CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

By Bhasker Assoldekar M.Sc. (Tech.), PGDM(IIM-A) PGDM(IIM-

EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

20 MARKS : CLASS PARTICIPATION 20 MARKS : CLASS TEST 30 MARKS : PROJECT 30 MARKS : THEORY PAPER

Ref. Book: ´CONSUMER BEHAVIORµ By: SCHIFFMAN & KANUK (Indian Publishers: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi) All lectures will be by way of PPT Presentation.

2007. 2Oth Aug. Project Presentations (30 Marks) and Theory Paper (30 Marks) to be held for one day each in the third th/18th) of SEPT.There will be 10 Lectures (of 3 hrs.07 week(17 . duration each ) during the 10 days from Monday. 30th Aug. to Thursday.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR-ITS ORIGINS BEHAVIORCONSUMER RESEARCH MARKET SEGMENTATION CONSUMER MOTIVATION CONSUMER PERCEPTION CONSUMER LEARNING CONSUMER ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE 8 REFERENCE GROUPS SOCIAL CLASS & FAMILY INFLUENCES 9 COMMUNICATION AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR 10 CONSUMER DECISION MAKING AND BEYOND .

CHAPTER ONE CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ITS ORIGINS AND STRATEGIC APPLICATIONS WHO SHOULD LEARN IT? WHY ARE WE LEARNING IT? HOW TO USE THE KNOWLEDGE? .

PURCHASING . USING . WANTS. .CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR THE BEHAVIOUR THAT CONSUMERS DISPLAY IN SEARCHING FOR . EVALUATING AND DISPOSING OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES THAT THEY EXPECT WILL SATISFY THEIR NEEDS AND WANTS.

Intro to Consumer Behavior    Consumer behavior-behavior-what is it? Applications Consumer Behavior and Strategy   Elements of strategy Consumer Analysis  Consumer behavior outcomes .

and dispose of products. experiences. secure. or organizations and the processes they use to select.One Definition  Consumer behavior: the study of individuals. or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society. groups. . use. services.

Marketing Strategy and Consumer Behavior MARKET ANALYSIS MARKET SEGMENTATION MARKETING STRATEGY CONSUMER DECISION PROCESSES OUTCOMES .

APPROACHES  THE PRODUCTION CONCEPT THE PRODUCT CONCEPT THE SELLING CONCEPT THE MARKETING CONCEPT    .

HIGHER THE PRODUCTION LOWER THE PRICES. IN 8 YEARS(FROM 1908 TO 1916) FORD SOLD 100 TIMES MORE CARS.A THE LIFESTYLE CHANGED : BETTER HIGHWAYS . ITS IMPLICIT OBJECTIVE IS CHEAP PRODUCT.EMERGENCE OF SUBURBS & SHOPPING MALLS. .S.THE PRODUCTION CONCEPT      WORKS WELL WHEN CONSUMER IS INTERESTED IN PRODUCT AVAILABILITY AT LOW PRICES. EFFICIENT PRODUCTION & INTENSIVE DISTRIBUTION. IN U.

S.THE PRODUCT CONCEPT    IT ASSUMES THAT CONSUMERS WILL BUY THE PRODUCT THAT OFFERS THEM THE HIGHEST QUALITY. THE BEST PERFORMANCE AND THE MOST FEATURES. Sale of FIAT/UNO cars) . RAILWAYS. : U. COMPANY STRIVES CONSTANTLY TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF THE PRODUCT & ADD NEW FEATURES. PRODUCT ORIENTATION LEADS TO MARKETING MYOPIA (eg.

FAILS TO CONSIDER CUSTOMER SATISFACTION. THEY ARE LIKELY TO COMMUNICATE IN ANY DISSATISFACTION WITH THE PRODUCT THROUGH NEGATIVE WORD OF MOUTH ( eg. .THE SELLING CONCEPT    ASSUMPTION IS. : POLITICAL PARTIES SELLING THEIR CANDIDATES AGGRESIVELY TO VOTERS). CONSUMER IS UNLIKELY TO BUY THE PRODUCT UNLESS THEY ARE AGRESSIVELY PERSUADED TO DO SO MOSTLY THROUGH HARD SELL APPROACH.

