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1 Phonetics as a branch of Linguistics. The links of phonetics with other sciences. I.

Phonetics is an independent branch of linguistics like lexicology, grammar & stylistics. It studies the sound matter, its aspects & functions. 1) Phon. is closely connected with Grammar by means of the system of rules of reading. It helps to pronounce correctly the plural forms of nouns, Past Indef. & Past. Partic. of English regular verbs. (/lemp-lemps/; neim-neinz/; /pleis-pleisiz/); (/ask-a:skt/;/kli:nkli:nd/;/wont-wontid/. Another important phonetic phenomenon is the sound interchanging. Its another manifestation of connection of Phon. with Gr. It can be observed in the category of number. The interchanging of /f v/; /s z/; / /. It helps to differentiate singular & plural forms of nouns (shelf-shelves; house-houses). Vowel interchanging is connected with the tense forms of the irregular verbs. (come-came; give-gave). Vowel interchanging can also help to distinguish between: nouns & verbs (to bath-bathe / /); adjectives & nouns (hot-heat / /); verbs & adjectives (to moderate moderate / /); nouns & nouns (shade -shadow / /). Phon. is also connected with Cr. through the intonation. Sometimes the intonation can serve to single out the logical predicate. (He visited me.) 2) Phon. is connected with Lexicology. It is due to the presence of stress in the right place we can distinguish nouns from verbs. (object - to ob`ject; `transfer to trans`fer). 3) Phon. is connected with Stylistics. First of all through the intonation (speech melody, sentence stress, rhythm, pauses, timber). They serve to express emotions. They help to distinguish different attitudes on the part of the speaker & the author. Very often the writer helps the reader to interpret his ideas through the specific words & remarks. (He sad angrily. A shot pause.) Phon. is also connected with Styl. trough the repetition of words, phrases & sounds. The repetition of identical or similar sounds is called alliteration. It helps to impart a melodic effect to the utterance & to express certain emotions.

2 Phoneme, its nature, definition. Variants of phonemes. Phoneme is a unit of phonology. There are different opinions on the nature of the phoneme & its definition. 1. I.A. Baudouin de Courteney - the founder of the phoneme theory, defined the phoneme as a physical image of a sound. He originates the so called mentalist view of the phoneme. 2. The abstractional conception of the phoneme was originated by F. de Saussure, the famous Swiss linguist, & the Danish linguist L.Hjelmslev. The abstract view regards the phoneme independent of the phonetic properties. 3. Trubetskoy, Bloomfield, Jakobson viewed the phoneme as a minimal sound unit by which meanings may be differentiated. They stated that the features of the phoneme involved in the differentiation of words are called distinctive. They can be found in the contrastive sets. 4. The physical level of the phoneme was originated by B. Jones, who defined the phoneme as a family of sounds the members which show phonetic similarity & can not occur in the same phonetic context as any other member. 5. L. Shcherba was the first to define the phoneme as a real, independent distinctive unit which manifests itself in the form of allophones -the actually pronounced speech sounds, variants of phonemes. He stated that in actual speech we utter a much greater variety of sounds, that we are aware of (try-took-theater-rhythmcot.). Allophones are realized in concrete words. Prof. Vassilyev developed Shcherbas theory & presented a detailed definition of the phoneme in his book English Phonetics A theoretical Course where he writes that a phoneme is a dialectical unity of three aspects: 1) material, real & objective because it really exists independently of our will or intention in the material form of speech sounds, allophones; 2) abstractional & generalized it because we may it abstract from concrete realizations for classificatory purposes; 3) functional (constitutive, distinctive, recognitive) because its function is to make one word or its grammatical form distinct from the other, it constitutes words & help to recognize them. Phoneme can be discovered by the method of minimal pairs. This method consists in finding pairs of words, which differ in one phoneme - tan-ban-fan-can. The phonemes of a language follow a system of apposition, in which any one phoneme is usually opposed to any other phoneme in at least one position, in at least one lexical or grammatical minimal pair.

