GIS – Gas Insulated Substation Why GIS Types of Substation Switchgears [AIS/HIS/GIS] Space Reduction Analysis with AIS/HIS/GIS Specifications for GIS & AIS 400 kV / 220 kV GIS 400 kV side GIS Single Line Diagram & Components of GIS 220 kV side GIS Visual Comparison Between AIS & GIS Components Techno - Economic Comparison Between AIS & GIS Advancement in GIS Life Cycle Cost Analysis – [AIS/HIS/GIS] World Scenario -GIS

Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) is a compact, multicomponent assembly enclosed in a ground metallic housing in which the primary insulating medium is compressed Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas. SF6 acts as an insulation between live parts & the earthed metal closure.

The introduction of SF6 gas has revolutionized not only the technology of circuit breakers but also the layout of substations. The dielectric strength of SF6 gas at atmospheric pressure is approximately three times that of air. It is incombustible, non toxic, colorless and chemically inert. It has arc-quenching properties 3 to 4 times better than air at equal pressure. Space requirement is only 10 to 25 percent of what is required is a conventional substation.

GIS has small ground space requirements. Gas insulated Substations have easy maintenance( nearly zero Maintenance Less field erection time & less erection cost. For underground powerhouse of Hydro electric power project where space constraint is a major issue. For Fast Growing Major Cities where land availability is costlier. Non-Flammability & Non-Explosive , Oil-free & Less Pollution




Surge Arrestor Bus Post Insulator Current Transformer Capacitor Voltage Transformer Disconnector Live Tank-Circuit Breaker Dead Tank.CB .

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Surge Arrestor Bus Post Insulator Capacitor Voltage Transformer .


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The additional insulation required for the next voltage class is achieved by increased gas density. m Floor area. kg Floor loading. Even when the GIS equipment is designed for an individual voltage class.m Volume.8 23. m Bay Depth. Rated voltage Bay width.95 15.7 22. sq. m3 Weight. kg/sq. a few manufacturers offer the same equipment for two voltage classes (like 170/145 kV). m Bay height.0 3. Table shows the dimensions. Owing to these flexibilities.4 6.2 4.78 5000 750 245 kV 2.m kg/sq.4 6.m 1.0 3. weight and floor loading for three voltage classes of GIS.84 3800 765 145 kV 170 kV 2.5 3.35 3.12 5700 840 13 .The weight and size of the GIS equipment do not change appreciably with the voltage class as the bulk of the current – carrying components and enclosures have identical dimensions for similar thermal and short time current. the dimensions and weights of the equipment differ marginally.4 3.3 3.

5 m 4.9 m 2.50 m 4.4 m 3.71 m 0.94 m 1. walls.5 m 8.5 m 6. 14 .07 m 3.8 7.132 Kv Clearances 220 Kv 400 Kv 765 Kv Clearance Diff in Clearance Clearance Diff in Clearance Clearance Diff in Clearance for 132 Kv with Next for 220 Kv with Next for 400 Kv with Next Voltage class Voltage Class Voltage class 1.22 m 2.78 m 4.72 m 2.06 m 1. Phase Clearance: this is the clearance between live parts of different phases. may be the ground or a platform from which the man works.Clearance B/W Ph – Ph Mini.6 m 4.9 m 10.Clearance B/W Ph . screens and ground.6 m 1.28 m 5.Ear Sectional Clearance Ground Clearance Earth Clearance: this is the clearance between live parts and earthed structures. The limits of this work section.6 m 0.3m Mini.5 m 1.22 m 1.0 m 3.84 m 0.78 m 0.0 m 3. or maintenance zone. Section Clearance: this is the clearance between live parts and the terminals of a work section.

5 m 2.15 m 0.66 m 0.1 m 470 420 0.3 m 240 420 0.6 m 620 420 15 .20 m 0.2 m 1.5 m 310 420 0.46 m 0.81 m 1.6 m 2.09 m 0.Minimum Clearance for Different Voltage Level [GIS] 145 Kv (132 Kv) 245 Kv (220 Kv) 420 Kv 800 Kv (765 Kv) Clearance Diff in Clearance Clearance Diff in Clearance Clearance Diff in Clearance for 132 Kv with Next for 220 Kv with Next for 420 Kv with Next Voltage Voltage class Voltage class class Centre-tocentre distance of phases Right-of way width External diameter Gas pressure at 20 C 0.37 m 0.

