P. 1
Introduction to Development Across the Lifespan

Introduction to Development Across the Lifespan

|Views: 142|Likes:

More info:

Published by: Camille Noelle Williams on Jul 16, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less






  • What is Lifespan Development?
  • Ethnicity and Race
  • Cohorts
  • Continuous v Discontinuos Change
  • Erik Erikson (Psychodynamic)
  • Erikson¶s Psychosocial Stages
  • Vygotsky¶s Sociocultural Theory
  • Humanistic Perspective
  • Evolutionary Perspective
  • Which perspective is correct?

Introduction to Development Across the Lifespan

Chapter 1

What is Lifespan Development?   

Field of study that examines the patterns of growth, change and stability of behavior throughout the entire lifespan Focus on the way we change as well as what stays the same (stability) Different approaches: 

Biological Environmental Combination of the two

Lifespan Development 

Broad field that covers diverse areas- developmentalists often focus on one area for study Physical development- study body makeup, brain, nervous system, muscles, senses, biological needs (food, drink)- may be interested in how malnutrition affects development Cognitive development- study learning, memory, problem solving, intelligence. How do problem solving skills change throughout the lifespan? Personality development- study traits and characteristics that make us unique- Is personality stable over the lifespan? Social development- study interactions among individuals and social factors like poverty. How do the effects of poverty or divorce influence development?

Lifespan Development 

Developmentalists have divided the lifespan into 8 broad ranges Prenatal period (conception to birth) Infancy and toddlerhood (birth to 3) Preschool period (3-6) Adolescence (12-20) Young adulthood (20-40) Middle adulthood (40- 60) Late adulthood (60- death)

they are referring to the average age when most people reach a milestone .Social Construction of Age Groups    Social constructions are shared notions of reality. Age groups are shared notions (social constructions) among developmentalists When developmental specialists discuss ages.

changes in one area affect changes in another area. Example: parental loss of a job affects the home life Changes in one area without changes in another area can be of very little help Example: Improving schools can be of little help if parents at home are not willing to help support academic success .The Bio-ecological Approach to Development     Suggests that development is interconnected.

Parents supervising children at play.everyday. teachers) Mesosystem. students to teachers. employee to boss) Example: Parents and teachers working together. friends. immediate environment (home. parents attending sporting events with kids . family.connects the parts of the microsystem like a chain. (binds the children to parents.The Bio-ecological Approach to Development    5 levels of environment that influence us Microsystem.

broader influences such as school.larger cultural influences (types of gov¶t. religions. politics.indirectly affects child Macrosystem. economy. parents workplace. Mother loses job. Each affects how the microsystem and mesosystem operate: Example: The type of church a person attends can affect their personal morals and values which can influence how they respond to the others. church. society in general.what are our values and how do they influence us? .The Bioecological Approach to Development   Exosystem. community.war)  Western culture.

divorces on the rise) . 9/11.underlies the previous systems. women entering the workforce.The Bioecological Approach to Development  Chronosystem. Involves the passage of time and historical events as well as historical changes and how these things influence development.  Example: Great Depression.

Collectivism. it is important to take into consideration the culture in which they were raised.dominant in western societiesemphasizes the importance of personal identity.the well being of the group is more important than the individual. freedom and the worth of the individual. Those raised in these cultures will often sacrifice self happiness for the group . uniqueness. (example of childrearing) Individualism.Individualist v Collectivist Cultures    When studying individuals.

nationality.refers to cultural background. religion and language. .Ethnicity and Race  Race.9 % of human genetic makeup is identical so it makes the term race seem insignificant  Ethnicity.a biological concept that refers to the physical and structural characteristics of a species  99.

parents had experienced the depression How does experiencing these things affect the cohort? .increased births after the end of WWII Cohort effects. depressions.Baby boomers.Adolescence during civil rights movement.Cohorts      A group of people born around the same time in the same place. protests of the Vietnam War. epidemics) Baby boomers experienced cohort effects. Example of a cohort. famines.Social events have similar impact on members of a cohort (wars.

 Beginning school. puberty. depressions. social movements Age graded influences. death of parentsthese things are usually the same for all despite culture . menopause.biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals of an age group regardless of where they were raised. NY terrorist attacks.Influences on Development   History graded influences.historical events that influence an entire age cohort.

Etc)  Non-normative life events.unusual events that happen to a person at a time when those events are not expected and do not happen to most people    Losing both parents at age 6 Birth defects Adoption . These influences would be different for a white affluent child than for a minority child living in poverty (violence.graded influences. Bar Mitzvah. social class. and subculture.Influences on Development  Socio-cultural.affect most people of a particular culture or social class   Depends on the individuals ethnicity.