3 Articulatory transition of vowel & consonant phonemes. Assimilation. Accommodation. Elision. Assimilation is a modification of a consonant under the influence of a neighboring consonant as a result of which one of the sounds becomes fully or partly similar to the adjoining sound. Acc. to the direction assimilation can be: progressive (the assimilated con-t is influenced by the presiding consonant [buks dogz]); regressive (the presiding con-t is influenced by the one following it [nju:z nju:speipe]); double (reciprocal) (two adjacent con-t influence each other [twenti]). Assimilation can be historical & leaving. Elision is a fall of some sound, the phonetic occurrence when one of the neighboring is not realized in rapid or careless speech in order to keep the rhythm. Elision can be historical ([ofn oftn]) & contemporary. English spelling is full of silent letters (work, write, knife, knee). The most common cases of contemporary elision is: 1) /t, d/ in /ft, st, t, t, vd, zd, d/. (cleft palate [klief p l t]). 2) /pt, kt, bd, gd, t t, d d / (dubbed film [dab film]). 3) /md, nd, d/ (slammed the door [slem do:]). Accommodation is

5 Syntactical expressive means & stylistic devices. The special media of language which secure the desirable effect of the utterance are called stylistic devices or expressive means. They serve the purpose of logical & emotional intensification of the utterance. They are distinguished to phonographical, morphological, lexical, syntactical & lexicosyntactical levels. To syntactical EMs & SDs the follow ones refer. 1)Rhetorical question - a peculiar interrogative construction which semantically remains a statement. Repetition - recurrence of the same word, word combination, phrase for two or more times. Acc. to the place which the repeated unit occupies in the sentence (utterance), repetition is classified into several types: 1) anaphora: a..., a..., a.... 2) Epiphora: ...a, ...a, ...a. 3) Framing: a.......a. 4) Catch repetition: ... a, a.... 5) Chain repetition: ...a, a...b, b...c, c..,.6) Ordinary repetition. 7) Successive repetition: ...a, a, a.... The most emphatic type of repetition. Parallel constructions - a purely syntactical type of repetition for here we deal with the repetition of the structure of several successive sentences. Reversed parallelism is called chiasmus. The second part of a chiasmus is inversion of the first construction. (Now he understood. He understood many things. Obviously this is an infection. Obviously.) Inversion - a SD in which the direct word order is changed (In God we trust). There is partial & complete inversion. Suspense - a deliberate postponement of the completion of the sentence. Detachment - a SD based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the help of punctuation (intonation). (She was crazy about you. In the beginning.) Ellipsis - deliberate omission of at least one member of the sentence. (In manner, close & dry. In voice, husky & low.) One-member sentences - sentences consisting only of a nominal group, which is semantically self-sufficient. Break - reflects the emotional or/& psychological state of the speaker: a sentence may be broken because the speaker's emotions prevent him from finishing it Another cause of the break- is the desire to cut short the information with which the sentence began. Polysyndeton repeated use of conjunctions. Asyndeton - deliberate omission of conjunctions. Attachment - the second part of the utterance separated from the first one by a full stop though their semantical & grammatical ties remain very strong. ("Give me an example," I said quietly. "Of something that means something. In your opinion."). 7. Phonetic expressive means & stylistic devices. The special media of language which secure the desirable effect of the utterance are called stylistic devices or expressive means. They serve the purpose of logical & emotional intensification of the utterance. They are distinguished to phonographical, morphological, lexical, syntactical & lexicosyntactical levels. To phonetic EMs & SDs the follow ones refer. Onomatopoeia sound imitation, the use of words whose sounds imitate those of the signified object or action, such as mew, "murmur", "grumble", bang. Alliteration - the repetition of consonants, usually at the beginning of words. ( ) Assonance - the repetition of similar vowels, usually in stressed syllables. (H .)The above-mentioned EMs help to achieve the two opposite effects: euphony (a sense of ease, pleasant, comfort in pronouncing & hearing), or cacophony (a sense of stain, unpleasant, discomfort in pronouncing or hearing).(The fair breeze blew. He swallowed the hint with a gulp, a gasp & a grin.) Graphon the intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word used to reflect its authentic pronunciation or to convey the intensity of the stress, emphasizing the stressed words. Graphon can give some information about the speaker's origin, social & educational background, physical or emotional condition, physical defects, young age i.e. & conveys the atmosphere of authentic life communication. Types of Graphon: 1) italics; 2) multiplication (Alllll are free); 3) capitalization (HELP): 4) hyphenation (h-e-l-p); 5) grammar (I wanna home) .6) steps (manner of lines arrangement ()) (nairplane- airplane , Best jeans for this Jeaneration).