MARKETER SHOULD MAKE WHAT IT CAN SELL INSTEAD OF TRYING TO SELL WHAT IT HAS MADE. PROFITS ARE THROUGH SALES VOLUME. .THE MARKETING CONCEPT      PRODUCTION OF ONLY THOSE GOODS THAT CONSUMERS WOULD BUY. PROFITS ARE BASED ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION. IN MARKETING CONCEPT. CONSUMER·S NEEDS AND WANTS BECOME THE FIRM·S PRIMARY FOCUS. IN SELLING CONCEPT. ALL CONSUMERS ARE NOT ALIKE AND HENCE THE IMPORTANCE OF SEGMENTING THE MARKET.

they are shaped by environment. culture. They discovered that the needs and priorities of different consumer segments differed dramatically. .DEVELOPMENT OF THE MARKETING CONCEPT  IMPLEMENTATION Marketers had to study consumers & their behaviour in depth. Interestingly. education & experience. We all ¶acquire· needs after we are born. We all have same kind of biological needs no matter where we are born. many people develop the same acquired needs.

Effective Positioning strategy must develop and communicate USP.TARGETING & POSITIONING     ´Market Segmentationµ is the process of dividing the market into subsets of consumers with common needs or characteristics. ´Market Positioningµ refers to development of a distinct image for the product in the minds of the consumer . . ´Market Targetingµ is the selection of one or more of the segments identified by the company to market the products/services.an image distinctly different from competitor·s offer. Communicate the benefits of the product rather than product features.SEGMENTATION.

sales promotion. PR .THE MARKETING MIX   4 P·s PRODUCT : Features.packaging offered along with post purchase benefits. allowances and payment method. PROMOTION : Advertising.design.sales efforts to build awareness.brands. PRICE : The least price including discounts. PLACE : The distribution of the product through a store.    .

time. SATISFACTION & RETENTION  CUSTOMER VALUE : Ratio between the customer·s perceived benefits (economic. . effort) used to obtain those benefits. functional and psychological) and resources (monetary.CUSTOMER VALUE .

A CUSTOMER WHOSE EXPERIENCE FALLS BELOW EXPECTATIONS WILL BE DISSATISFIED  .CUSTOMER SATISFACTION  IT IS THE INDIVIDUAL·S PERCEPTION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF THE PRODUCT IN RELATION TO HIS/HER EXPECTATIONS.

CUSTOMER RETENTION  THE OBJECTIVE OF RETAINING THE CUSTOMERS AND MAKE THEM STAY WITH IT RATHER THAN SWITCH TO ANOTHER FIRM BY PROVIDING VALUE TO CUSTOMERS CONTINUOSLY AND MORE EFFECTIVELY THAN THE COMPETITORS. .

MARKETERS CAN & MUST OFFER MORE SERVICES & PRODUCTS. CONSUMERS HAVE ACCESS TO MORE INFORMATION. MARKETERS CAN GATHER MORE INFORMATION ABOUT CONSUMERS MORE QUICKLY AND EASILY.IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON MARKETING STRATEGY      CONSUMERS HAVE MORE POWER THAN EVER BEFORE. EXCHANGE BETWEEN MARKETERS & CUSTOMERS IS INCREASINGLY INTERACTIVE. .

MARKETING ETHICS & SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY MARKETERS SHOULD FULFIL THE NEEDS OF THE TARGET AUDIENCE IN WAYS THAT IMPROVE SOCIETY AS A WHOLE WHILE FULFILLING THE OBJECTIVES OF THE ORGANISATION. MOST COMPANIES BELIEVE AND RECOGNISE THAT MARKETING ETHICS & SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IMPROVE THEIR IMAGE AMONG CONSUMERS. FINANCIAL COMMUNITY & OTHER RELEVANT PUBLIC. Eg : MARKETERS SHOULDN·T ADVERTISE FOOD TO YOUNG PEOPLE IN WAYS THAT ENCOURAGE OVER EATING OR USE PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES IN LIQOUR OR TOBACCO ADS. . STOCK HOLDERS.

THE INPUT STAGE 2.CONSUMER DECISION MAKING MODEL THE PROCESS OF CONSUMER DECISION MAKING CAN BE VIEWED AS 3 DISTINCT BUT INTER LOCKING STAGES 1. THE OUTPUT STAGE .THE PROCESS STAGE 3.

PRODUCT PROMOTION PRICE CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION FAMILY INFORMAL SOURCES SOCIAL CLASS OTHER SOURCES CULTURE & SUB CULTURE NEED RECOGNITION PREPURCHASE SEARCH EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES MOTIVATION PERCEPTION LEARNING PERSONALITY ATTITUDES EXPERIENCE TRIAL PURCHASE REPEAT PURCHASE POST PURCHASE EVALUATION .

CHAPTER TWO CONSUMER RESEARCH .