Major Issues in Lifespan Development     Are changes continuous or discontinuous (occur in distinct stages)? Are there critical periods for development? Which part of the lifespan should be the main focus for research? Does nature or nurture have the biggest influence on development? .

but it¶s a quantitative change.change is gradual.the number changes as it builds on the previous number Discontinuous. changes are a matter of degree and not kind.change occurs in distinct stages. Each change is qualitatively different from the behavior or thinking process at an earlier stage .Continuous v Discontinuos Change   Continuous. achievements at one level build on the previous level. Example: a child¶s height changes.

quality of change .Continuous v Discontinuous Change   Quantitative.can be measured Qualitative.

considering the bonding does occur later on.Critical and Sensitive Periods  A critical period is a specific time in development when an event has the greatest consequences.bonding with mother within first few minutes to hours after birth   Early developmental theorists believed strongly in critical periods and their importance Today theorists believe that we aren¶t as likely to suffer damage from lack of certain social experiences as once believed  Children who have been placed in NICU and away from their mothers have not shown any more problems with normal development than other children.  Example.  Example: exposure to German measles at 11 weeks gestation v 30 weeks  In a critical period. . certain kinds of environmental stimuli are necessary for development to proceed normally.

. but the absence of those stimuli does not produce irreversible consequences to development.Critical and Sensitive Periods  Theorists today speak of sensitive periods.we are particularly more susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in the environment during these periods.

What part of the lifespan should be the focus of research?      Early theorists believed that infancy thru adolescence was the most important and basically ignored other parts of the lifespan Today we believe the entire lifespan is important We know that changes continue throughout the lifespan Helps us to determine gains and losses as we age  Vocabulary grows with age. Helps us to understand how people¶s values change with age . but reaction time slows.

parental discipline. brain development  Nurture refers to environmental influences that shape our behavior  Nutrition.Nature v Nurture   How much of our behavior is due to genetics and how much is due to the environment? Nature refers to traits. abilities and capacities inherited from one¶s parents. hair color.  Eye color. schooling . prenatal use of drugs or alcohol. athletic ability.

What we know is that sometimes those with the most stimulating environments still can¶t learn and sometimes those with no stimulation are still very intelligent It is a combination of the two .Nature v Nurture       Consider the concept of intelligence Is intelligence inherited or is created by the environment? If it is fixed at birth. then efforts to increase intelligence will fail If intelligence is strictly determined by environment then going to a great school. and parents who constantly help you learn would create an intelligent child.

Theoretical Perspectives on Development   A theory.organizes facts in order to explain a phenomenon 5 major theoretical perspectives on developmenteach provides a different way of looking at development      Psychodynamic Behavioral Cognitive Humanistic Evolutionary .

Most of these memories or conflicts linger from childhood and influence us throughout our life Example: Marissa and the car accident Freud.Psychodynamic Theory of Development     Believe that most of our behavior is influenced by inner conflicts or memories in which we are unaware.the most recognized psychodynamic theorist .

Psychodynamic Theory of Development    Sigmund Freud¶s psychoanalytic theorysuggests that unconscious conflicts influence personality and behavior 3 levels of consciousness (Iceberg): conscious awareness. preconscious and unconscious Unconscious mind contains wishes. desires. demands and needs which are hidden because they would be too disturbing for conscious awareness .

Ego and Superego Id. Our parents and teachers help our superego develop. The mediator (Keeps us straight) Superego. aggression and irrational impulses (Give me what I want when I want it) Ego.restrains the Id so that the person can be safe and fit in with society and also calms down the superego.maximize satisfaction and reduce tension.Psychodynamic Theory of Development     3 levels of personality. Helps us identify right and wrong.Buffer from the real world and the primitive Id.Id. Operates on the pleasure principle. . Reality principle.part of personality present at birth.our conscience. Morality principle. sex. Responsible for primitive drives of hunger.

behavior reflecting an earlier stage of development due to unresolved conflicts in that stage  Example: fixation in the oral stage may result in an adult who talks a lot.Freud believed we go thru a series of psychosexual stages during which our personality is being formed In each stage there is a pleasure zone associated with a biological function or body part. chews gum.Psychodynamic Theory of Development    Psychosexual Development. bites nails . a fixation may develop. If a child is unable to gratify himself at any stage or if he over gratifies himself.

Psychodynamic Theory of Development  Psychosexual stages (Freud)      Oral (mouth) Anal (anus) Phallic (genitals) Latency (no pleasure zone) Genital (genitals) .

Erik Erikson (Psychodynamic)   Psychoanalyst who emphasized the importance of social interactions (society and culture) rather than unconscious conflicts Erikson¶s theory suggest that we go thru a series of Psychosocial development stages.  During these stages we encounter changes in our interactions with each other and our knowledge of the world .