6 Lexical expressive means & stylistic devices. The special media of language which secure the desirable effect of the utterance are called stylistic devices or expressive means. They serve the purpose of logical & emotional intensification of the utterance. They are distinguished to phonographical, morphological, lexical, syntactical & lexicosyntactical levels. To lexical EMs & SDs the follow ones refer. Metaphor transference of names based on the associated likeness between two objects. If a metaphor involves likeness between inanimate & animate objects, we deal with personification. Metaphor, as all other SDs, is fresh, original, genuine., when first used, & trite, hackneyed, stale when often repeated. When the speaker uses a group of metaphors this cluster is called a sustained (prolonged) metaphor. (He smelled the ever-beautiful smell of coffee imprisoned in the can. I am the new year.) Metonymy transference of names based on the nearness of objects or phenomena. If the transference is based on the relations between a part & a whole we deal with synecdoche. (The skirt will be a mass of wrinkles in the back. He made his way through the perfume & conversation.) Zeugma - a SD based on the polysemantic structure of the word. The word is used once within the same context but is realized in at least two of its meanings simultaneously. (After a while & a cake he crept to the door.) Pun - a SD based on the polysemantic nature of the word. The word is repeated several times within one context each time being realized in one of the meanings. (His sins were scarlet, but his books were read.) Antonomasia - a lexical SD in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun or vice versa, i. e. A SD, in which the nominal meaning of a proper name is suppressed by its logical meaning or the logical meaning acquires the new - nominal - component. ("He tells each Mary the same stupid things). Another type of antonomasia we meet when a common noun serves as an individualizing name ( Dr. Rest, Dr. Diet . I never met such a Gorgon.) Epithet expresses characteristics of an object, both existing & imaginary. Through long & repeated use epithets become fixed: true love, merry Christmas.There is affective (serve to convey the emotional evaluation of the object by the speaker: nasty, magnificent) & figurative or transferred (is formed of metaphors, metonymies, similes expressed by adjectives: the smiling sun, the sleepless pillow). (Her painful shoes slipped off). Hyperbole - a SD in which emphasis is achieved through deliberate exaggeration. When it is directed the opposite way, when some feature is intentionally underrated, we deal with understatement (She wore a pink hat, the size of a button.) Oxymoron - a combination of two semantically contradictory notions, that help to emphasize contradictory qualities simultaneously existing in the described phenomenon as a unity (It was an open secret. The garage was full of nothing.) 8. Stylistic differentiation of the English vocabulary. The English vocabulary can be classified from a stylistic point of view as a system the elements of which are interconnected, interrelated & yet different aspects of the words may be singled out as independent. Every notional word carries some definite or basic inf-on & additional inf-on. All the words may be divided into neural (the majority of words which have no add. meaning), literary (used in writing, polished, official speech) & colloquial (used in everyday ordinal speech). The common lit., common coll. & neutral words are grouped under the term St&ard Eng. Voc. (kid-child-infant; go oncontinue-proceed). Literary words are divided into general lit., which have no limitations in using, & special lit. (high-flown) words which are limited by semantic or stylistic factors. They are: 1) neologisms new-appeared words which denote new phenomena (computer, armful, ex-champion, mucher, stepmotherl&), 2) archaisms, obsolete words are associated with the printed page. Archaic words may also be used in conversational situations in contrast to archaisms which are already partly or fully out of circulation, rejected by the living language & used in historical novels & in poetry. (Thou & thy, aye (yes) & nay (no)); historisms words denoting objects & phenomena, which are things of the past & no longer exist.3) barbarisms borrowed foreign words, that preserved their native spelling & pronunciation (tet-a-tet, se-la-vi); 4) terms denote various scientific objects, processes etc. (milling machine, cranium, bisector ). Special colloquial vocabulary consists of : 1) vulgarisms the words of strong emotive coloring of coarseness & rudeness (shut up, old man, bastard), may be used in belles-letters style in characters speech or in careless speech; 2) dialectical word come from dialects & still retain their dial. character (lass the girl; pet darling), 3) slang new words or current words with a coarse, mocking, cynical coloring whose meaning has been metaphorically shifted? considered as bellow the level of st&ard educated speech. (to kid, a doc, telly, swash(nonsense); 4) jargonisms social, used by particular social classes (to cook to investigate), & professional or professionalism (like terms), used by professional groups (the screens x-ray). The so-called nonce-words can be regarded to both special lit. & coll. voc-ries. They are unique, non-existed words created in some concert situation.