. PRICE AND PROMOTION.CONSUMER RESEARCH   THE SATISFACTION OF CONSUMER NEEDS IS DELIVERED IN THE FORM OF THE MARKETING MIX WHICH CONSISTS OF THE 4 P·S ²PRODUCT. PLACE. CONSUMER RESEARCH ENABLES THE MARKETERS TO STUDY AND UNDERSTAND CONSUMER NEEDS AND WANTS AND HOW THEY MAKE CONSUMPTION DECISIONS.

THE COMBINED FINDINGS ENABLE MARKETERS TO DESIGN MORE MEANINGFUL AND EFFECTIVE MARKETING STRATEGIES. . QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FINDINGS ARE USED TO DISCOVER NEW IDEAS AND TO DEVELOP PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY. QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH FINDINGS ARE USED TO PREDICT CONSUMER REACTIONS TO VARIOUS PROMOTIONAL INPUTS.   TO SEARCH DEEP WITHIN THE CONSUMER PSYCHE. CONSUMER RESEARCHER TODAY USE 2 DIFERENT TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TO STUDY CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR.

COLLECT & EVALUATE SECONDARY DATA. PREPARING A REPORT ON THE FINDINGS.CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS      DEFINING OBJECTIVES. DATA ANALYSIS. DESIGNING PRIMARY RESEARCH. .

DEVELOP OBJECTIVES COLLECT SECONDARY DATA DESIGN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH COLLECT PRIMARY DATA CONDUCT RESEARCH EXPLORATORY STUDY ANALYSE DATA ANALYSE DATA PREPARE REPORT PREPARE REPORT .

SAMPLING & DATA COLLECTION   SINCE IT IS ALMOST ALWAYS IMPOSSIBLE TO OBTAIN INFORMATION FROM EVERY MEMBER OF THE POPULATION/ UNIVERSE BEING STUDIED .THE SAMPLE THEREFORE MUST BE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE UNIVERSE UNDER STUDY.RESEARCHERS USE SAMPLES. . A SAMPLE IS A SUBSET OF THE POPULATION THAT IS USED TO ESTIMATE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENTIRE POPULATION.

.DATA ANALYSIS   IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH MODERATOR OR TEST ADMINISTRATOR ANALYSES THE RESPONSES RECEIVED. IN QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH THE RESEARCHER SUPERVISES THE ANALYSIS.

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT  



FOR QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH THE PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT IS THE QUESTIONNAIRE. IT CAN BE DISGUISED OR UN DISGUISED. QUESTIONS CAN BE OPEN OR CLOSED ENDED. WORDING THE QUESTIONS REPRESENTS THE BIGGEST CHALLENGE IN CONSTRUCTING QUESTIONNAIRE.

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT  

IN DEPTH INTERVIEW : RESPONDENTS ARE ENCOURAGED TO TALK FREELY ABOUT THEIR ACTIVITIES ATTITUDES AND INTERESTS IN ADDITION TO THEIR PRODUCT CATEGORY OR BRAND UNDER STUDY HIGHLY TRAINED INTERVIEWERS ARE REQUIRED.

TEST MARKETING 

PRIOR TO LAUNCHING A NEW PRODUCT ELEMENTS SUCH AS PRICE , PACKAGE , PROMOTION ARE MANIPULATED IN A CONTROLLED SETTING IN ORDER TO PREDICT SALES OR GAUGE THE POSSIBLE RESPONSES TO THE PRODUCT.

SURVEYS     PERSONAL INTERVIEW (HOME OR RETAIL SHOPPING ² MALL INTERCEPTS) TELEPHONE SURVEYS MAIL SURVEYS ONLINE SURVEYS .

AT THE START OF ALL SURVEYS INTERVIEWERS MUST CLEARLY IDENTIFY THEMSELVES AND THE COMPANY FOR WHICH THEY ARE WORKING. SOMETIMES CERTAIN STUDIES ARE COMMISIONED BY ORGANISATIONS SEEKING TO JUSTIFY A PARTICULAR POSITION.ETHICS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH     CONSUMER REASEARCHERS MUST ENSURE THAT STUDIES ARE OBJECTIVE AND FREE OF BIAS. THE PRIVACY OF THE RESPONDENTS MUST BE PROTECTED AND GUARANTEED .

CHAPTER THREE MARKET SEGMENTATION .

WHAT IS MARKET SEGMENTATION  DEFINED AS THE PROCESS OF DIVIDING A MARKET INTO DISTINCT SUBSETS OF CONSUMERS WITH COMMON NEEDS OR CHARACTERISTICS AND SELECTING ONE OR MORE SEGMENTS TO TARGET WITH A DISTINCT MARKETING MIX .

