Ethics Paper HSER 511 Liberty University Anna Baucum

All age ranges will be looked at when making the determination as to which model is superior and results in more successful and longterm solutions for the needs of the individual going through therapy. A conclusion will be drawn based on the evidence reviewed. 2 . Further. this paper seeks to establish and understand the parameters of ethics as it relates to group therapy.Ethics Paper Abstract This paper seeks to examine group and individual therapy models to determine which model is most successful based on empirical evidence and case studies that will be reviewed and discussed within this paper.

The American Association of Christian Counselors has established a ³comprehensive. There is no shortage for a Christian counselor to be able to obtain the necessary guides and assistance needed to ensure that ethical guidelines are followed. One group may define as ³what my feelings tell me is right wrong´ while others may describe ethics as the ³standards of behavior our society accepts´ (Velasquez et al. due in part to government as well as non-government agencies that have been established to monitor and advise on issue related to ethics in business. 3 . 1987). legally-sensitive. These answers may be typical of many people in the world today. Ethics are not ubiquitous because they stem from the realm of moral grounds and morals are not globally accepted nor understood. Ethical standards are more prevalent in the United States than in other countries. Ethics stretch across all professions but most importantly ethics play an important role in counseling. clientrespecting. education. unbelieving society. A counselor is entrusted with the most internal and tumultuous struggles of a human being and is expected to provide guidance and professional help to those who cannot help themselves. behavior specific. and detailed code of ethics´ for use by all counseling professionals (2010). A counselor is often faced with ethical decisions that must be faced within the group or individual setting. Ethical codes exist to inform the professional behavior of counselors.Ethics Paper A Definition of Ethics Ethics in the modern world is met with ambiguity and a vague sense of understanding. It is vital for Christian counselors to adhere to the highest ethical standards because of increased scrutiny by a modern. etc.

an early enthusiast and pioneer who traveled around the world consulting on mental health for the World Health Organization (Kemp. 2. communication.´ It is thanks to the pioneering of the early psychologists that today¶s professionals enjoy the norm of group counseling. Under the direction of a group therapist(s). When people come into a group and interact freely with other group members. and that they are alone. people begin to see that they are not alone and can be helped. such as Maxwell Jones. emerging as a standard procedure around the early part of the 20th century (Kemp. 2010). the difficulties that brought them to individual counseling are likely to come up in the group setting as well. Participating in group therapy allows an individual to develop new ways of relating to people.´ Kemp defines therapeutic communities as having qualities of belonging. or gently confront the person in such a way that the difficulty is resolved and alternative behaviors are learned. A report from Lehigh University explains why group therapy works and why it is widely used: 1. It is encouraging to discover that others have similar difficulties or have already 4 .Ethics Paper A Brief History of Group Therapy Group therapy is a recent phenomenon. 2010). 3. interdependence and participation (2010). offer alternatives. governance. Many names appear as the forerunners of group therapy. During group therapy. Many times people feel like their problems are very unique. the group is able to give support. Therapeutic communities are what are known today as ³groups´ or ³group counseling. The idea of group therapy stemmed from the creation of what was termed ³therapeutic communities.

Apparently. Within this climate of trust. group members go off on tangents. and the group becomes misguided and disappointing (Rose. group therapy fails to meet the need of meeting the need for intimate relationships. Why? In part. because the group selection process that a counselor must go through involves making a judgment call about a client¶s ability to tolerate frustrations and scenarios that are complex in nature as well as not be the center of attention. 4. Rose points out that individual therapy provides a private environment where the client can feel at ease about sharing private information about themselves to another person.Ethics Paper worked through a problem that deeply disturbs another group member. (Source: University Counseling & Psychological Services) Part I: Case Studies Group Therapy vs. irrespective of its quality. Individual Therapy Case Study I Rose (2010) suggests that a counselor ask themselves the question ³does the format of group therapy. the facilitator falls ill. Some people find it necessary to keep their experiences 5 . inevitably fail to meet this sort of need [the need for intimate relationships]?´ According to Rose. People are late. Another problem with group is that the group can be lead in many different directions due to a variety of factors. people feel free to care about and help one another. 2010). These types of issues are commonplace in group therapy and must be met with an action plan to keep the group founded and grounded on its original goals and procedures. many people have a problem when it comes to sharing time and allowing others to have limelight rather than everyone focusing on them as an individual.

