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_______________________________________________________________ Section Subject Page _______________________________________________________________ Intorduction I Geological Overview 1. Hofuf, Dam, and Hadrukh Formations 2. Dammam Formation 3. Rus Formation 4. Umm Er Radhuma Formation 5. Aruma Formation 6. Wasia Formation 7. Shu’aiba Formation 8. Biyadh Formation 9. Buwaib Formation 10. Mid-Thamama Formation 11. Yamama Formation 12. Sulaiy Formation 13. Hith Formation 14. Arab Formation 15. Jubaila Formation 16. Hanifa Formation 17. Tuwaiq Mountain Formation 18. Dhruma Formation 19. Marrat Formation 20. Minjur Formation 21. Jilh Formation 22. Sudair Formation 23. Khuff Formation 24. Unayzah Formation 25. Berwath Formation 26. Jubah Formation 27. Jauf Formation 28. Tawil Formation 29. Qalibah Formation 30. Sarah Formation 31. Zarqa Formation 32. Qasim Formation 33. Saq Formation 34. Burj Formation 35. Siq Formation 36. Basement 4 7 7 10 12 12 13 14 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 20 21 23 24 25 25 26 27 27 31 32 32 34 35 36 37 38 38 42 42 42
6. 4. 5. 4. 7. 9. Introduction Conventional-Core Handling Procedures Preserved-Core Handling Procedures Exploration wells’ Core Handling Procedures Safety Precautions
Drilling Mud Effects on Cuttings Examinations 1. 3.II
Casing Points 1. Natural Fluorescence: UV. 5. 2.Light
General Wellsite Requirements
. 13 3/8” CSG) Jilh Formation Casing Point (18 5/8” CSG) Khuff Formation Casing Point
45 45 51 56 63 67 71 75 82 87 96 96 97 102 103 104 112 112 115
Wellsite Core Handling 1. Drilling Mud additives 2. 2. 8. 3. Rus Formation Casing Point (30” Casing) Aruma Formation Casing Point (24” Casing) Ahmadi Member Casing Point (24” CSG) Biyadh Formation Casing Point (18 5/8” CSG) Mid-Thamama Casing Point (18 5/8” CSG) Hith Casing Point (18 5/8” CSG. 13 3/8” CSG) Arab-D Casing Point (18 5/8” CSG.
Reservoir Characterizations. The manual also provides an overview of pitfalls of cuttings description and hydrocarbon fluorescence evaluation while dealing with different types of drilling mud.INTRODUCTION
The main objective of this manual is to provide a quick reference of wellsite field related geological issues to new geologist and trainees. Reservoir Engineering and Drilling. it relates trends in the rate of penetration (ROP) to picking of formation tops. The manual also covers and provides detail instructions on wellsite core handling procedures while alerting new geologists to a number of important safety issues. This data is essential to reduce probable hole problems and to ensure safe picking of casing points. At the same time.
. It is also intended to share the knowledge and experiences that are common to Wellsite Geology with other disciplines in Area Exploration.
The manual provides an overview of the stratigraphy of the Arabian Peninsula while focusing on the most common lithological description on formation and potential reservoir cuttings within Saudi Aramco’s operating areas.
. Geology of the Arab.
Figure 1. marl. loss of circulation is possible in this section.1.
Rate of penetration (ROP) has a random nature and differs from one place to another. Very few strip logs show the lithology description of this section. It contains layers of limestone. 1. and Hadrukh: These formations are usually exposed at the surface or start below the weathered surface. Furthermore.2. Note: fossils are extremely difficult to see in the cuttings samples. Hofuf. and fossils descriptions. Pen. chart.4) for a more detailed lithology.1: Hofuf formation type section (Source: Powers et al. It can only be found in some localized areas in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia.
The quality of cutting samples from these formations is usually poor.3 and 1. Refer to (Figures 1.SECTION I: Geological Overview
SECTION I: GEOLOGICAL OVERVIEW:
TERTIARY Miocene and Pliocene 1. facies. sandstone. Dam. and shale beds.
Geology of the Arab.SECTION I: Geological Overview
. Pen. Geology of the Arab.3: Hadrukh Formation type section (Source: Powers et al.)
Figure 1.2: Dam Formation type section (Source: Powers et al. Pen.
Hadrukh. and Rus Formation type log in Al Hassa area (Source: BRGM. Dammam.)
. 1977. Al-Hassa Development Project: ground water resources study and management program.SECTION I: Geological Overview
Figure 1.4: Hofuf. Dam.
partially recrystallized limestone. shale.
The pre-Neogene unconformity is picked on the appearance of the non-sandy limestone.
Saila Shale Member: Saila is a dark-brownish-yellow.5). Loss of circulation is possible in soft limestone layer. marly limestone. and 1.
Midra: The top of Midra is picked by the appearance of the yellow-brown earthy clay shale below the limestone of the Saila member. Light colored chalky. underlain by gray limestone. soft.4. dolomitic limestone and porous limestone. The Alveolina member also contains gray and blue-gray. subfissile clay-shale.
Khobar Member: It is composed of light brown. Alat 2. followed by a yellowish-brown. 2. Dammam Formation: Dammam formation consists of five members: (top to bottom) 1. tight. At the bottom of the Khobar member is another tight limestone and marl layer. Saila contains also gray and blue marl. Alveolina 4.SECTION I: Geological Overview
Eocene 2. Dolomitic fine-grained orange marl. nummulitic limestone at the top.
Alveolina Member: This member is composed of Light-tan.
Alat Limestone: Alat member is composed of two main sections: 1. Midra
Loss of circulation is possible and. pyretic. therefore. partially recrystallized. Khobar 3. Saila 5.
. the lithology descriptions are found in few strip logs (Figures 1.
Al-Hassa Development Project: ground water resources study and management program. 1977.
Figure 1.5: Type log from type localities and subsurface (Source: BRGM.SECTION I: Geological Overview
Midra gives the drilling fluid a sudden distinctive brown color after the blue clay of the overlaying Alveolina zone.)
refer to the casing-points section in this manual.
ROP tends to be relatively fast in the UER. (SECTION-II).
Loss of circulation is highly possible in the UER because of the soft nature of its carbonates.SECTION I: Geological Overview
3. Umm Er Radhuma (UER) Formation: The UER is a major aquifer in Saudi Arabia. Rus formation: Rus formation is a regular casing point. It is mainly consists of limestone and/or dolomite. especially toward the lower part of the formation.
Lower Eocene-Late Paleocene 4. ROP makes it easier to distinguish the top of UER from the RUS limestone. Thin beds of shale and marl are present. in the Ghawar area. For picking the Rus formation.
fissile. followed by a thick section of limestone and/ or dolomite that is interbedded with shale and marl layers. Refer to the casing points section in this manual for more details on picking the LAS top. gray. Aruma Formation: Aruma is composed of a thin layer of shale at the top.
ROP slows down relative to the upper limestone section.
. It has produced oil from the Lawah field and other fields. The shale may contain lignite or pyrite. (Figure 1. Loss of circulation may occur in the upper part of the Aruma formation.
LAS is a common casing point. especially off-shore wells (Marjan carbonate Reservoir)
Lower Aruma shale: Within the Aruma formation is the Lower Aruma shale (LAS). It is usually green.SECTION I: Geological Overview
CRETACEOUS Upper Cretaceous
5. partially calcareous shale and varying to marl and argillaceous limestone.
Aruma contains an oil bearing reservoir.6)
ROP in the Aruma limestone is relatively slower than that in the UER.
. Safaniya 2. Pen. Wasia Formation: Wasia formation consists of seven members: (top to bottom) 1. Mauddud
Wasia includes several loss of circulation zones. (Source: Powers et al. Wara 5.6: Aruma Formation type section. Mishrif 6. Ahmadi 4. Rumaila 7.)
6.SECTION I: Geological Overview
Figure 1. Geology of the Arab.
Praealveolina is a probable loss of circulation zone. which exhibit fast ROP. It is also easier to identify when Wasia starts with the sand sections of Wara or Safania member.