11. Common characteristics of Germanic languages. All of the IndoEuropean languages are inflectional & have a common word-stock. But the Germanic subgroup has individual characterizes. (Sc&., Danish, Norwegian, German, English etc.). 1) The development of a week verb conjugation along with a strong conjugation. In all Germanic languages the verbs are divided into strong (irregular) & week (regular). Irregular (strong) verbs form their basic forms (past , Participle II) by means of internal change of the root vowel (do/did/done) & regular (week) verbs - by means of ending -ed added to the infinitive stern (work/worked/worked). 2) A twofold declination of adjectives (strong & week). When a demonstrative, possessive pronoun or the definite article presides the adjective or when it is used substantively (used as noun: wounded) in is declined on one way called week. Modern English doesnt distinct with week & strong forms of adjectives. But the Earliest English does because of its history. 3) A fixed stress ascent. In Germanic the stress became fixed upon the root syllable, whereas the stress in Indo-European was originally free. & in Modern English we can generally recognize native words as distinguished from those that have been borrowed from other languages by observing the stress when affixes (prefixes & suffixes) are added in front of new words: friend, friendly, friendship, unfriendly [ native, because the stress remains when we add the affixes; pure, purification purify [ the stress shifts, so, they are borrowed. 4) Irregular shift of consonants. Acc. to the Grimms law there is a correspondence between Indo-European & Germanic consonants & Germanic sounds of some consonants are the results of the development of the original Indo-European consonants as they existed in the Indo-European ancient lang. The law is subdivided into three acts: 1) IE voiceless stops [p], [t], [k] developed into voiceless fricatives [f], [O], [h] ( - five; three; - hrof); 2) voiced stops were shifted to voiceless stops ( - pool; - two; genu knee); 3) voiced aspirated stops were reflected as voiced non-aspirated stops in Germanic (bhratabrother; dho - do; ghosts - guests). 15. The verb. Grammatical categories of Voice & Mood The Verb is a notional part of speech which denotes an action (to run), state (to be), feeling (to smell) & process of thinking (to think). The basic forms of English verbs are Infinitive, the Past Indef., Participle II. The verb in its finite form can be changed acc. to the categories of person, number, tense (Past, Present, Future), aspect (Indef., Cont., Perf, Perf. Cont.), voice (Passive, Active) & mood (Indic., Imper., Subj.) Also verbs may have finite & non-finite forms, be transitive & intransitive, regular & irregular. Voice is the form of the verb shows the relation between the action & its subject, indicating whether the action is performed by the subject or passes on to it. This category shows the direction of the process The passive form is formed by the unique lexeme to be in the corresponding form & Partic. II of the conjugated verb & expresses the reception of the action; the active form leaves this meaning unspecified. The using of the passive voice is much more broader in English than in Russian. But the words of the statal subclass are alien to the passive form (have, belong, cost). The passive form is usually chosen when: 1) the active subject is unknown or cant easily be stated; 2) the act. subj. is self-evident; 3) there are special reasons for not mentioning the act. subj.; 4) a greater interest is given to the passive subject; 5) to connect two sentences. The category of Mood expresses the character of connection between the process denoted by the verb & the objective reality, real un unreal. Indic. & Imper. Moods regard the process as a fact that really happened, happens or will happen. Subj. Mood treats it as an imaginary, desirable, planed, wished phenomenon. The Pres. Subj. is associated with the idea of hopeful, likelihood, while the Past Perf, Subj. indicates doubt, unreality, modesty, politeness.