Specifications for 400 KV GIS (ELK-3) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Rated Voltage Rated Power Frequency withstand voltage Rated Lightning impulse withstand voltage Rated Switching Impluse withstand voltage Rated Frequency Busbar current Feeder Current Rated Short time Withstand Current 420 Kv 650 Kv 1425 Kv 1052 Kv 50 Hz 6300 A 4000 A 63 KA Specifications for 220 KV GIS (ELK-14) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Rated Voltage Rated Power Frequency withstand voltage Rated Lightning impulse withstand voltage Rated Switching Impluse withstand voltage Rated Frequency Rated Continuous Current Rated Short time Withstand Current Upto 300 Kv 460 Kv 1050 Kv 850 Kv 50 Hz 4000 A 50 kA 16 .

400 kV/ 220 kV Substation with 5 bays at 400 kV and 7 bays at 220 kV 2 nos. Power received from ##### & ***** at 400 KV. 315 MVA. . 400/220/33 kV three phase Auto Transformers Gas Insulated Switchgear type ELK -3 at 400 kV and ELK-10 at 220 KV from ABB Switzerland Substation commissioned in 2007. Power supplied to Delhi Transco at 220 KV.

To ICT 1 To ICT 2 From # # # Bus Coupler Bay From * * * * 18 .

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Feeder Gas Compartment 4. CB Gas compartment 5. Busbar Gas Compartment 3. Voltage transformer 21 . Barrier insulator 2.1.

SF6 Bushing .Current Transformer 4.Disconnector 5.Maintenance earthing switch 6.Bus bars Circuit Breakers Disconnecting switches Earthing switches Current transformers Voltage transformers Cable and boxes Gas supply and gas monitoring equipment 1.Voltage transformer 22 8.Fast acting earthing switch 7.Circuit Breaker 2.Operating mechanism (CB) 3.

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to immediately discontinue electrical flow. After contact separation. by interrupting continuity. which operates once and then has to be replaced. such as SF6. a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation Current interruption in a high-voltage circuit-breaker is obtained by separating two contacts in a medium. Unlike a fuse. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and. current is carried through an arc and the arc is interrupted & cooled by a gas blast of sufficient intensity. having excellent dielectric and arc quenching properties. .A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical from damage caused by overload or short circuit.

the chambers are mechanically connected in series. One grading capacitor guarantees an equalized voltage distribution.Each CB comprises three single-phase metal enclosed breaker poles. To guarantee simultaneous interruption. Each Pole consists of operating mechanism. Assembly of Metal enclosed Breaking poles 25 . the interrupter column with 2 interrupting chambers in series & the enclosure with the basic support structure.

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is obtained by a puffer blast. which leads to the closure of the valve and thus isolating the expansion volume from the compression volume. . 27 The overpressure necessary for breaking is obtained by the optimal use of the thermal effect. A valve between the expansion and compression volumes. Low current interruption. The blow-out of the arc is made as in a puffer circuit breaker by compression of the gas obtained by the piston action.Making use of arc energy to produce the pressure necessary to quench the arc and obtain current interruption. When interrupting low currents the valve opens under the effect of the overpressure generated in the compression volume. In the case of high currents interruption. the arc energy produces a high overpressure in the expansion volume. up to about 30% of rated short-circuit current.

A Hydraulic pump moves oil from low pressure reservoir to high pressure reservoir side of the energy piston. It combines the advantages of both Hydraulic operating mechanism & Spring energy storage type.Each Pole of the CB is equipped with the Hydraulic spring operating mechanism. 28 . Opening & Closing of CB is initiated by trip coil actuation.

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. Current transformers are also known as instrument transformers. which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments. a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in the circuit. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry. When current in a circuit is too high to directly apply to measuring instruments.Current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of electric currents.

They are designed to present a negligible load to the supply being measured. are used in high-voltage circuits. to allow protective relay equipment to be operated at lower voltages. and to have a precise winding ratio for accurate metering . also referred to as “Potential transformers" (PTs).Voltage transformers (VTs).

The primary winding is insulated with SF6 gas & connected to high voltage terminal.The single pole inductive voltage transformer is connected to switch gear with the connecting flanges with a barrier insulator. The primary winding is wounded on the top of the core & secondary windings. The secondary winding is connected to the terminals in the external terminal box through a gas tight multiple bushing. 32 .

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but not sufficient. a part of an overhead line or an underground line so that maintenance can be safely conducted. The opening of the line isolator or busbar section isolator is necessary for safety. 34 .Disconnector and Earthing switches are safety devices used to open or to close a circuit when there is no current through them. This is accomplished by earthing switches. They are used to isolate a part of a circuit. a machine. Grounding must be conducted at both the upstream and downstream sections of the device under maintenance.

or closing circuits where negligible currents are made or interrupted (including capacitive current and resistive or inductive current . or when there is no significant voltage across the open terminals of the switch. They are designed for no-load switching . 35 . opening .Disconnect switches are designed to continuously carry load currents and momentarily carry short circuit currents for a specified duration.