6.3. Ahmadi Member: Refer to the casing points section in this manual for Ahmadi Identification.SECTION I: Geological Overview
Wasia-Aruma Unconformity: this unconformity can be identified by shale and ironstone appearance. Wara is an oil reservoir in some of the off-shore wells.
. Rumila includes a limestone gas-reservoir in some of the off-shore wells.Ahmadi casing point.
6.4. Praealveolina member top has been frequently picked by wellsite geologists as a separate formation. It is interbedded by shale sections which.
6. as mentioned in the casing point section.5. Mishrif Member: Mishrif member composed mainly of soft limestone that is interbedded by thin shale stringers. However.2. Mauddud Member: Mauddud is a highly possible loss of circulation zone with fast ROP. as can be seen from older strip logs. in turn. However. cause the E-shaped ROP curve. It consists of different kinds of carbonates depending on the location of the well.
Praealveolina member: is composed mainly of limestone and/or dolomite.
6. Mishrif is a gas-oil reservoir in some of the off-shore wells. Also. It is considered to be a loss of circulation zone in many areas.
This section is not a member in the published stratigraphic column used currently in wellsite.
6. Wara Member: Wara is generally consists of layers of siltstone or shale and sandstone.1. Rumila Member: Generally. the Rumila member is composed mainly of multi-colored shale.
6. It is also a reservoir in the offshore fields. Safania is another loss of circulation zone in Wasia. A thin section of carbonate exists.
Lower Cretaceous 7. In the Jubair field. Shu'aiba Formation: Shu’aiba mainly consists of different types of carbonates depending on the well location.
. Shu’aiba is an oil and gas reservoir in some of the off-shore wells. Safania is a major reservoir. Biyadh is a sandstone reservoir.
Shu’aiba is an oil bearing reservoir in Shybah and many off-shore fields.
In many areas Shu’aiba is a loss of circulation zone. However.
Biyadh consists of quartz sandstone interbedded by shale and thin beds of ironstone. Biyadh Formation: Biyadh is a casing point in some wells. in Biyadh.
The Zubair oil reservoir found in the northern fields and off-shore wells exists in the Biyadh formation. as described in the casing point’s section (SECTION II). The vast extent of Shu’aiba is porous with fast ROP. In some of the off-shore wells.SECTION I: Geological Overview
6. Safania Member: Safania is mainly composed of clean sandstone and layers of shale or siltstone.
Biyadh exhibits a relatively faster ROP compared to the boundary formations.7. Khafji Member: Khafji is also composed of sandstone and siltstone. this thin section of carbonates dominates the formation toward the off-shore fields.
This sandstone section is an oil reservoir in some of the northern and off-shore fields such as Rimthan field. 3. and Khurasania fields. the top of Sulaiy has a distinctive drilling break that can be used as a marker when doing well correlations. Sandy Limestone: multi-colored limestone. In fact. Sulaiy is mainly composed of carbonates (limestone). Buwaib is composed of three distinct layers: (top-bottom) 1. and exhibit different levels of dolomatization depending on the location of the well. However. At the bottom of Yamama is another section of limestone. Sulaiy Formation (lower Ratawi Reservoir): Like Yamama. Yamama Formation: Yamama is mainly composed of soft carbonates (calcarnitic limestone).
10. Mid-Thamama does not appear on the latest stratigraphic column. Water flow may occur in the Sulaiy formation. Argillaceous Limestone Section: multi-colored. it is sill used frequently in the current wells’ geological programs.
Sulaiy exhibits a faster ROP due to the abundance of the soft calcarnite. Mid-Thamama: Mid-Thamama is composed of hard carbonates (limestone) which exhibit a slow ROP. dolomitized in part. Sandstone section: exhibits poorly sorted quartz sandstone and interbedded
by siltstone in some wells. Buwaib Formation: Generally. This section is the Upper Ratawi reservoir which has produced oil in many fields such as Marjan.
2.SECTION I: Geological Overview
The Lower Ratawi reservoir exists at the top part of Sulaiy. Dolomite is also present with different level of dolomitization from one area to another.
In some areas Jubaila contains a thin oil reservoir.10) shows Jubaila Formation from a well in the Qatif area. exists at the top part of Hith. and 1. It consists of porous layers of soft carbonates separated by anhydrite. The porous layers contain the Arab reservoirs and the anhydrite units seal these reservoirs.8) shows a more detailed lithology description from the outcrop. (Figures 1. D. However. Salt can be identified by distinctive fast ROP breaks and an increase of chloride in the drilling mud. Arab-A. limestone.7. (Figure 1.
Thin layers of salt (halite) exist in Hith anhydrite. if present.SECTION I: Geological Overview
JURASSIC 13. It is difficult to find halite in the cutting samples.10)
ROP slows down in the anhydrite units and speeds up in the soft carbonates. C.
. Hith Formation: Hith is predominantly composed of a thick layer of anhydrite interbedded occasionally by thin carbonate beds (dolomite. dolomitic limestone.
Salt stringers occur in the Arab formation.
14. Arab Formation: Arab formation consists of 4 members. B. the level of chloride increases significantly in the drilling mud.10)
15. Also. Jubaila Formation Jubaila is generally made of well-indurated argillaceous limestone.
Hith is a casing point as described in the casing points section. It has produced oil in Abu-Hadria and Manifa fields among others. it could easily be identified by the distinctive fast drilling breaks. (Figure 1. (Figure 1. ROP is
distinctively slower than the overlaying Arab formation and the underling Hanifa formation.
7: Arab Formation type section and reference section (Abqaiq-71) (Source: Powers et al.)
. Pen. Geology of the Arab.SECTION I: Geological Overview
Hanifa Formation: Hanifa is another carbonate formation. The top is marked by a thick bed of oolitepellet calcarenite. much of it oolitic. Pen.9)
Hanifa is an oil reservoir in many areas. The formation is made of alternating aphanitic and calcarenitic limestone. ROP is relatively faster than the boundary formations. Argillaceous limestone units and thin beds of shale are also present. Geology of the Arab.
. (Figure 1.SECTION I: Geological Overview
Figure 1.8: Jubaila Limestone reference section. (Source: Powers et al.)
16. Dolomatization has occurred in some parts of Hanifa.
Porous units of limestone occur at the upper part of the formation. limestone section (mainly aphanitic limestone and calcaranitic limestone). and Qatif fields. compacted. Tuwaiq Mountain Formation: Generally. Geology of the Arab.9: Hanifa Formation reference section. the Upper Fadhili oil reservoir is present at the lower part of the formation.)
17. Ramlah. Pen.SECTION I: Geological Overview
Figure 1. (Figure 1. the Tuwaiq Mountain formation is a massive. (Source: Powers et al. forming the Hadria reservoir which has produced oil in the Fadhili.
. Thin beds of shale and marl are occasionally present in the formation. Also.10)
ROP is generally slow except in the reservoir zone.
10: Sequence stratigraphy of the Middle to Late Jurassic of the Qatif field.SECTION I: Geological Overview
Figure 1. Bahrain. Special Publication 2. GeoArabia. (Source: Plate Sequence Stratigraphy.)
a thicker bed of limestone that is interbedded by shale units. above. Middle Dhruma: Middle Dhruma is composed mainly of limestone.
18.1-A: Hisyan member: Usually.
18. Upper Dhruma. it starts with a bed of shale. Sharar Reservoir and Faridah are examples of these porous layers.1.1-B: Atash member: the top is also marked by shale. Lower Dhruma: The majority of the Lower Dhruma consists of shale.3. Upper Dhruma: (top to bottom) 18. which is subdivided into the Hisyan and Atash members 2. such as in the Lower Fadhili Reservoir. beds of carbonates (limestone and/or argillaceous limestone) and shale are alternating. if present.
The majority of Hisyan drills relatively slower than the lower part of Tuwaiq Mountain formation (Upper Fadhili Reservoir). Atash limestone exhibits reservoir quality units. Thin beds of Gypsum are present. Dhruma Formation: Dhruma consists of: (top to bottom) 1.