13. Morphemic structure of the word. The morphological system of language reveals its properties through the morphemic str-re of words. The word is an extremely compound & many-sided phenomenon. Acc. to different linguistic trends the word may be defined as the min. potential sentence, the min. free linguistic form, the elementary component of the sentence, the grammatically arranged combination of sound with meaning, uninterrupted string of morphemes etc. But none of them has the power to be precise. Here are the fundamental properties of the word. Its the elementary component of the lexicon & together with other nominative units the word is used for the formation of the sentence. It is a nominative unit of language formed by morphemes meaningful segmental components made of phonemes. As soon as the morpheme is nothing but a part of the word its functions are effected only as the correspondent constituent functions of the word as a whole (train-ed /-d/; publish-ed /-t/; meditat-ed /id/). Notional words first of all nouns & verbs possess some morphemic features expressing gram-al (morp-al) meanings. These features determine the gram-l forms of the word. 14. The verb. Grammatical categories of Tense & Aspect The Verb is a notional part of speech which denotes an action (to run), state (to be), feeling (to smell) & process of thinking (to think). The basic forms of English verbs are Infinitive, the Past Indef., Participle II. The verb in its finite form can be changed acc. to the categories of person, number, tense (Past, Present, Future), aspect (Indef., Cont., Perf, Perf. Cont.), voice (Passive, Active) & mood (Indic., Imper., Subj.) Also verbs may have finite & non-finite forms, be transitive & intransitive, regular & irregular. The verbal forms denoting time relations are called Tenses. It is the most typical gram. category showing how the speaker determines the time relation of the utterance to the moment of speech, which is very important because in some lang. tenses are arranged to express the time of an action (past, present, future as in Ukr. & Rus.), but in other lang. the relation of speaker to the moment of speech is conveyed indirectly (Past Perf., Fut. Perf.). The category of aspect characterizes the action from another point of view & deals with the development of it: whether the action is taken in its progress, its development, or it is simply stated, its nature being unspecified. The Common aspect represents the action as simply occurring. The Contin. aspect considers the action in its progress at a concrete given moment & almost corresponds to the Russian imperfective aspect. The Perfect aspect reflects a kind of timing, through in a purely relative way. It coordinates two times, locating one of them in retrospect towards the other.

16. Actual division of the sentence. Communicative types of sentences. The sentence is the immediate unit of speech built up of words according to a definite syntactic pattern & distinguished by a contextually relevant communicative purpose. Therefore the primary classification of sentences must be based on the communicative principle. This principle is formulated in traditional grammar as the purpose of communication in acc. with which three cardinal sentence-types have long been recognized in linguistics: I. The declarative sentence. 2.The imperative (inductive) sentence. 3.The interrogative sentence. These communicative sentencetypes st& in strict opposition to one another. The declarative sentence expresses a statement, either affirmative or negative. The imperative sentence expresses inducement, either affirmative or negative. The interrogative sentence expresses a question, i.e. a request for information wanted by the speaker from the listener. The interrogative sentence is naturally connected with an answer, forming together with it a question-answer dialogue unity. There are general, special, alternative & disjunctive questions. Alongside of the above-mentioned, another type of sentences is recognized in the theory of syntax, the so-called exclamatory sentence. It does not possess any complete set of qualities that could place them on one & the same level with the three cardinal communicative types of sentences & its function is purely expressive. Each of the cardinal communicative sentence-types can be represented in the two variants: non-exclamatory & exclamatory. The notional parts of the sentence referring to the basic elements of the reflected situation form, taken together, the nominative meaning of the sentence. The division of the sentence into notional parts can be called "the nominative division". Alongside of the nominative division of the sentence, the idea of the so-called actual division of the sentence has been put forward in theoretical linguistics. The purpose of the actual division of the sentence is to reveal the correlative significance of the sentence parts from the point of view of their actual informative role in an utterance. 17. The noun. Grammatical categories. The Noun is a notional part of speech which names the subject, expresses the substance in the widest sense of the word. Nouns are divided into proper (individual) & common (class, collective, abstract & nouns of material), may be counted or uncounted. They possess two numbers: singular & plural (-s, -es, irreg.