religion. gender. Group Therapy vs. heightened mastery. race and disability. violence. modeling. De Groot et al (2007) found that treating a large number of youth at the same time (through group therapy) was the most cost-effective way to carry out CBT. In a particular controlled study. and many others besides these. aka. and increased opportunities for 6 . reinforcement. prompting. The study looked at children who came from dysfunctional families and had behavior problems. their negative behaviors decreased dramatically (Graves.Ethics Paper and the things they want to talk about with a therapist in a contained and controlled space so that they can control the amount of pain and disturbance that it not only causes to themselves but to others who may be involved (2010). De Groot et al (2007) goes on to explain that group treatment provides several advantages over individual therapy: ³normalization. 2009). several topics are excluded from group conversation on a regular basis. it was seen that as children increased the amount of individual therapy sessions. Rose¶s (2010) conclusion is that individual therapy is far more beneficial than group therapy. social class. From Rose¶s experience as a therapist. Individual Therapy Case Study II Graves (2009) conducted a study on children and families who were recipient of both individual and group therapy. The patients who benefit from this type of group therapy are youths with anxiety and emotional disturbance. Children with problematic behavior are difficult to manage and Graves suggests that these children receive both individual and group therapy coupled together to ensure the child is getting help from each angle. cognitive-behavior therapy. The study suggests that therapists must be consistent with the children they are serving. due to the nature of the topics and the emotions they evoke: sexuality.

The time-frame of the group therapy plays a role.Ethics Paper social experience. intervention used in the present study can be delivered in a time-limited group format.and cost-efficient treatments. while these benefits exist. and obsessive compulsive symp. The results of the study conducted by Jaurrieta et al concluded that ³both individual and group treatments were effective in reducing the intensity of anxiety.toms compared with patients in a wait-list 7 . Jaurrieta et al found that other studies suggested the same conclusion.´ However. De Groot et al (2007) explains: ³On a practical level. Individual Therapy Case Study III A study by Jaurrieta et al (2008) conducted a pilot that compared individual versus group therapy for dealing with obsessive compulsive disorder.´ Group Therapy vs. individuals from both experimental conditions (individual and group cognitive-behavior therapy) showed a high level of improvement in the obsessive-compulsive behavior. The conclusion was drawn that the family or group focused CBT proved to show a distinct improvement by the children in the clinical trial. as well as improvements in their depression and anxiety symptoms at the end of a 6-month treatment schema (2008). depressive. Further. the group approach to CBT may prove to be a disadvantage because it is too tailored towards one type of youth rather than the group as a whole. and has the potential to be a practical and usable psychosocial intervention for professionals who need to provide time. that is. whether it is a short-term group or a long-term group. the study cited by Jaurrieta et al showed that a group of 63 patients achieved a more rapid response to changing obsessive-compulsive behavior after having gone through individual therapy (2008).

aka. normalisation. it should be taken with a grain a salt. exposure to social situations or practical reasoning. patients attending individual therapy received more individualized treatment.´ On the other hand. (peer) modelling and helping behaviour.Ethics Paper control group. the caveat would be that the study was based on short-term therapy and not long-term. therefore. cost-effectiveness. group treatment (GCBT) could function as a source of reinforcement.e. face to face time with the therapist and more interaction which in turn promoted more rapid growth in the patient. The study leaned more towards favoring the individual treatment over group treatment because. who showed no clinical change´ (2008). However. While this study found both models equally acceptable. such as the costliness and time constraints that come with it. a number of children were selected who had previously been diagnosed with some type of anxiety disorder. i. Individual Therapy Case Study IV Liber et al (2008) suggests that ³there are various arguments for evaluating the efficacy of providing treatment in a group or an individual format. Group Therapy vs. Arguments to offer treatment in a group setting concern a closer representation of daily life experience in the group format. as Jaurrieta et al explains. individual therapy has its own set of drawbacks. In the study conducted by Liber et al (2008). As expected. the argument would be that each child or individual in need of therapy may or may not 8 . On a conceptual level. the conclusion was drawn that children with anxiety disorders benefitted from both models of therapy (group and individual) and there was no outstanding evidence to say that one model outshined the other.

Individual Therapy Case Study V Watson et al (2008) discovered that cognitive-behavioral therapy resulted in just as much effectiveness in patients overcoming depression as did those patients who took antidepressant medication to overcome their psychological problems. in some cases. this could be part of the success of the study and a determining factor in arguing that group therapy is more successful. the study conducted therapy sessions for the patients in both models of therapy. only five continued to have two or more anxiety disorders after treatment was over.Ethics Paper respond to one model better than another. Group Therapy vs. the idea is that therapy is needed for many types of people. The premise of the study was to look at whether or not gender plays a role in cognitive-behavioral therapy and if the results differ in any way. This study simply shows that there is an equal acceptance of both models. It really will depend on the individual and what type of setting he or she is going to be able to gain the most help from. Rather. Watson et al found that in an uncontrolled trial of group therapy. and included parents. more often males in the group had more favorable outcomes than did females (2008). Some studies cited by Watson et al (2008) showed that gender did in fact play a part. group and individual. group therapy versus individual therapy does not have any bearing on the role of gender in therapy. 9 . while others were inclusive. In this case. A study by Monga et al (2009) found that after conducting group therapy with a total of 32 children with two or more anxiety disorders. Because of this inclusion of parents (authority figures). The results on both models did not show distinct differences in terms of failure or success over one or the other. This study was conducted on young children between the ages of 5 and 7. In addition.