Middle Dhruma can be identified by the strong-negative drilling break after the fast drilling in the Lower Fadhili Reservoir. and Atash (Lower Fadhili Reservoir). Below. Below. containing beds of clean calcarnite at different levels with good porosity.
18.2.SECTION I: Geological Overview
18. Middle Dhruma 3. Lower Dhruma which contains the Dhibi unit
18. but not in all areas. except for the Dhibi limestone member at the upper part.
11) shows more details of lithology. (Figure 1.)
. Pen.SECTION I: Geological Overview
19. Marrat Formation: The majority of Marrat is made of limestone. This shale section could be identified by a negative drilling break.
Figure 1.11: Marrat Formation reference section (Source: Powers et al.
Marrat reservoir exists in the calcaranitic limestone section at the upper part of the formation. Anhydrite is found in various wells at the top of Marrat. Geology of the Arab. A distinctive brick red pyretic shale layer is present within the formation.
oil has been produced from the Minjur formation in the Jauf field. Minjur Formation: Upper Minjur: The top of Minjur is marked by the appearance of multi-colored loose sandstone and shale. dolomitic limestone.
21.SECTION I: Geological Overview
TRIASSIC 20. Anhydrite is present as well as salt stringer.1. which contributes to the ROP slowing down. shale percentage
. Drilling is alternately fast (in the sandstone) and slow (in the siltstone). Thin ironstone stringers are found. These salt stringers. but it is wet. also. off-white dolomite. However. claystone. Also. Upper Jilh Formation: Upper Jilh can be divided into the following rock units: • Interbedded light gray. Shale is abundant in this unit. Jilh Formation: The Jilh top is marked by the appearance of anhydrite and/or carbonates (commonly oolitic limestone) after the Minjur sandstone and/or shale. Upper Jilh 2.
Jilh formation is divided into: 1. •
Jilh Dolomite: The Jilh Dolomite rock unit is marked by the appearance of the sucrosic (clean) dolomite or dolomitic limestone. within the formation.
Minjur exhibits good reservoir quality.
Lower Minjur: Sandstones are interbedded by siltstones and shale. Lower Jilh
21. and shale. This section has more porosity than the overlain section. It is interbedded by layers of siltstones. can be traced by the distinctive fast drilling breaks. if present.
(Base Jilh Dolomite)
Base Jilh Dolomite is a common casing point.
22. Sudair Formation: The upper Sudair is predominantly composed of shale (mostly brick-red shale). However. the lower Jilh is composed mainly of carbonates (dolomite. casing is set in the Base Jilh Dolomite to increase the mud weight to compensate for the high-pressure zone.
ROP increases relative to the upper section. anhydrite. dolomatic limestone.
Like the upper Jilh. the upper Sudair exhibits reservoir quality stringers (dolomite) outside of Saudi Arabia (Kuwait). However. as mentioned in the casing point section in this manual.2.
21. ROP is relatively slow. the Lower Jilh is known to be a high pressure zone. and shale.SECTION I: Geological Overview
decreases/disappears at the Jilh dolomite. Lower Jilh: Below the Jilh Dolomite is a rock unit that is marked by the increased appearance of shale again after the Jilh Dolomite.
The lower Sudair contains layers of carbonates and anhydrite as well as shale and siltstone. Therefore. This porous section contains the Jilh Reservoir. and limestone).
. ROP is relatively slower in this section relative to the Jilh Dolomite.
A2. B. Khuff Formation: Khuff is a massive interbedded limestone. Unayzah A. Unayzah Formation: Unayzah formation is a major clastic formation in the stratigraphic column.
The formation has two common casing points. and C. (Figure1. The formation is divided into three members.
The sandstone-siltstone special distribution has a random nature within the formation. Shale is present especially toward the lower part. They mainly produce gas. the old classification of the formation is still widely used.13). B. D anhydrite. Lately. Therefore.12) shows more detailed lithological description of the section. dolomite.
The Khuff formation contains three gas reservoirs (Khuff A.
The rate of penetration varies between the reservoir zones and the less porous sections. However. the wellsite geologist should not totally rely on correlations with the offset wells. C. and dolomitic limestone formation with occasional anhydrite. Unayzah-A is the most porous section of all Unayzah units. Khuff-A. and B has produced oil in central Arabia only. B. C. and Khuff-E. and C). B. a new subdivision of the formation has been adopted in SAUDI ARAMCO (Figure 1. (Figure 1. Unayzah consists of sandstone sections interbedded by siltstone and/or shale layers.SECTION I: Geological Overview
PERMIAN/CARBONIFEROUS 24. as described in the casing points section.
Unayzah contains four reservoirs Unayzah-A. It has been previously divided into three members Unayzah-A.14) shows a detailed description of the Unayzah formation from Hawtah-6.
Pen. Geology of the Arab.SECTION I: Geological Overview
ROP drills relatively fast in the porous sandstone units and slows down in the siltstone.12: Khuff Formation reference section Source: Powers et al.)
SECTION I: Geological Overview
Figure 1.13: Unayzah new stratigraphic classification (Saudi Aramco)
.14: The Unayzah Formation and “basal Khuff clastics” sequence in HWTH-6 (Source: Plate Sequence Stratigraphy.SECTION I: Geological Overview
Figure 1. Special Publication 2. GeoArabia. Bahrain.
.SECTION I: Geological Overview
25. GeoArabia.15: Berwath and Jubah Formations in Abu-Safah-29 (Source: Plate Sequence Stratigraphy.15)
Figure 1. Bahrain. (Figure 1. Berwath Formation: Berwath is composed mainly of shale interbedded by thin layers of dolomite. A thin layer of sandstone is present toward the lower boundary with Jubah. Special Publication 2.
. Subbat: contains Jauf Reservoir
5. Murayr (Fiyadh) 4. 1. GeoArabia.16). Jubah Formation: Jubah is a sandstone formation interbedded by siltstone and/or silty-shale (Figures1.15. sandstone beds are light gray and contain light and dark minerals that give it a “salt and pepper” appearance. Mica occurs. Tawil.16: Jubah.
Figure 1. Special Publication 2.
27. The sand in Jubah sandstone is mostly medium and coarse grained sandstone that contains subrounded and rounded quartz grains. Sha’iba
(Figure 1. and Qalibah Formations corss-section(Source: Plate Sequence Stratigraphy. Qasr 2.16) shows a generalized description of the formation. Bahrain. In the lower part. Jauf Formation: The Jauf formation is subdivided into 5 members: 1.SECTION I: Geological Overview
DEVONIAN 26. Ferruginous and manganiferous cement and grain coatings are common. Hammamiyat 3. Jauf.
17: Generalised stratigraphic column of the Jauf Formation of nowthwest Arabia (Source: Plate Sequence Stratigraphy.)
. GeoArabia. Bahrain. Special Publication 2.SECTION I: Geological Overview
sheet 28C. It contains mainly sandstone and siltstone.18) shows lithology description from the outcrop. Saudi Arabia)
. (Figure 1. Tawil Formation: Tawil is another clastics formation.
Figure 1.SECTION I: Geological Overview
28.18: Tawil Formation Reference section (Source: Explanatory notes to the geologic map of the Al Qalibah Quadrangle.
19: Subsurface composite reference section of Qalibah Formation in central Arabia (Source: Plate Sequence Stratigraphy.20) shows an outcrop description of the formation. Qalibah Formation: Qalibah is subdivided into 2 members: 1.
Figure 1.19) shows a more detailed lithology description of this formation from Udaynan-1. Special Publication 2. Sharawra: sandstone interbedded by shale and siltstone 2.
(Figure 1. Bahrain. Qasaiba: mostly shale and siltstone with a layer of sandstone that contains the Mid-Qasaiba gas reservoir.SECTION I: Geological Overview
. (Figure 1. GeoArabia.
The Sarah Reservoir has produced oil from several wells in central Arabia.
.SECTION I: Geological Overview
Figure 1. Bahrain. Sarah Formation: To understand the Sarah formation.21) shows core descriptions of the formation. it is important to understand its depositional origin. GeoArabia.20: Surface reference section of the Qalibah Formation at Al Qalibah (Source: Plate Sequence Stratigraphy. Sarah sandstone is originally deposited by giant glacial channels. Therefore. Also. Special Publication 2. the sandstone of Sarah is poorly sorted. the thickness of the Sarah formation varies significantly within a small area.