-man-men; foreign plural - phenomenon-phenomena). In case of coll., abstr. & material nouns the numeric definition is of no importance at all & it leads to such occurrences as singularia & pluralia tantum. The dual nature of coll. nouns is shown in diff. ways: by the number of the verb or by the referring pronoun. Sometimes the plural form of the material & abstract nouns is used for the stylistic purposes (synecdoche) or to denote large amounts or a high degree of smth. The case indicates the relation of the noun to the other word in the sentence& may be Common & Possessive (genitive). The Common case is of general & indefinite meaning & has no inflection. The Possessive case expresses possession with the various shades of meaning. With nouns denoting inanim. things & abstr. notions its formed by the of-phrase. With nouns denoting the living beings or time & distance, cosmic bodies, collective nouns, country, cities, days, months, in a few set expressions its formed by the ending s. There is no gram-l gender in English as we have in Russian. We find gender distinctions only acc. to the biological category of sex. Gender finds its formal expression in the replacement of nouns by the pronouns he-male/animal; shefemale/animal; it -inanim. thing/animal. He & she are used for animals when they are thought as having personal qualities of human beings; it for animals or very young children; she for inanim. things (ships) or for countries in polit. or cult. context. When sex is not known or specified he is used rather than she. The gender may be expressed lexically by means of different words (boy girl), & suffix ess is usually shows the feminine gender (actress).

18. Grammar in the systemic conception of language. Such discipline as Grammar studies the gram. sys-m of language, analyses and defines its gram. categories the mechanisms of gram. formation of utterances out of the words in the process of speech making. Lingual units stand to one another in to fundamental types of relations: syntagmatic and paradigmatic. Synt. rel, are immediate relations between units in a segmental sequence, they are syntagmatically connected (I was invited by my friends to a new night-club). Morphemes within the words are also connected syntagmatically (invit/ed/; friend/s/; night/-club/). The combination of to words or word-groups one of which is modified by the other forms a unit which is referred to as a syntactic syntagma. They are of four types: predicative, objective, attributive, adverbial. The other type of relations opposed to syntagmatic is called paradigmatic. These relations exist between elements of the system outside the strings where they occur. This intra-systemic relations find their expression in the fact that each lingual unit is included in a set or series of connections based on different formal and functional properties (gram. cat-ies, parts of the sent., synonyms etc.). Syntag. relations are actually observed in utterances and they are, so to say, in presence. Unlike syntag. paradigmatic relations can not be directly seen thats why they are referred to as relations in absence. Also units of lang. are divided into segmental and supra-segmental. Supra-segm. units do not exist by themselves and are realized only with segm. units. They are intonation, pauses, ascents, patterns of word-order etc. Segmental units form a certain hierarchy of six levels(phonemic, morphemic, lexemic, phrasemic, proposemic, textual).

19. Synonymy. Criteria of synonymy. Types of connotation. Euphemisms. The problem of criteria of synonymy is still an object of controversy. Notional criterion defines synonyms as words of the same category of part of speech convening the same notion but different in shades of meaning or stylistic characteristics. There is another semantic criterion which defines synonyms in terms of componential analysis as words with the same denotation but differing in connotation. (to look-to stare-to peer-to peep-to glanceto gaze). In modern research the criterion of interchangeability is sometimes applied. Here synonyms are defined as words which are interchangeable at least in some contexts without any considerable alteration in denotation meaning. Synonyms possess such confusing feature as duality they are somewhat the same but yet they are obviously different (like-love-admire). Synonyms are one of the most important expressive means of the language as they can represent the same phenomenon in different aspects, shades, variations. The skill to choose the most suitable word from a group of synonyms in every context is a great asset (to grin-to smile// ). The only existing classification system of synonyms was established by Ac. Vinogradov and includes three types: ideographic (words with the same notion but different in shades of meaning), stylistic (different in stylistic characteristics) and absolute (coinciding in all their shades of meaning and all their styl. char-cs.). In any language there are some words which are traditionally treated as coarse, impolite, rude unpleasant and avoided to be used in speech. The leading semantic component in the semantic structure of a word is usually termed denotation. It expresses the notional content of a word and define its main meaning. But in order to get a sufficiently clear picture of what the word really means we must take into consideration the additional meaning the word possesses. This is connotative component or connotation which may be emotive, evaluative (posit. or negat.), of duration, of cause. There are words in every language which people instinctively avoid because they are considered indecent, indelicate, rude, too direct or impolite. And these words are replaced in a roundabout way by substitutes called euphemisms. This device is dictated by social conventions, taboos and generally accepted norms which are often exaggerated and groundless (lavatory washroom, restroom, water-closet, etc.). They may be religious, medical, moral and parliamentary and their life is usually short.

