sides and in center Sides function as frequency guard band, leaving 16.5-MHz occupied bandwidth Center subcarrier zero for DC offset/carrier leak rejection 48 data subcarriers (in green) per symbol 4 pilot subcarriers (in red) per symbol for synchronization and tracking

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In response to Ethernet networks that were adopting 100 Mb/s throughput another modulation technique had to be found to increase the speed beyond 11 Mb/s. The point was not only to increase the speed, but also to find even better techniques to fight the wireless-specific challenges presented by multipath and interference. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) was already in use in some other radio transmissions and was offering a good alternative to DSSS for wireless networks. Instead of sending one large 22-MHz wave, OFDM divides the carrier2 into 52 subcarriers (or tones), 312.5 kHz apart. Forty-eight of them are used to carry data, while the four others are used to control the communication, which adds to the robustness of the whole. To these 52 subcarriers, 12 others are added to be used as guards on the side (to distinguish one main carrier from the other next to it) and in the middle to mark the center of the carrier. The great advantage of this system is that if there are 48 channels carrying data, each of them can transmit slower than a CCK channel and the group of 48 will still achieve a higher throughput. For example, if each subcarrier sends at 1 Mb/s, the total speed achieved will be 48 Mb/s. The result is that not only is OFDM faster but, as each channel transmits slower (that is to say bearing less density of symbols per millisecond), it becomes more resistant to multipath. Because there are many channels, some of them can be affected by interferences but the others can still offer normal communications. The control channels allow the receiver to detect which channels are unusable and provide feedback to the sender.

2

In OFDM the carrier is actually 20 MHz instead of 22. But these two values are close enough to be compatible. An OFDM carrier can actually have any size: the larger it is, the higher the throughput. The 20 MHz carrier was chosen precisely for compatibility purposes.
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One key feature about OFDM is the way it manages tone overlapping. If you look at a drawing of the OFDM channels, you will see that the subcarriers are close to each other, overlapping (each tone touches the shoulders of its neighbors), which should cause interference. But OFDM takes into consideration not only the electric field but also the magnetic field. Each channel is sent with an angle of 90 degrees compared to the two others on each side. This feature makes OFDM more like a three-dimensional (3-D) transmission than a 2-D one.

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OFDM Modulations: BPSK and QPSK
This topic describes which modulations are used with OFDM in wireless networks.

OFDM Modulations: BPSK and QPSK
Uses the same principles as DBPSK and DQPSK: BPSK shifts 180º; QPSK shifts 90º. Speed depends on density of signal per tone.

Modulation
BPSK BPSK QPSK QPSK
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Data Rate per Subchannel (kb/s)
125 187.5 250 375

Total Data Rate (Mb/s)
6 9 12 18
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OFDM is related to the way a wave is sent. It is not a DSSS technology per se, but is very close in its consequences (channel occupation and so on). Each tone is considered an independent carrier bearing data. The OFDM mechanism ensures that they will not interfere with each other. OFDM implies a specific coding technique. Each frame will actually comprise part of the Layer 1 preamble designed to make sure that there is no confusion between the tone that is sending new information and any other one. OFDM has only one way of coding, and has to use a specific preamble sequence of digits as an identifier. There are, nevertheless, several ways to represent these digits within a tone. The simplest way is to use Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). BPSK may seem similar to the earlier system off using the DSSS modulation, DBPSK, but it is slightly different. The DBPSK rule was expressed this way: “When the next value to send is a zero, do nothing special: continue sending the wave without alteration. When the next value to send is a one, change direction 180 degrees.” Therefore, if multiple “1” values are sent continuously, phase shifting continues. The BPSK rule is as follows: “When the next value to send is the same as the one sent just before, do nothing: continue sending the wave without alteration. When the next value to send is different from the one just sent (a 0 following a 1 or a 1 following a 0), change direction 180 degrees.” Therefore, if multiple “1” values are being sent, there should be only one phase shift. DBPSK and BPSK are almost the same, the only difference being the reason for the shift: “getting a 1” or “getting something different.” BPSK alone does not differentiate ones and zeroes—any change causes the shift.
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With BPSK, each carrier contains 125 kb/s worth of information, which implies that 48 tones will represent a 6 Mb/s throughput. It is possible to increase the density of information per subcarrier and rise to 9 Mb/s (187.5 kb/s per subcarrier). The density can be increased because OFDM likes to send redundant information to make sure that the message is received even if some of the bits are lost. At 6 Mb/s, half of the bits are information and half are redundant. At 9 Mb/s, three-fourths of the bits are information and only one-fourth are redundant. But this higher density implies a higher sensitivity to distance and interferences. To go higher than 9 Mb/s and do better than DSSS using CCK, OFDM uses Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK). Here again, QPSK appears to be the same as DQPSK, but the D is missing. The principle is still in group values to send in groups of two (00, 01, 10, and 11). The rule for DQPSK was expressed this way: If the group to transmit is 00, do nothing (carry on sending the wave as it is). If the group to transmit is 01, “turn 90 degrees.” This means that if the wave was going up, the signal should carry on from the top of the wave. If the wave was going down, the signal should carry on from the bottom of the wave. If the wave was on the high crest, the signal should carry on going down from the zero line, and so on. If the group to transmit is 10, “turn 270 degrees” (or -90 degrees, which is the same). In other words, do the opposite to the 01 sequence. This means that if the signal was going up suddenly, the signal should carry on from the bottom. If the wave was going down, the signal should carry on from the top, and so on. If the group to transmit is 11, “turn 180 degrees,” which is shifting phase just like QBPSK: if the wave is going up, go down, if it is going down, go up and so on The rule for QPSK is this: If the next group to send is 00, “turn 270 degrees” (-90 degrees). This means that if the signal was going up suddenly, the signal should carry on from the bottom. If the wave was going down, the signal should carry on from the top, and so on. If the group to send is 01, “turn 180 degrees.” If the wave is going up, go down, if it is going down, go up, and so on If the group to transmit is 10, “turn 90 degrees.” If the wave was going up, the signal should carry on from the top of the wave. If the wave was going down, the signal should carry on from the bottom and so on If the group to transmit is 11, do nothing and carry on sending the wave as it is. QPSK is like a reversed DQPSK. Why one instead of the other? Some people consider the differential way more robust than the non-differential one. Robust here refers to the ability of the receiver, if it completely misses one change, to understand what the next symbol is3. OFDM is inherently more robust when it comes to interferences and multipath and uses a more complex coding scheme, so it does not need to use the differentiated technique. With QPSK, each carrier bears 250 kb/s of information, thus allowing 12 Mb/s total throughput. This density can be increased to 375 kb/s per tone, for a total throughput of 18 Mb/s. At 12 Mb/s, one-half of the bits are pure information and one-half are redundant. At 18 Mb/s, three-fourths of the bits are pure information, one-fourth are redundant.
If the instruction is not understood (turn xxxxx degrees), and the next one says “now turn 90 degrees,” there is a very good chance that the whole signal will be impossible to understand.
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OFDM Modulation: QAM
This topic describes how QAM modulation allows speeds up to 54 Mb/s.

OFDM Modulation: QAM
With QAM, 90º shifts are associated with amplitude modulation. With four amplitude positions, 16 values are possible. OFDM for wireless uses 16-QAM and 64-QAM, with speeds up to 54 Mbps.

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If you understand that QPSK and DQPSK work somehow in 3 D, allowing four times 90 degree rotations, you are now ready to learn about Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, or QAM. Rotations of 90 degrees, whether they actually occur by the electric field changing its orientation or occur virtually by staying vertical and just changing shape, allow a wave to have four directions: up, left, down, right. Hopping from one direction to the other is the principle behind QPSK and DQPSK. To obtain QAM, the only other parameter that needs to change is the amplitude, in other words, the height of the wave. All the modulation techniques seen up to this point changed the orientation of the wave, but kept the wave at the same size. With QAM, four different amplitudes, or power levels, are determined: null (no signal), low, average, or high signal strength. As OFDM specifies that each tone can have a different orientation (up, left, down, right), the signal strength information can be coupled with the signal orientation. Four amplitudes times four directions create 16 possibilities (16 symbols), thus the name of the first variant, 16-QAM. The variant 16-QAM allows 4 bits to be coded by symbol, and 500 kb/s per carrier, or 24 Mb/s total throughput. With this speed, one-half of the bits are redundant to make sure that the signal is understood. By increasing the density of useful information to three-fourths (with only onefourth of the bits redundant), the speed increases to 750 kb/s per tone, for a total speed of 36 Mb/s.

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To increase the speed even more, in a wireless network OFDM can use 64-QAM. The behavior is the same, except that there are 64 possibilities in total (64 symbols), and 8 bits coded in each symbol. Using 64-QAM allows 1 Mb/s per carrier, or 48 Mb/s. At that speed, two-thirds of the bits are information bits and one-third of the bits are redundant. By increasing the ratio to three-fourths information and one-fourth redundant bits, the speed can increase to 54 Mb/s (1.125 Mb/s per carrier). Is it possible to go even higher? Even though 128-QAM does exist, it is probably too sensitive to interferences to be used in the networks we have today. In summary: DSSS exists in 802.11 and 802.11b. It uses the following modulations: — — — — — — — — — — — — DBPSK, with Barker chipping, resulting in 1-Mb/s throughput DQPSK, with Barker chipping, resulting in 2-Mb/s throughput DQPSK, with CCK 16 codes, resulting in 5.5-Mb/s throughput DQPSK, with CCK 128 codes, resulting in 11-Mb/s throughput BPSK, with 125 kb/s of data per tone, resulting in 6-Mb/s throughput BPSK, with 187.5 kb/s of data per tone, resulting in 9-Mb/s throughput QPSK, with 250 kb/s of data per tone, resulting in 12-Mb/s throughput QPSK, with 375 kb/s of data per tone, resulting in 18-Mb/s throughput 16-QAM, with 500 kb/s of data per tone, resulting in 24-Mb/s throughput 16-QAM, with 750 kb/s of data per tone, resulting in 36-Mb/s throughput 64-QAM, with 1000 kb/s of data per tone, resulting in 48-Mb/s throughput 64 QAM, with 1125 kb/s of data per tone, resulting in 54 Mb/s throughput

OFDM exists in 802.11g and 802.11a. It uses the following modulations:

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Channels and Overlapping Issues
This topic describes how the channel sizes impact network behavior.

Channels and Overlap Issues
With channels built for 5-MHz interchannel space, each DSSS channel uses more than one channel. Only three or four nonoverlapping channels are available in the 2.4-GHz ISM band. Channel overlap can be co-channel interference or adjacent channel interference.

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When using spread spectrum technologies in wireless networks, a question remains: what happens when using 20- or 22-MHz4 spectrums instead of the narrow band of the 2-MHz spectrum? The ISM band (2.4-GHz spectrum) was planned with defined channels (defined by their center peak frequencies), 5-MHz apart. There are 11 different channels available in the U.S., 13 in Europe, and 14 in Japan. But if a device uses a channel that is 22 MHz wide (11 MHz on each side of the peak channel), it will encroach on the neighboring channels, which means that two devices using two adjacent channels in the same area will interfere with each other. The result of this fact is that there are actually three nonoverlapping channels in the US: 1, 6, and 11. Any attempt to use channels closer to each other will result in interference issues. Nonoverlapping channels need to be separated by 25 MHz at center frequency or by five channel bands. In Europe, up to 4 channels can be used (1, 5, 9, and 13). Because they are a little closer, they overlap a bit more, which creates a slightly higher average noise level. In Japan, 4 channels can be used, 1, 6, 11, and 14, because 14 is far apart from the others. When two APs use channels that are too close to each other, they create what is called adjacent channel interference. When two APs have to be located in the same area, if nonoverlapping channels are not available, it is better to put the APs on the same channel as each other than to put them a few channels apart.

4

DSSS uses a 22-MHz-wide signal, and OFDM uses a 20-MHz-wide signal.
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If the APs are on the same channel, they will hear each other, and each will be able to detect that the other one is transmitting. When a wireless device transmits, it informs the cell in its header about the duration of its message. The neighboring AP hears the information about duration and stays quiet while the signal is sent. Sharing a channel slows down both cells, but each one can cope with the other one. There will still be some interference (some clients of the first AP may send a signal without the second AP or its client hearing the message, thus creating collisions) called co-channel interference. If the APs are two or three channels apart, they can still be disturbed by the other signals, but they will not be able to actually hear the other messages stating the duration of the emission. The result is a larger number of collisions. In a good wireless design, only nonoverlapping channels should be next to each other. In the other bands used in wireless networks, called Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII), the first one, called UNII-1, has its channels 10 MHz apart, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44 and 48. To avoid interferences (in some countries for regulation reasons), only 36, 40, 44, and 48, nonoverlapping channels are used. In the second and the third infrastructures (called UNII-2 extended and UNII-3), the channels are 20 MHz apart (and the numbering system shows it, being in the form 149, 153, 157, 161, that is 4 digits apart instead of 2 digits), and are considered nonoverlapping by default. This second spectrum has up to 23 nonoverlapping channels, but its regulation is different from the ISM band.

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Summary
This topic summarizes the key points that were discussed in this lesson.

Summary
Spread spectrum technologies offer better resistance to narrowband interferences. Wireless networks use DSSS. DBPSK allows 1 Mb/s, DQPSK 2 Mb/s. Using CCK increases the speed to 11 Mb/s. OFDM uses subcarriers to carry the signal. BPSK allows 9 Mb/s, QPSK 18 Mb/s. Using QAM increases the speed to 54 Mb/s. Larger channels imply interference and channel collocation planning.

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Lesson 6

Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications
Overview
Sending information through wireless devices implies the use of the RF spectrum. Countries have different rules about what transmit power is allowed in specific frequencies. To allow interoperability, vendors need to use a common set of protocols to send information. This lesson gives you the information you need to understand which bodies regulate the use of the wireless spectrum and which organization creates the protocols used in wireless networks. It also describes the organization that ensures that protocols are implemented the same way with all vendors so that real interoperability is possible..

Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe wireless regulation bodies, standards, and certifications. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the IEEE Describe the Wi-Fi Alliance Describe country code regulatory bodies such as the FCC and ETSI Describe the 802.11 family of protocols Describe the 802.11 original protocol Describe the 802.11b protocol Describe the 802.11g protocol Describe how 802.11b and 802.11g interact Describe the 802.11a protocol Describe the 802.11n protocol Describe the main components of the 802.11n protocol

Describe 802.11n channel aggregation Describe 802.11n MAC layer enhancements Describe 802.11n spatial multiplexing Describe 802.11n transmit beamforming Describe 802.11n maximal-ratio combining Describe the main benefits of 802.11n for all wireless stations

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IEEE Wireless Standards
This topic describes the role of the IEEE for wireless networks.

The IEEE
The IEEE develops communication standards in electrical and computer sciences, engineering, and related disciplines. There are more than 1300 protocols. The 802.11 committee analyzes the applications and environments in which wireless networks are used and develops standards for them. The 802.11 family has more than 26 subprotocols.

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Wireless networks use the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band. Being able to use a band, or “range of frequencies,” does not mean that people can use it in any way they like. Key elements, such as which modulation technique to use, how a frame should be coded, what type of headers should be in the frame, what the physical transmission mechanism should be, and so on, have to be defined for machines to communicate with one another effectively. These elements were defined by the IEEE, formerly known as the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The IEEE is a nonprofit organization of researchers and engineers, counting over 370000 members worldwide, whose aim is to develop communication standards in electrical and computer sciences, engineering, and related disciplines. It has published over 900 standards and is working on more than 400 others. In February 1980, its communication committee defined several network communication areas, which were divided into working groups. This is why most network protocols today start with 802 (February [02], 1980 [80]). One of the groups worked on the Ethernet networks: the 802.3 committee. In 1985, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) decided to open several bands of the wireless spectrum for use without a government license. These bands were already allocated to equipment such as microwave ovens in many countries. Many other countries made the same decision in subsequent years.

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Many vendor proprietary solutions started to use these frequencies to send data, but without any common technique. In 1990, a new IEEE committee, called 802.11, was set up to analyze the applications and environments in which wireless networks are used, but it was only in 1997 that it started publishing its first protocol (though prestandard devices were already shipping), defining how wireless devices should transmit in the ISM band. When an IEEE committee works on a standard, the members ask engineers from all of the appropriate companies in the field to participate in the development of the specification. The 802.11 committee is no different. Engineers from many different wireless data companies (and some wired LAN companies) together developed a standard that they believe is a high-quality, high-performance standard. For this reason, an 802.11 radio will be a better product than any of the older proprietary products. The 802.11 standard defines such things as receiver sensitivity, MAC layer performance, data rates, security, and so on. Radio engineers from wireless companies such as Cisco (Aironet), Harris Corporation (Intersil), and Lucent Technologies (Agere), and network engineers from companies such as Bay Networks, 3Com Corporation, and Microsoft Corporation worked together on defining the 802.11 specifications. Most vendors follow the IEEE 802.11 family of protocol specifications when building wireless devices. Today, whenever a wireless device is used, its Layer 1 and Layer 2 functionalities are defined by an IEEE 802.11 series protocol. 802.11 actually forms a large family of protocols. Some of the IEEE 802.11 protocols will be defined later in this lesson.

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The Wi-Fi Alliance
This topic describes the wireless hardware certification body.

The Wi-Fi Alliance
Wi-Fi Alliance certifies interoperability between products WLAN products. Products include 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n draft v2.0, dual-band products, and security testing. The organization provides assurance to customers of migration and integration options. Cisco is a founding member of Wi-Fi Alliance. Certified products can be found at http://www.wi-fi.com.

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When vendors create a wireless device, they usually follow the 802.11 specifications; but following the specifications does not guarantee that the device will be compatible with the other wireless devices on the market. Some vendors may choose to implement only part of the protocol specifications, or to implement some extra features that are not mentioned in the 802.11 family. The IEEE has, of course, no power to require a company to implement certain protocols in its products. The Wi-Fi Alliance was created to solve the compatibility issue. It develops rigorous tests and conducts Wi-Fi certification of wireless devices that implement the various wireless IEEE 802.11 specifications. If the product is fully compatible with other devices currently on the market, it receives a Wi-Fi certified label that is usually visible on the back of any certified wireless LAN (WLAN) adapter or access point (AP). Created in 2000, the Wi-Fi Alliance has certified more than 4000 products. If you buy a wireless product that does not have the Wi-Fi certified stamp, it is likely the product will have features that make it incompatible with other vendors’ products. This does not mean that it will not work, but simply that, to send and receive data, you have to buy other devices you need from the same vendor to be sure that all the devices that must work together are compatible. An interesting point to note is that the reference APs used by the Wi-Fi Alliance for compatibility testing are Cisco products: the Aironet 1242 AP for 802.11a/b/g and the 1252 AP for 802.11n draft v2.

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Regulatory Bodies
This topic describes the local regulation authorities that define what channels can be used and level of transmission power is allowed.