Figure 1. Zarqa sand was deposited during glacial advance. GeoArabia. Therefore. Bahrain. yielding a low porosity sandstone section.SECTION I: Geological Overview
.21: Sarah and Zarqa Formation from the reference section at Jaz az Zarqa. Zarqa Formation: Similar to Sarah. central Arabia (Source: Plate Sequence Stratigraphy. Special Publication 2. the sand is distinctively poorly sorted.
SECTION I: Geological Overview
32. Qasim Formation: Qasim formation is subdivided into 4 members: (top to bottom) 1. Quwarah: contains Quwarah gas Reservoir contains Kahfah gas Reservoir 4. Hanadir 2. Ra’an 3. Kahfah:
Quwarah Member: Sandstone beds occur in Quwarah. The sandstone is bounded by siltstone layers. The sand stone contains the Quwarah gas Reservoir.
Ra’an Member: Ra’an is predominately composed of clay. (Figure 1.22) Kahfah member: Kahfah is composed mainly of sandstone which contains Kahfah gas Reservoir. Silty claystone occurs toward the upper part of the Kahfah. (Figures 1.22, 1.23)
Hanadir Member: Hanider is mainly composed of claystone interbedded by siltstone. Sandstone occurs toward the lower part of Hanadir
33. Saq Formation: Saq is predominantly composed of multi-colored, poorly to well-sorted quartz sandstone. Thin layers of siltstone are present. (Figure 1.24) shows a generalized stratigraphic section of the Saq.
Saq is subdivided into: (top-bottom) 1. Sajir member 2. Risha
SECTION I: Geological Overview
Figure 1.22: Sedimentological log of the At-Tirq 2 measured section; upper part of the Hanadir Member and the Kahfah Member (Source: Qasim Formation: Ordovician Strom- and TideDominated Shallow-Marine Siliciclastic Sequences, Central Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia v. 6, no.2, p.233-268.)
SECTION I: Geological Overview
Figure 1.23: Sedimentological log of the At-Tiraq 1 measured section; Upper part of the Hanadir Member and Kahfah Member ( Source: Qasim Formation: Ordovician Strom- and Tide- Dominated Shallow-Marine Siliciclastic Sequences, Central Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia v. 6, no.2, p.233-268.)
sheet 26G. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.24: Generalized Stratigraphic section of the Saq Sandstone (Source: Geologic map of the Buraydah quadrangle.SECTION I: Geological Overview
Figure 1. Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry of Mineral Resources Geosciences Map Series GM-114)
35. Siq Formation: Siq is composed mainly of sandstone.
PRECAMBRIAN 36. Burj Formation: Burj is mainly composed of shale and carbonates.SECTION I: Geological Overview
CAMBRIAN 34. Basement: It is time to seriously consider pulling out of hole (POOH).
D. Casey.M. Hassan Shorbaji.Dominated Shallow-Marine Siliciclastic Sequences.P. Horbury and M. 2001. Central Saudi Arabia. 1977. 1966. Archer. Philippe Razin. no.2. R. Jacques Dagain. Geology of the Arabian Peninsula: Sedimentary Geology of Saudi Arabia. Geologic map of the Buraydah quadrangle. Explanatory Notes to the Geologic Map of the Al Qalibah Quadrangle.
Sharland. Le Strat. D.. Berthiaux. Mohammed A. A. Special Publication 2..
Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM). scale 1:250. Ministry of Agric. Al-Duaiji.S. sheet 26G. Simmons 2001. Redmond. Heward. P. Qasim Formation: Ordovician Strom.H.A. Al-Hassa Development Project: ground water resources study and management program. Halawani. A. Antonin Genna. Bahrain. L. Robert Wyns. GeoArabia v. with text 32 p.B. F. and J. L. Christian Robeline.233-268. Riyadh
Dominique Janjou. p. Waslet. Geological Survey. Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry of Mineral Resources Geosciences Map Series GM-114. 1996. Fourniguet. S. Davies. John Roobol. Arabian Plate Sequence Stratigraphy.. J. D. A. Saudi Arabia
Senalp. U. SerCourbouleix. Jean-Michel Brosse.D. R. Elberg.
Manivit. D. R. 1986. A. C.R. GeoArabia. and E.SECTION I: Geological Overview
Powers. Hall. 6. M. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Water. Mohammed S.. P.and Tide. M. Al-Muallem. Sheet 28C. 000. A.
Reviewed by: Rifat HajiSmail. WSGU Geologist Manahi Al-Otiebi. WSGU Geologist
Therefore. and areas toward the southern part of Abqaiq). Rus Formation Casing Point: (30” Casing) Introduction: Rus casing is intended to prevent shallower formations collapsing (Hofuf. the majority of Shadugum exhibits anhydrite at the top of the Rus. and Midra members).
Casing Point Identification: 1. Haradh.1. sand could possibly show up in the samples due to the caving in from the sand zones in the upper sections. A secondary objective of the Rus casing is to protect the Umm Er Radhuma aquifer below Rus. A few traces of gypsum can be seen in some places and should not be confused for anhydrite. In the Ghawar area anhydrite disappears totally from the Rus Formation and will not be seen in samples. (Figure 2. and Shadgum from Ghawar area. Hawyah. there are two different scenarios:
A. also. the Rus anhydrite disappears from the section and the Rus top starts with carbonates. Rus Collapse (Ghawar Area): In the Ghawar area the Rus is identified by the first appearance of carbonates (limestone) after drilling through 30 to 40 ft of Midra and Saila shale and marl. Uthmaniyah. A. Hadrukh. B. Geology (Cutting Samples): The last sections of Dammam Formation (Saila. Limestone. Rus Anhydrite: Outside of the Ghawar area such as Tinat. Dam. and marl. Midrekah. off shore wells.1: HRDH-56) (Figure 2. Rus Collapse (Ghawar Area): In the Ghawar area (Ain Dar. However. the Rus top is associated with the anhydrite appearance. are mainly composed of shale.2: Ain Dar-270). These shallow formations are mainly loose with loss of circulation zones.SECTION II: Casing Points 1. exists in the Dammam Formation. which are above Rus. such as the Khobar Member. red clay. Unlike the rest of Ghawar fields. To pick the top of Rus. Northern fields. and Dammam).
There are two different geological casing-settings for the Rus Formation.1. Waqar.
. such a large sized hole collapsing is highly possible.
when Rus starts with Anhydrite ROP slows down relative to the overlaying section.1.3: FZRN-12) (Figure 2.1: HRDH-56) B.3: FZRN-12)
. The limestone that exists in the Ghawar area is rarely seen. (Figure 2. Rus Anhydrite: Outsides of the Ghawar area the top of Rus is picked with the first appearance of anhydrite in the samples.4: SHDGM-223)
2.1.SECTION II: Casing Points B. Ghawar Area: The softer carbonates of Rus exhibit a relatively faster ROP compared to the Dammam Formation. (Figure 2.1.1. Rate of Penetration (ROP): A. Rus Anhydrite: On the other hand. (Figure 2.
1.2: Ain Dar-27
S. where there is a loss of circulation and an unclear ROP trend.2. in cases like FZRN-13. (Figure 2. the isopach (thickness) of Aruma from the adjacent wells provides a reasonable estimation of where to expect L.2: MAGHRIB-2)
2.A. the Lower Aruma Shale is the thickest shale section.4: FZRN-13) and (Figure 2. For cases like FZRN-13. Usually. (Figure 2.2. When getting into the L. Isopach Estimation In many other cases.S.SECTION II: Casing Points 2.3: SHDGM-230)
3.A. Consulting the reservoir geologist is recommended. drilling will start to slow down. However. Up to 100% shale is observed in the samples and will be in more than one sample. the characteristic of sudden decrease of ROP when getting into L. be estimated by the isopach from the nearest wells.A.2. picking Lower Aruma Shale (L. Geology (Cutting Samples): The majority of Aruma formation consists of carbonates (limestone. the dominant carbonate sections of Aruma drill relatively fast.S) depends mostly on the ROP correlations and could. also.2.S is not always evident.