20. Meaning. Polysemy. Semantic structure of the word. Types of the semantic components. Meaning and context. Meaning is a component of the word through which a concept is communicated and giving to word the ability of denoting real affects, qualities, actions and abstract notions. Inner form of the word, its meaning, presents the semantic str-re of the word. The leading semantic component in the semantic structure of a word is usually termed denotative component or denotation. It expresses the notional content of a word and define its main meaning. But in order to get a sufficiently clear picture of what the word really means we must take into consideration the additional meaning the word possesses - the connotative component or connotation which may be emotive, evaluative (positive or negative), of duration, of cause. A word having several meanings is called polycemantic and the majority of English words are polys-c. The ability of words to have more than one meaning is polysemy. The wealth of expressive resources of a lang. depends on the degree to which polysemy has developed in the it. The number of sounds combinations that human speech organs can produce is limited and at a certain stage of lang. development the production of new words by morphemic means becomes limited. Here polysemy becomes increasing important in providing the means for enriching the vocabulary. The complicated process of polysemy development involves both the appearance of new meanings and the loss of old ones. As a result of polysemy there are cases of misunderstanding when a word is used in a certain meaning but accepted by listener in another. In such way a lot of jokes are made. Here the context is a powerful preventative against confusion in meanings (a dull razor, a dull student, a dull book/ bright color, bright metal, bright face). 22. The etymology of English words. Give the reasons why the words are borrowed. Changes which words undergo. English vocabulary is one of the most extensive among the world 's languages contains an immense number of words of foreign origin as a result of different invasions Britain underwent and internat. contacts. It was necessary to create names for the new notions and things invaders brought with them. The history of EL begins with the invasion of the British Isles by Germanic tribes in the 5th c. Before the Germanic invasion the British Isles must have been inhabited for at least fifty thousand years by the Celts - a tribal society. Celtic languages were spoken over extensive parts of Europe before our era but later they were absorbed by other IE languages. Then in 43 A.D. Romans invaded Britain and remained there about 4c. As a result of Roman invasion many words of Latin origin have come to the language (street, port, wall, kitchen, plum). In the 1st c. A.D. West Germanic invaders (Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians) conquered the British Isles and their dialects were used for oral communication cause there was no written form. The dialect of the Angles of Mercia became predominant and later gave the name of the English lang. The conversion of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes who were pagans to Christianity began at the end of the 6th cent. and enlarged the word-stock by the words of Greek (arithmetic, theatre, geography) and Latin (paper, candle, school) origin and Many Scandinavian words appeared after the Danes invasion started at the end of the 8 th cent (sky, skirt, happy, ill, law, leg, take). In 1066 the English were defeated by the Normans and England became a bi-lingual country. French words penetrated every aspects of social life (state, power, court, crime, war, army, pupil, lesson, table , plate). The Renaissance Period was marked by a new wave of interest to Greek and Roman heritage and brought a great number of Latin, Greek and Italian borrowings (major, minor, to elect, status, method, music, piano, opera). There are about 65-70% of borrowed words in English.