Regulatory Bodies

Each country or region defines its rules about the use of the RF space, including the following rules:
Which frequencies are allowed (spectrums and channels) Which transmit powers are possible (transmitters and antennae gain and EIRP) How a wave can be sent in each frequency (modulation and encoding techniques)

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The IEEE defines Layer 1 and 2 protocols and the Wi-Fi Alliance ensures compatibility. However, each country has its own rules about what type of radio signal can be sent over which frequency and what signal strength can be used. Nevertheless, country-specific regulations and IEEE protocols are linked. The IEEE would probably not define a protocol matching frequencies are not allowed anywhere else. Each committee tries to work on a worldwide common point of convergence and need. On the other hand, when a protocol is defined by the IEEE to describe how a radio device can behave in a certain frequency range, the protocol influences each local regulatory body causing them to consider the protocol and decide if it can be implemented locally. The regulatory body is probably also influenced by the decision of other countries to adopt the protocol. Nevertheless, each country has its own set of regulations. It is common for several countries to group their rules into one global “regulatory domain.” In the United States and several other countries in the American continents, the FCC determines what frequencies and transmission power levels may be used. Europe and some other countries (such as Israel or Mexico) follow the specifications of the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI). Japan’s rules are defined by the Ministry of Communication and their applications are managed by Telec. Before implementing a network, make sure that the channels the device uses and the level of power of the transmission comply with local regulations. Each regulatory domain has its own rules and habits. If an installation does not comply with the rules, some local authorities use accredited companies to randomly check new networks, mainly outdoor wireless. If a noncompliant network is found, the fine can be prohibitive, and if the installation has been made by a professional, this can even result in a prison sentence. Some others local authorities adopt a “trust by default” attitude, and enquire only if a neighbor has complained about undue interferences. In any case, finding the exact Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) is difficult without access to all of the elements (transmitter, cable specifications, and antenna).

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The FCC
This topic describes the FCC rules.

FCC Part 15 Antenna Requirements
Antennas
Antennas must use a unique or proprietary connector. Cisco Aironet products typically use RP-TNC connectors. Some Cisco products designed for professional installation can use nonproprietary connectors such as a Type N connector.

FCC Part 15 Standards
Approved antenna may exceed the regulations of other countries. Exceeding the regulations may lead to interference problems. Penalties could result in fines. FCC standards apply to Part 15 users in the United States. Different countries will have similar standards.

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The FCC added rules about spread spectrum technologies in 1994. These rules require that an antenna sold with a product must be tested and approved with that product. To keep users from installing any antenna they want, the FCC also implemented a rule stating that any removable antenna had to use a unique, nonstandard connector that is not available through general distribution channels. Cisco uses a reverse-polarity threaded Neill-Concelman (RP-TNC) connector. It complies with the FCC requirement. This connector looks like a standard threaded Neill-Concelman (TNC), but the center contacts have been reversed. This design prevents a standard off-the-shelf antenna from being attached to a Cisco Aironet RF product. The FCC does permit a professional installer to use other antennas or connectors. A professional installer is defined as someone who has been trained in the applicable rules and regulations, is receiving compensation for the work, has knowledge of radio emissions, and can verify that a site that deviates from the standard product set requirements meets the limitations of the FCC rules.

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The following is an excerpt from FCC Title 47, Section 15.203: 15.203 Antenna Requirement An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached antenna or of an antenna that uses a unique coupling to the intentional radiator shall be considered sufficient to comply with the provisions of this section. The manufacturer may design the unit so that the user can replace a broken antenna, but the use of a standard antenna jack or electrical connector is prohibited. This requirement does not apply to carrier current devices or to devices operated under the provisions of §15.211, §15.213, §15.217, §15.219, or §15.221. Further, this requirement does not apply to intentional radiators that must be professionally installed, such as perimeter protection systems, some field disturbance sensors, or to other intentional radiators. Any other intentional radiators must be measured at the installation site in accordance with §15.31(d). However, the installer shall be responsible for ensuring that the proper antenna is employed so that the limits in this part are not exceeded.

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2.4-GHz EIRP Output Rules—FCC Example
Point-to-multipoint
Maximum of 36 dBm EIRP 30-dBm maximum transmitter power with 6-dBi maximum gain of antenna and cable combination A 1:1 ratio between the maximum power and maximum gain Reduce transmit power below maximum of 30 dBm by 1 dBm and increase maximum antenna and cable system gain by 1dBi

Point-to-point
Maximum of 36 dBm EIRP 30-dBm maximum transmitter power with 6-dBi in gain of antenna and cable combination FCC allows exceeding the 36 dBm EIRP in point-to-point installations using the 3:1 ratio rule Reduce transmit power below maximum of 30 dBm by 1 dBm and increase maximum antenna and cable system gain by 3 dBi
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The figure illustrates the FCC standards to which Cisco Aironet products adhere. The following is an excerpt from FCC Title 47, Section 15.247: (b) The maximum peak output power of the intentional radiator shall not exceed the following: — (1) (1) For frequency hopping systems operating in the 2400–2483.5 MHz or 5725– 5850 MHz band and for all direct sequence systems: 1 watt. — (3) …if transmitting antennas of directional gain greater than 6 dBi are used, the peak output power from the intentional radiator shall be reduced below the stated values in paragraphs (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section, as appropriate, by the amount in dB that the directional gain of the antenna exceeds 6 dBi. Systems operating in the 2400—2483.5 MHz band that are used exclusively for fixed, point-to-point operations may employ transmitting antennas with directional gain greater than 6 dBi provided the maximum peak output power of the intentional radiator is reduced by 1 dB for every 3 dB that the directional gain of the antenna exceeds 6 dBi.

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2.4-GHz EIRP Output Rules—FCC Example (Cont.)
Point-to-Multipoint
Transmitter Power - dBm FCC Maximum Cisco Maximum 30 dBm 20 dBm Maximum Gain 6 dBm 16 dBm EIRP 36 dBm 36 dBm

The above values reflect the 1:1 rule.

Point-to-Point
Transmitter Power - dBm FCC Maximum Cisco Maximum 30 dBm 20 dBm Maximum Gain 6 dBm 36 dBm EIRP 36 dBm 56 dBm

The above values reflect the 3:1 rule.
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—1-7

The figure illustrates the dBm ratings for the various output levels available with the Cisco Aironet wireless equipment. The figure also shows the EIRP that results when the access point is used with a 6 decibel referenced to isotropic antenna (dBi) patch antenna. The maximum EIRP allowed by the FCC for a Part 15 2.4-GHz device in the United States is 36 dBm. The standards are different for specific point-to-point systems. However, this course is focused on WLANs, which would be considered point-to-multipoint solutions. As a result, the maximum EIRP allowed must not exceed 36 dBm and the maximum gain on an antenna must not exceed 16 dBi (for the United States) unless installed by a professional. The FCC rules enforce that, for point-to-point links, if the antenna is more than 6 dBi, each additional gain of 3 dBi must be compensated by a 1 dB decrease in the transmitter power. In the example shown here, if the maximum allowed transmit power is 30 dBm with a 6 dBi antenna, using a 36 dBi antenna (30 dB more than 6 dBi) implies that the transmit power must be reduced by 10 dBm. This reduction respects the rule since each 3 dB more in the antenna gain effectively implies 1 dB less in the transmitter power. For point-to-multipoint links, each additional gain of 1 dBi on the antenna must be compensated by a 1 dB decrease in the power of the transmitter.
Note The highest gain antenna approved by Cisco for 2.4 GHz is the 21-dBi parabolic antenna.

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The ETSI

2.4-GHz EIRP Output Rules—ETSI Example
Currently ETSI stipulates a maximum of 20 dBm EIRP on point-tomultipoint and point-to-point installations; it also stipulates 17dBm maximum transmitter power with 3-dBi in gain attributed to antenna and cable combination. Professional installers are allowed to increase the gain of an antenna and cable system if the transmitter power is reduced below 17 dBm in a 1:1 ratio. Reduce transmit power below maximum of 17 dBm by 1 dBm and increase antenna and cable system gain by 1 dBi.

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The figure illustrates the ETSI standards to which Cisco Aironet products adhere. The following is an excerpt from the document ETSI EN 300 328-1 V1.2.2 (2000-07): 5.2 Transmitter parameter limits — 5.2.1 Effective radiated power The effective radiated power is defined as the total power of the transmitter and is calculated according to the procedure given in sub clause 7.2.1. The effective radiated power shall be equal to or less than –10 dBw (100 mW) EIRP. This limit shall apply for any combination of power level and intended antenna assembly. — 5.2.2 Peak Power Density The peak power density is defined as the highest instantaneous level of power in Watts per Hertz generated by the transmitter within the power envelope. For equipment using FHSS modulation, the power density shall be limited to –10 dBw (100 mW) per 100 kHz EIRP. For equipment using other types of modulation, the peak power shall be limited to –20 dBw (10 mW) per MHz EIRP.

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2.4-GHz EIRP Output Rules—ETSI Example (Cont.)
Governing bodies with 20-dBm ceiling on EIRP: ETSI, France/Singapore, Israel, Mexico

Point-to-Multipoint and Point-to-Point

Transmitter PowerdBm
Gov. Body Maximum Cisco dipole Antennae Reduced Tx* Power Reduced Tx Power Reduced Tx Power Reduced Tx Power
*Tx = transmission
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Maximum Gain
3 dBi 2.2 dBi 5 dBi 7 dBi 13 dBi 20 dBi

EIRP
20 dBm 19.2 dBm 20 dBm 20 dBm 20 dBm 20 dBm

17 dBm 17 dBm 15 dBm 13 dBm 7 dBm 0 dBm

The above values reflect the 1:1 rule.
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The EIRP of a transmitter is the power it would appear to have if it were an isotropic radiator (if the antenna radiated equally in all directions). By virtue of the gain of a radio antenna (or dish), a beam is formed that preferably transmits the energy in one direction. System output is limited when you use radio equipment. These limits are given as EIRP and must not be exceeded. Different countries have different standards. The output of the radio is measured in dBm (decibels per milliwatt). The figure lists the dBm ratings for the various output levels that are available with the Cisco Aironet wireless equipment and the EIRP that results when various antennae are used. The maximum EIRP allowed for a 2.4-GHz device in France, Singapore, Israel, Mexico, and ETSI is 20 dBm. The standards are different for specific point-to-point systems. However, this class is focused on WLANs that are considered to be point-to-multipoint solutions, so the maximum EIRP allowed must not exceed 20 dBm and the maximum gain on an antenna must not exceed 20 dBi.

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Wireless Spectrum
The 2.4-GHz ISM band ranges from 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz (2.4970 GHz in Japan). In this range 11 channels are allowed in the United State, 13 in Europe, and 14 in Japan. The 5-GHz ISM band ranges from 5.725 to 5.875 GHz. The 5-GHz ISM band overlaps with the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII) bands: – UNII-1 ranges from 5.15 to 5.25 GHz (4 channels). – UNII-2 ranges from 5.25 to 5.35 GHz (4 channels). – UNII-2 extended ranges from 5.470 to 5.725 GHz (up to 11 channels). – UNII-3 ranges from 5.725 GHz to 5.825 GHz (4 channels).

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Current State of 5-GHz 802.11a Spectrum

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In the 5-GHz spectrum, the situation is a bit more complex because the rules differ from one country to another and the band is not yet contiguous.

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The original FCC specification states that the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure-1 band, or UNII-1 band, is intended for indoor use only. The UNII-2 band is intended for wireless bridging for both indoor and short-range outdoor applications. The UNII-3 band, with far greater transmission power and antenna gain allowances, is preferable for long-range outdoor wireless bridging. To facilitate outdoor wireless bridging, the regulations allow connectors, cables, and auxiliary antennas for both of these bands. The EIRP allowed in the UNII-3 band is 4 W (36 dBm), which is much more than the radiated power of 1 W (30 dBm) allowed in the UNII-2 band. Conducted and radiated power levels for the different bands include the following: UNII-3 EIRP point-to-multipoint hub 36 dBm UNII-3 EIRP point-to-point and nonroot point-to multipoint 53 dBm Cisco Aironet 1400 Wireless Bridge, which uses a maximum peak power of 24 dBm or 250 mW The Cisco Aironet 1500 Series Lightweight Outdoor Mesh AP, which uses a maximum peak power of 26 dBm or 398 mW In part of the 802.11a spectrum, Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) and Transmission Power Control (TPC) rules apply. The mandatory rules stipulate that a wireless device must be able to detect blasts from airport radars, which use the same frequency range, mainly for weather report systems. Upon detecting these blasts, the wireless device must go to another frequency for a brief time (30 minutes) in order not to interfere with the radar system. It may then be allowed to go back to the original channel if needed. Wireless devices must also be able to negotiate a transmit power to be able to send just at the required level and not be unnecessarily loud. These rules are mandatory and have been implemented in the Cisco devices operating in this spectrum.

Power
The rules are complex here as well. The FCC states the following: In the UNII-1 band, output power should not exceed 50 mW (17 dBm), with 22 dBm EIRP maximum. In the UNII-2 band, output power should not exceed 250 mW (24 dBm), with 29 dBm EIRP. In the UNII-2 extended band, output power should not exceed 1 W (30 dBm), with 36 dBm EIRP. In the UNII-3 band, output power should not exceed 1 W (30 dBm), with 36 dBm EIRP. The IEEE rules for the same spectrum are a bit tighter. This restriction is why you may find that some devices have a lower maximum power. The rules refer only to the output power. The IEEE 802.11a protocol states the following: In the UNII-1 band, output power should not exceed 40 mW (16 dBm). In the UNII-2 band, output power should not exceed 200 mW (23 dBm). In the UNII-2 extended band, output power should not exceed 800 mW (29 dBm). In the UNII-3 band, output power should not exceed 800 mW (29 dBm).

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These values refer to the output power of the transmitter. The ETSI rules do not refer to the output power, modified with the 1:1 rule, but only to the EIRP. The ETSI rules state the following: In the UNII-1 band, EIRP should not exceed 200 mW (23 dBm). In the UNII-2 band, EIRP should not exceed 200 mW (23 dBm). In the UNII-2 extended band, EIRP should not exceed 1 W (30 dBm). The UNII-3 band is not a free spectrum in the ETSI domain.

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The IEEE 802.11 Family of Protocols
This topic describes the protocols that are grouped under the 802.11 umbrella.

Some IEEE 802.11 Standard Activities
802.11a — 5GHz, 54 Mb/s; ratified in 1999 802.11b — 2.4 GHz, 11 Mb/s; ratified in 1999 802.11d — World Mode; ratified in 2001 802.11e — QoS; ratified in 2005 802.11g — 2.4GHz, 54 Mb/s; ratified in 2003 802.11h — DFS and TPC mechanisms; ratified in 2004 802.11i

— Authentication and security; ratified in 2004

802.11k — Radio resource measurement enhancements (under development) 802.11n — Higher throughput improvements using MIMO antennas (under development) 802.11t — WPP; test methods and metrics recommendation (under development) 802.11w — Protected management frames (under development)
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—1-12

The IEEE 802.11 working group includes the following IEEE standards and task groups: IEEE 802.11: The original 1 Mb/s and 2 Mb/s, 2.4-GHz RF and infrared (IR) standard (1997) IEEE 802.11a: 54 Mb/s, 5-GHz standard (1999, shipping products in 2001) IEEE 802.11b: Enhancements to 802.11 to support 5.5 and 11 Mb/s (1999) IEEE 802.11c: Bridge operation procedures; included in the IEEE 802.1d standard (2001) IEEE 802.11d: International (country-to-country) roaming extensions (2001) IEEE 802.11e: Enhancements; quality of service (QoS), including packet bursting (2005) IEEE 802.11f: Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP) (2003) withdrawn February 2006 IEEE 802.11g: 54 Mb/s, 2.4 GHz standard (backward-compatible with 802.11b) (2003) IEEE 802.11h: Spectrum managed 802.11a (5 GHz) to avoid radar interference (2004) IEEE 802.11i: Enhanced security (2004) IEEE 802.11j: Extensions for Japan (2004) IEEE 802.11k: Radio resource measurement enhancements IEEE 802.11l: (Reserved and will not be used) IEEE 802.11m: Maintenance of the standard; odds and ends (ongoing) IEEE 802.11n: Higher throughput improvements using multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) antennas IEEE 802.11o: (Reserved and will not be used)
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IEEE 802.11p: Wireless Access for the Vehicular Environment (WAVE) (such as ambulances and passenger cars) IEEE 802.11q: (Reserved and will not be used) IEEE 802.11r: Fast roaming (Working Task Group r - 2007) IEEE 802.11s: Extended Service Set (ESS) mesh networking IEEE 802.11T: Wireless Performance Prediction (WPP); test methods and metrics recommendation IEEE 802.11u: Interworking with non-802 networks, for example, cellular (proposal evaluation) IEEE 802.11v: Wireless network management (early proposal stages) IEEE 802.11w: Protected management frames (early proposal stages) IEEE 802.11x: (Reserved and will not be used) IEEE 802.11y: 3.650-GHz to 3.700-GHz Operation in the United States (early proposal stages) 802.11F and 802.11T are standalone documents, rather than amendments to the 802.11 standard and are capitalized as such.

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The 802.11 Standards for Channels and Speeds
This topic describes which protocols in the 802.11 family define spectrum and speed specifications.

802.11 Standards for Spectrums and Speeds
802.11 Ratified Frequency Band No of Channels Transmission Data Rates (Mb/s) 1997 2.4 GHz 3 IR, FHSS, DSSS 1, 2 802.11b 1999 2.4 GHz 3 DSSS 1, 2, 5.5, 11 802.11a 1999 5 GHz Up to 23 OFDM DSSS 802.11g 2003 2.4 GHz 3 OFDM 802.11n Not Ratified 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz varies DSSS, CCK, OFDM 100+

6, 9, 12, 18, 6, 9, 12, 1, 2, 5.5, 24, 36, 48, 18, 24, 36, 11 54 48, 54

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2.4 GHz (802.11b/g)
The IEEE 802.11b standard, ratified in September 1999, operates in the 2.4-GHz spectrum (versus 900-MHz and 5.7-GHz ISM bands) and supports data rates of 1 Mb/s, 2 Mb/s, 5.5 Mb/s, and 11 Mb/s. 802.11b has broad user acceptance and vendor support. 802.11b technology has been deployed by thousands of enterprise organizations, which typically find its speed and performance acceptable for their current applications. The original 802.11 protocol allowed IR, Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), and Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), whereas the 802.11b protocol allows only DSSS, using Barker code or Complementary Code Keying (CCK). The IEEE 802.11g standard, which was ratified in June 2003, operates in the same spectrum as 802.11b and is backward-compatible with the 802.11b standard. 802.11g supports the additional data rates of 6 Mb/s, 9 Mb/s, 12 Mb/s, 18 Mb/s, 24 Mb/s, 36 Mb/s, 48 Mb/s, and 54 Mb/s. 802.11g delivers the same 54 Mb/s maximum data rate as 802.11a, but operates in the same 2.4-GHz band as 802.11b. It also provides backward compatibility with existing 802.11b devices.