Erikson¶s Psychosocial Stages         8 distinct stages that represent a conflict that the individual must overcome.3 years) Initiative v Guilt (3-6) Industry v Inferiority (6-adolescence) Identity v role confusion (adolescence to young adulthood) Generativity v Stagnation (middle adulthood) Integrity v Despair (late adulthood) . Trust v Mistrust (birth.12-18 months) Autonomy v Shame (12-18 months.

Believe development is quantitative rather than qualitative .The Behavioral Perspective     Reject the idea that people pass thru a series of stages Believe that people are affected by their experiences and that they learn and develop from them Developmental patterns are personal and depend on the environment and situations the individual is exposed to.

The Behavioral Perspective    Classical Conditioning. we can create a response to the neutral stimulus. Pair a bell with the presentation of food several times and the dog will begin to salivate to the sound of the bell.The idea that we learn through association By pairing a neutral stimulus with one that normally evokes a response. . Example: Pavlov¶s dog. The dog salivates at the presentation of food. in anticipation of the smell of food.

response to a naturally occurring stimulus (salivation) Neutral stimulus (NS).Unconditioned response.a response to a previously neutral stimulus (salivation) .unconditioned stimulus.a previously neutral stimulus that elicits a response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus (bell) Conditioned response (CR).stimulus that naturally produces a response (food) UCR.The Behavioral Perspective      UCS.a stimulus that alone. causes no response (bell) Conditioned stimulus (CS).

learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences Reinforcement.positive stimulus provided to increase the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated Punishment. Skinner).presenting an unpleasant stimulus or removing a positive stimulus in order to decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated .The Behavioral Perspective    Operant Conditioning (B.F.

The Behavioral Perspective    Social Cognitive Learning Theory. We can learn by watching others experience the consequences (positive and negative) Albert Bandura.suggested learning thru observation takes place in 4 steps     Observer must pay attention Must successfully recall the behavior Must reproduce the behavior accurately Must be motivated to learn and carry out the behavior .we learn by observing the behavior of others (modeling) We don¶t have to experience the consequences of a behavior to learn.

Example: page 23. understand and think about the world Developmental researchers are interested in how adults and children process information differently and understand things differently.The Cognitive Perspective    Focuses on how people know. Why does it rain? .

Believed that we go thru a fixed sequence of cognitive developmental stages In each stage the quantity of knowledge increases as well as the quality of knowledge and understanding .most influential cognitive theorists.The Cognitive Perspective    Piaget¶s Theory of Cognitive Development.

The Cognitive Perspective   Children¶s understanding of the world can be explained by assimilation and accommodation Assimilation.changing the current way of thinking in response to new events or encounters in the environment   Mom tells you that animal is a cat Child now understands that not all furry 4 legged animals are dogs .understanding a situation in terms of your current stage of cognitive development and understanding   See a furry 4 legged animal and call it a dog All furry 4 legged animals are called dogs  Accommodation.

not a stage theory Our capacity to handle information as well as our processing speed and efficiency changes with age . use and store information Can be thought of in terms of the way computers analyze and process information Quantitative view.Information Processing Approach to Development     Interested in the way we take in.

 Emphasizes the idea of reciprocal transaction. .people and environment influence a child who in turn influences those people and the environment  I am influencing my son. The culture we are raised in will influence our way of thinking and viewing the world  A child who is raised around extended family will have a different view of family than one who sees family only once a year. who in turn influences me.Vygotsky¶s Sociocultural Theory    Russian developmentalist who believed that cognitive development is a result of social interactions between members of a culture Our understanding of the world comes from our interactions with adults and other children who teach us problem solving skills as well as proper and improper behavior.

Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches    Focuses on internal brain processes that underlie thinking. etc . think. problem solving and other cognitive behavior They try to identify the areas of the brain associated with cognitive activity Have identified areas of the brain that are active when we speak.

our ability to make decisions about our own lives Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Since other people provide these things. and cognitive processing. Emphasizes free will. learning from the environment.believed that humans have a desire to be loved unconditionally and respected. we become dependent on them. Our self worth is a reflection of how others view us Self.Humanistic Perspective        Focuses on the unique qualities of individuals Rejects the idea that our behavior is determined by the unconscious.major theorists.actualization is our primary goal in life.reaching our full potential (believed few people reach this point) .

Evolutionary Perspective     Identify the behavior we inherited from our ancestors and to understand why we inherited certain behaviors Based on the ideas of Charles Darwin Genetics determines physical characteristics and also personality traits and social behaviors Certain behaviors helped increase chances of survival .

Which perspective is correct?   All of them are helpful Page 28 Chart .

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->