 . PACKAGING. PROMOTIONAL APPEAL. WANTS AND DESIRES AND THE SAME BACKGROUND. METHOD OF DISTRIBUTION AND SUPERIOR SERVICE. THE STRATEGY OF SEGMENTATION ALLOWS PRODUCERS TO AVOID HEAD ON COMPETETION IN THEIR MARKET PLACE BY DIFFERENTIATING THEIR OFFERINGS NOT ONLY ON THE BASIS OF PRICE BUT ALSO THROUGH STYLING. IF ALL CONSUMERS WERE ALIKE AND IF THEY ALL HAD THE SAME NEEDS. EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE THEN MASS MARKETING WILL BE A LOGICAL STRATEGY.

PRICE. IT IS SATISFYING THEIR NEEDS BETTER THAN OTHER COMPETETIVE OFFERINGS. THAT. SO THAT CONSUMERS IN EACH TARGET PERCIEVE.AFTER SEGMENTATION THE MARKETER MUST SELECT ONE OR MORE SEGMENTS TO TARGET. MARKETING MIX SUCH AS PRODUCT. PLACEMENT SHOULD BE SPECIFIED AND THEN THE PRODUCT SHOULD BE POSITIONED. .

HOW IT OPERATES  SEGMENTATION STUDIES ARE DESIGNED TO DISCOVER THE NEEDS AND WANTS OF SPECIFIC GROUP OF CUSTOMERS SO THAT SPECIALISED GOODS AND SERVICES CAN BE DEVELOPED AND PROMOTED TO SATISFY EACH GROUP·S NEEDS. .

BASIS FOR SEGMENTATION          GEOGRAPHIC DEMOGRAPHIC PSYCHOLOGICAL PSYCHOGRAPHIC SOCIOCULTURAL USE RELATED USAGE SITUATION BENEFIT HYBRID .

  IN GEOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION THE MARKET IS DIVIDED BY LOCATION. MARITAL STATUS. PEOPLE WHO LIVE IN THIS SAME AREA SHARE SOME SIMILAR NEEDS AND WANTS AND THAT THIS NEEDS AND WANTS DIFFER FROM THOSE OF PEOPE LIVING IN OTHER AREAS. SEX. THE THEORY BEHIND THIS STRATEGY IS THAT. INCOME. IN DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION THE CHARACTERISTIC SUCH AS AGE. . OCCUPATION AND EDUCATION ARE MOST OFTEN USED AS THE BASIS FOR MARKET SEGMENTATION.

PERCEPTIONS.THEY MAY BE SEGMENTED IN TERMS OF THEIR MOTIVATIONS. INTERESTS AND OPINIONS .  PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS REFER TO THE INNER OR INTRINSIC QUALITIES OF THE INDIVIDUAL CONSUMER. LEARNING AND ATTITUDES. PERSONALITY. PSYCHOGRAPHIC THIS PROFILE OF A CONSUMER SEGMENT MEASURES ACTIVITIES.

AWARENESS AND DEGREE OF BRAND LOYALTY. USE RELATED THIS FORM OF SEGMENTATION CATEGORIZES CONSUMERS IN TERMS OF PRODUT SERVICE OR BRAND USAGE CHARACTERISTICS SUCH AS LEVEL OF USAGE.  SOCIOCULTURAL VARIABLES CONSUMER MARKETS CAN ALSO BE SUB DIVIDED INTO SEGMENTS ON THE BASIS OF SOCIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL VARIABLES SUCH AS STAGE IN FAMILY LIFE CYCLE. SUB CULTURAL MEMBERSHIPS AND CROSS CULTURAL AFFILIATIONS. . SOCIAL CLASS. CORE CULTURAL VALUES.

BENEFIT MARKETERS IDENTIFY THE ONE MOST IMPORTANT BENEFIT OF THE PRODUCT WHICH WILL BE MOST MEANINGFUL TO CONSUMERS AND SEGMENT ACCORDINGLY.  .  HYBRID MARKETERS COMMONLY SEGMENT MARKETS BY COMBINING SEVERAL SEGMENTATION VARIABLES RATHER THAN RELYING ON A SINGLE SEGMENTATION BASE.

CRITERIA FOR EFFECTIVE TARGETING     IDENTIFICATION SUFFICIENCY STABILITY ACCESSIBILITY .

IMPLEMENTING SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES   CONCENTRATED V/S DIFFERENTIATED MARKETING. COUNTER SEGMENTATION WHEN TWO OR MORE SEGMENTS ARE RE COMBINED INTO A LARGER SINGLE SEGMENT WHICH COULD BE TARGETED WITH AN INDIVIDUALLY TAILORED PRODUCT OR PROMOTIONAL CAMPAIGN IS CALLED A COUNTER SEGMENTATION STRATEGY. TARGETING SEVERAL SEGMENTS USING INDIVIDUAL MARKETING MIXES IS CALLED DIFFERENTIATED MARKETING MIXES. .TARGETING JUST ONE SEGMENT WITH A UNIQUE MARKETING MIX IS CALLED CONCENTRATED MARKETING.