.1: TINT-2) (Figure 2.2: MAGHRIB-2) show that a number of the Aruma carbonates sections slow down drilling prior to drilling through L.A. Aruma Formation Casing Point: (24” CSG) Introduction Aruma casing is placed in the Lower Aruma Shale. Rate of Penetration (ROP): Normally. A few stringers of shale are present. (Figure 2. a loss of circulation occurs in Umm Er Radhuma above Aruma. and dolomite).S. and it is the most noticeable shale section for its thickness.A.
Casing Point Identification: 1. to acquire a further insight into how the Aruma Formation behaves between the offset wells and your well.2. and therefore.
2.Figure 2.1: TINT-2
Figure 2.3: SHDGUM-230
2.Figure 2.4: FZRN-13
It consists mainly of carbonates. 4 or 5 stringers of slow drilling are detected by the ROP. it is intended to seal all the highly-possible loss of circulation zones above Ahmadi (Umm Er Radhuma. After encountering the E-shaped ROP. Therefore. Therefore. It has been a customary practice.4: AIN DAR-277) In many situations the E-shaped ROP is not observed. and reached the shale. Rate of Penetration (ROP) When drilling into Ahmadi a loss of circulation is common due to the many losses of circulation zones above Ahmadi. the Ahmadi casing point is usually picked by observing the ROP. If the ROP continues to be fast after the 25 ft.
. This is mainly due to the different drilling parameters adopted in different drilling rigs and. to ensure that ROP trends are due to the formation. Ahmadi Member Casing Point: (24” CSG) Introduction: When Ahmadi casing is planned. it is recommended to drill up to 25 ft below the third stringer of slow ROP. if possible. Ahmadi is not a casing point in these fields. To ensure that you have drilled through the carbonates of Praealveolina and Ahmadi. and Mishref). Ahmadi’s shale provides a firm casing shoe. the geology of Ahmadi is different. If drilling slows down. Instead 2. It is also recommended to drill this section with a constant weight on the bit. due to carbonates stringers of Praealveolina. before drilling through the 25 ft.3. due to variations of lithology of the upper part of Ahmadi and the Praealveolina limestone from one area to another. (Figures 2. Ahmadi casing is commonly characterized by the E-shaped ROP curve. Rumaila. casing is set in Ahmadi to avoid further losses of circulation. in wellsite.3: SHDGUM-230) (Figure 2. (Figure 2. (Figure 2. However. unlike Wara loose sand below Ahmadi.3.3. Lawhah. then you are assured that the shale section has certainly been reached.2: MRJN-29)
2. it indicates a high probability of another carbonates stringer.3.1: UTMN-600) In offshore fields. in which 3 separate stringers of slow drilling are observed.SECTION II: Casing Points 3.5-6). that the casing point of Ahmadi is calculated 30’ to 50’ below the top of the shale section. significantly. and not the drilling parameters.
Casing Point Identification: 1. a relatively faster ROP is detected due to the shale of Ahmadi. Geology (Cutting Samples) Ahmadi formation is mainly composed of a thin carbonates section at the top and a dominant shale section below. also.3. (Figure 2.
3.The E-shaped ROP curve
Figure 2.1: UTMN-600
.3.The E-shaped ROP curve
4: AIN DAR-277
.3.The E-shaped ROP curve
3.Figure 2.6: HRDH-922
it is placed +/. Therefore. also.300 feet into Biyadh.2: HRDH-52) A loss of circulation is probable and cutting samples might not be available. The ROP break is less dramatic in many other situations.
2. (Figure 2. (Figure 2.4.SECTION II: Casing Points 4.1: SHDGUM-239).4. Rate of Penetration (ROP) Biyadh ROP is considerably faster than the overlaying Shu’aiba carbonates section.4.
.2: HRDH-52). Casing Point Identification: 1. This dramatic change of lithology clearly indicates the Biyadh top. the swelling shale of upper Biyadh.3: HRDH-56). Geology (Cutting Samples) The top of Biyadh is characterized by quartz sandstone and shale underlay Shu’aiba carbonates section. Biyadh Formation Casing Point: (18 5/8” CSG) Introduction: Biyadh casing is intended to seal off the loss circulation zone of Shu’aiba and. (Figure 2. (Figure 2.4.
Figure 2.2: HRDH-52
Figure 2.4.3: HRDH-56
(Figure 2. consists of siltstone and shale.3: TINT-2) 2.5.1: HRDH-52).1: HRDH-52) (Figure 2.5. i.5. It is planned when Biyadh casing is skipped. Rate of Penetration (ROP) Top of Mid-Thamama limestone is hard and. Mid-Thamama Formation Casing Point: (18 5/8” CSG)
Introduction: Mid-Thamama casing is not a regular casing point.
. The last section of Buwaib Formation. hence. Geology (Cutting Samples) Mid-Thamama top is easier to pick when cuttings are available.5. (Figure 2.e.SECTION II: Casing Points 5.2: SHDGUM-239) (Figure 2. to seal off Shu’aiba loss zone and the swelling of Biyadh shale. that overlays Mid-Thamama. slows down drilling relative to the overlaying section. Mid-thamama casing serves the same purposes that the Biyadh casing serves. Casing Point Identification: 1. The top of Mid-Thamama is marked by the appearance of limestone (hard limestone) in the cuttings.
Figure 2.1: HRDH-52
Figure 2.2: SHDGUM-239
Figure 2.5.3: TINT-2
SECTION II: Casing Points 6. Hith Formation Casing Point: (18 5/8” Casing, 13 3/8” Casing) Introduction: Hith is, also, not a regular casing point. It is planned when Biyadh and Mid-Thamama casings are skipped. It meets the same objectives served by Biyadh and Mid-Thamama casings. This casing point is placed +/- 100 feet into Hith.
Casing Point Identification: 1. Geology (Cutting Samples) Hith is picked when anhydrite starts to appear in the cutting samples, after Sulaiy carbonates. (Figure 2.6.1: HRDH-60) (Figure 2.6.2: HRDH-56) (Figure 2.6.3: ST-39)
2. Rate of Penetration (ROP) Ideally, Hith’s anhydrite slows down drilling after Sulaiy carbonates, (Figures 2.6.2-3). However, this trend is not always clear especially when using a PDC bit.
3. Isopach Picking Hith is an easy task when cuttings are available. However, if a loss of circulation is present, then a good estimation is achieved by reviewing the nearest wells’ isopach for Sulaiy to estimate the top of Hith.
Figure 2.6.1: HRDH-60
6.Figure 2.2: HRDH-56
detect the stringer using the ROP method. It usually provides a good estimate of where to pick the tops. It is recommended to discuss the geology.
. there are usually two separate stringers above the Arab-D reservoir (Figure 2.7. It will be too late when you get the carbonates of this stringer in the samples because of the fast drilling and long lag time. on the other hand. will significantly speed up the ROP. Instead. therefore.4: DARB-1). it is highly recommended that the well-site geologist observes the ROP from the geolograph at the rig floor to closely detect the increase of ROP in Post Arab-D stringer.7.6: QTIF). (Figure 2.7. In the Qatif area as well as in some parts of Ghawar. (Figure 2. 3. However. 2. (Figure 2.7. Extra precautions are necessary when picking this casing point to avoid penetration into the highly porous Arab-D Reservoir which results in a severe loss of circulation.5: HRDH-56). The sections overlaying Arab-D Reservoir require drilling with a high mud weight. such as Uthmaniyah. Rate of Penetration (ROP) The anhydrite in Arab-D Member slows down the ROP. (Figure 2.3: NYYM-2) However.10 feet above the Arab-D reservoir and therefore provides a good indication that you are getting extremely close to the casing point.7. Isopach It is suggested that the wellsite geologist keep a record of the thicknesses of Arab members from the nearby wells.