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5 GHz (802.11a)
IEEE 802.11a defines requirements for the physical layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, which operates in the three 5.0-GHz UNII frequency bands, with data rates ranging from 6 Mb/s to 54 Mb/s. The IEEE also ratified the 802.11a standard in 1999, but the first 802.11a-compliant products did not begin appearing on the market until December 2001. Because this band was different from the 2.4 GHz-based products, chips were expensive to produce and the market therefore limited. The 802.11a standard delivers a maximum data rate of 54 Mb/s and twelve nonoverlapping frequency channels. It uses orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), which is a multicarrier system (compared to single-carrier systems). OFDM allows subchannels to overlap, providing a high spectral efficiency. The modulation technique allowed in OFDM is more efficient than spread spectrum techniques used with 802.11b. Operating in the unlicensed portion of the 5-GHz radio band, 802.11a is also immune to interference from devices that operate in the 2.4-GHz band, such as microwave ovens, cordless phones, and Bluetooth devices (a short-range, low-speed, point-to-point, personal area network [PAN] wireless standard). Because the 802.11a standard operates in a different frequency range, it is not compatible with existing 802.11b- or 802.11g-compliant wireless devices. It does mean that 2.4-GHz and 5GHz equipment can operate in the same physical environment without interference. Choosing between these two technologies (802.11b/g and 802.11a) does not involve a one-for-one tradeoff. They are complementary technologies and will continue to coexist in future enterprise environments. Those responsible for implementing these technologies must be able to make an educated choice between deploying 2.4 GHz-only networks, 5 GHz-only networks, or a combination of both. Organizations with existing 802.11b networks cannot simply deploy a new 802.11a network for existing APs and expect to have their 802.11a 54-Mb/s coverage in the same areas as their 11 Mb/s 802.11b coverage. The technical characteristics of both of these bands simply do not allow for this kind of coverage interchangeability. 802.11a provides data rates of 6 Mb/s, 9 Mb/s, 12 Mb/s, 18 Mb/s, 24 Mb/s, 36 Mb/s, and 48 Mb/s, with a maximum data rate of 54 Mb/s. The IEEE only requires mandatory supported data rates of 6, 12, and 24 Mb/s from OFDM. Using the 5-GHz spectrum, 802.11a has up to 23 nonoverlapping frequency channels (depending on the geographic area), compared to the three nonoverlapping channels of 802.11b/g, which results in increased network capacity, improved scalability, and the ability to create microcellular deployments without interference from adjacent cells.

802.11n
IEEE 802.11n is a draft standard. The 802.11n standard uses a technology called spatial multiplexing, which utilizes a concept called multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) that actually benefits from multipath occurrences. MIMO typically uses two or three antennae to receive (input), the signal and two or three radios to transmit (output), plus special signal processing to improve range, reliability, and throughput. The standard proposes to increase bandwidth to speeds of 100 Mb/s or greater. MIMO multiplexes multiple independent data streams simultaneously within 1 channel. 802.11n will operate in the 2.4-GHz and 5-GHz bandwidths and be backward-compatible with 802.11a and 802.11b/g.

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The 802.11 Original Protocol
This topic describes the original 802.11 standard.

802.11
802.11 became a standard in July 1997, the first standard for wireless. Two RF technologies were defined: FHSS and DSSS. The standard allows 1 Mb/s and 2 Mb/s. It defined specifications for Layer 1 and Layer 2, and basic security. 802.11 is defined in the 2.4-GHz ISM band. Three nonoverlapping channels is the most common deployment.

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The original 802.11 protocol, ratified in 1997, defined both Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and Direct Signal Spread Spectrum (DSSS) as possible methods of modulation. But the maximum speed that could be achieved using only these techniques was 2 Mb/s. Although Ethernet networks at that time were mostly running at 10 Mb/s, a speed of 2 Mb/s was seen as too slow for good compatibility with wired networks. To avoid another wave of proprietary developments, the 802.11 protocol was temporarily released to offer a specification while the committee had already started working on an enhancement of the original protocol, which was to be published in 1999, the same year as 802.11b. 2.4 GHz 802.11b and 802.11g have access to 14 channels defined by their center frequency. Note that country regulations can restrict which channels may be used in respective countries (for example, the FCC allows the use of channels 1 through 11, but not 12 through 14). Channel 14 is available only in Japan and only for 802.11b (not for OFDM/802.11g).
Channel Frequency (MHz) 1 2412 2 2417 3 2422 4 2427 5 2432 6 2437 7 2442 8 2447 9 2452 10 2457 11 2462 12 2467 13 2472 14 2484

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The 802.11b Protocol
This topic describes the 802.11b variation of the original 802.11 protocol.

802.11b
11 Mb/s, 2.4 GHz, DSSS
Ratified as standard in September 1999 11 U.S. channels 13 ETSI channels 14 Japanese channels Power levels: – 36 dBm Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP); FCC – 20 dBm EIRP; ETSI Approved for use nearly worldwide Not recommended for new deployments

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The 802.11b standard was ratified in 1999. Products were actually introduced into the market before the standard was ratified; 802.11b became the de facto standard for wireless, and adoption grew rapidly. Eleven channels are available in the United States. However, only three of these channels are nonoverlapping (1, 6, and 11). In the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) domains, 13 channels are available. Having 13 channels makes it possible to have four nonoverlapping channels (1, 5, 9, and 13), even though the noise level of each is higher than the three American non-overlapping channels1. Japan has an additional channel located at the top end of the band. It is possible to use this channel, along with three other channels, for a total of four nonoverlapping channels (1, 6, 11, and 14); the fourth channel is far apart from the first three.

When the channels that are used are four channels apart instead of five, the result is a slightly higher overlap between the waves. This higher overlap results in a higher noise level in each channel. Therefore, it can be said that the European channels have a higher surrounding noise level than the U.S. channels do. This noise level is still acceptable for indoor normal communications.
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802.11b Speed Coverage
Two different encodings: - Barker 11 - CCK Two different modulations: - DBPSK - DQPSK Four different speeds: - 1 Mb/s (Barker + DBPSK) - 2 Mb/s (Barker + DQPSK) - 5.5 Mb/s (CCK-16 + DQPSK) - 11 Mb/s (CCK-128 + DQPSK)

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All Cisco 802.11 WLAN products have the ability to data rate shift while moving. This ability allows the person operating at 11 Mb/s to shift to 5.5 Mb/s, 2 Mb/s, and finally still communicate at the outside ring at 1 Mb/s. This rate shifting happens without losing connection and without any interaction from the user. Rate shifting also occurs on a transmission-bytransmission basis. Therefore, the AP is able to support multiple clients at multiple speeds depending on the location of each client. When a client moves away from the AP, the WLAN adapter software determines a threshold from where the client will not be able to achieve the maximum speed. This threshold is product-dependant and relies on values such as the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), packet error rate, and so on. To avoid losing too many packets or even the connection, the client reverts to a simpler modulation, thus slowing the speed of its communication with the AP. The AP does not have to change its modulation at the same time as the client changes its modulation. The AP makes its own decisions based on its perception of the quality of the communication with the client. In a cell where several clients are at different positions, the AP may use different speeds to communicate with each of them.

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The 802.11g Protocol
This topic describes the most recent protocol that is dedicated to transmissions that are solely in the ISM band, which provides higher throughput.

802.11g
Standard for higher-rate extension in the 2.4-GHz ISM spectrum Speed up to 54 Mb/s OFDM added to DSSS Backward-compatible with 802.11b

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The 802.11g standard was ratified in June 2003. Products were actually being shipped before the standard was ratified. The speeds of 802.11g promised to be similar to those of 802.11a, and 802.11g uses the same frequencies as 802.11b. As a result, 802.11g has full backward compatibility with 802.11b. Because of the sideband noise generated by OFDM modulation, the power must be backed off for OFDM (802.11g) to be able to handle the peaks of the modulation and still meet regulations. The overall maximum power settings vary from country to country. For example, in the United States, DSSS and OFDM have the following limitations:
DSSS (CCK) 100 milliwatt (mW) (20 dB compared to 1 mW [dBm]) 50 mW (17 dBm) 30 mW (15 dBm) 20 mW (13 dBm) 10 mW (10 dBm) 5 mW (7 dBm) 1 mW (0 dBm) 30 mW (15 dBm) 20 mW (13 dBm) 10 mW (10 dBm) 5 mW (7 dBm) 1 mW (0 dBm) OFDM

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802.11b/g Cell Speeds
802.11g speeds:
– 54 Mb/s, 48 Mb/s – 36 Mb/s, 24 Mb/s – 18 Mb/s, 12 Mb/s – 9 Mb/s, 6 Mb/s – Include 802.11b data rates

Client looks for the best speed

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Like the 802.11b products, the 802.11g products also support multiple data rate cells. Unlike the 802.11b radios, which support four data rates, the 802.11g radios support eight different data rates with OFDM, plus four others for DSSS. When a client is in 802.11b/g mode, it will use all the available range of speeds, trying to achieve the best possible throughput. Some clients can be turned to 802.11b or 802.11g only, thus using only OFDM or DSSS and the corresponding speeds.

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802.11b/g Encoding and Modulations
Modulation with Subchannels BPSK QPSK QPSK BPSK BPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK 16-QAM 16-QAM 64-QAM 128-QAM
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Encoding Barker Barker CCK-16 OFDM OFDM CCK-128 OFDM OFDM OFDM OFDM OFDM OFDM

Total Data Rate (Mb/s) 1 2 5.5 6 9 11 12 18 24 36 48 54
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The 802.11g protocol defines several backward-compatible mechanisms with 802.11b. In the first mode, 802.11g client devices must also be 802.11b-compliant, which means that even though they would be sending and receiving at 802.11g speeds, they would be able to detect and understand a signal sent by an 802.11b-compatible client. If a client is not able to achieve 12 Mb/s in 802.11g mode, it is also allowed to try to use 802.11b at 11 Mb/s instead of falling down to 6 Mb/s, always trying to achieve the best possible speed. Another optional mode that is allowed by the 802.11g protocol is the CCK/OFDM hybrid mode. Devices compatible with this mode are able to send the header of the frame, which mentions the total duration of the emission, using a DSSS/CCK modulation so that the header can be heard by all clients, and then send the rest of the frame using OFDM alone to increase throughput.

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802.11b and 802.11g Coexistence
This topic describes the impact of having both 802.11b and 802.11g devices in the same physical area.

802.11b and 802.11g Coexistence
802.11b presence triggers protection mode: - RTS/CTS - “CTS to self” protection “Non-ERP present” wave spreads throughout the network. Throughput can drop from 22 Mb/s to 8 Mb/s.

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The 802.11 g is backward-compatible with 802.11b, which means that 802.11b devices and 802.11g devices can coexist in the same cell connecting to the same AP. However, 802.11b devices cannot understand OFDM, so they cannot detect that an 802.11g client is sending if DSSS is not the modulation used. The devices just perceive noise and believe that the carrier is free. The 802.11g protocol imposes a protection mechanism to prevent collisions. The protection mechanism is used by the AP and the clients, even though clients start using it when an AP signals the presence of an 802.11b device in the cell. When an 802.11b client is detected in a mixed environment, the AP informs the clients of the cell by sending this information in its beacons (routine RF broadcasts of information): NON-ERP2 present: yes (non-ERP are 802.11b clients) Use protection: yes The “protection” it refers to is a simple warning mechanism. When an 802.11g client is about to send a frame, it sends a “request to send” (RTS) message first, at 802.11b speed, so that the message can be heard by all the 802.11b clients. This request is a message that says: “I wish to send for this duration.” This message is a unicast message sent to the recipient of the frame, which will respond, still at 802.11 b speed, with a “clear to send” (CTS) answer. All clients in range of both machines will know that the exchange is about to occur.
ERP stands for Extended Rate Physical; it refers to the fact that 802.11g devices have higher (more extended) rate capabilities than the 802.11b clients.
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2

The first machine then sends its message, at 802.11g speed, knowing that the 802.11b clients will stay quiet during the time of the transmission even if they cannot detect it. Another possible mechanism that can be used is called “CTS to self.” With this method the first machine directly sends a CTS message to itself. But this technique is considered less efficient than some 802.11b devices, which may only be in range of the second machine and may not get the warning. Whichever technique is used, the delay caused by the Ready to Send/Clear to Send (RTS/CTS) exchange or the CTS to self process reduces the throughput of the cell dramatically. If the average bandwidth with 802.11g clients only was around 22 Mb/s, it falls to 8 Mb/s. Another very bad side effect is that all the other APs in range of the first AP get the first AP’s beacon (whether they are on the same channel or because they are scanning) and will modify their own beacons by sending this information: Non-ERP present: no (the 802.11b is not in my cell) Use protection: yes (do use protection anyway, in case some of my cell clients would be in range of this 802.11b client) Sending the message creates a wave of throughput degradation in the whole network. The only way to avoid this phenomenon is to remove all 802.11b clients from the cell. Some APs offer a mechanism to allow 802.11g speed only. This will not prevent the 802.11b clients from being detected by the AP and the protection mechanism being initiated, but it will prevent these slow clients from connecting, and as a result, sooner or later they will be removed them from the cell.

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The 802.11 a Protocol
This topic describes the protocol defined to allow communications in the 5-GHz spectrum.

802.11a

Ratified as standard in September 1999 54 Mb/s 5 GHz (OFDM) 23 U.S. channels - Dynamic Frequency Control (DFS)* - Transmitter Power Control (TPC)* 19 ETSI channels (many countries) - DFS - TPC *Required by July 20th, 2007
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IUWNE v1.0—1-21

802.11a was ratified by the IEEE in September 1999. It provides a technology that is similar to the European High Performance Radio LAN (HiperLAN) 2 standard. Twenty-eight channels are defined with data rates of up to 54 Mb/s. However, the channels available in any one regulatory domain vary. All 28 channels will not be available because UNII-1 (5.15 GHz to 5.25 GHz) defines eight channels (34 through 38). Only four nonoverlapping channels (34, 38, 42, 46) or (36, 40, 44, 48) are used in the UNII-1 band.

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802.11a Spectrum

Twenty-eight different channels available: 23 United States, 19 Europe Three different bands Channels have 30 MHz of protection in the lower band, 20 MHz in the others

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The 5-GHz band in which 802.11a operates is divided into several different sections. Each UNII band was originally intended for a different use. In the United States, the FCC initially defined only the UNII-1, UNII-2, and UNII-3 bands, each of which had four channels. These channels are spaced at 20-MHz intervals and are considered noninterfering; however, they do have a slight overlap in frequency spectrum. It is possible to use adjacent channels in adjacent cell coverage, but it is recommended when possible to separate adjacent cell channels by at least one channel. The UNII bands have differing limitations. Restrictions varied between UNII bands for transmit power, antenna gain, antenna styles, and usage. The UNII-1 band was designated for indoor operations and initially had a restriction requiring the antennae to be permanently attached. The UNII-2 band was designated for indoor or outdoor operations and allowed the use of external antennae. The UNII-3 band was intended for outdoor bridge products and allowed the use of external antennae. In February 2004, the FCC released a revision to the regulations that cover the use of the 5GHz 802.11a channels. This revision added 11 additional channels, bringing the available channel capacity to 23 channels. The new additional 11 channels, designated as UNII-2 extended, are for indoor and outdoor use. To use the 11 new channels, however, radios must comply with two features that are part of the 802.11h specification: transmit power control (TPC) and dynamic frequency selection (DFS). DFS is required to avoid radar that operates in this frequency range, but it can also be used for other purposes, such as dynamic frequency planning. IEEE 802.11h is supported in wireless LAN (WLAN) controllers and controllerbased APs as well as standalone APs. The 2004 revision also allowed all channels, UNII-1, UNII-2 extended, and UNII-3, to be used in an indoor environment. In the ETSI domain, the regulation allows these channels: UNII-1 indoor (5150–5350 MHz): The devices must be part of a “mobile/nomadic network” and compatible with TPC and DFS. The maximum EIRP is 200 mW (versus 50 mW in the United States)
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UNII-2 extended (5470–5725 MHz): The devices must be part of a “mobile/nomadic network” and compatible with TPC and DFS. The maximum EIRP is 1 W (versus 250 mW in the United States) UNII-3: The UNII-3 can be used outdoors, but in a licensed mode; it is not a free spectrum like it is in the United States. The maximum EIRP is 4 W (the same as in the United States)

Channels
In the U.S. and the ETSI domains, the same eight channels (36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60 and 64) are allowed in the UNII-1 and UNII-2 spectrums. In the UNII-2 extended, the same 11 channels are allowed in the U.S. and the ETSI domains (100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 132, 136, and 140). The U.S. domain also allows four channels (149, 153, 157, and 161) in the UNII-3 band3. In the ETSI region, these channels are not freely available4.

Four channels are allowed, out of the five channels defined in the ISM spectrum, which adds channel 165. Channel 165 is not included in the FCC allocation. 4 These channels can be used in some ETSI regions, with a license.
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3

802.11a Speeds
Same speeds as 802.11g No 802.11b interoperability Higher frequency, which implies lower range but also less scattering

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Like the 802.11b products, the 802.11a products support multiple data rate cells. Unlike the 802.11b radios that support four data rates supported, the 802.11a radios support eight different data rates. Similar to the 802.11b radios, all 802.11a products have the ability to data rate shift while moving. The 802.11a products allow the person operating at 54 Mb/s to shift to 48 Mb/s, 36 Mb/s, 24 Mb/s, 18 Mb/s, 12 Mb/s, 9 Mb/s, and still communicate at the outside ring at 6 Mb/s. This rate shifting happens without losing connection and without any interaction from the user. Rate shifting also happens on a transmission-by-transmission basis; therefore, the AP is able to support multiple clients at multiple speeds, depending on the location of each client.

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Comparing the Technologies 802.11a Data Rates
Modulation with Subchannels BPSK BPSK QPSK QPSK 16-QAM 16-QAM 64-QAM 128-QAM Data Rate Per Subchannel (kb/s) 125 187.5 250 375 500 750 1000 1125 Total Data Rate (Mb/s) 6 9 12 18 24 36 48 54

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OFDM is the modulation technique used by 802.11a and 802.11g. OFDM works by breaking one high-speed data carrier into several lower-speed subcarriers, which are then transmitted in parallel. Each high-speed carrier is 20 MHz wide and is broken up into 52 subchannels, each approximately 300 kHz wide. OFDM uses 48 of these subchannels for data, while the remaining four are used for error correction. Coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (COFDM) delivers higher data rates and a high degree of multipath reflection recovery because of its encoding scheme and error correction. Each subchannel in the OFDM implementation is about 300 kHz wide. At the low end of the speed gradient, Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) is used to encode 125 kb/s of data per channel, resulting in a 6000-kb/s, or 6-Mb/s, data rate. Using Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), the amount of data encoded to 250 kb/s per channel can be double, yielding a 12-Mb/s data rate. And by using 16-state quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM, encoding 4 bits per cycle, a data rate of 24 Mb/s can be achieved. The 802.11a standard specifies that all 802.11a-compliant products must support these basic data rates. The standard also lets the vendor extend the modulation scheme beyond 24 Mb/s. Data rates of 54 Mb/s are achieved by using 64-QAM, which yields 8 bits per cycle or 10 bits per cycle, for a total of up to 1125 kb/s per 300-kHz channel. With 48 channels, this results in a 54-Mb/s data rate. Remember, the more bits per cycle (hertz) that are encoded, the more susceptible the signal is to interference, and ultimately the shorter the range, unless power output is increased.