36 .Fast earth switch and maintenance earth switch are the two types of earth switches used for gas insulated sub-station systems. Fast earth switch is used to protect the circuit-connected instrument voltage transformer from core saturation caused by direct current flowing through its primary as a consequence of charge stored online during isolation / switching off the line. Use of fast earth switch provides a parallel (low resistance) path to drain the residual static charge quickly. The basic construction of these earth switches is identical. thereby protecting the instrument voltage transformer from the damages that may otherwise be caused.

37 . used for metering. Additionally.Wave Trap Capacitance Voltage Transformer Lightening Arrestor Capacitor Voltage Transformers convert transmission class voltages to standardized low and easily measurable values. protection and control of the high voltage system. Capacitor Voltage Transformers serve as a coupling capacitor for coupling high frequency power line carrier signals to the transmission line.

Lightning Arresters or Surge Arresters are always connected in Shunt to the equipment to be protected. This is relevant in Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC) systems for communication among various substations without dependence on the telecom company network. 38 . they provide a low impedance path for the surge current to the ground Line trap also is known as Wave trap. It traps Hi-frequency communication signals sent on the line from the remote substation and diverting them to the telecom/ tele protection panel in the substation control room (through coupling capacitor and LMU).

SF6 – Air Bushings are used for connecting to open terminal equipment & Overhead transmission lines. 39 . SF outdoor bushings allow the enclosed switchgear to be connected to overhead lines.

transformer is isolated from switchgear by dismantling the removable connection 40 . the main circuit end terminal & removable connection. the enclosure.a Fig .a): High-Voltage cables of various types are connected to SF6 switchgear via cable connection assembly & also it enables the GIS & Cables to be tested separated Fig .CABLE TERMINATION (Fig . For Hi-Voltage test on GIS.b Transformer connection (Fig .b) consists of Oil/SF6 bushing.

The insulating and interrupting capability of the SF6 gas depends on the density of the SF6 gas . In case of gas leakage a micro-switch is actuated. The pressure of the SF6 gas varies with temperature. Gas Density Monitor is directly mounted on the enclosure. The response character is shown in the Molier diagramme. with a reference volume for compensation of the temperature. 41 . The gas pressure acts on metal bellows. Thresholds for refilling (first stage) or lock-out alarm(second stage) can be mechanically set. so a mechanical or electronic temperature compensated pressure switch is used to monitor the equivalent of gas density.

Quenching gas pressure is about 600-700 Kpa Outdoor Equipment exposed to arctic conditions contains a mixture of SF6 & N2. 42 .Isolating Gas Pressure is generally 350-450 Kpa at 20 deg cel.

Each tap corresponds to a different source or load voltage. The winding has at least three electrical connection points called taps. The voltage source and the load are each connected to two taps. 2 nos.An autotransformer is an electrical transformer with only one winding. 315 MVA. One tap at the end of the winding is a common connection to both circuits (source and load). 400/220/33 kV three phase Auto Transformers 43 .

An autotransformer for power applications is typically lighter and less costly than a two-winding transformer. In an autotransformer a portion of the same winding acts as part of both the primary and secondary winding. 44 . up to a voltage ratio of about 3:1 beyond that range a two-winding transformer is usually more economical.

To Line-4 To Line-3 Bus Coupler Bay To Line-2 To Line-1 From ICT 1 From ICT 2 .

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Integration of Electronic CT’s & PT’s Combined Earthing Switch & Disconnector 54 . SMART GIS .(For Further Space reduction) Gas Insulated Transformer (GIT) Instead of Oil Immersed Transformer (OIT).

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Forced-AirCooled 56 . NaturalAir-Cooled Forced-Gas-Circulated .Natural Cooled type Forced-Gas-Circulated .

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GIT Medium Turn Insulation Conservator Pressure Relief Device Others SF6 PET film Not Required Not required OIT Insulating oil Cellulose paper Necessary Necessary 58 Fundamentally Same .

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Easy installation – oil or liquid purifying process is not necessary in case of gas-insulated transformer. Non Tank – explosion . Easy inspection and maintenance work -Only SF6 gas pressure shall be basically monitored during periodically inspection. height of transformer room can be reduced approximately 2 – 2. Compactness – Since conservator or pressure relief equipment is not necessary. enable to remove a fire fighting equipment from transformer room. using incombustible SF6 gas as insulation and cooling medium.5 meters.Pressure tank enables to withstand the pressure rise in case of internal fault.Nonflammability – Gas insulated transformers . 60 .