Why is the group therapy model seemingly a better idea? Think of the human being element. Further. Group therapy sessions also provide benefit because it allows a quiet individual to mingle with others in the group who may not be as quiet. whether it be a family group.Ethics Paper As to what model of therapy. There are both pros and cons to both models of therapy. etc. Group therapy is simply another way to bring people into a setting that they are already comfortable with. While some people may prefer the individualized attention. the group model presents more 10 . Studies tend to stay in the middle of the road when determining which model is most favorable. From birth till death. non-traditional family setting. each child is born into a family group (obviously there are some who are born into a dysfunctional. a human being is apart of some type of group setting. As newborns. rather than individually. it could be said that group therapy allows for a broader range of success because of the element of underlying understanding of being in groups. educational group. group therapy provides the link between a patient and a therapist being able to connect on a group level. Part 2: Why a Therapist Chooses Group over Individual Therapy Based on the evidence presented by the above case studies. this will be left up to the profession handling the patient. group members can feed off of others in the group and by doing so gain more insight into their own psyche and make greater progress. As such. While a group therapy session may be able to mask certain elements that would appear in an individual group setting. employment group. but that is beside the point for this particular assessment). the conclusion is drawn that a therapist can opt for group therapy in a majority of cases. in order to best serve his or her patients.

Ethical standards are universal in the profession of counselors. An understand of what type of counselors exist is important in understanding how ethics fits into the specific type of counseling field that is being looked at. Jennifer Daw Holloway of Monitor magazine cites The American Psychological Association definition as to the purpose of group therapy being a result of the need for change. There are four stages of change that each member of a group will go through: y Preparing for change y Changing y Accepting and adjusting y Maintaining change (Source: American Psychological Association) Part 3: Ethical Implications in Counseling Many types of counselors exist with each a distinct field and type of individual that is identified based on the field. Not only this. The question should be asked. Educational.100 27. who is therapy designed for? Group therapy is designed for those who desire to change or be changed from a pattern or habit of behavior or psychological problem. all other 275. but the group sessions are most cost-effective and while they take slightly more time than individual groups. the overall time line could be cut short because of more that is accomplished during each group session.500 113.300 86.300 33.800 129.400 11 . and school counselors Rehabilitation counselors Mental health counselors Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors Marriage and family therapists Counselors.Ethics Paper favorable conditions. vocational. Professionals in the human services field must realize that ethical dilemmas will happen on a regular basis. If necessary. 4) Responsibility to the Profession²human services professionals know the limit and scope of their professional knowledge and offer services only within their knowledge and skill base. human service professionals consider the conflict between the values of obeying the law and the values of serving people and may decide to initiate social action. 2) Responsibility to the Community and Society²human service professionals are aware of local. 12 . mental. Where laws are harmful to individuals. he or she first seeks out the colleague in an attempt to manage the problem. the professional then seeks the assistance of supervisors. consultants or other professionals in efforts to manage the problem. They advocate for change in regulations and statutes when such legislation conflicts with ethical guidelines and/or client rights.Ethics Paper (Source: bls. groups or communities. or spiritual in nature. and federal laws. 3) Responsibility to Colleagues²when a human service professional has a conflict with a colleague. and nature of the helping relationship prior to its onset as well as inform clients of the limitations of the proposed relationship. goals. The problems and issues that people face are many times in sync with what is going on today in the world. whether it be physical. The National Organization for Human Services lists a number of guidelines for professions to keep in good standing as an ethical professional: 1) Responsibility to Clients²human services professionals negotiate with clients the purpose.

the patient themselves. given the various types of patients that are seen. All of these guidelines serve as a roadmap to the professional in order to be able to keep in line with the best way to go about pursuing their goals and objectives as their occupation allows. genuineness. 1999). Dea suggests that ³what we have found«operationally. etc? An ideal way to create the best possible therapy method is for the professional to have a checklist that is gone through each time a new patient or patients are seeking help. chair of psychiatry of Northern California Kaiser Permanente suggests that ³careful screening. a professional must know his or her patients. experientially and through data-based review. Dea.anyone who says everyone should be in individual treatment is just irresponsible´ (1999). It is not unusual that a therapist would take part in both methods of therapy. are they in similar life circumstances. 13 . Dr. In addition. considerations such as are there other patients who are also requiring the same treatment and if so. Dr. The main concern by Dr. i.g. Determining factors for which model to use would be first and foremost. empathy. referral by licensed clinicians and one-on-one pre-group orientation make good business and clinical sense´ (Ellen. is that shorter-term [group] therapies are quite effective for the majority of patients who come in«. Then. pragmatism) (2009). At the same time. accountability. Dea is that not enough time is put into screening patients for the benefit of group therapy. age. respect for others..Ethics Paper 5) Responsibility to Employers²human services professionals strive to personify those characteristics typically associated with the profession (e..e.