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The 802.11n Protocol
This topic describes the 802.11n Draft 2 specifications.

802.11n: State of the Protocol
IEEE is developing 802.11n standard features and attributes. Wi-Fi Alliance is using 802.11n Draft 2.0 in an interim baseline. Goal is for software upgrades to meet standard compliance and minimize hardware upgrades.

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802.11n, also known as MIMO (multiple-input, multiple-output), is a new protocol aimed at increasing speed and throughput of modern wireless networks. It is still a draft standard. The final details of 802.11n are still under discussion. The Wi-Fi Alliance is using the interim IEEE 802.11n draft 2.0 as the baseline for the initial round of Wi-Fi certification and compatibility testing that began in June 2007. Perhaps the most talked-about improvement made possible through 802.11n is its ability to increase the throughput on a wireless network. 802.11n has the potential to offer up to five times the performance of current wireless networks. For a pure 802.11n environment, testing has shown performance enhancements that deliver up to 300 Mb/s of bandwidth per radio. In a typical deployment, businesses will see a noticeable increase in the amount of bandwidth available per client. Features including 40 MHz channels, packet aggregation, and block acknowledgment, deliver the throughput enhancements of 802.11n. Additionally, improved signals resulting from MIMO enable clients to connect with faster data rates at a given distance from the AP compared with 802.11a, b, or g. The need for this higher speed and reliability of the connection speed has pushed many vendors to develop “Pre N” devices that may only be compatible with the first draft. Many changes can occur between the first draft and the final standard. Now that Draft 2 has been adopted, it is likely that there will only be minor differences between “802.11n Draft 2” devices that are produced today and the standards in the final protocol. The decisions being faced by businesses today is whether to deploy now or wait for the standard to be ratified. The industry is working aggressively to ensure that existing 802.11n Draft 2.0 products will be able to be upgraded via software to the final 802.11n standard. Cisco is using platform modularity to help ensure that in the event that a hardware change is required, only the radio modules will be affected instead of necessitating a complete AP change.
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802.11n Components
This topic describes which new features the 802.11n protocol implements to allow an increased speed and reliability.

Greater Reliability and Predictability
Primary 802.11n Components
40-MHz Channels
Two adjacent 20-MHz channels are combined to create a single 40-MHz channel.

Improved MAC Efficiency
MAC aggregation packs smaller packets into a single unit. Block acknowledgment improves throughput.

Multiple-Input, MultipleOutput (MIMO)
Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) Beam forming Spatial multiplexing

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The following three key elements are combined in 802.11n to allow enhanced performances: At the physical layer, the way a signal is sent is changed, taking reflections and interferences as an advantage instead of a source of degradation. Two channels are aggregated to increase throughput. At the MAC layer, a different way of managing packet transmission is used. These elements are not part of the earlier protocols, such as 802.11b, 802.11g, or 802.11a; however, 802.11n is built to be backward-compatible with them. The 802.11n can adapt by changing the way frames are sent so that they can be understood by the other protocols. It also has a protection mechanism very similar to the 802.11g versus 802.11b system, except that only CTS to self are used with 802.11n. A station wishing to send a message using the 802.11n specs would send, at lower speed (802.11a, b, or g, depending on the cell), a message containing “Clear to send for this duration.” The other machines would then stay quiet for the specified time window while the station is sending, even though they would not be able to actually read the signal. RTS/CTS is not used because the 802.11n station signal has far more chances to reach all the devices in the cell, because of the physical enhancements to 802.11n stations that are explained in the following topics.

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802.11n Channel Aggregation
This topic describes the channel aggregation feature in 802.11n.

802.11n Channel Aggregation
802.11g and 802.11a use 20Mhz channels. Tones on the side are not used to protect the main carrier (11 Mb/s unused). 802.11n aggregates twp carriers to double the speed from 54 Mb/s to 108+11 = 119 Mb/s

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802.11n uses both 20-MHz and 40-MHz channels. Like the proprietary products, the 40-MHz channels in 802.11n are two adjacent 20-MHz channels, bonded together. When using a 40MHz bonded channel, 802.11n takes advantage of the fact that each 20-MHz channel has a small part of the channel reserved at the top and bottom to reduce interference in those adjacent channels. When using 40-MHz channels, the top of the lower channel and the bottom of the upper channel do not have to be reserved to avoid interference. These small parts of the channel can now be used to carry information. By using two 20-MHz channels more efficiently in this way, 802.11n achieves slightly more than doubling the data rate when moving from 20-MHz to 40-MHz channels. Aggregating channels loses backward compatibility with 802.11g and 802.11a devices5. 802.11n continues to use OFDM the same way 802.11a and 802.11g use OFDM. However, 802.11n increases the number of subcarriers in each 20-MHz channel from 48 to 52. This marginally increases the data rate to a maximum of almost 60 Mb/s for a single-transmit radio. 802.11n provides a selection of eight data rates for a transmitter to use and also increases the number of transmitters allowable to four. For two transmitters, the maximum data rate is 195 Mb/s. Three transmitters can deliver 260 Mb/s. In total, 802.11n provides up to 32 data rates for use in a 20-MHz channel.

5

Cisco implements 40-MHz channels only in the 5-GHz spectrum.
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802.11n MAC Efficiency
This topic describes some features added at the 802.11n MAC layer to increase client throughput.

Block Acknowledgment
802.11 requires acknowledgment of each frame.
802.11 Header Packet 802.11 ACK

802.11n uses block acknowledgment for constituent frames.
802.11n Header

Packet

802.11n Header

Packet

802.11n Header

Packet 802.11n ACK

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For the 802.11 MAC protocol to operate reliably, each of the unicast frames (transmitted to an individual address, therefore not multicast or broadcast) is immediately acknowledged by the recipient. 802.11n is still capable of that acknowledgment (ACK), but it can also use aggregation where several frames are sent in a row before being globally acknowledged. This acknowledgment is done in a way that is close to the acknowledgment system used in TCP. This type of acknowledgment is called block acknowledgment. Block acknowledgment compiles all the acknowledgments of the individual constituent frames produced by aggregation into a single frame returned by the recipient to the sender. This allows a compact and rapid mechanism to implement selective retransmission of only those constituent frames that are not acknowledged. In environments with high error rates, this selective retransmission mechanism can provide some improvement in the effective throughput of a WLAN because much less is retransmitted when an error affects some of the constituent frames of an aggregated frame as compared to an individual frame.

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When aggregation of frames is not possible, 802.11n provides another mechanism to reduce the overhead involved with transmitting a stream of frames to different destinations. In a normal 802.11a, b, or g environment, each sending station must wait after a frame is sent (this wait is called distributed interframe space, or DIFS) before sending the next frame. 802.11n improves on this mechanism, reducing the overhead between frames by specifying a smaller interframe space called the reduced interframe space (RIFS). If a station has several frames to send and if it cannot aggregate them, it will still be able to send them one by one, but separated only by RIFS instead of DIFS. RIFS further reduces the dead time between frames, increasing the amount of time in the transmit opportunity that is occupied by sending frames. The one unfortunate aspect of using RIFS is that it is restricted to being used only in “Greenfield” deployments. A Greenfield deployment is a deployment in which there are no 802.11a, b, or g legacy devices in the area.

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802.11n: MIMO—Spatial Multiplexing
This topic describes the MIMO set of features that allows several waves to be sent.

Spatial Multiplexing
Several frames are sent by several antennae over several paths and are recombined by several antennae to optimize throughput and multipath resistance.

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A MIMO radio sends multiple radio signals at the same time and takes advantage of multipath. Each of these signals is called a spatial stream. Each spatial stream is sent from its own antenna, using its own transmitter. Because there is space between each of the antennae, each signal follows a different path to the receiver. This phenomenon is known as spatial diversity. Each radio can send a different data stream from the other radios, and all can send at the same time, using a complex algorithm built on feedback from the receiver. The flows are synchronized using the reflections, and finally the radios send waves that from the point of view of the receiver contain the maximum amount of usable data. The receiver has multiple antennae as well, each with its own radio. Each of the receive radios independently decode the arriving signals. Then each receive signal is combined with the signals from the other radios. With a lot of complex math, the result is a much better receive signal than can be achieved with either a single antenna or even with transmit beamforming. There could be a difference between the sender and the receiver. When a transmitter can emit over three antennae, it is described as having three data streams. When it can receive and combine signals from three antennae, it is described as having three receive chains. This combination is commonly denoted as three by three (3X3). A two by two system would be denoted as 2X2. The Cisco 1250 Access Point is a 2X3 system, denoting two transmit and three receive capability. Most laptops have a 2X2 configuration6.

Performance testing does not show significant performance differences between 2x3 and 3x3 implementations. The current generation of both 2x3 and 3x3 802.11n silicon supports up to two spatial streams, so there is no throughput advantage for a 3x3 implementation today.
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802.11n: MIMO—Transmit Beamforming
This topic describes how MIMO can concentrate the beam to improve data reception.

Transmit Beamforming
Coordinates the signal sent from each antenna so that the signal at the receiver is dramatically improved Generally used when the receiver has only a single antenna Magnitude and phase dynamically adjusted at each transmitter with client feedback if client is 802.11n

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Transmit beamforming is a technique that is used when there is more than one transmit antenna: it is possible to coordinate the signal sent from each antenna so that the signal at the receiver is dramatically improved, even if it is far from the sender. This technique is generally used when the receiver has only a single antenna and when the reflection sources are stable in space (nonmoving receiver, indoor environment). Transmit beamforming uses the transmit antennae that has the same signal except that the magnitude (amplitude) and phase are adjusted at each transmitter in such a way that a focused beam is generated. The receiver adds these signals together to increase the overall signal strength, thus also increasing the feasible range for that speed. Transmit beamforming cannot be done at the transmitter without information from the receiver about the signal. This feedback is available only from 802.11n devices, not from 802.11a, b, or g devices. The feedback is not immediate and only valid for a short time. Any physical movement by the transmitter, receiver, or other elements quickly invalidates the parameters being used for beamforming.

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802.11n: MIMO—Maximal Ratio Combining
This topic describes maximal ratio combining, a technique used by 802.11n receivers.

Maximal Ratio Combining
MRC is used by the receiver with multiple antennas to optimally combine energies from multiple receive chains. An algorithm eliminates out-of-phase signal degradation.

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Spatial multiplexing and transmit beamforming are used for cases where there are multipletransmitters. Maximal-ratio combining (MRC) is the counterpart of transmit beamforming from the receiver side, usually the AP, whether or not the sender is 802.11n compatible. The receiver must have multiple antennae to use this feature. This is usually the case for 802.11n APs. The MRC algorithm determines how to combine the energy received at each antenna optimally, so that each signal transmitted to the access point circuit adds to the others in a coordinated fashion. In other words, the receiver analyzes the signals received from all its antennae and sends the signals into the transcoder so that they are in-phase, thus adding the strength of each signal to the other signals. Please note that this feature is not related to multipath. Multipath issues come from the fact that one single antenna receives reflected signals out of phase. What is transmitted to the AP is this out-of-phase result, which is destructive to the signal quality. MRC uses the signal coming from two or three physically distinct antennae, and combines them in timely fashion so that each signal received on each antenna will be in-phase (and therefore add) to the others. What is transmitted to the AP is a cumulative result, in-phase, of signals received on each antenna, thus enhancing the signal quality. Multipath may still play a role. Each antenna may receive a reflected signal out of phase due to the multipath issue and can only transmit to the AP what it receives. The main advantage of MRC in this case is that, because each antenna is physically separated from the others, the received signal on each antenna will be diversely affected by multipath issues. When adding all the signals together, the result will be closer to the wave sent by the sender and the relative impact of multipath on each single antenna less predominant.

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802.11n: MIMO Benefits
This topic describes how MIMO improves wireless communication both for 802.11n enabled and non-802.11n clients.

MIMO Benefits

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When MIMO is deployed only in APs, the technology still delivers significant performance enhancements (up to 30 percent over conventional 802.11a, b, and g networks), even when communicating only with non-MIMO 802.11a, b, and g clients. Ultimately 802.11 networks that incorporate both MIMO-enabled APs and MIMO enabled wireless clients will deliver dramatic gains in reliability and data throughput. To summarize, the overall performance gain is a result of MIMO smart antenna technology, which allows wireless APs to receive signals more reliably over greater distances (and allows clients to operate at higher data rates) than with standard diversity antennae. For example, at the distance from the AP at which an 802.11a or g client communicating with a conventional AP might drop from 54 Mb/s to 48 Mb/s or 36 Mb/s, the same client communicating with a MIMO-enabled AP may be able to continue operating at 54 Mb/s. When considering MIMO, remember these three benefits: MIMO provides better receive sensitivity for a stationary client by using beamforming. MIMO provides better receive sensitivity for the AP through the use of MRC. Better receive sensitivity means a higher data rate (at a given distance from the AP).

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Summary
This topic summarizes the key points that were discussed in this lesson.

Summary
The IEEE defines the 802.11 family of protocols. The Wi-Fi Alliance ensures the interoperability of wireless devices. The local or regional regulatory bodies define what is allowed in which spectrum. The 802.11 family has more than 26 protocols. The original 802.11 protocol defined 1- and 2-Mb/s speeds with FHSS and DSSS. 802.11b increased the speed to 11 Mb/s. 802.11g increased the speed to 54 Mb/s, but still in the ISM band. 802.11b devices degrade the performances of 802.11g cells. 802.11a uses the same modulation and speed as 802.11g, but in the 5-GHz band.
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Summary (Cont.)
802.11n tries to increase speed and throughput in the ISM and UNII bands. 892.11n provides several new features to increase speed. Channels can be aggregated from 20 to 40 MHz. MAC layer behavior is enhanced. Spatial multiplexing is used over several antennae. Several antennae can be used to send to one single antennae. Several antennae can be combined to receive the signal of one emitter. 802.11n enhances range and throughput for both 802.11n clients and non-802.11n clients.

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References
For additional information, refer to these resources: http://www.ieee802.org/11/ http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/wireless/ps5679/ps5861/product_data_sheet09 00aecd80537b6a_ps4570_Products_Data_Sheet.html

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Lesson 7

Examining Wireless Media Access
Overview
When you troubleshoot a wireless LAN, you will probably be using a packet analyzer to observe the communication between devices. This lesson gives you the tools to understand which frames you can expect, what their role is, and what their speed will be so you can quickly detect when a portion of a dialog is failing.

Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the different frames used in wireless networks and their physical characteristics. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe how frames are sent Describe frame shapes and speeds Describe the management frames that are used to discover the network Describe the management frames that are used to connect to the network Describe the frames that are used to manage the connection Describe the control frames used to improve communication Describe the power save configuration

Sending Data Frames
This topic describes the process of sending frames in a wireless network.

Sending a Frame

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Wireless devices are half-duplex (HDX): they can send and they can receive, but cannot do both at the same time. Client adapters and APs are also HDX. Only one device can transmit at a time on a channel in a given area. If two frames are sent at the same time, a collision occurs and both frames have to be discarded. Therefore, each device has to send in turn. No central device decides which frame is transmitted first. A commonly used wireless media access method is Distributed Coordination Function (DCF). With DCF, the coordination is distributed, which allows each device to take care of itself. In some rare cases, the coordination can be done by an AP. This method is called Point Coordination Function (PCF). PCF is mentioned in the 802.11 protocol but has never actually been implemented by any vendor. Once a station is ready to send a frame, there are several specific periods of time that can be indicated to help determine how long the station should wait before sending the frame. There is always a silence between frames to allow for the multipath issues to clear. If the frame that is being sent has a high priority, the station waits for a period of time called a short interframe space (SIFS). If the frame has a medium priority, the station waits a period of time called a point interframe space (PIFS), which is the normal amount of time that is used in PCF networks where the AP decides which station is allowed to send what. If the packet has a low priority, the station waits for a period of time called a distributed interframe space (DIFS), which is the normal timer that is used in DCF networks.

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To avoid collisions, the devices in the cell use Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) as opposed to the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet method of Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). When a device needs to send a data frame, it starts by picking a random number between 0 and 31. It then counts down from that number. The speed at which the countdown occurs depends on the network (20 microseconds per number for IEEE 802.11b, 9 microseconds per number for 802.11g and 802.11a; this speed rhythm is called the slot time). The total amount of microseconds in the picked up countdown value is called the backoff timer.

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Sending a Frame (Cont.)

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While counting down, the station listens to the media. Every time it detects a signal, it stops the countdown for the duration of the transmission. The total amount of time waited (backoff time plus time waited during transmissions) is called the contention window (time during which the station refrains from sending). The machine does not need to keep listening to the frame while it is detected. The 802.11 header contains a duration field that expresses how long it takes to transmit the frame. This duration, which is a reservation of the medium, is called the Network Allocation Vector (NAV). The station adds the NAV value to the countdown number it was at when it heard the other transmission starting and then continues counting from the new total instead of listening to the air.

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Sending a Frame (Cont.)

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When the counter reaches zero, the station sends its frame, assuming the media is free. The wireless devices have two ways of determining if the media is free: The first method is logical and based on the NAV, which recalculates the time to wait, based on the other station’s signal, to avoid being ready to send when another device is occupying the medium. The second method is physical. When a station is ready to send, it listens to the media to verify that nothing else is sending. This method is called Clear Channel Assessment (CCA). If the media is free, the station sends its wave If the transmission fails, the device picks up a new random number, this time between 0 and 127 (between 0 and 255 the third time, then 0 and 511, and then 0 and 1023 for all the following attempts). Wireless devices cannot send and receive at the same time. This fact means that while sending, the station has no idea if another machine is sending at the same time, so there is no way to know if the message reached the recipient in good condition. Wireless networks rely on a system of acknowledgments confirming that the frame was received; for each frame sent, an acknowledgment (ACK) frame is returned by the recipient.