CHAPTER FOUR CONSUMER MOTIVATION .

THE KEY TO A COMPANY·S SURVIVAL. PROFITABILITY AND GROWTH IN A HIGHLY COMPETETIVE MARKET PLACE IS ITS ABILITY TO IDENTIFY AND SATISFY UNFULFILLED CONSUMER NEEDS BETTER AND SOONER THAN THE COMPETITION. NEEDS ARE THE ESSENCE OF THE MARKETING CONCEPT.WHAT IS IT ?????     HUMAN/CONSUMER NEEDS ARE THE BASIS OF ALL MODERN MARKETING. MOTIVATION IS THE DRIVING FORCE WITHIN INDIVIDUALS THAT IMPELS THEM TO ACTION. .

MOTIVATION AS A PSYCHOLOGICAL FORCE  NEEDS GOALS POSITIVE & NEGATIVE MOTIVATION   .

THEY INCLUDE FOOD. SHELTER. AIR.THEY MAY INCLUDE NEEDS FOR SELF ESTEEM . ACQUIRED NEEDS ARE NEEDS THAT WE LEARN IN RESPONSE TO OUR CULTURE OR ENVIRONMENT. POWER AND LEARNING. INNATE NEEDS ARE PHYSIOLOGICAL (BIOGENIC). . CLOTHING AND SEX.THEY ARE PSYCHOGENIC.NEEDS    EVERY INDIVIDUAL HAS NEEDS SOME ARE ´INNATEµ. OTHERS ARE ´ACQUIREDµ. WATER. PRESTIGE. AFFECTION.

HOWEVER THEY ARE AT TIMES PRODUCT SPECIFIC GOALS.ALL BEHAVIOUR IS GOAL ORIENTED. MARKETERS ARE CONCERNED WITH PRODUCT SPECIFIC GOALS. MOST GOALS ARE GENERIC. .GOALS    THEY ARE SOUGHT AFTER RESULTS OF MOTIVATED BEHAVIOUR.

POSITIVE & NEGATIVE MOTIVATION   MOTIVATION CAN BE POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE IN DIRECTION.WE MAY FEEL A DRIVING FORCE TOWARDS A OBJECT OR CONDITION OR A DRIVING FORCE AWAY FROM SOME OBJECT OR CONDITION. . Eg : A PERSON MAY BE IMPELLED TOWARDS A RESTAURANT TO FULFILL A HUNGER NEED AND AWAY FROM A MOTORBIKE RIDE ON A RAINY DAY FROM SAFETY NEED.

UNFULFILLED NEEDS PREVIOUS LEARNING TENSION DRIVE BEHAVIOUR GOAL COGNITIVE PROCESS TENSION REDUCTION .

MULTIPLICITY OF NEEDS.DYNAMICS OF MOTIVATION     NEEDS ARE NEVER FULLY SATISFIED. INFLUENCE OF SUCCESS & FAILURE ON GOALS. NEW NEEDS EMERGE. .

. NEEDS. Eg : OUR CLOTHING FULFILLS A WIDE RANGE OF PERSONAL AND SOCIAL NEEDS AS ALSO EGO NEEDS.MULTIPLICITY OF NEEDS   A CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR OFTEN FULFILLS MORE THAN ONE NEED INFACT IT IS LIKELY THAT SP. GOALS ARE SELECTED BECAUSE THEY FULFILL SP.

TYPES & SYSTEM OF NEEDS    HIEARCHY OF NEEDS EVALUATION OF NEED HIEARCHY & MARKETING APPLICATION TRIO OF NEEDS .

HEALTH. SEX)  SAFETY AND SECURITY. ORDER. (PROTECTION.  . (PRESTIGE. RECOGNITION)  SELF ACTUALIZATION NEEDS. BELONGING)  EGOISTIC NEEDS.HIERARCHY OF NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS.AIR. STATUS . (FOOD. ( SELF FULFILLMENT). SHELTER . EDUCATION)  SOCIAL NEEDS. WATER. ACCEPTANCE . ( AFFECTION. SELF ESTEEM . REPUTATION. STABILITY. FRIENDSHIP.

MASLOW·S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS SELF ACT. EGO NEEDS SOCIAL NEEDS SAFETY AND SECURITY NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS .

EVALUATION OF NEED HIERARCHY & MARKETING APPLICATION   HIGHER ORDER NEEDS BECOME THE DRIVING FORCE BEHIND HUMAN BEHAVIOUR AS LOWER LEVEL NEEDS ARE SATISFIED. . IN EFFECT IT IS DISSATISFACTION AND NOT SATISFACTION THAT MOTIVATES BEHAVIOUR.

TRIO OF NEEDS  POWER AFFILIATION ACHIEVEMENT   .

.MEASUREMENT OF MOTIVES  MOTIVATIONAL RESEARCH INCLUDES ALL TYPE OF RESEARCH INTO HUMAN MOTIVES AND IS USED TO REFER TO QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNED TO UNCOVER THE CONSUMER·S SUBCONCIOUS OR HIDDEN MOTIVATIONS  EVALUATION OF MOTIVATIONAL RESEARCH MOTIVATIONAL RESEARCH IS STILL REGARDED AS AN IMPORTANT TOOL WHICH HELPS TO GAIN DEEPER INSIGHTS INTO THE WHY·S OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR THAN CONVENTIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH TECHNIQUES CAN YIELD.

ETHICS IN CONSUMER MOTIVATION  

WHILE SOME CRITICS ACCUSE MARKETERS OF CREATING NEEDS AND OF MANIPULATING CONSUMERS INTO BUYING GOODS THEY DON·T NEED,MOST PEOPLE AGREE THAT MARKETERS CAN·T CREATE NEEDS HOWEVER THEY CAN AWAKEN LATENT NEEDS AND ENCOURAGE CONSUMERS TO ENGAGE IN UNWHOLESOME BEHAVIOURS. Eg : THE SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SMOKING DRINKING AND GAMBLING ARE OFTEN PROMOTED AS ENTICING AND SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE.

CHAPTER FIVE
CONSUMER PERCEPTION

WHAT IS IT?????  



DEFINED AS THE PROCESS BY WHICH AN INDIVIDUAL SELECTS , ORGANIZES AND INTERPRETS STIMULI INTO A MEANINGFUL AND COHERENT PICTURE OF THE WORLD. IT CAN BE DESCRIBED AS HOW WE SEE THE WORLD AROUND US. TWO INDIVIDUALS EXPOSED TO THE SAME STIMULI UNDER THE SAME CONDITIONS MAY RECOGNISE, SELECT, ORGANISE AND INTERPRET THIS STIMULI DIFFERENTLY BASED ON THEIR OWN NEEDS,VALUES AND EXPECTATIONS.

.ELEMENTS OF PERCEPTION     SENSATION. THE DIFFERENTIAL THRESHOLD. SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION. THE ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD.

. ´A STIMULUSµ IS ANY UNIT OF INPUT TO ANY OF THE SENSES. EARS. SKIN) THAT RECEIVE SENSORY INPUTS. NOSE. IT CAN INCLUDE PRODUCTS PACKAGES BRAND NAMES ADS AND COMMERCIALS. MOUTH. NOSE. ´SENSORY RECEPTORSµ ARE THE HUMAN ORGANS( EYES.SENSATION    IT IS THE IMMEDIATE AND DIRECT RESPONSE OF THE SENSORY ORGANS TO STIMULI.

.THE ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD   THE POINT AT WHICH A PERSON CAN DETECT A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOMETHING AND NOTHING IS THAT PERSON·S ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD FOR THAT STIMULUS. AS OUR EXPOSURE TO THE STIMULUS INCREASES WE NOTICE IT LESS.

.THE DIFFERENTIAL THRESHOLD  THE MINIMAL DIFFERENCE THAT CAN BE DETECTED BETWEEN TWO SIMILAR STIMULI IS CALLED THE DIFFERENTIAL THRESHOLD OR THE JUST NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE.

.SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION  STIMULI THAT ARE TOO WEAK OR TOO BRIEF TO CONSCIOUSLY SEEN OR HEARD MAY NEVER THE LESS BE STRONG ENOUGH TO BE PERCIEVED BY ONE OR MORE RECEPTIVE CELLS.

DYNAMICS OF PERCEPTION  PERCEPTUAL SELECTION PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION PERCEPTUAL INTERPRETATION   .

CONSUMER IMAGERY        PRODUCT POSITIONING PRODUCT REPOSITIONING PERCEIVED PRICE PERCEIVED QUALITY PRICE V/S QUALITY RETAIL STORE IMAGE MANUFACTURERS IMAGE .