Finally. know better how to handle themselves and beyond that. group is a concept that is accepted as a daily part of life. Furthermore. the group model can help an individual gain insight into themselves and by observing others within the group. If a group member feels insecure about meeting alone with a therapist and would rather take part in a session where they are not in the limelight.Ethics Paper Certainly it can be expected that group therapy is a great solution for patients. the group model promotes an atmosphere of dignity and respect. 2007). he or she can be understood and helped by fellow group members. The fact that group counseling provides an environment where people can have others around them and seek to gain acceptance is important when trying to heal or overcome some problem. the group model can allow people afraid to open up an excellent opportunity to face fears and overcome them. no questions asked. help others in similar situations (TX Tech. A group provides the support and security that human beings yearn for during the length of life. constructive feedback is a benefit of the group model. meeting with multiple individuals on a daily basis. human beings are apart of a group from the moment of birth. Always. As aforementioned. group therapy allows the therapist to be spared session after session. in that instead of the patient simply receiving feedback from the therapist. When the 14 . In addition. The group model also allows more time for the therapist to focus on preparations and presentation of the group sessions. For the therapist. From that day forward. by which the group members can experience a higher benefit. the group model is perfect. Intimacy in groups is also a way for people to be able to identify with one another. Never should there be a group environment that does not clearly establish the guidelines of behavior by group members at the onset of the group.

My primary focus is to encourage the participants to open up their feelings to the group and enable them to express 15 . There is nothing worse than a leader who is hypocritical in nature and dictates actions for which the he himself is not willing to be accountable.Ethics Paper therapist is not spread too thin. My approach group therapy as the leader is to facilitate the group and inspire them to accomplish the outcome they wish to achieve. this carries over into the attitude and behavior of the therapist and ideally will translate into a more successful outcome. ³But I keep under my body. This being the case. demands people to take responsibility for themselves and take initiative to work to accomplish what they want to get out of life. in a leadership role. there is nothing to differentiate the leader from the follower. The apostle Paul was the best example of this in scripture. I myself should be a castaway. that I¶ve encountered during my adolescent and adult life. the therapist is the best determining component to distinguish the type of therapy that is needed for which patients.´ My philosophy as a leader is one that requires self-sacrifice in that I must set the standard for myself much higher than what I expect from those who follow. By nature I am a strong-willed person who. I Corinthians 9:27 states. I believe where leadership sees the most success is when a leader leads by example. Therapists typically will be cognizant of the needs of their patients. and bring it into subjection: lest that by any means. when I have preached to others. Otherwise. both positive and negative. Part 4: My Approach The leadership qualities that I possess stem from the many experiences and circumstances.

He simply referred to his set of principles. He did not have to determine what His reaction would be.Ethics Paper themselves and interact within the group. If thou be the Son of God. not only am I being conscious of my financial position (cost-effective solutions). Man shall not live by bread alone. In this way. I¶m also able to distribute more of myself and my assistance to more patients. It is written. they can be handled according to principle and not based merely on emotion or obligation. I found it to be extremely delightful and influence on my 16 . when these situation arise. and that is to be expected. thus benefiting more all around. not on his physical or emotional state at the time. I believe the best way to handle these types of issues to have a set of principles already predetermined for which one will not deviate. Clearly. I would prefer to see patients in a group setting. Matthew 4:3. and based his decision on those set of boundaries. command that these stones be made bread. This brings a sense of self acceptance to those who might be reluctant to display their true feelings and opinions due to the possible fear of rejection should their viewpoints be scoffed upon. Our Lord and Savior. which was scripture. there will be times when I must adapt and meet with a patient in a oneto-one basis. Then. But he answered and said. but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. Jesus Christ lived His life based on principle. rather than on an individual basis. As a general rule. he said. Interjecting questions for the group for discussion and fielding disagreement of opinions needs to be handled with tact not allowing for any participants perspective to be discounted.4 ³And when the tempter came to him. Through the experience of a group model in my recent psychoeducational group. which they will.´ I firmly believe in the benefit of group therapy. When tempted by the devil. Many times there are ethical challenges that must be addressed.

Ethics Paper own life. This experience gave me the drive to promote the benefit of group therapy over individual therapy. 17 .

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