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After a Frame Is Sent

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SIFS is the mechanism that is in place to ensure that ACKs are always sent with a higher priority than any other frame. Otherwise, another station, having reached zero, might transmit before the ACK is sent, and the first station might deduce that the frame was lost when in fact the ACK was just delayed. This process links to the notion of silence, or space, between frames that was discussed earlier in the lesson. To avoid any late reflections, there is always a moment of silence between frames. (The NAV actually reserves the time needed by the frame and the subsequent silence.) This silence is called distributed interframe space (DIFS), and is the normal silence time. Instead of waiting for a full DIFS, the receiving station sends its ACK after a shorter amount of time, which is called short interframe space (SIFS), to be sure to have priority over any other sender1. When a station sends, it actually reserves the medium for the duration of its frame, a SIFS, and the duration of the expected ACK. The receiver reads the frame, waits a SIFS, and sends the ACK back, the duration of which will be set to zero (it is an empty frame) to indicate the end of the transaction. Once the medium is freed, any other station wishing to send and having its backoff timer at 0 waits a DIFS and then transmits.

There is a third interframe space named PIFS that is used during PCF; its length is intermediate between SIFS and DIFS. There is also an extended interframe space (EIFS). The following are standard durations: PIFS = SIFS + Slot time, and DIFS = SIFS + Slot time + slot time.
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Frame Shape and Speeds
This topic describes how an IEEE 802.11 frame is built and what speed is used to send and acknowledge it.

802.11 Frame Shape

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Frame Shape
All 802.11 frames have a similar structure. The 802.11 header is longer than an Ethernet header. It starts with a preamble (72 bits or 144 bits long), followed by these parts: The “frame control” field (2 bytes long [16 bits]) A duration field, expressing how long the medium is reserved for (2 bytes long [16 bits]) Up to three MAC addresses (18 bytes total) A sequence control field (2 bytes long [16 bits]) An optional fourth field for a MAC address (6 bytes [48 bits) The frame body (2304 bytes or octets) A 4-byte (32-bit) frame check sequence (FCS) The total length of the frame is, by default, 2346 bytes maximum. The sequence control field is used to show if the frame is a fragment or a complete frame.

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The number of MAC addresses that are used is often surprising. Keep in mind that the transmission is likely to occur in an infrastructure mode, where the AP is the relay between the sender and the receiver. This receiver may be in the wireless or wired part of the network. The device sending the frame may be the sender or the relay. The following addresses are four MAC addresses seen in the figure “802.11 Frame Shape”: Receiver address (RA): The receiver address is the MAC address of the direct station to which a frame is sent. Transmitter address (TA): The transmitter address is the address of the station emitting a frame. Destination address (DA): The address of the final recipient of a frame, or the actual destination Source address (SA): The address of the original sender of a frame Depending on where the frame is captured and in which context, two to four addresses are used. There are four possible sending scenarios: 1. The frame is sent from station to station in an ad hoc network: In this scenario, Address 1 is the destination address (DA or RA, which are the same), Address 2 is the source (TA/SA), and Address 3 shows the AP MAC address for this Service Set Identifier (SSID), the Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID). 2. The frame is sent from a station to an AP: In this scenario, Address 1 is the RA (or BSSID, which is the same as the RA and is the AP Mac address), Address 2 is the TA/SA, Address 3 is the DA, and Address 4 is not used. 3. The frame is sent back from the AP to a station: In this scenario, Address 1 is the RA/DA, Address 2 is the TA or BSSID, Address 3 is the SA, and Address 4 is not used. 4. The frame is on a wireless link between two APs, in a repeater of bridge context: This scenario is the only case where all four addresses are used: In this scenario, Address 1 is the RA, Address 2 is the TA, Address 3 is the DA, and Address 4 is the SA. These addresses are MAC addresses, that is, Layer 2 addresses. The body of the frame, which contains the upper layers, mentions one source IP address and one destination IP address, exactly like any normal Layer 3 section of a frame. The frame control field helps define the purpose of the frame and where it is sent. The first subfield contains information about the protocol version; the second subfield contains information about the type (2 bytes) and indicates if the frame type is a data frame, a control frame, or a management frame; the final subfield contains information about the subtype (4 bytes). The next part of the control field is 1 byte and indicates if the frame is coming from or going toward the distribution system (DS). For any client in the cell, the DS is represented by the AP, whether the frame is supposed to be sent to the cable or back to the wireless space.

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Frame Types
Management: – Beacon, probe request, probe response – Authentication request, authentication response – Association request, association response – Deauthentication, reassociation request, reassociation response – Announcement Traffic Indication Message (ATIM)

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Frame Types (Cont.)
Control: – Request to send (RTS), clear to send (CTS), acknowledgment (ACK), – Power Save Poll (PS-Poll), Data: – Simple data – Null function (empty frame)

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Frame Types
IEEE 802.11 distinguishes three primary frame types that are discussed here: Data: This type of frame carries information, which is fairly obvious from the name. The header can sometimes be precise if the frame has to be authorized by the access point (in some uncommon scenarios—called Point Coordination Function (PCF)—beyond the scope of this course). Management: As the name indicates, the aim of these frames is to help manage the connection. The frame control field “type” section shows as “management,” and the subtype determines what type of management frame will be sent. Depending on the subtype, the body part contains special pieces of information about the basic service area (BSA) or the communication parameters. Depending on the type of management frame, there may be fewer than four address fields. Control frames: The purpose of these frames is to help the communication. For example, acknowledgment frames are in the control family. These different types of frames have the same form of header, but with different indicators. The main difference is in their body, which may contain very specific information such as the allowed speeds in a beacon frame (management frame type) or nothing (an ACK, for example, has an empty body, because all the information needed is in its header).

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802.11 Frame Speeds

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Speed
Before sending a signal, each station tries to determine the optimal speed to use, which depends on the RSSI and loss rate, or signal-to-ratio (SNR), seen from previous packets exchanged with the recipient of the frame, usually the AP in infrastructure mode. The protocol must also ensure that the other stations understand what is happening. These stations may be too far away to understand the speed used by some of the senders. To make the problem even more complex, sender and receiver may see each other differently and decide to use a different speed to transmit. To help organize the different speeds, the AP (in infrastructure mode) sends the supported rates in its beacons. Beacons can be mandatory, supported, or disabled. Suppose, for example, that the AP’s supported rates are as follows: 6 Mb/s: disabled 9 Mb/s: mandatory 12 Mb/s: supported 24 Mb/s: mandatory 36 Mb/s: supported 48 Mb/s: supported 54 Mb/s: supported In order to connect to this AP, a station must be capable of sending frames at 9 and 24 Mb/s. The AP always sends its management frames at the lowest mandatory speed (9 Mb/s), which becomes the lowest common speed (arrow 1 in the figure).

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To send a data frame, a client chooses the best speed depending on how it sees the recipient (arrow 2 in the figure). The recipient acknowledges using the mandatory speed just below the speed used by the sender: for example, if the frame was sent at 48 Mb/s, the first mandatory speed on the way down would be 24 Mb/s (arrow 2). If the frame was sent at 12 Mb/s, the ACK would come back at 9 Mb/s. The situation is more complex for the data frame itself. Part of it is sent at the lowest mandatory speed, typically the header, in order to make sure that everyone in the cell hears the duration field. The rest of the frame is sent at optimal speed. Depending on the protocol used (802.11, 802.11b, 802.11g, or 802.11a), this rule varies slightly, but the general principle remains valid (arrow 2). Thinking about different speeds in the same frame is often confusing, especially when the part sent at a high speed follows a part sent at lower speed. How do they avoid collision? The wave is still sent at the speed of light, which is the speed of the physical transmission. Within the wave, data speed is actually the density of information. The beginning of the transmission has less information by time unit, which allows more possibilities for part of the signal to be lost and the information contained to still be understandable. The signal can travel far, get weaker or altered by reflections and other sources of degradation, and still be readable. Everyone will know which station this message is for, and how long it is going to reserve the medium for. The data part of the frame has the highest possible density of data per time unit, based on the link quality between the sender and the receiver. It does not matter if the other stations cannot read it. All this communication occurs in the half duplex (HDX) environment. All frames must be acknowledged. If an ACK is not received, the sender assumes that a collision occurred and will try to resend.

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Management Frames: Discovering the Network
This topic describes some of the management frames that are used for SSID and network discovery.

Discovering the Network (Mgmt Frames)

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Beacon
When reading a packet capture report, the first frame is called a beacon. When you connect to a wired network, the first task is to locate a switch. It is usually easy to locate the switch by following the cables, and the connection possibilities are indicated by the presence (or absence) of blinking LEDs. But in wireless networks, where APs are often hidden in the ceiling, finding a connection point for a laptop may be a lot more challenging. This problem is one of the reasons why the APs emit, a signal called a beacon usually every 100 ms. The beacon contains all the useful information a wireless client needs to see the availability of the AP and understand its capabilities. The following information is what you find in the capture report: A timestamp (to give a time reference to the cell): 8 bytes Indication of how often the beacon is sent: 2 bytes A field called capability information, containing specific items such as whether encryption is used, and whether channels can be changed to short or long preambles: 2 bytes The SSIDs supported: 2 to 34 bytes The supported rates (speeds): 3 to 10 bytes Six fields, called parameter sets—FH, DS, CF, IBSS, ERP, and Ext supported rates that indicate whether the AP uses Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) or Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), if it really is an AP of a client in ad hoc mode, and so on: 28 bytes or more The Traffic Indication Map (TIM), which is used to tell if the AP has traffic buffered for some stations in power save mode: 7 to 256 bytes
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Note

In ad hoc mode, stations having a message buffered to send to a station will send a specific message, called ATIM (not TIM), which is an empty message used to ask a receiver not to switch to power save mode to save battery power and to wait for traffic to be sent.

All these fields are contained in the body of the frame. In its header, the AP also mentions its MAC address.

Probes
When a client station hears a beacon, it should have enough information to know if it can connect to the AP and should then display to the user a screen acknowledging that a connection is possible. Upon startup, a wireless client can listen to each channel one after the other to detect these beacons. This process is called passive scanning. The wireless client can also actively send discovery messages to locate a specific SSID or discover all the APs on each channel. This proactive behavior is called active scanning. Some vendors consider active scanning to be more efficient than passive scanning because the client gathers the information faster than if it waited on each channel long enough to be sure to gather all the possible beacons. The client sends a discovery message called a probe request, which contains the following elements: The SSID it is looking for (2 to 34 bytes): This field is sometimes left empty (set to “null” value) for “any SSID.” The rates the client itself supports, which is usually all the 802.11b, 802.11g or 802.11a rates (3 to 260 bytes) If the SSID name is specifically mentioned in the request, the AP answers only if it has the relevant SSID. If “null” is mentioned instead, the AP should answer with whatever SSIDs it has. The answer is called a probe response, and is very similar to the beacon (because the beacon contains all a client needs to know to connect to the wireless network). The only differences are that probe responses do not contain TIM and they are only sent when the AP receives a probe request (unlike the beacon, which is sent on a regular basis). The supported rate field defines three rate types: mandatory, supported, or disabled. A rate is disabled on the AP when the client does not have the right to use it to send frames to the AP. Supported means that the client can use this speed if it can, but it is not essential. The type is set to mandatory when the client must be able to use this speed to be allowed to connect.
Caution The fact that the client must be able to achieve the speed specified as mandatory by the AP does not mean that the client must connect at that speed. For example, if 24 Mb/s is set to mandatory on the AP, a client will be allowed to connect only if its own “supported rates” mentions 24 Mb/s. But if the client is too far from the AP, it will be allowed to connect at a lower speed, for example 6 Mb/s. Mandatory refers to a capability, not to the speed the client must use to connect.

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Management Frames: Connecting
This topic describes the management frames that are used to initiate a connection to the network.

Connecting (Mgmt Frames)

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Once a client knows the capabilities of the AP, it will try to connect to the wireless network. Connecting is done using a certain form of management frame called an authentication frame. The frame contains the following elements: The authentication algorithm number (2 bytes): This element defines which algorithm to use if the authentication requires a challenge. The authentication transaction number (2 bytes): The number 1 is used for the request, the number 2 for the AP answer, and so on. The status code (2 bytes): This element is used to indicate if the authentication has been a success or failure. Challenge text (3 to 255 bytes): The challenge text is found in certain frames only. Authentication can be password-based (such as Wired Equivalent Privacy [WEP]), or open. With open authentication, the authentication is just a way to ascertain that the client has the physical ability to connect (that it is an 802.11 wireless device able to send and receive frames in a correct format). The client first sends a message called authentication request. It contains all the fields of an authentication frame, but the algorithm number is empty, the transaction number is 1, and the last two fields are empty. The AP answers with an authentication response frame, which in the case of open authentication contains no algorithm number, has a transaction number of 2, and has a status code that is set to “success” to validate that the client has the required capability to connect. A password-based authentication would contain a challenge phase.

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Once authenticated, the client asks the AP to join the cell. The client sends an association request message, which contains the following information: The client’s capabilities (2 bytes): This field is the same type of field as the one found in the AP beacon frame. A listen interval field (2 bytes): This field specifies how often (in beacons) the client will listen to AP messages in case it has to turn to power save mode, a mode in which the client turns its radio down to save power and wakes up to listen to see if the AP has traffic for it. The SSID the client is trying to join (2 to 34 bytes): Unlike probe frames, in this case, the name must be mentioned. The rates the client supports (3 to 257 bytes) The AP answers with an association response frame, which contains exactly the same capability field; but the listen interval is replaced by a status code (2 bytes), which is usually “success,” and the SSID by an association ID (2 bytes); the AP then adds its own rates. The answer the AP gives is a message that is similar to the following: “association succeeded, you are client number 5 (for example) in my cell.” The rates appear here again because the system does not know if the client went through the probe process, or tried to associate directly. The “supported rates” information is very important because it indicates how the devices will be able to talk to each other.

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Management Frames: Managing the Connection
This topic describes the management frames that are used to maintain or end the connection to the network.

Staying Connected (Mgmt Frames)

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During its connection to the AP, the client maintains its association ID. But at any time, both the client or the AP can leave each other by sending a deauthentication message, which contains in the body, apart from the source and destination MAC addresses in their headers, a “reason code” (2 bytes), or a disassociation message, built on the same structure. In the case of the disassociation message, the station would still be authenticated, but disassociated. The client could then send a reassociation request message, containing the same fields as the association message plus a 6-byte field between the SSID and the supported rates fields. The 6byte field indicates the MAC address of the AP to which the client is currently associated. The AP of course answers with a reassociation response, which is built exactly like an association response.

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Control Frames: Improving the Connection
This topic describes the frames that are used to control the connection with the network using optimal organization.

Control Frames

ACK is used after each frame.

RTS and CTS are used in 802.11b and g mixed cells and in hidden node situations.

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The “control frames” are special messages used in the cell to improve the efficiency of the connection. There are five of them; however, three are only used in a special case (in PCF mode). In normal DCF mode, a very common control frame is the acknowledgment (ACK) message. This message is sent as a response from the destination station to any frame received in good condition. It is a 14-byte-long empty frame. It only contains these fields: The usual frame control field (2 bytes) The duration field (2 bytes): This field is set to zero to indicate the end of the transmission process. The receiver address (shown as RA in the figure): This address is the address to which the frame is sent back. An FCS When the frame sender receives the ACK, it assumes that the message matches the frame that was just sent and deduces which station sent it back, so even the source address (SA) is not necessary. This frame is built to be as efficient and light as possible and is used only to indicate that the frame was received.

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The RTS and CTS control frames are very similar to the ACK shape. They are used when a station wants to send an RTS query before actually sending the frame itself. The receiver would answer with a CTS message if the transmission is possible. This process, known as protection mechanism, is used in two cases: The first case in which the protection mechanism is used is when 802.11b clients are present in an 80.211g cell. An 802.11g station sends an RTS message at 802.11b speed, to which the receiver replies with a CTS at 802.11b speed, so that all stations, 802.11b and 802.11g, know that a transmission is about to occur and how long the transmission will last. The clients will then send the data at 802.11g speed. The second case in which the protection mechanism is used when two stations in a large cell are in range of the AP, but too far apart to hear each other. Each station might send a message to the AP at the same time because the stations do not see each others’ signals. Because the AP is centrally located, it hears both signals and receives two messages that collide. This situation is called a hidden node issue, where each station, even though it is seen by the AP, is hidden to the other station. To solve this problem, RTS and CTS can be used. The first station sends an RTS message, which may not be heard by the second device. The AP answers with a CTS message, which can be heard by both stations. The second device knows that someone else is sending, even though it would not hear the signal that was sent by the first sender. The RTS is very similar to the ACK. It contains the same fields as the ACK with a transmitter address as well. The RTS has the following fields: The usual frame control field (2 bytes) The duration field (2 bytes): The duration field is set to show the time that is required for the whole transmission, which includes an SIFS, the CTS, an SIFS, the data frame, an SIFS, and the ACK. The receiver address,(RA) to which the frame is transmitted The transmitter address (TA) and source address (SA) An FCS The information in the duration field shows that SIFS is used for the duration and not DIFS. From the moment an RTS query starts, the stations assume that the conversation begins, and they get priority over the other machines to make sure that the conversation is not interrupted by someone trying to send before the transaction is complete. The CTS that is received in response to the RTS has exactly the same structure as an ACK. The CTS has the following fields: The usual frame control field (2 bytes) The duration field (2 bytes): The duration field is set to show what is still to come, that is an SIFS, the data frame, an SIFS and the ACK. The receiver address, to which the frame is sent back An FCS Here again, there is no transmission address or source address because only the receiver address could answer with an RTS: the sender of the frame is obvious.

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WMM Enhancement

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It is difficult to implement PCF because the wireless clients need to reserve the medium in order for the AP to trigger the PCF mode. For example, how can a Wi-Fi phone inform the AP that it needs priority? A first frame has as many chances as any other frame to get access to the medium. If the purpose of the frame is just to ask for priority, the time used to send it is wasted. Another type of priority system that was implemented for use in the wireless space is Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM). WMM was defined by the Wi-Fi Alliance, but Wireless Multimedia Extension (WME) was not. WME was a pre-Wi-Fi common agreement taken by several vendors. WMM was then defined by the Wi-Fi Alliance and replaced WME. WMM works in a normal DCF environment. In its buffers, a station that is able to use WMM creates four different queues and classifies the traffic to be sent depending on the priority of the type of traffic: voice packet first, then video, then normal traffic, then lower-priority traffic.
Note This classification is configurable and depends on the WMM-compatible software used on the station (such as a softphone) and on the network policy because the type of packet to which priority is given on the station should match the priority classes in the network; otherwise, packets could be given priority on a station only to be delayed when reaching the DS.

These four queues (called platinum, gold, silver, and bronze) match an IEEE protocol, the 802.11e, which defines four queues2 and how they correspond to the quality of service (QoS) levels for the Ethernet side. The IEEE 802.11e defines the queues and two mechanisms that can be used to take advantage of these queues to prioritize traffic in a wireless environment. The Wi-Fi Alliance WMM standard certifies devices that implement at least one of theses two possibilities. The simplest one of these mechanisms is called Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA).
2

The IEEE 802.11e four queues, called access categories, are named Background, Best Effort, Video and Voice. WMM created the platinum, gold, silver, and bronze names.
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Having created the queues, a station tries to send each packet in its buffer in turn, and simply picks up a shorter random number when sending a higher-priority packet. The algorithm makes sure that a higher-priority packet has a higher chance of being sent than another packet. When working in DCF mode, WMM actually transforms the mechanism into a slightly different one called Hybrid Coordination Function (HCF), because a little more coordination occurs than in pure DCF. Only WMM-able stations are in HCF mode, while the rest of the cell is still in DCF and do not benefit from this feature or take it into consideration for their own frames. WMM also allows a mode similar to PCF , called Hybrid Coordinator Function Controlled Channel Access (HCF CCA). It is mentioned in the 802.11 protocol but has never actually been implemented by any vendor.