PRODUCT POSITIONING   THE ESSENCE OF SUCCESSFUL MARKETING IS AN IMAGE THAT A PRODUCT HAS IN THE MINDS OF THE CONSUMER THAT IS ITS POSITIONING. ITS IMPORTANT TO THE ULTIMATE SUCCESS OF THE PRODUCT THAN ARE ITS ACTUAL CHARACTERISTICS ALTHOUGH PRODUCTS THAT ARE PORRLY MADE WILL NOT SUCCED IN THE LONG RUN ON THE BASIS OF THE IMAGE ALONE. .

IT CONVEYS THE CONCEPT OF TE PRODUCT OR SERVICE AS TO HOW IT FULFILLS THE CONSUMER NEED WHILE SIMULTANEOUSLY FEATURING THE BRAND AGAINST ITS COMPETITION. MOST NEW PRODUCTS FAIL BECAUSE THE ARE PERCEIVED AS ´ME TOOµ CATEGORY AND THAT THEY DONT OFFER ANY SP. ITS SEGMENTATION STRATEGY AND ITS SELECTION OF TARGET MARKETS. IT COMPLIMENTS THE COMPANY·S DEFINITION OF THE COMPETITION. POSITIONING STRATEGY IS THE ESSENCE OF THE MARKETING MIX. ADVANTAGES/BENEFITS OVER COMPETETIVE PRODUCTS. UMBRELLA POSITIONING : THIS STRATEGY ENTAILS CREATING AN OVERALL IMAGE OF THE COMPANY AROUND WHICH A LOT OF PRODUCTS CAN BE FEATURED INDIVIDUALLY   .

FILLING POSITIONS  BECAUSE UNFULFILLED GAPS OR UNOWNED PERCEPTUAL POSITIONS PRESENT OPPURTUNITIES FOR COMPETITORS SOPHISTICATED MARKETERS CREATE SEVERAL DISTINCT OFFERINGS OFTEN IN THE FORM OF DIFFERENT BRANDS TO FILL SEVERAL IDENTIFIED NICHES .

IT HELPS THEM TO IDENTIFY GAPS IN WHICH CONSUMER NEEDS ARE NOT BEING ADEQUATELY MET.PRODUCT REPOSITIONING  REGARDLESS OF HOW WELL POSITIONED A PRODUCT APPEARS TO BE THE MARKETER MAY BE FORCED TO REPOSITION IT IN RESPONSE TO MARKET EVENTS SUCH AS A COMPETITOR CUTTING INTO TH EBRANDS MARKET SHARE OR TO MANY COMPETITORS STRESSING THE SAME ATTRIBUTE ANOTHER REASON IS TO SATISFY CHANGING CONSUMER PREFERENCES. PERCEPTUAL MAPPING HELPS MARKETERS TO DETERMINE JUST HOW THEIR PRODUCTS APPEAR TO CONSUMERS IN RELATION TO COMPETETIVE BRANDS ON ONE OR MORE ERELEVENT CHARACTERISTICS.   .

THUS THERE ARE 3 PRICING STRATEGIES BASED ON CUSTOMERS PERCEPTION OF THE VALUE PROVIDED BY THE PURCHASE SATISFACTION BASED PRICING RELATIONSHIP PRICING EFFICIENCY PRICING .PERCEIVED PRICE      PERCEPTIONS OF PRICE UNFAIRNESS AFFECT CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS OF PRODUCT VALUE AND ULTIMATELY THEIR WILLINGNESS TO PATRONIZE THEIR STORE.

COLOUR . . EXTRINSIC ARE COUNTY OF ORIGIN ETC.PERCEIVED QUALITY    CONSUMERS OFTEN JUDGE THE EQUALITY OF A PRODUCT BASED ON VARIETY OF INFO ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRODUCT.FLAVOUR OR AROMA. INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS ARE SIZE. SOME OF IT IS INTRINSIC TO THE PRODUCT . EITHER SINGLY OR TOGETHER THEY PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR PERCEPTION OF PRODUCT AND ITS QUALITY.OTHERS ARE EXTRINSIC.

.PRICE V/S QUALITY  THE CONSUMERS USING THE RELATIONSHIP RELY ON A WELL KNOWN BRAND NAME AS AN INDICATOR OF QUALITY WITHOUT ACTUALLY RELYING DIRECTLY ON PRICE.

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT .RETAIL STORE IMAGE   RETAIL STORES HAVE IMAGES OF THEIR OWN THAT SERVE TO INFLUENCE THE PERCEIVED QUALITY OF PRODUCTS THEY CARRY AND THE DECISIONS OF CONSUMERS AS TO WHERE TO SHOP. PRODUCT ASSORTMENTS ETC.PRICING STRATEGY. THESE IMAGES STEM FROM THEIR DESIGN. Eg : BORKER STORES .