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1. Voltage sensor 3. Serial Optic Link 2.The Combined sensors are the Rogowski coil for current measurement and the capacitive divider for voltage measurement A combined current and voltage sensor has been developed to replace the conventional current and voltage transformers in GIS. Rogowski Coil 63 .

Lower losses mean lower LCC (Life Cycle Cost) 64 .permits minimization of number of sensor types needed and improvement of some protection functions. so it is immediately converted by an enclosure mounted device to a digital signal Small size . Protection and measurement functions combined.Why Combined Voltage & current Sensor ? Advanced CT’s without a magnetic core (Rowgowski coil) & Capacitive sensor have been developed to save space and reduce the cost of GIS.Helps to optimize the use of space in the switchgear Lighter weight means less material usage and lower life cycle costs (LCC) Large dynamic range . The output signal is at a low level.

The capacitive ring. also has a linear characteristic and is very simple in terms of the insulation. Voltage Measurement – Voltage Sensor instead of Voltage Transformer The voltage sensor is based on a capacitive electrical field sensor (Capacitive ring sensor). 65 . which acts as a voltage sensor.Current Measurement – Current Sensor instead of Current Transformer The current sensor is based on a Rogowski coil (a coreless inductive current transformer).

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Voltage transformer 5. Current Transformer 4. Control Cubicle 67 . Circuit-breaker 3. Electro-optical voltage transformer 6. Control cubicle 1. Circuit Breaker 3. Busbar with Combined DS & ES 2.1. Make-proof earthing switch 7. Combined DS & ES with cable sealing end 6. Busbar with Combined DS & ES 2. Current sensor (Rogowski coil) 4. Hi-Speed ES 7.

disconnector open / earthing switch closed . Busbar with Combined Disconnector & Earthing Switch 68 .The DSES incorporates the two functions of a disconnector and a maintenance earthing switch as a result saving the space in GIS.disconnector closed / earthing switch open -disconnector open / earthing switch open The use of one moving contact for the disconnector and the earthing switch inhibits simultaneous closed position of both switches. This is achieved by a sliding contact characterized by three defined positions: .

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and acts via bevel gears and an insulating shaft on the three parallel contact pins. Depending on the direction of movement the contacts act as disconnector or earthing switch (maintenance earthing switch).Combined disconnector and earthing switch is mounted at the front. manual operation of the combined disconnector and earthing switch is also possible. By means of a crank handle. 70 .

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structures 100% 100% 100% 100% 40% 120% 100% 60% Electrical assembly and erection 100% 70% Maintenance Outage Life cycle costs after 10 years 100% 100% 100% 50% 50% Max. 70% 78 .AIS Life cycle cost Planning and engineering 100% GIS 80% Real estate Primary equipment Secondary equipment Earthwork. civil work.

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The effect of investment costs of new equipment with reduced maintenance costs can be balanced with the increased expenditure for intensified maintenance of the old equipment 80 . more specialized experts and spare parts. the redundancy concept and the requirement area for the installation. The goal is to achieve optimal availability of the substation with minimized costs. Optimizing of costs of ownership Cost of Ownership The costs of ownership are dominated by the maintenance strategy and the reliability of the switchgear. The optimization of the layout and the redundancy can be supported by LCC analysis which take into account the different reliability figures of the different technologies. Optimizing of renewal costs Cost of Ownership LCC calculations assist in determining the optimal date for replacing an existing substation. Aged equipment requires intensified maintenance.Optimizing of acquisition costs Cost of Acquisition Acquisition costs are mainly influenced by the layout. By means of LCC analysis. the different maintenance strategies can be simulated. Pure corrective maintenance can be compared with time-based or reliability – centered maintenance.

safety regulations are being introduced in order to prevent its release into atmosphere. conducting contamination (i. etc Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) can be used for longer times without any periodical inspections. partial discharges and contamination (decomposition products. The life of GIS is affected by certain factors such as: conductive particles. copper and silver particles) could seriously reduce the dielectric strength of gas-insulated system. SF6 has been identified as a greenhouse gas. aluminum. However. water.e.Cost of GIS is high. 81 .

The first GIS’s were put in operation in 1967 in Switzerland and Germany. An assessment made on SF6 gas leakage over the lifetime of the first GIS and concluded that overall leakage rate was about 0. The GIS in Germany is still in operation. 82 . whereas the GIS in Switzerland were recently decommissioned after 35 years of operation without major fault or gas leak.4% per year.


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