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Power Saving
This topic describes the “power saving” mode and its implications for wireless networks.

Power Save Mode

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Some stations, particularly laptops, have a power saving mode. To save battery power (because a radio really does consume power), a device that has the power saving mode will snooze when it has nothing to send and is not expecting a frame, and will wake up periodically to listen to the AP messages. The 802.11 header contains a field called Frame Control, which contains an indicator that shows if the station is turning to power save mode. The machine sends an empty frame, called null function, to the AP just to show that the machine’s power save bit is set to one. The machine then shuts its radio off, just keeping a clock running to know when to wake up. The AP would then buffer all the subsequent incoming traffic destined for this station. In due time, the station wakes up and listens to the AP beacon. The beacon contains a field called Traffic Indication Map (TIM), listing the stations for which the AP has traffic buffered. Each station receives an Association Identifier (AID) with the association response. Using this number the AP designates stations for which it has buffered traffic. If the station sees its number in the TIM, it sends a control frame called Power Save Poll (PS-Poll), meaning “I was in power save mode, I see that you have traffic for me, I am awake now, please send it.” The AP answers by sending the buffered packets. Some beacons also have an extra field called the Delivery Traffic Indication Map (DTIM), which indicates that the buffered traffic is a broadcast or a multicast. In such a situation, all the stations waking up would wait, and the AP would send the message just after the beacon. There is no polling in this case because all the stations requesting the same packet could not decide which one of them would send the request. They obviously could not all query at the same time. The AP sends the messages without being queried, just warning that a broadcast is to follow the beacon.
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Many vendors consider the power saving mode inefficient, for these two reasons: The mode creates a lot of overhead on the network because multiple messages have to be exchanged The power saving mode only saves between 10 and 15 minutes of power on a 2 hour battery. The gain is not that substantial, and the overhead may not be worth the overhead it causes For these reasons, many vendors allow power save, but it is not the default. On Cisco cards, the default is Constant Awake Mode (CAM), but power save can be enabled if necessary.

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Summary
This topic summarizes the key points that were discussed in this lesson.

Summary
Sending a frame requires a timing and acknowledgment system that is based on CSMA/CA. 802.11 frames have a specific shape with headers containing specific information and different parts that are sent at different speeds. Beacons and probes help discover the network. Authentication and association frames are used to join the cell. Some other management frames may be used while the client is connected. Control frames improve the communication framework by allowing special messages in specific cases, such as RTS and CTS or PCF. Some stations may use the power save mode to increase battery time, which means there must be specific exchanges with the AP.
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Lesson 8

Understanding Non-802.11 Wireless Technologies and Their Impact on WLANs
Overview
Some wireless devices that are not part of the 802.11 wireless technologies emit in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band. WiMAX is related to other wireless technologies but does not work in exactly the same way as them. It is important to understand how these technologies impact wireless networks. This lesson gives you the tools to understand how these devices relate to Wi-Fi.

Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe some of the other RF technologies and their impact on Wi-Fi networks. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe Bluetooth and how it interacts with Wi-Fi Describe wireless cordless phones and how they may impact Wi-Fi networks Describe ZigBee and how it interacts with Wi-Fi Describe some other sources of RF interference Describe WiMAX and how it can interact with Wi-Fi

Bluetooth
This topic describes Bluetooth and its impact on wireless networks.

Bluetooth
Radio system (radio frequency standard) which defines the concept of wireless personal area network (WPAN). Nominal link range up to 10m/ 0 dBm (~100m with 20 dBm) Transmits between 2.402 GHz and 2.480 GHz (79 channels when on a frequency hopping scheme) Reaches speeds up to 720 kb/s Three classes of products: 100 mW, 2.5 mW and 1 mW No line-of-sight restrictions High security

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Bluetooth is a radio technology used to connect devices wirelessly in the wireless personal area network (WPAN) range (less than 5 to 10 m). It was officially created in March 1998, when the WPAN Study Group was formed with the goal of investigating the need for a wireless network standard for devices within a personal operating area. Just two months later, in May 1998, the Bluetooth™ special interest group (SIG) was formed. Ten months later, the WPAN Study Group became IEEE 802.15, known as the WPAN Working Group. The Bluetooth SIG, now led by nine promoting companies, continues to define the Bluetooth standard and promote the technology, under the IEEE protocol 802.15.1.
Note Harald Blatand (loosely translated as Bluetooth) was king of Denmark in the late 900s. He managed to unite Denmark and part of Norway into a single kingdom. He left a large monument, the Jelling rune stone, in memory of his parents. He was killed in 986 during a battle with his son, Svend Forkbeard. Quite a few of the companies at the origin of the Bluetooth project were from Northern Europe (including; Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland). Choosing this name for the standard indicates how important companies from the region are to the Bluetooth industry, even if it says little about the way the technology works.

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Bluetooth (Cont.)
A Bluetooth network can consist of seven slave devices and one master device. It solves a simple problem: replacing cables used on mobile devices and their peripherals with radio frequency waves. Thus Bluetooth tries to emulate the capabilities of cable for mobile users. The cell is called “piconet.” Bluetooth is designed to allow easy ad-hoc networks creation and so security is a concern.
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Bluetooth uses the 2.4-GHz spectrum, the ISM band1, which is also used by IEEE 802.11 802.11b, and 802.11g devices. It relies on Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), which implies that the signal hops between different frequencies of the spectrum in a pre-defined sequence. The emission is 1 MHz large (instead of 20 or 22 MHz), and stays around 400 ms on each frequency. The Bluetooth has the following three classes of power: Class 1: In Class 1, devices have a maximum power of 100 milliwatts (mW), with a range of up to 100m. Very few portable devices are in this class because of the levels of power consumption. Class 2: This class is for devices with a maximum power of 2.5 mW, with a range of up to 10m. Class 3: This class is for devices with a maximum power of 1 mW, with a range of up to 1m. There are several generations of Bluetooth. Starting with v1.0 and 1.0B; however, these versions were nonfunctional releases. Version 1.1 was the first functional revision and was released in 2002. Versions 1.2, 2.0, and finally 2.1 were released after that. The latest version allows speeds of up to 2.1 Mb/s, and has several mechanisms to discover other Bluetooth devices and secure the pairing process (when two Bluetooth devices discover each other and connect). A given Bluetooth device can connect with up to seven other devices, and the connection creates a slave and master relationship, where the slave provides a service to the master.

Bluetooth does not use the whole ISM band. It uses 2.402 GHz to 2.480 GHz, while the ISM band ranges from 2.400 GHz to 2.4835 GHz.
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1

Bluetooth does not operate the same way as wireless devices and is not compatible with them even though they can share the same band. Bluetooth can be a source of interference for wireless networks. Nevertheless, given the transmit powers of Bluetooth (most devices are Class 2); the interference does not usually have a big impact on Wi-Fi communications2.

On a laptop equipped with both wireless and Bluetooth, the Bluetooth driver usually detects the channel on which the wireless client is set and tries to avoid it. Interferences come from neighboring devices in the WPAN range, a few meters away.
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Cordless Phones
This topic describes cordless phone technology and its impact on wireless networks.

Cordless Phones
The phone is the client to a base station (the “AP” equivalent). Use TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) and FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) to exchange between station and phone. Protocols are derived from ISDN. They are not compatible with Wi-Fi, but may use the same frequency range, which may interfere and shift channels within the ISM band.
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Some cordless phones also use the Wi-Fi spectrum. Because the ISM band is free, some vendors manufacture cordless phones using this frequency range to connect to their docking station. Whether the spectrum used is 900 MHz (for indoor phones, not outdoor cellular phones), 1800 to 1900 MHz3, 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz, the technology is the same, and uses what is called Digital Enhanced [formerly European] Cordless Telecommunications (DECT, also formerly known as Digital European Cordless Telephone) or a variant derived from it. DECT was developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) but has since been adopted by many countries all over the world (including most of Asia, Australia, South America and the United States). Its physical layer is different from the one used in Wi-Fi networks. It uses TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) and FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access). TDMA means that the system is able to allow several stations to emit on the same frequency by allocating slot times to each of them. In this sense, it resembles a wireless network. But because voice packet size is very predictable (they always have the same size), as is the flow, DECT phones can allocate time slots more predictively than Wi-Fi networks can (where no one can guess where the next packet will come from). In DECT networks, if three concurrent stations are communicating with the base, they will be able to send one packet in turn as long as they are in the sending phase. DECT also use FDMA, which means that if a network is congested (or already in use), it can jump to another frequency in the same band.

3

This range is a relatively new frequency use and products are only recently available. 1900 MHz is more commonly used because 1800 MHz is also used for some Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks.
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DECT and WI-FI are not compatible. The communication of a cordless phone with its base aims at providing features such as flow control, mobility management, or message service. Its Layer 2 is derived from a variant of ISDN, Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). DECT call control ability derives from Q931 (a signaling protocol for ISDN). Therefore, it is not 802.11-compatible and could not exchange information with a Wi-Fi device. Some DECT phones still operate in the same spectrum as W. Their power is usually low (10 mW on average in Europe, 4 mW on average in the United States), but peaks are allowed (up to 250 mW in Europe and 100 mW in the United States). This means that these phones can interfere with wireless networks heavily. Their ability to switch frequencies can make the interference difficult to detect. When idle, the stations may jump around to test channel availability, and when communicating, the transmission can suddenly jump to another channel.

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ZigBee
This topic describes the ZigBee technology and how it relates to Wi-Fi networks.

ZigBee
New standard for “short range” mesh networking – Built on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard – Reliability through meshed connectivity Designed for low-power applications – Very long battery life Low data rate – 20 to 250 kb/s (depending on band) Very Secure – AES-128 encryption available Self-configuring – Allows ad-hoc networks – Ease of installation and configuration Applications: remote control, air-conditioning, automation, etc. Designed for cheap applications: cheaper than Wi-Fi or Bluetooth
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ZigBee is a new protocol. It was created in 2003, and ZigBee compliant devices are still very few, but increasing fast in number. ZigBee is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol for WPAN. In the same logic as Bluetooth, the IEEE defines the protocol and the ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies involved with building higher-layer standards based on IEEE 802.15.4 (network, security, and application protocols). The protocol was originally created specifically for control and sensor networks, then broadened its field, to now aim at developing hardware and applications with a low data rate but also low power consumption and low complexity. Low power means being able to insert a battery and forget it for months, even years. It can operate in different spectrums (868-MHz band in Europe, 91- MHz band in North America and Australia, and 2.4-GHz band worldwide). It is often confused with Bluetooth, but the two technologies are actually very different as shown in the following comparison of the two: The ZigBee data rate is low (20, 40, and 250 kb/s); compared to Bluetooth (which is up to 2.1 Mb/s). Its range is longer (10 to 100 m for ZigBee and usually 10m maximum for Bluetooth.). ZigBee can create ad hoc links, but also star or mesh topologies; Bluetooth creates point-topoint links or very small networks. The power consumption of ZigBee is to be very low (it is medium for Bluetooth), and the complexity of applications using it have to be very low (whereas it is usually medium or high for Bluetooth, with voice as a typical example.)

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Device connection has to be fast (less than 30 ms, whereas connection can take up to 10 seconds with Bluetooth) The applications are therefore very different. ZigBee is found in monitoring devices, remote controls (universal remote controls, heat controls, and light or environmental controls), automation devices, toys, and so on. A typical roadmap application is to integrate ZigBee in a cellular phone to transform it into a universal remote control for the most controlled devices in a house (garage door opener, TV, stereo, air conditioning, light, and so on).

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ZigBee Networks

Not compatible with Wi-Fi Uses the ISM band and may interfere; usually low power
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A ZigBee network contains a network coordinator, the device that sets up the network, and manages both the information about each node as well as the information that is being transmitted or received within the network. Every ZigBee network must contain a network coordinator. It also contains full-function devices (FFDs), which are the active devices that may interact with the physical world. FFDs can also talk to the network coordinator or become a network coordinator themselves; this multifunctionality is why they are “full” devices. Some devices, with a simpler program, are considered reduced-function devices (RFDs). They only interact with the physical world and report to the network coordinator. They cannot become network coordinators themselves; this is why they are considered “reduced function” devices. ZigBee operates in two main modes: beacon mode and non-beacon mode. Beacon mode is a fully coordinated mode. The network coordinator sends a beacon to all other devices. The devices all wake up for this message and determine if they have any message to receive (similar to the Traffic Indication Map [TIM] concept in 802.11). If no messages are available, the devices return to sleep, as will the network coordinator once its job is complete. Non-beacon mode, on the other hand, is less coordinated because any device can communicate with the coordinator at will. This creates more channel occupancies and more interference. ZigBee-based products can access up to 16 separate 5-MHz channels in the 2.4-GHz band. ZigBee incorporates an IEEE 802.15.4-defined Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) protocol that reduces the probability of interfering with other users, and automatic retransmission of data ensures robustness. However 802.15.4 and 802.11 are not compatible. This incompatibility implies that they cannot communicate with each other, and that each sees the other as “noise.” Therefore, ZigBee and Wi-Fi networks can interfere with each other. The maximum power of ZigBee is 60 mW. Its impact on wireless networks can be significant. Nevertheless, the applications developed up to now use lower power consumption. But this low power consumption is an average consumption: ZigBee devices can stay idle, in something like power save mode, then wake up and send bursts of information before falling back to sleep.

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Other Non-802.11 Radio Interferers
This topic describes some of the sources of signals in the wireless spectrums that may have an impact on the wireless network.

Other Non-802.11 Interferers

Microwave Ovens

Wireless Video Cameras

Radar

Motion Detectors Wireless Headphones Fluorescent Lights

Outdoor Microwave Links

Wireless Game Controller
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Because it is unlicensed, all sorts of devices transmit in the very crowded 2.4-GHz ISM band, such as RF video cameras, baby monitors, and microwave ovens. RF video cameras operate by exchanging information (the image stream) between a transmitter (the camera) and the receiver (linking to a video display). They usually use 100 mW and a channel narrower than Wi-Fi. But the stream of information is continuous, and will severely impact any wireless network in the neighboring channels. They are not compatible; an access point (AP) cannot natively receive a camera video stream and understand it. Baby monitors are another example, found more in home environments than industrial or office networks, although they can be found in hospitals, nurseries, and many other social servicerelated or education-related environments. The exchanged keepalive information between the stations can be single way or double-way and half duplex. Some of them can use several channels for a single monitor station to control two devices. They can use 100 mW. They are not an 802.11 technology, but work in the same band with the same power. Microwave ovens typically operate at 800 to 1,000 watts. Although microwave ovens are shielded, they can become leaky over time. A received signal of -40 dBm is about 1/10,000 of 1 milliwatt and is considered a very strong signal for 802.11 communications. If a 1,000 watt microwave oven is even .0000001 percent leaky, the oven will interfere with the 802.11 radio. Generally speaking, any device using a radio should be checked to verify whether it works in one of the Wi-Fi spectrums.

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WiMAX Technology
This topic describes Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) technology is, and how it relates to Wi-Fi networks.

WiMAX Technology
WiMAX is Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. IEEE 802.16-2004 is a specification of 915 pages including pointto-point, point-to-multipoint mesh access networks, and backhaul links operating at up to 70 Mb/s at 30 miles. The 2- to 11-GHz band has non-line of sight possibilities; the 10to 66-GHz band has significant line-of-sight issues. IEEE 802.16e-2005 includes mobility (mobile users), 40 Mb/s - 6 miles range. In 2005 MIB was standardized as well. IEEE 802.16 is supported by the industry group, WiMAX Forum.

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WiMAX has become synonymous with the IEEE 802.16 suite of standards. Many see it as the replacement to Wi-Fi with the potential to extend the range to 30 miles with a 70-Mb/s connection. The equivalent of the Wi-Fi Alliance in the WiMAX world is called the WiMAX Forum. Its aim is to certify intervendor interoperability and compatibility and, more importantly, the interoperability of WiMAX products. WiMAX has a number of different generations of protocols, two of which are the main focus here. The first protocol of interest is Fixed WiMAX, which is also called 802.16-2004 and 802.16d. The second protocol of interest, and the apparent current priority of the WiMAX Forum, is Mobile WiMAX, which is also called 802.16e-2005 or 802.16e, which is in the process of being integrated by vendors. 802.16d is actually the fourth generation since 1999. As a result of continual evolution, it looks complex and is full of features that are not related to each other. Examining which features came with each generation is the easiest way to understand it. 802.16 defined transmissions in the 10- to 66-GHz range (which is a licensed spectrum). Like Wi-Fi networks, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, or OFDM, (and therefore wide channels that are larger than 10 MHz) was defined to limit line of sight and interference issues. This frequency range is not used by any operators though, because even with OFDM, it presents line-of-sight issues and distance limitations that almost annihilate interest in this technology if used in this spectrum.

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802.16a added support for the 2- to 11-GHz band (both unlicensed and licensed frequencies). It also added non-line-of-sight possibilities, which means that you could have a network transmitting a signal over a hill for example.
Note Explaining in detail how a signal is transmitted over a hill is beyond the scope of this course. The obstacle has to be a large obstacle such as a hill, which affects what is called low fading. The signal could not go through a building if an antenna was right behind it. This is something that can be seen when throwing a stone in water: the wave is able to go around some obstacles on its path and reform behind them. Low fading is the attenuation of the wave when being slowed down by such an obstacle, as opposed to fast fading which is the attenuation when being absorbed by a direct obstacle like a wall

It allows time-division multiplexing (TDM), which is when each device sends in turn, and also allows frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), which is where two frequencies can be used, one for the way up and the other one for the way down, allowing full-duplex conversations. 802.16b was then added as a variation of 802.16a. 802.16c dealt mainly with the 10- to 66-GHz range, to define what was to be mandatory and what was to be optional. This issue of options was one of the problems with WiMAX. It defined so many options interoperability became difficult because some vendors were using options that others did not implement. 802.16d is an aggregation, in one single protocol, of all the features described here for the first three versions. It combines 802.16, 802.16a and 802.16c in a single synthesized protocol, with some improvements in areas such as quality of service (QoS), better defining how to make sure that some frames would be given priority over the others. An important point to understand about WiMAX 802.16e is that during the development of the first generations mentioned previously, quite a few vendors reported that the protocol could be adapted for fixed stations, but did not adapt very well for mobile stations. The working group E was created to address this issue. 802.16e is a protocol somewhat still under development, even though its final version was published in February 2006. It defines, among other things, a technique called Scalable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Access (SOFDMA), which is a type of multiuser OFDM. The carrier is divided in subcarriers (or tones), just like OFDM, but part of each subcarrier is allocated to a different user, allowing modulation of speeds depending on the number of users and the size of the main carrier. If the user is far away, several subcarriers can be grouped, or the main carrier divided, in fewer tones to provide the same speed with a slower modulation.