Casing Point Identification: 1. This carbonate stringer is usually 5. you should not totally rely only on this piece of information. Geology (Cutting Samples) The key for picking the Arab-D casing point is to pay attention to the Post Arab-D Stringer which is present in the lower part of Arab-D Member. and drilling hazards. ROP and gas indications with the reservoir geologist. it is necessary to set the casing above Arab-D Reservoir to maintain a lower mud weight to drill the soft Arab-D Reservoir.7. Therefore.2: HWYH-200).1: SHDGUM). (Figure 2.SECTION II: Casing Points 7. and south western Haradh. Post Arab-D Stinger. do not wait to see the stringer in the cutting samples. The stringer is only 2-8 feet in thickness. 13 3/8” CSG) Introduction: This casing is set in the Arab-D Member (5 -10 feet above the top of Arab-D Reservoir) to seal off all the high pressure water flow zones above Arab-D Reservoir. Arab-D Member Casing Point (18 5/8” CSG.
Figure 2.7.1: SHDGUM
Figure 2.2: HWYH-200
Figure 2.7.3: NYYM-2
Figure 2.5: HRDH-56
.2 Post Arab-D St
8. clean. (Figure 2. Casing Point Identification: 1.8.4: HRDH-52)
3. which overlays Jilh Formation. Jilh Dolomite section is picked by the appearance of the distinctive. Then. is a clastic section. (Figure 2. It is highly probable to see shale also in the samples due to shale caving down into the hole from the upper section. Geology (Cutting Samples) Minjur Formation.D. The samples will also contain shale accompanied with sand and traces of anhydrite in some areas. The Lower Jilh section is generally a high pressure zone and.J. ROP increases in the Jilh Dolomite and then slows down at the upper part of Base Jilh Dolomite. Rate of Penetrations (ROP) Usually.SECTION II: Casing Points 8.1: HWYH-200).
. Isopach It is suggested to review the thickness of Jilh Dolomite from the nearest wells to estimate the top and the Base of Jilh Dolomite.8. (Figure 2.8.2: SHDGUM-238)
2. This casing point is critical and demands special attention not to drill more than 30 ft to 40 ft below Base Jilh Dolomite to avoid encountering the high pressure zone prior to setting the casing. Jilh Formation Casing Point: (18 5/8” Casing) Introduction: Jilh casing is designed to case off the Jurassic section prior to drilling into the Lower Jilh. requires a much higher drilling-mud weight. sucrosic dolomite or dolomitic limestone. Then. therefore. (Figure 2. the percentage of caving shale decreases in the Jilh Dolomite section and the sucrosic Dolomitic limestone percentage increases. The top of Jilh Formation is picked by the appearance of carbonates in the samples. However. Base Jilh Dolomite is picked when the shale percentage increases again in the samples and the sucrosic dolomite decreases or disappears. Anhydrite is also found in the B.3: HRDH-60). light colored. it could provide a close estimation. If the offset wells are close enough.
Figure 2.8.2: SHDGUM-238
8.Figure 2.3: HRDH-60
8.Figure 2.4: HRDH-52
So. Top of Khuff Formation (10’ to 15’ below the top): This casing is set when the Lower Jilh has a high pressure zone that requires a high mud weight. B. Geology (Cutting Samples): A. However. Khuff formation: Top of the Khuff Formation is easily identified by the appearance of clean carbonates (chalky limestone) in the samples after Sudair. These two stringers are separated by a 20 ft to 30 ft of carbonates section. the casing is set at the top of the Khuff Formation. (Figures 184.108.40.206: SHDGUM-223). (Figure 2. The opposite could be true. especially with diamond bits.5: NYYM-2)
2.9. (Figure 2. (Figure 2.6: AIN DAR-277). 7” liner) Introduction: In Khuff Formation. B. because it does not have a distinctive characteristic (increase or decrease) relative to the overlaying Sudair section.9. (Figure 2. Khuff Formation Casing Sets: (9 5/8” Casing. Below Khuff-D Anhydrite: If no high pressure zone is encountered in Jilh. Khuff-D Anhydrite: is picked by the appearance of Anhydrite in the samples below the base of Khuff-C Reservoir. (Figure 2. (Figure 2. Rate of Penetrations (ROP): A. to prevent the heavy-drilling mud from breaking into the formation causing a loss of circulation and drilling hazards.2: NYYM-2) B.9. but not commonly. highly possible that ROP decreases as drilling gets into Khuff.3-5)
. prior to drilling into the porous Khuff-A Reservoir. there are two points where casing is set: A.SECTION II: Casing Points 9.3: AIN DAR-277). It depends on the drilling parameters (bit type. also. It usually.9. Khuff Formation: Picking the top of Khuff by ROP characteristics is not very credible. Khuff-D Anhydrite exists in two separate stringers. weight on bit…etc). drills faster than Sudair shale. It is. then this casing is set 400-550’ below the top of Khuff-D Anhydrite.4: DARB-1).9. Khuff-D Anhydrite: Anhydrite usually drills slower than the overlaying Dolomite section. this is not a very distinctive feature to completely rely on. The top of Khuff-D Anhydrite is picked at the first appearance of the first Anhydrite stringer.
Casing Point Identification 1.
.SECTION II: Casing Points 3. Circulating bottoms up: Circulating bottoms up and examining the samples allow the geologists to safely pick the Khuff top. it is suggested that the wellsite geologist stops drilling and circulate bottoms up from the expected Khuff Formation. Also. because of the longer lag time to get samples. Since the ROP is not reliable in the case of picking the top of “Khuff Formation”. and the casing point is only 10 ft below the top of Khuff Formation.
Figure 2.1: SHDGUM-223
3: AIN DAR-277
9.Figure 2.5: NYYM-2
9.Figure 2.6: AIN DAR-277
WELLSITE CORE HANDLING
Reviewed By AbdulHafiz Masri. Core Coordinator
. Only proper core handling by the wellsite geologist can ensure attaining the desired benefits and objectives of the core. Planning ahead requires acquiring general information regarding the core.SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling: 1. Describing the core on location. if needed (lithology. Every part of the core is indispensable and should not be taken for granted. Assigning the proper orientation to the core tubes (top-bottom). and more. Filling out the core data sheet.
Core handling includes: • • • • • • • Measuring the recovered core. unless otherwise instructed. Such information. more importantly.
Planning ahead. Introduction: Coring is an expensive operation and. and hydrocarbon shows). Planning ahead will save you the troubles of going to the rig unprepared and lacking tools and information. Writing clearly and properly assigning core tags for each core tube. provides valuable geological information to the Exploration Organization. can be obtained by reading the core-meeting minute and meeting the core proponent for further inquiries. ensures a successful core handling. Ensuring that the core tubes are properly stored and put into core boxes to be sent to the core-lab store in Dhahran. even before going to the rig location. Assigning the proper depths to the core tubes after it has been cut.
notifying the core hand of the zones of significant hardness change could help maintain better coring parameters. plan ahead: A-1. The following are tools needed to accomplish the job efficiently: • • • • • Core tags and plastic straps that are provided by the Wellsite Geology Unit. Two screw drivers. Therefore. A calculator will come in handy to calculate core tubes depths and other calculations. Read the core meeting minute before leaving for the rig or meet the core proponent to find out about the following: • • •
Length of the core Formation compatibility.
A-2. Preferably an offset well that has a coring job done on the same section.
Best offset wells for correlations. sometimes. Conventional-Core Handling Procedures:
A. to avoid wasting time searching for them in the rig.SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling 2. Change of hardness of core from hard to soft could. Significant change of rock hardness in the interval being cored. cause jamming if not carefully dealt with by the coring service company. to screw the caps clamps.
. A Hammer and a small chisel to take samples from the core. Two measuring tapes. Fractures and faults that could possibly cause core jamming and you should be aware of possible jamming zones.
especially when coring in Unayzah. In that case it is easy to distinguish the top core barrel from the bottom barrel. when cutting a core. make sure you know the order of the inner core barrels: the number of inner tubes in each run depends on the planned length of core cut. Rate of Penetration (ROP) might significantly slow down. which is one of the highly cored sections. each coring run will include two inner core barrels.SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling B. The core hand has other indications of jamming such as change of pressure and torque.