21. Lexicology as a brunch of linguistics. A word. Main lexicological problems . Lexicology is a branch of linguistics studying the word - a unit of speech which due to its meanings serves the purpose of human communication, its the total of the sounds comprising it. Structurally the word possesses several characteristics, such as the external and the internal structures. By external structure we mean its morphol. str-re. (post - grad uate s).The internal str-e of the word, or its meaning, is referred to as the words semantic structure, consisting of denotative and connotative components. Another structural aspect of the word is its unity. The word has external (or formal) and semantic unity. The formal unity of the word can best be illustrated by comparing a word and a word-group with identical constituents. The difference between a redbreast and a red breast is best explained by their relationship with the grammatical system of the language. The word redbreast, which is characterized by unity, possesses a single grammatical framing: redbreast. In the word-group a red breast each constituent can have grammatical forms of its own. Acc. to semantic unity in the word-group a red breast each of the meaningful words conveys a separate concept, but the word redbreast conveys only one concept: the type of bird. Two of the main lexicological problems have already been staffed. The problem of word-building is associated with processes of making new words. Semantics is the study of meaning. Modern approaches to this problem are characterized by two different level of study: syntagmatic and paradigmatic. On the syntagmatic level, the semantic structure of the word is analyzed in its immediate relations with neighboring words, on the paradigmatic level - in its relations with other words in the vocabulary system (similar meaning (work - labour) opposite meaning (to accept to reject), different characteristics (man chap guy)). The main problems of paradigmatic studies are synonymy, antonymy and functional styles. Phraseology is the branch of lexicology specializing in word-group, which are characterized by stability of structure and transferred meaning (birds of a feather- ). Also lexicology studies the vocabulary of a language as a system (diachronically and synchronically). 23. International words. Etymological doublets. Translation-loans. Inern. words are mainly borrowings. They usually convey notions which are significant in the field of commun-on. Many of them are of Greek and Latin origin, the names of sciences (math., biology, physics, chemistry) and terms art (music, theatre, comedy, artist). Political terms often occur in the intern. group of borrowings: politics, revolution, progress, democracy. Scientific and technological advances of the 20th c. created a great number of intern. words: radio, computer, antibiotic, sputnik. Among the English words contributed to world lang. the great place belongs to the sports terms: football, hockey, cricket, rugby. The names of fruits and foodstuffs imported from exotic countries are also intern.: coffee, coca-cola, banana, mango. Inern. words can be easily understood without vocabulary. Words originating from the same etymological source but differing in phonemic shape and in meaning are called etymological doublets. Some of such pairs consist of a native word and a borrowed one The words shirt and skirt etymologically descent from the same root. Shirt is native, skirt is a Scandinavian borrowing. Their phonetic shape is different and yet there is a certain resemblance. Their meanings are also different but they both denote articles of clothing. Others are represented by two borrowings from different languages descended from the same root (canal (Lat.) - channel (Fr)) or were borrowed from the same lang. twice, but in different periods (cavalry (Norm., Fr.) - chivalry (Par., Fr). A doublet may also consist of a shortened word and the one from which it was derived: historystory; fantasy-fancy. The term loan is equivalent to borrowing but it is of a special kind. Such words are not taken into the vocabulary of another language in the same phonetic shape of their own language, but undergo the process of translation. They are not only compound words when each stem is translated separately: wonder child (Ger.-Wunderhind); first dancer (Ital.prima-ballerina); collective farm () - The Russian was borrowed twice by way of translation-loan (collective farm) and by way of direct borrowing (kolkhoz).

24. Word-building. Affixation. Conversion. Composition. Shortening. Sound imitation. Reduplication. Back formation. Word-building is the process of producing new words from the resources of this particular lang. for the purpose of enlarging and enriching its vocabulary. Here are the means of word-building. Affixation is realized by adding affixes to some root morpheme. There are productive (taking part in deriving new words in this particular period of lang. development) and non-productive affixes. Noun forming aff.: -er, -ness, -ing, -dom, -hood, -ship, -th; adjective forming aff.: -ful, -less, -y, -ish, -ly, -en, -some; verb form. aff.: -en, -ize, -afe. Conversion is an affixless way of word building

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