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WiMAX Technology (Cont.)
Fixed WiMAX, based on 802.16d Backbone usage, T1/E1 type of lines Cable or Wi-Fi used for last mile Long range with high speed (50 miles, 70 Mb/s)

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The main problem with SOFDMA is that it is not compatible with OFDM as defined in 802.16d, whereas most WiMAX existing implementations use 802.16d. This lack of compatibility means that there is still work to do before WiMAX can be one single protocol allowing access to users from main towers. WiMAX exists today in two types of implementations. The first uses backbone lines, an implementation that is similar to the concept of wireless T1/E1, linking two fixed points with high speed connections (70 Mb/s). A more interesting variation of this concept is a point-tomultipoint link, where the main tower, linked to the Internet through a high speed connection, spreads its signal with an omnidirectional antenna, allowing a 3000 square mile (8000 square km) coverage.

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WiMAX Technology (Cont.)
Last mile usage, based on 802.16e Mobile user Backbone can be WiMAX or anything else Line-of-sight limitations Range 4 to 6 miles, speed up to 40 Mb/s, but depends on distance and line of sight

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The second type of implementation involves end user connections (with 802.16e), where the signal is spread toward houses or mobile users. But there will be a choice to make for this type of implementation: The line-of-sight signal can reach 30 to 50 miles, which implies that an antenna on a roof must be used and this implementation does not adapt to moving users. The non-line-of-sight range is 4 to 6 miles; this implementation has been adapted to mobile users of WiMAXenabled laptops, but the range is far shorter. The end user connection is for now experimental, especially because most vendors choose to use a licensed band to get rid of the interference caused by Wi-Fi networks. This preference results in a high license cost that must be added to the cost of the infrastructure. Wi-MAX is still under heavy development; 802.16g was approved in September 2007. WiMAX benefits from many announcements, but is still a young protocol with many possible futures. WiMAX is not compatible with Wi-Fi networks, and as it does not operate in the same frequency ranges (even though it has the possibility to); it does not interfere with 802.11 solutions. One possibility to consider for WiMAX is to use it on the backbone part to send a signal to remote areas, where Wi-Fi would then relay the signal to provide the end user coverage. This solution would require WiMAX/Wi-Fi relays, which already exist in some vendor labs. The main problem to solve would still be the high licensing cost associated to the WiMAX section4.

Cisco purchased Navini at the end of 2007, a company specializing in WiMAX. Navini products are some of the few WiMAX products on the market integrating 802.16e along with WiMAX features derived from multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO), such as beamforming.
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4

Summary
This topic summarizes the key points that were discussed in this lesson.

Summary
Bluetooth is designed for PAN networks and aims at replacing a cable. It works in the same spectrum but is not compatible with Wi-Fi. DECT phones also work in the ISM band and interfere with Wi-Fi. ZigBee is built for low power and simple applications; it may interfere if power is too high. Many other interferers can use the ISM band and disturb wireless networks. WiMAX does not operate in the same bands. It may complement Wi-Fi for backbone or longer range coverage.

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References
For additional information, refer to these resources: http://www.bluetooth.com http://www.ieee802.org/15 http://www.ZigBee.org http://www.ieee802.org/16 http://www.wimaxforum.org

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Lesson 9

Reviewing the Wireless Frame Journey: End to End
Overview
This lesson summarizes some of what you have learned in this module. You will follow the journey of a frame from a wireless client to the core network and then see how devices on the wired side handle information such as the Service Set Identifier (SSID).

Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the journey of a wireless frame from a client card to the wired network. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the journey of a wireless frame in the wireless space Describe VLANs Describe how VLANs operate Describe VLAN membership modes Describe trunking with 802.1Q Describe native VLANs Configure VLANs and trunks

The Journey of a Wireless Frame
This topic describes the path of a frame from a wireless client to the network.

Discovering the Network

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A wireless client first associates to an access point (AP). During this process, its wireless LAN (WLAN) adapter scans all the channels to discover points of connection. This process can be passive, where the card simply listens to each channel in turn, or active where the client sends discovery messages for the “null” SSID or a specific SSID name. When the discovery process is passive, the client tries to hear the AP beacons. They are sent at the lowest mandatory speed configured on the AP and contain all the details relevant to the connection. When the discovery is active, the client sends probe requests that contain all its communication parameters at the lowest mandatory speed configured on it. The AP answers are very similar to a beacon and mention all the required information needed to communicate with it. If the probe requests specifically mention an SSID, only the APs that offer this SSID answer. The other APs in the same area and the same channel continue sending their beacon and managing their client’s communication without answering to the probe request. If the probe contains an empty field for the SSID, the APs that are in range should answer and mention their SSIDs in the probe response.

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Getting Connected

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Once the client WLAN adapter has identified a potential point of access, the next step depends on the wireless card driver and management program. The process of joining the SSID can be automatic if the required parameters are correctly configured on the client device and if its management program allows it, or the process can be manual, which implies an action from the user to actively select the SSID and enter the credentials. Once the SSID is selected, the client sends an authentication request. This request can be a purely physical capabilities authentication query or a security-related authentication depending on the configuration on the AP SSID. If security is involved, a challenge step can follow at the end of which, if successful, the AP should return an authentication response with a “successful” status. The client then sends an association request to be added to the SSID. It mentions its supported rates and capabilities in the request. The AP replies with an association response that contains its own supported rates (so that client and AP can decide on a common set of speed possibilities), along with the client association ID (AID), which is the client number on the AP. This negotiation occurs with each new client, and the AP keeps track of each client’s speeds and capabilities details.

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Clients in Cells

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During the negotiation, the client determines the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at which the AP is seen, and decides of the relevant speed to use when sending data frames. This speed implies specific encoding and modulation techniques. The management frames are always sent at the lowest mandatory speed common to both AP and clients. Data frame bodies are sent faster to optimize the medium occupation time. Data frame headers are sent slower than the bodies so that all the devices present in the cell can catch information such as the frame duration mentioned in the header. The AP uses the same type of RSSI and SNR information to determine its own speed when sending data frames back to a client. These values are adjusted dynamically for each client present in the cell. The Layer 2 to Layer 3 resolution process is then very close to an 802.3 environment. In this example, the client machine, whose IP address is 10.10.10.5, is associated to the “Internal” SSID, while another client, whose IP address is 172.16.10.4, is associated on the same AP to the “guest” SSID. Client 172.16.10.4 tries to reach the Internet while 10.10.10.5 tries to reach the machine with the IP address of 192.168.1.10.

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Sending in the Cell

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To send a packet toward the Internet, the 172.16.10.4 client needs to encapsulate the Layer 3 packet into a Layer 2 frame. To do this encapsulation, Layer 2 needs to map the Layer 3 destination address of the packet to its MAC address. It maps to Layer by requesting a mapping from the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) program. ARP checks its table. In this example, it is assumed that 172.16.10.4 has not communicated yet so there is no entry in the ARP table. Because the destination address is on a different subnet, 172.16.10.4 needs to send the packet to its local gateway. In this example, 172.16.10.4 has not communicated with the gateway yet, so there is no entry in the ARP table for the gateway either. The lack of an entry in the ARP table results in Layer 2 holding the packet until ARP can provide a mapping.

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Creating the 802.11 Frame

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In 802.11, there are 3 to 4 addresses in use in the header. The ARP program builds an ARP request and passes it to Layer 2, telling Layer 2 to send the request to a broadcast (all Fs) address. Layer 2 encapsulates the ARP request in a Layer 2 frame using the broadcast address provided by ARP as the destination address (also known as “DA” or Address 3) and the local MAC address as the source address (SA). Because the machines are in infrastructure mode, this request needs to be sent to the AP. Layer 2 writes the AP MAC address for this SSID (Basic Service Set Identifier [BSSID]) in the first address field, the receiver address (sometimes known as “RA”).

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Acknowledging the Frame

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When the AP receives the frame, like all the other devices, it looks at the receiver address and sees that the frame is for itself. After having fully received it and checking the frame check sequence (FCS), it waits for a short interframe space (SIFS) and acknowledges it to the sender.

AP Forwarding to Network

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In a small network, the AP is the direct point of contact between the wireless and the wired networks. It converts the 802.11 frame into an 802.3 frame. The source address and destination address remain the same; the 802.11 receiver address (or Address 2), which was the BSSID, disappears. The ARP request is still the frame content. The 802.3 frame is then forwarded to the wired network.
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AP Forwarding to Controller

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In a small network environment, the AP may be standalone and perform all the tasks independently. But in a larger environment, the APs are managed by a controller, which is the central point of configuration and intelligence. The AP has to send the frame to the controller for the controller to decide what to do with the frame. In an intelligent infrastructure network, the AP and the controller use a specific language to share information. In a Cisco network, it is called Lightweight Access Point Protocol (LWAPP). The AP encapsulates the 802.11 frame as received with a 6-byte header in front of it (the LWAPP header) and sends it to the controller. This 6-byte field contains useful wireless information such as the client RSSI and SNR. The whole frame is encapsulated and a new header written, which can be a Layer 2 header only or a Layer 3 plus Layer 2. Its source fields (IP or MAC) are the AP and the destination address (IP or MAC) of the controller. The AP and the controller are two devices that are extensions of one another. The processes occurring at the controller level in the subsequent slides would occur at the AP level in a small environment without a controller.

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In the Controller, Header Is Rewritten

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The controller receives the frame and de-encapsulates it. Because the inner frame is an ARP request, the controller has to forward it to the network. But 802.11 does not apply anymore on the wired Ethernet side. The controller has to recreate a Layer 2 header that is an 802.3 type of header, where the source is still the wireless client MAC address, and the destination the broadcast address. The content will still be an ARP request.

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Wired Segment

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The new frame is sent on the Ethernet segment. The router intercepts the ARP request and the answer to it. There is no difference in the process when the source MAC address is a wireless client that is physically behind an AP or when the client is a local machine on the Ethernet segment.

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In the Controller, on the Way Back

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Upon receiving the ARP answer frame from the router, the controller needs to transform it back into an 802.11 frame. It writes the client MAC address as the receiver address or destination address (Address 1), the router MAC address as the source address (Address 3), and the AP MAC address in this SSID, the BSSID, as the transmitter address (Address 2, also called TA). The whole new frame is encapsulated into LWAPP with a new IP or MAC header written with the source as the controller and the destination as the AP. This frame is sent as an 802.3 frame onto the cable to the AP.

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The AP Forwards the Answer

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The AP receives the encapsulated frame, removes the outer header and the LWAPP information, and places the 802.11 frame it contains into its buffer. It then picks up a backoff timer and counts down, increasing its Network Allocation Vector (NAV) every time a frame is heard while counting down.

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Using the Optimal Speed

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When the AP NAV reaches 0 and Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) is open, the AP sends the frame using the best possible speed for the data part, which is determined dynamically according to the RSSI and SNR read from the client prior incoming frame, and the lowest mandatory speed for the header so that all clients can hear the duration information the frame contains1. The AP reserves the medium for the duration of the data frame plus SIFS, and the subsequent acknowledgment (ACK) from the client.

With orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), several parts of the header may also be sent at different speeds. The details of this behaviour are beyond the scope of this course.
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The Right Client Processes the Frame

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All devices in range receive the frame. If the SSIDs are using encryption, only the right clients can read the body content. If both SSIDs are unencrypted, all the clients in both SSIDs, sharing the same AP radio, will receive the frame. Upon reading the header, only the right client recognizes its own MAC address as the destination address (DA) and processes the frame by checking the FCS and returning an ACK. This frame contains the MAC address of the client gateway in the ARP answer body. This address is the missing information this client needed. Client 172.16.10.4 is now ready to send a data frame to the Internet via its gateway.

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All Frames Are Sent to the Same AP Radio

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For the sake of this example, assume that both clients now know their gateways. They are sending their packets in turn. Each picks up a backoff timer, waits for the countdown timer to expire, and sends a frame to a given clear channel. Collisions may happen, in which case none of the frames that collided are acknowledged. Both machines pick up a new random backoff timer (unlikely to be the same), count down, and send a frame. Each frame is acknowledged by the AP and then transmitted to the controller.

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Controller Needs to Keep SSIDs Separated

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The controller now has two frames to send to the network, each sourced with a different IP subnet, one frame coming from the public accessible “guest” SSID, and another frame from the “Internal” SSID, where security might be a primary concern. The controller may have several cables connected to the wired network or just one, and both frames have to be sent on it. As long as the frames were in the wireless space, they were isolated from each other. Different authentication and encryption mechanisms per SSID and subnet made that possible even though they were sharing the same physical RF space; they were isolated from each other. The SSID and any wireless encryption are removed once reaching the Ethernet cable, but there is an obvious need to continue isolating both streams from each other. The ideal solution would be to create a “wired SSIDs” concept and send each frame on its respective subnet, but SSIDs do not exist in the 802.3 world. This isolation of respective SSIDs on 802.3 Ethernet is accomplished by the implementation of VLAN technology.

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VLANs
This topic describes VLANs and their basic behavior.

VLANs

VLAN = Broadcast Domain = Logical Network (Subnet)
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A VLAN is a logical broadcast domain that can span multiple physical LAN segments. Within the switched internetwork, VLANs provide segmentation and organizational flexibility. A VLAN structure can be designed that facilitates the grouping together of stations that are segmented logically by functions such as project teams, SSIDs, and applications without regard to the physical location of the users. Each switch port can be assigned to only one VLAN, thereby adding a layer of security. Ports in a VLAN share broadcasts creating the benefit that ports in different VLANs do not hear those broadcasts. Containing broadcasts within a VLAN improves the overall performance of the network. Within the switched internetwork, VLANs provide segmentation and organizational flexibility. Using VLAN technology, switch ports can be grouped with their connected users into logically defined communities such as co-workers in the same department, a cross-functional product team, or diverse user groups sharing the same network application. A VLAN can exist on a single switch or span multiple switches. VLANs can include stations in a single building or multiple-building infrastructures. VLANs can also connect across WANs. VLANs provide an ideal way of separating different SSIDs on the wired side of the network. By associating each SSID to a different VLAN, it is possible to group users on the Ethernet segment the same way they were grouped in the wireless space; it is also possible to isolate groups from each other exactly as members of “Guest” SSID were isolated from members of “Internal” SSID on the wireless side.

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VLAN Operation
This topic describes how VLANs operate.

VLAN Operation

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The Cisco Catalyst switch implements VLANs by restricting traffic forwarding to destination ports that are in the same VLAN as the originating ports. So when a frame arrives on a switch port, the switch must retransmit the frame to only the ports that belong to the same VLAN. In essence, a VLAN that is operating on a switch limits transmission of unicast, multicast, and broadcast traffic. Traffic originating from a particular VLAN only floods to the other ports in that VLAN. A port normally only carries the traffic for the single VLAN to which it belongs. For a VLAN to span across multiple switches, a trunk is required to connect two switches. A trunk can carry traffic for multiple VLANs on a single Ethernet port or collective logical group of ports.

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Understanding Trunking with 802.1Q
This topic describes the basic functionality provided by 802.1Q trunking.

802.1Q Trunking

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A trunk is a point-to-point link between one or a logical group of Ethernet switch interfaces and another networking device such as a router or a switch. Ethernet trunks carry the traffic of multiple VLANs over a single link and allow the extension of the VLANs across an entire network. Cisco supports IEEE 802.1Q for fast Ethernet and gigabit Ethernet interfaces. Ethernet trunk interfaces support different trunking modes. An interface can be configured as trunking or nontrunking, or to negotiate trunking with the neighboring interface. Every 802.1Q port is, by definition, a trunk. All ports on an 802.1Q trunk have one single untagged VLAN, called the native VLAN. Every 802.1Q port is assigned an identifier value that is based on the native VLAN ID (VID) of the port (the default is VLAN 1). All untagged frames are assigned to the VLAN specified in this VID parameter. 802.1Q is the most common trunking method; it adds 4 bytes a segment to the existing Ethernet header.

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Native VLAN
This topic describes native VLANs and their impact on the network design.

Understanding Native VLANs

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An 802.1Q trunk and its associated trunk ports have a native VLAN value. 802.1Q does not tag frames for the native VLAN. Therefore, ordinary stations can read the native untagged frames but cannot read any other frame because the frames are tagged. By default, on Cisco switches, VLAN 1 is the native VLAN. It is usually recommended to change this default value for security reasons.

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Mapping SSIDs to VLANs

Each SSID is mapped to a VLAN: 1 SSID => 1 subnet and 1 VLAN tag
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When frames come from the wireless space and reach the controller, they contain the BSSID information in the 802.11 encapsulated header. The controller can use the information to determine which SSID the client was on. When configuring the controller, the administrator associates each SSID to a VLAN ID. It then changes the 802.11 header into an 802.3 header, and adds the VLAN ID (or VLAN tag) that is associated with the SSID. The frame is then sent on the wired link with the VLAN ID that matches the SSID. Several frames can be sent on the same physical cable with a different VLAN tag. The next module will detail how to configure the controller to create the VLANs, but the switch on the other end of the cable must also have the correct respective VLAN configuration. Therefore, before describing the controller configuration, the basic switch infrastructure VLAN configuration is described.

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Configuring VLANs and Trunks
This topic describes the steps used to configure and verify VLANs and trunking in a switched network.

Configuring VLANs and Trunks
1. Create or modify a VLAN on the switch. 2. Assign switch ports to a VLAN and verify. 3. Save the VLAN configuration. 4. Configure and verify 802.1Q trunks, and save.

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The steps you use to configure and verify VLANs on a switched network include the following: Create the VLANs Assign switch ports to a VLAN using static or dynamic assignment Save the VLAN configuration Enable and configure trunking

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VLAN Creation
This subtopic describes how to create and manipulate VLANs.

VLAN Creation Guidelines
The maximum number of VLANs is switch-dependent. VLAN 1 is the factory default Ethernet VLAN. Cisco Discovery Protocol is sent on native untagged VLAN. The Cisco Catalyst switch IP address is in the management VLAN (VLAN 1 by default).

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IUWNE v1.0—1-24

Most Cisco Catalyst desktop switches are dependant on the hardware to determine the total number of spanning-tree instances. If the number of VLANs on the switch exceeds the number of supported spanning-tree instances, it is recommended that the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) is configured on a switch to map multiple VLANs to a single spanning-tree instance. The maximum number of VLANs is switch-dependent. Many access layer Cisco Catalyst switches can support up to 250 user-defined VLANs. Cisco Catalyst switches have a factory default configuration in which various default VLANs are preconfigured to support various media and protocol types. The default Ethernet VLAN is VLAN 1 versus any other configured VLAN. Cisco Discovery Protocol is sent on the native untagged VLAN. To be able to communicate with the Cisco Catalyst switch remotely for management purposes, the switch must have an IP address. This IP address must be in the management VLAN, which by default is VLAN 1.