C. because the bottom core barrel will have the shoe attached to it (Figure 3. He is the expert in the coring operation. offset wells’ trends are not accurate enough and do not apply to your well. you should pay attention to distinguish between the second and third core barrels. To distinguish between the second and third core barrels be on the rig floor when the core barrels are being brought out to
. Usually.1). as soon as you get to the rig location. because of its random sandstone-siltstone spatial distribution (facies change). Also. However. meet with the coring personnel and rig foreman to make sure they are aware of the core requirements. Answer him in the light of your meeting with the core proponent. Pulling out of hole for possible jamming is definitely not your decision. When you get to the rig location. review the offset wells for any significant slow down. When there are three core barrels. You just provide him with the geological consultations that might help him make better decisions. make sure that the core shippingboxes are available. The core hand will definitely come to ask you if you think the slow down is due to a change of the formation hardness. When the core barrels come out to the surface.
ROP slow down is only one indication of jamming. This could indicate a possible core jam that requires pulling out of hole.
5’). DO NOT count on your memory to fill out the core data. So. The second barrel is the middle barrel. start making the 3 feet marks from the end of the shoe to the end of the first core barrel. can you start making your measurements and markings. if present. These marks indicate where the core barrels are cut to make the 3 feet core tubes.
G. Now. Also measure the missing core from the shoe. See (Diagram 3. •
Marking: make a mark every 3 feet on the core barrels. Before starting to make markings on the core tubes.SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling the surface.
F. and bearing joints between core barrels) gives you the recovered core length. Cleaning the core barrels will make it easier to write on the core barrels and will ensure that your writings do not come off later. First measure the length of missing core from the top side of the core by inserting the measuring tape inside the top core barrel. of course. The core in the shoe stays in a separate core tube (~ 1. the last barrel to come out is the very bottom barrel. Do not rush. Only when all core barrels are being laid down on the cat walk. to identify the different parts of the inner core barrels. shoe. the core barrels are ready to be marked. Subtracting the total missing length from the total length of the core assembly (core barrels.1). Give yourself all the time you need for marking and numbering the core tubes. And.
I. Write down your notes and measurements clearly on a piece of paper while working on the cat walk. it is recommended that you clean the mud off the core barrels using water and cloths. stays also in a separate core tube (~ 1
E. Then the core in the bearing joint between barrels. so you can use it later to fill out the “Core Data Sheet”. The first core barrel to come out of the hole is the very top inner barrel.
use this extra amount of core barrel to make 2 core tubes. Place a plastic strap at the bottom end to be used later for hanging the core tags (Figure 3. (Diagram 3.
K. as shown in (Diagram 3. continue making the 3 feet marks on the second barrel to the end of core barrels.
L. Orientation: indicate by writing on the core tubes at the bottom end and top end.
.2). cap the open ends to prevent losing pieces of the core. It does not matter if you start cutting from top to bottom or vise versa as long you have made the right marking. pieces of the core might fall out. the bottom end is the end that is closer to the bottom of the hole. The samples description goes to the strip log. Each sample is used to describe the top 3 feet. Before capping the bottom end. Also. Now that the core barrels are cut into 3 feet tubes. If the end of the top core barrel is empty.
J. Place back these fallen core pieces in the right orientation. make sure each tube is capped from both ends and secured by the metal clamps around the plastic caps. take a sample for examination. Next. or closer the shoe (Diagram 3. Therefore.2) • • Numbering: start numbering the core tubes with the shoe being core tube #1 and increase numbers going upward. Conventional core tubes are suppose to be cut in an angle with water. Now the core barrels are ready to be cut into 3 feet long tubes by the core saw. (Diagram 3. then.2).
N.2). When cutting the core tubes. One for the core in the shoe and the other for the core in the bearing.3). Vibrations of the core saw eject loose core parts outside the core barrel. draw the black and red stripes to indicate the bottom from top. In one core tube.SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling foot). numbering. and orientation on the core barrels.
and make the core tags. then the first core number in Unayzah. Place the core tags on the proper tubes. Core boxes are supposed to be transported on a truck separately.
R. ensure that the box’ covers are properly attached. if not used.4).
Q. and not with other rig materials. Compare the result with your initial calculation from step G. Use duck tape or straps to close the covers.
S. place the core tubes inside the designated core boxes in the order of their numbers. for example. Now. will be core number 3. BLDG-3170) as soon as the coring job is done. to avoid any damage to the cores. Also. Make a final check up on your work and. Also. If there were 2 core runs in Arab-D formation. if necessary.SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling O. write the core number and well name on every tube (Figure 3. Make sure that the rig foreman places an order to transport all the core boxes to the core store in Dhahran (DPC-155. and 3. Core number indicates the core run number. Make sure that all received foam beds are placed back inside the core shipment boxes. Then. you should be ready to fill out the core data sheet. then. for example. this is a good time to add the lengths of all the core tubes to calculate the length of the recovered core.3.
Preserved-Core Handling Procedures: Conventional core handling procedures apply for preserved cores. Instead cut dry. it is necessary to ensure that the tube ends are covered with bubble-wrap.
Core boxes should be transported immediately to the Saudi Aramco core store. Also. and tube number.6)
Write on the bubble-wrap the well number. Instead use the silver duck tape.
Then. Also. label the top and bottom for orientation. (Figure 3. unless directed to a different location. use the silver duck tape to attach the core tags.SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling 3.5)
Place the tubes in the ProtecCore and seal it immediately. Make sure that the ProtecCore is not damaged. provided that you strictly meet the following requirements:
Do not use water to cut the core tubes.
Do not use the steel clamps to seal the plastic caps. Also. (Figure 3. core number. wrap the tube with bubble-wrap at least twice to protect the ProtecCore from being damaged during handling and transportation.
4) • After examination a wooden cover is used to seal the core trays and then strapped to secure the core inside the core tray. However. • • The red and black stripes are labeled on the core directly. • The cores are taken out of the core tubes and placed in the 3 feet core trays to be examined on location. • NOTE: foam beds are not sent with the core boxes to exploration wells. All information and labels (well number. core number. and tray number) are placed on the bottom side of the core trays. Therefore.
. Exploration Wells’ Core Handling Procedures: Conventional core handling procedures apply for exploration wells’ cores. cores that are cut in exploration wells require a complete description of the core on location.SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling 4. because they are not used with the core trays. (Diagram 3.
Make sure that everyone who works with you on the cat walk understands the nature of has role.
. i. especially if it is his first time working on the cat-walk and cutting core barrels.
4. Be extra cautious if you are operating at the end of a crew shift. People tend to be fatigued and slow in reaction. Keep the worst in mind.
3. the cables carrying the core tubes from the rig floor to the cat walk might snap in the air and crash down. This is a time where everyone around should be wearing their safety goggles. It could cause serious damage if they hit your face or the person holding core tubes. Be gentle when you lift core tubes from the ground. Stop at any time you feel someone is confused and might cause an accident. Be aware of scattering pieces of rock when you take samples by a hammer. Do not start marking the core tubes until all core tubes are laid down.
7. including ear plugs.
6. stay at the far end of the cat walk until all core barrels are laid down. to avoid back injuries. Wear your safety gear at all time. Make sure that the person’s face holding the tube is not at the same level with the core tube end where you take a sample and that he is looking the other direction. Safety Precautions:
5. Keep an eye also on the crane and its operator when moving the core cradle around the cat walk. Better yet. be aware of fine pieces of aluminum that could fly behind and in front of the core saw when core barrels are being cut.
2.e. Also.SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling
Figure 2: the plastic straps are placed under the metal clamps on the bottom end 105
.SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling
Figure 1: The shoe: it prevents the core from slipping out of the core barrel.
and top-bottom) on one side and the red and black stripes on the other side
Figure 4: The Necessary labels (well name. core number.SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling
Figure 3: write the well name. core number. tube number. and tube number clearly.
SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling
Figure 5: Preserved core. sliver duck tape is used to seal caps and attach core tags (photo is a courtesy of AbdulHafiz Masri. core#1. Cores Coordinator)
Figure 6: Persevered core wrapped inside bubble-wrap (Photo Courtesy of AbdulHafiz Masri)
LD ADJUSTIN G SYTEM O.23 2.
Inner Tube Ext. TUBE
1. and Outer tube parts
30.12 26.00 3.00
SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling
Standard Pilot Shoe Assembly
Inner Tube Stab.23
2. Adjusting System
1.1: Inner tube (right).74 4.
Core Barrel #1 (30 ft)
The Shoe Tube (1. Red and black stripes go onto the other side of core barrels to indicate orientation of the core. The core barrels are divided into 3 feet core tubes. the core in the
shoe stays in a separate tube as well as the core in the bearing. Numbering starts from the shoe and increasing going upward. 30 ft and 20 ft. This diagram is showing a 30 ft long barrel. T stands for Top. There are two standard lengths of core barrels.38 ft)
. Inner tube stabilizer does not usually come with the 20 feet core barrels.2: Marking and numbering of the cores.SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling
22 B T 21 B T 20 B T 19 B T 18 B T 17 B T 16 B T 15 B T 14 B T 13 B
Core Barrel #2 (30 ft) Inner tube Stabilizer – “Bearing” (1 ft)
B T 10 B T 9 B T 8 B T 7 B T 6 B T 5 B T 4 B T 3 B
Diagram 3. B stands for Bottom.
Labels and tags are marked and placed on the bottom side of the trays. 110
. After the core tubes are cut. In the case of exploration wells. the red stripe will be to your right.3: The black and red stripes are marked on the inner core barrel that if you are facing the inner core barrel.
Diagram 3. with it standing up or coming out of the hole.4: Exploration wells’ core handling. and the black stripe will be to your left. to be examined. the core is placed inside the core trays.SECTION III: Wellsite Core Handling
Diagram 3. the stripes are marked directly on the core itself.
DRILLING MUD EFFECTS ON CUTTINGS SAMPLES EXAMINATIONS
4. the cuttings must be washed with running water while in the sieves. Oil Based Mud: This kind of mud uses diesel instead of water as mud base. It does not dissolve in water and appears with cutting samples as black grains (Figure 4.
The following are the most common mud non-dissolving additives:
1. SOLTEX: Soltex is a petrochemical additive. Soltex is used to prevent shale swelling and caving.SECTION IV: Drilling Mud Effects on Cuttings Examinations SECTION IV: Drilling mud Effects on Cuttings Examinations The drilling mud is the medium in which cuttings are transported outside of the hole and to the shale shaker.
There are two main types of Mud: 1. Drilling Mud Additives Most of the drilling mud additives dissolve in water.
However. It is necessary that the wellsite geologist be aware of such solids to ensure accurate descriptions of the cutting samples. it disappears when washed with water in the geologist lab.2). Water Based Mud: It is the most common mud type. Sudair. few of the mud additives do not dissolve in water and appear in the cutting samples trays examined by the geologist.
Soltex is usually used in formations where shale is abundant (e. Cuttings should be washed with a detergent or diesel before examinations.
2.g. it creates confusion and inaccurate descriptions of the cuttings samples.1. It is usually used in high pressure and temperature zones. and Unayzah)
. As a result.
If the wellsite geologist is not fully aware of the mud additives. This kind of mud makes it extremely difficult to examine the cuttings for hydrocarbon shows. Before examining cuttings.
NUT SHELLS: Nut shells do not dissolves in water and could create confusion when it appears in the cuttings samples. Therefore. it shows hydrocarbon fluorescence under the UV light. especially when noticing suspicious particles with the cuttings. It is used to increase the mud capacity of holding cuttings to prevent accumulations of cuttings at the hole bottom during connections. Therefore. Therefore.
Mica is added to the mud in potential loss of circulation zones.
Since it is a hydrocarbon based additive.3)
There are more mud additives that can show up in the cuttings samples. It appears like glass chips and resembles the mica found in clastic formations. it is necessary to keep in touch with the mud engineer to be aware of the mud ingredients.
Bentonite is another petrochemical based additive.
. (Figure 4.SECTION IV: Drilling Mud Effects on Cuttings Examinations
Soltex is a hydrocarbon based chemical. Bentonite will show hydrocarbon fluorescence under the UV light. It is difficult to distinguish between the mica added to the mud and that coming from the formation. communicate with the mud engineer to find out if mica has been added to the mud.
SECTION IV: Drilling Mud Effects on Cuttings Examinations
Figure 4.1: SOLTEX shows up with the cuttings as black grains
Figure 4.2: Soltex as it appears under the microscope
Natural Fluorescence: UV-Light
Oil Gravity 2° .
2.10° 10° .45° > 45°
Fluorescence Color Non-fluorescent Yellow to Gold Gold to Pale Yellow Blue White –White
Rock Minerals Dolomite Limestone Chalk Shale Fossils Marl Anhydrite Pyrite
Fluorescence Color Yellow/ Brown Brown Purple Yellow/ Gray Yellow-white/ Yellow Brown Yellow/ Gray Gray/ Blue Yellow/ Brown/ Purple
.18° 18° .SECTION IV: Drilling Mud Effects on Cuttings Examinations
Figure 4.3: Nut shell as it appears in a white sandstone sample (under the microscope).
18° 18° .45° > 45° Non-fluorescent Yellow to Gold Gold to Pale Yellow Blue White –White
Rock Minerals Dolomite Limestone Chalk Shale Fossils Marl Anhydrite Pyrite
Fluorescence Color Yellow/ Brown Brown Purple Yellow/ Gray Yellow-white/ Yellow Brown Yellow/ Gray Gray/ Blue Yellow/ Brown/ Purple
.SECTION IV: Drilling Mud Effects on Cuttings Examinations 2° .10° 10° .
GENERAL WELLSITE REQUIREMENTS
Travel only during day time. All information should be plotted with a waterproof ink pin (Rapidograph). Plan ahead before going to the field. so record all necessary information. note such incidents on the strip logs so the ROP reading makes sense. including: A. size. Update the strip log on a daily basis. Mud data: it should be recorded every 1000 feet or whenever changed. B. so you do not forget necessary equipments. Problems of the hole and any significant events. Casing depth and casing size should be marked with the casing symbol. if it occurs.SECTION V: General Wellsite Requirements
SECTION V: General Requirements:
1. Take good care of your tools. D.
5. so it is easy to refer back to you. and type against the depth it was changed C. if present. Plotting the strip log at the last minute produces a messy outcome. it will significantly create a false ROP reading. Write your name with pencil at the top and bottom of the section you worked on. Keep the strip log clean and organized. For example.
6. Therefore. Write all information clearly so that it can be read easily by others. On the other hand.
2. not pencil. formation tops are marked with pencil.
3. if needed. F. It is certainly better to leave early for the field rather than at the last minute. Also note the depths of any loss of circulation. E. to avoid stress and unsafe driving.
4. The strip log is a valuable record of the well.
. Bit record: including bit number. if the hole is tight.
collect all the sample bags inside the designated sacks. Check. make sure that the geologist room and lab are clean and ready to be used by the next geologist.
13. a new lithology group should be created for Khuff. because it is a wide range of ROPs. or at least check the calculations of whoever did it
12. For example.SECTION V: General Wellsite Requirements 7. Include only events that matter for our unit. Do not over-load the sacks to the neck. Summarize the operations. regularly. instead of exactly copying the foreman’s report. Also. if the formation drilled has changed (e. ROP intervals in the morning report should be broken down into logical groups. Sudair to Khuff). Do not forget to label the sacks.g. Engineering details are not necessary.
14. Calculate the lag time yourself. Before you leave the rig site.
. (5-80 min/5’) does not make sense.
8. Sample bags (washed and unwashed) should have the well name as well as the depth marked clearly. since the lithology has significantly changed.
9. if the samples are collected properly for you and on time. For example. When writing the morning report. make sure that you divide the lithology groups into sensible groups.