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Adding a VLAN

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The table lists the commands to use when adding a VLAN.
Command/variable Description ID of the VLAN to be added and configured. For vlan-id, the range is 1 to 4094 when the enhanced software image is installed and 1 to 1005 when the standard software image is installed. Do not enter leading zeros. You can enter a single VID, a series of VIDs separated by commas, or a range of VIDs separated by hyphens. (Optional) Specify the VLAN name, an ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters that must be unique within the administrative domain.

vlan vlan-id

name vlan-name

For many Cisco Catalyst switches, the vlan global configuration command is used to create a VLAN and enter VLAN configuration mode. Use the no form of this command to delete the VLAN. To add a VLAN to the VLAN database, assign a number and name to the VLAN. VLAN 1 is the factory default VLAN. Normal-range VLANs are identified with a number between 1 and 1001. VLAN numbers 1002 through 1005 are reserved for Token Ring and FDDI. Configurations for VIDs 1 to 1005 are written to the vlan.dat file (VLAN database). The VLANs can be displayed by entering the show vlan privileged EXEC command. The vlan.dat file is stored in flash memory. To add an Ethernet VLAN, specify at least a VLAN number. If no name is entered for the VLAN, the default is to append the VLAN number to the word vlan. For example, VLAN0004 would be the default name for VLAN 4 if no name is specified.

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VLAN Port Assignment
This subtopic describes how to assign ports to a VLAN.

Assigning Switch Ports to a VLAN

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After creating a VLAN, manually assign a port or a number of ports to that VLAN. A port can belong to only one VLAN at a time. When assigning a switch port to a VLAN using this method, it is known as a static-access port. On most Cisco Catalyst switches, it is possible to configure the VLAN port assignment from interface configuration mode using the switchport access command. Use the vlan vlan_number option to set static-access membership.
Note By default, all ports are members of VLAN 1.

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Verifying VLAN Membership

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Use the show vlan brief privileged EXEC command to display the VLAN assignment and membership type for all switch ports.

Verifying VLAN Membership (Cont.)

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Alternatively, use the show interfaces interface switchport privileged EXEC command to display the VLAN information for a particular interface.

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802. 1Q Trunking Configuration
This subtopic describes how to configure a switch trunk port.

802.1Q Trunking

Make sure that the native VLAN for an 802.1Q trunk is the same on both ends of the trunk link. Note that native VLAN frames are untagged.
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802.1Q trunks impose several limitations on the trunking strategy for a network. The following should be considered: Ensure that the native VLAN for an 802.1Q trunk is the same on both ends of the trunk link. If they are different, spanning-tree loops might result. Native VLAN frames are untagged. The table shows how 802.1Q trunking interacts with other switch features. Switch Feature Trunk Interaction
Switch Feature Secure ports Port grouping Trunk Port Interaction A trunk port cannot be a secure port. You can group 802.1Q trunks into EtherChannel port groups, but all trunks in the group must have the same configuration. When you first create a group, all ports follow the parameters that are set for the first port you add to the group. If the configuration of one of these parameters is changed, the switch propagates the setting entered to all ports in the group. The settings include the following:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Allowed VLAN list Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) path cost for each VLAN STP port priority for each VLAN STP PortFast setting Trunk status; if one port in a port group ceases to be a trunk, all ports cease to be trunks

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Configuring 802.1Q Trunking

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Use the switchport mode interface configuration command to set a Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet port to trunk mode. Many Cisco Catalyst switches support the Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP), which manages automatic trunk negotiation. There are four options for the switchport mode command: Switchport Mode Parameters
Parameter Description Configures the port into permanent 802.1Q trunk mode and negotiates with the connected device to convert the link to trunk mode. Disables port trunk mode and negotiates with the connected device to convert the link to nontrunk. Triggers the port to negotiate the link from nontrunk to trunk mode. The port negotiates to a trunk port if the connected device is in either trunk state, desirable state, or auto state. Otherwise, the port becomes a nontrunk port. Enables a port to become a trunk only if the connected device has the state set to trunk or desirable. Otherwise, the port becomes a nontrunk port.

trunk

access dynamic desirable

dynamic auto

The switchport nonegotiate interface command specifies that DTP negotiation packets are not sent on the Layer 2 interface. The switch does not engage in DTP negotiation on this interface. This command is valid only when the interface switchport mode is access or trunk (configured by using the switchport mode access or the switchport mode trunk interface configuration command). This command returns an error if execution is attempted in dynamic (auto or desirable) mode. Use the no form of this command to return to the default setting. When a port is configured with the switchport nonegotiate command, the port trunks only if the other end of the link is specifically set to trunk. The switchport nonegotiate command does not form a trunk link with ports in either dynamic desirable or dynamic auto mode.

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The table shows the steps to configure a port as an 802.1Q trunk port, beginning in privileged EXEC mode.
Step 1. Action Enter the interface configuration mode and the port to be configured for trunking. Notes After the interface command is entered, the command-line prompt changes from (config) # to (configif) #. Enable trunking on the selected interface.

SwitchX(config)# interface int_type int_number
2. Configure the port as a VLAN trunk.

SwitchX(config-if)# switchport mode trunk

Some Cisco Catalyst switches support only 802.1Q encapsulation, which is configured automatically when trunking is enabled on the interface by using the switchport mode trunk command.

Verifying a Trunk

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To verify a trunk configuration on many Cisco Catalyst switches, use the show interfaces interface switchport or the show interfaces interface trunk command to display the trunk parameters and VLAN information of the port.

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Summary
This topic summarizes the key points that were discussed in this lesson.

Summary
When wireless frames transit to the wired side of the network, the body is unchanged but the header is transformed to a 802.3 header. VLANs provide on Ethernet segments the segmentation that SSIDs bring to the wireless side. VLANs create tags on frames, and trunks carry these framed tags from switch to switch. VLAN membership can be static or dynamic. Controllers tag frames, and the other end, which is a switch, has to be in trunk mode. A switch has a “native VLAN,” which is usually not tagged on a trunk. Configuring static VLANs consists of creating them and assigning a port to them.
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Module Summary
This topic summarizes the key points that were discussed in this module.

Module Summary
Wireless networks can be peer to peer or organized around access points. Wavelength, frequency, and amplitude are used to describe wireless waves. dBm and dBi are the main units used to evaluate power levels. Antennae are used to send wireless signals; they can be directional or omnidirectional. DSSS is used to offer better resistance to narrowband interference. The IEEE defines the standards used in wireless networks, the Wi-Fi Alliance ensures compatibility among vendors, and local regulation bodies decide what usage of the wireless spectrum is legal. There are different types of wireless frames, which are sent at different speeds. Some other wireless technologies may complement or share the same spectrum as Wi-Fi networks. On the Ethernet side of the network, VLANs are used to extend the isolation or groups caused by different SSIDs.

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Wireless frames are sent in waves, which can be described by their shape (wavelength and frequency) and strength (amplitude). There are precise rules defining the power and shapes allowed for Wi-Fi networks, the way data is encoded along with the speed, the encoding, and the modulation techniques; they have been defined through the 802.11 family of protocols. Stations in a network can use different types of frames (management, data, and control) to efficiently handle their communications with access points (APs). Wi-Fi is a specific term referring to these networks. Even though some other technologies may use the same spectrum, they do not interoperate with WLANs.

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Module Self-Check
Use the questions here to review what you have learned in this module. The correct answers and solutions are found in the Module Self-Check Answer Key. Q1) What is the name of the distance between the higher crest of a wave and the lower crest? (Source: Introducing WLAN RF Principles) A) B) C) D) Q2) amplitude wavelength frequency phase

What is the frequency of a signal occurring one thousand times a second? (Source: Introducing WLAN RF Principles) A) B) C) D) 1 kW 1 Joule 1 MHz 1 kHz

Q3)

What is the term that describes when a signal is spread in many directions by small particles? (Source: Introducing WLAN RF Principles) A) B) C) D) absorption multipath reflection scattering

Q4)

What is the term that describes by how much the signal is better than the noise level? (Source: Introducing WLAN RF Principles) A) B) C) D) SNR modulation RSSI absorption level or rate

Q5)

For a signal to be good, the SNR level must be as high as the RSSI level. (Source: Introducing WLAN RF Principles) A) B) true false

Q6)

What is the name of a wireless network covering an area the size of a city? (Source: Introducing Wireless Networks and Topologies) A) B) C) D) Metro LAN CWAN WWAN MWAN

Q7)

What is the name of wireless networks that extend local area networks? (Source: Introducing Wireless Networks and Topologies) A) B) C) D) WMAN Local Wireless Network Wireless LAN repeaters
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Q8)

What device can be used to extend the range of an access point? (Source: Introducing Wireless Networks and Topologies) A) B) C) D) a mesh access point a bridge a repeater a workgroup bridge wired network to which an access point connects distance between an access point and its client base address of the access point wireless area of coverage of an access point a system where a wired network links two access points the extra coverage area created by a repeater the wireless coverage area of an access point a wired connection of the access point

Q9)

What is the BSA? (Source: Introducing Wireless Networks and Topologies) A) B) C) D)

Q10)

What is the ESS? (Source: Introducing Wireless Networks and Topologies) A) B) C) D)

Q11)

The Effective Isotropic Radiated Power relates only to omnidirectional antennae. (Source: Understanding RF Mathematics) A) B) true false 25.14 dBi 25.14 dBd 200 mW 1W Equivalent Isosymetric Radiated Power Effective Isotropic Radiated Power Extended Ionic Radiated Power Equivalent Internal Radiated Power 1 dBm is 2.14 dBi. 1 dBi is 2.14 dBm. Conversion from dBm to dBi depends on the antenna type. There is no direct conversion between dBm and dBi.

Q12)

What is the equivalent of 23 dBm? (Source: Understanding RF Mathematics) A) B) C) D)

Q13)

What is EIRP? (Source: Understanding RF Mathematics) A) B) C) D)

Q14)

How does dBm relate to dBi? (Source: Understanding RF Mathematics) A) B) C) D)

Q15)

Which explanation accurately describes an elevation chart? (Source: Describing Antennae) A) B) C) D) side view from the coverage area to determine line of sight top view on the antenna radiation pattern side view on the antenna radiation pattern floor-by-floor coverage map

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Q16)

How is the magnetic field oriented in comparison to the electric field? (Source: Describing Antennae) A) B) C) D) both follow the same orientation 45 degrees on its right 90 degrees on its left 180 degrees from it open space designs multiple antennae access points movements strict environmental testing SMA-TB UHF-CI DB-SNR RP-TNC The signal radiates where it is not wanted. The radiated signal is weaker. It only works in combination with an amplifier. It only works with a special type of antenna.

Q17)

What is used to try to solve multipath issues? (Source: Describing Antennae) A) B) C) D)

Q18)

What connector is used on Cisco access points? (Source: Describing Antennae) A) B) C) D)

Q19)

What is a downside to using a splitter? (Source: Describing Antennae) A) B) C) D)

Q20)

What is the effect of increasing the gain of an omnidirectional antenna? (Source: Describing Antennae) A) B) C) D) narrows the vertical beam provides better coverage everywhere provides better reception, but in the same area turns the antenna into a directional antenna

Q21)

Which of the following is a DSSS speed? (Source: Understanding Spread Spectrum Technologies) A) B) C) D) 3 Mb/s 5.5 Mb/s 7 Mb/s 9 Mb/s

Q22)

How does Barker 11 transform the data that is to be sent? (Source: Understanding Spread Spectrum Technologies) A) B) C) D) It transforms each bit into an 11-bit chip. It transforms each bit into another bit with a predefined code. It transforms each octet into an 11-bit chip. It compresses each ko into an 11-bit chip.

Q23)

DSSS combats interference by which of these methods? (Source: Understanding Spread Spectrum Technologies) A) B) C) D) hoping when detecting an interference spending only a few milliseconds on each channel hiding the hopping sequence from the interferer sending a wide signal spread of 22 MHz
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Q24)

How does OFDM compare to DSSS? (Source: Understanding Spread Spectrum Technologies) A) B) C) D) OFDM uses small carriers while DSSS use a large one. OFDM uses CCK while DSSS uses QBPSK and DQPSK. OFDM allows up to 11 Mb/s while DSSS allows up to 54 Mb/s. OFDM works with frequency modulation while DSSS works with amplitude modulation

Q25)

How does an access point start DCF mode? (Source: Examining Wireless Media Access) A) B) C) D) It sends a normal beacon. It sends a special beacon with duration set to 32768. It resets the NAV of all clients in the cell. It sends a new supported rates table.

Q26)

Which of the following is a Layer 2 technique that is used in wireless networks? (Source: Examining Wireless Media Access) A) B) C) D) CSMA/CD Token Ring CDMA/SD CSMA/CA

Q27)

How long does a client have to wait before being able to send a frame in a cell’s normal operation? (Source: Examining Wireless Media Access) A) B) C) D) duration of its slot time duration of its Backoff timer duration of its NAV duration of the inter-poll timer

Q28)

How many MAC addresses does an 802.11 header contain? (Source: Examining Wireless Media Access) A) B) C) D) 1 2 Up to 3 Up to 4 checksum at the end of the frame address of the final destination point of the frame address of the station to receive the frame, final destination or not name of the frame control field after each data frame depends on the sliding window value only when access points grant stations the right to talk each time two stations detect each other

Q29)

What is the RA? (Source: Examining Wireless Media Access) A) B) C) D)

Q30)

How often is a wireless ACK sent? (Source: Examining Wireless Media Access) A) B) C) D)

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Q31)

The control field gives information about which of the following? (Source: Examining Wireless Media Access) A) B) C) D) frame speed frame type frame length access point

Q32)

In which two of the following frames is the SSID usually found? (Choose two.) (Source: Examining Wireless Media Access) A) B) C) D) beacon probe requests authentication requests reset frames

Q33)

Which IEEE protocol is related to Bluetooth? (Source: Understanding Non-802.11 Wireless Technologies and Their Impact on WLANs) A) B) C) D) 802.15.1 802.16 802.11h 802.15.4

Q34)

Which device in a ZigBee network sends beacons? (Source: Understanding Non-802 Wireless Technologies and Their Impact on WLAN) A) B) C) D) the initiator the access point the network coordinator the access router

Q35)

Which WiMAX is the current backbone version? (Source: Understanding Non-802 Wireless Technologies and Their Impact on WLAN) A) B) C) D) 802.11e 802.16d 802.15e 802.16e

Q36)

What is the range of 802.16e? (Source: Understanding Non-802.11 Wireless Technologies and Their Impact on WLANs) A) B) C) D) 0.5 miles 5 miles 30 miles 300 miles

Q37)

What is the role of the FCC? (Source: Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications) A) B) C) D) to create protocols for intercompliance systems to ensure that wireless devices offered on the market do provide the features they claim to have to create regulations to create worldwide interoperability for wireless spectrum and channels

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Q38)

What is the maximum EIRP in the 2.4-GHz band as per the ETSI rules? (Source: Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications) A) B) C) D) 17 dBm 20 dBm 30 dBm 36 dBm

Q39)

How many nonoverlapping 802.11a channels are available in Europe? (Source: Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications) A) B) C) D) 3 4 19 23

Q40)

Which of the following is an 802.11b speed? (Source: Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications) A) B) C) D) 6 Mb/s 11 Mb/s 18 Mb/s 48 Mb/s

Q41)

What is MIMO? (Source: Understanding Non-802.11 Wireless Technologies and Their Impact on WLANs) A) B) C) D) a technology similar to WiMAX but adapted to wireless networks a new wireless modulation and technique that is used to gain longer range and higher speed a technology that is used to increase coverage in outdoor networks a new microchip with reduced size and maximized gain

Q42)

How many nonoverlapping 802.11b and g channels are available in Europe? (Source: Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications) A) B) C) D) 3 4 19 23

Q43)

What is the 1:1 rule? (Source: Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications) A) B) C) D) An antenna of 6 dBi must be connected through a cable of 6 dBi loss. Each dBm less power in the transmitter can allow 1 dBi increase in the antenna gain. The antenna gain must be the same as the transmitter power. Each access point must have one single antenna.

Q44)

What are UNII-1, UNII-2, and UNII-3? (Source: Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications) A) B) C) D) different generations of FCC rules for the 802.11a networks different frequency ranges different categories of wireless devices different certification bodies

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Q45)

Do European users of wireless devices have to comply with ETSI rules? (Source: Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications) A) B) C) D) Only if they buy a device made in Europe. Devices made in the United States would have to comply with FCC rules. It depends on the usage and the speed of the device. No, ETSI applies to Israel. Europe complies with the general IEEE rules. Yes.

Q46)

What is transmit beamforming? (Source: Understanding Non-802.11 Wireless Technologies and Their Impact on WLANs) A) B) C) D) the possibility to send three signals that are cumulated on the receiver single antenna the ability to dynamically change the shape of the transmitted beam to adapt to the environment the process by which the MIMO devices receive from different antennae at the same time the possibility to choose the antenna that has the best reception for each frame

Q47)

What is the ETSI? (Source: Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications) A) B) C) D) a field indicating traffic buffered at the access point level a European regulatory body an encoding technique allowing speeds of up to 54 Mb/s a peer-to-peer network

Q48)

When an ARP request is sent on the wireless side, what is the value of the destination address field? (Reviewing the Wireless Frame Journey: End to End) A) B) C) D) sending station MAC address broadcast value access point MAC address for this SSID router MAC address

Q49)

What are two reasons for using 802.1Q? (Choose two.) (Reviewing the Wireless Frame Journey: End to End) A) B) C) D) E) to allow switches to share a trunk link with nontrunking clients to allow clients to see the 802.1Q header to provide inter-VLAN communications over a bridge to load-balance traffic between parallel links using STP to provide trunking between Cisco switches and other vendor switches

Q50)

When an 802.11 frame is received by a controller and then sent on the cable, what is the value of the SA field? (Reviewing the Wireless Frame Journey: End to End) A) B) C) D) the controller MAC address the destination station MAC address the access point MAC address the wireless client MAC address

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Module Self-Check Answer Key
Q1) Q2) Q3) Q4) Q5) Q6) Q7) Q8) Q9) Q10) Q11) Q12) Q13) Q14) Q15) Q16) Q17) Q18) Q19) Q20) Q21) Q22) Q23) Q24) Q25) Q26) Q27) Q28) Q29) Q30) Q31) Q32) Q33) Q34) Q35) A D D A B D C C D A B C B D C C B D B A B A D A B D C D C A B A, C A C B
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Q36) Q37) Q38) Q39) Q40) Q41) Q42) Q43) Q44) Q45) Q46) Q47) Q48) Q49) Q50)

B C B C B B B B B D A B B C, E D

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