MANUFACTURERS WHO ENJOY A FAVOURABLE IMAGE GENERALLY FIND THAT THEIR NEW PRODUCTS ARE ACCEPTED MORE READILY THAN THOSE OF MANUFACTURERS WHO HAVE A LESS FAVOURABLE OR EVEN A NEUTRAL IMAGE. .MANUFACTURERS IMAGE   CONSUMER IMAGERY EXTENDS BEYOND PERCEIVED PRICE AND A STORE IMAGE TO THE PRODUCERS THEMSELVES.

 . SOCIAL. THEY ARE BRAND LOYAL. SELECT A BRAND IMAGE. HOW CONSUMERS HANDLE RISK CONSUMERS SEEK INFORMATION. THEY INCLUDE FUNCTIONAL .PHYSICAL. BUY THE MOST EXPENSIVE MODEL AND SEEK REASSUARANCE THROUGH MONEY BACK GUARANTEE ETC.PERCEIVED RISK  PERCEPTION OF RISK IT·S THE UNCERTAINITY THAT CONSUMERS FACE WHEN THEY CANNOT FORESEE THE CONSEQUENCES OF THEIR PURCHASE DECISIONS. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND TIME RISK. RELY ON STORE IMAGE.

CHAPTER SIX CONSUMER LEARNING .

BOTH SERVE A S FEEDBACK TO THE INDIVIDUAL AND PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR FUTURE BEHAVIOUR IN SIMILAR SITUATIONS. IT IS THE PROCESS WHICH CONTINUOSLY EVOLVES AND CHANGES AS A RESULT OF NEWLY ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE OR FROM ACTUAL EXPERIENCE.WHAT IS IT ???    IT IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH INDIVIDUALS ACQUIRE THE PURCHASE AND CONSUMPTION KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERINCE THAT THEY APPLY TO FUTURE RELATED BEHAVIOUR. .

CAN BE A STIMULI. CUES ² THEY ARE THE STIMULI THAT GIVE DIRECTION TO THESE MOTIVES. ADVERTISING AND STORE DISPLAY SERVE AS CUES. CHARACTERISTICS OF PRICES ETC. THE AD. IT ACTS AS A SPUR TO LEARNING. IN THE MARKET PLACE.ELEMENTS OF CONSUMER LEARNING  MOTIVATION ² BASED ON NEEDS AND GOALS. QUALITY.  . PACKAGING. PRICE. STYLING. THE LEARNING CAN BE CONCERNING THE PRICES.

HOW THEY BEHAVE. RESPONSE .CONSTITUTE THEIR RESPONSE. REINFORCEMENT ² IT INCREASES THE LIKELIHOOD THAT A SPECIFIC RESPONSE WILL OCCUR IN THE FUTURE AS THE RESULT OF PARTICULAR CUES OR STIMULI.  .HOW INDIVIDUALS REACT TO A DRIVE OR CUE.

INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING   .BEHAVIOURAL LEARNING THEORIES  CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IF YOU GET A HEAD ACHE VISITING A PARTICULAR PLACE YOUR REACTION MAY BE CONDITIONED FROM YEARS OF BORING VISITS.

THE THEORY HOLDS THAT THE KIND OF LEARNING MOST CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN BEINGS IS ´PROBLEM SOLVINGµ WHICH ENABLES INDIVIDUALS TO GAIN SOME CONTROL OVER THEIR ENVIRONMENT .COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY  LEARNING BASED ON MENTAL ACTIVITY IS CALLED COGNITIVE LEARNING.

INFORMATION PROCESS S E N S O R Y I N P U T SENSORY STORE REHEARSAL WORKING MEMORY LONG TERM STORE ENCODING R E T R I E V A L FORGOTTEN LOST FORGOTTEN LOST FORGOTTEN UNAVAILABLE .

BRAND LOYALTY CONSISTS OF BOTH ATTITUDES AND ACTUAL BEHAVIOURS TOWARD A BRAND AND BOTH MUST BE MEASURED. COGNITIVE RESPONSES TO ADVERTISING AND ATTITUDINAL AND BEHAVIOURAL MEASURES OF BRAND LOYALTY.  MEASURES OF CONSUMER LEARNING INCLUDE RECALL AND RECOGNITION TESTS. .

CHAPTER SEVEN CONSUMER ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE .

WHAT ARE ATTITUDES AN ATTITUDE IS A LEARNED PRE DISPOSITION TO BEHAVE IN A CONSISTENTLY FAVOURABLE OR UNFAVOURABLE WAY WITH RESPECT TO A GIVEN OBJECT  ATTITUDE ´OBJECTµ IT CAN BE CONCEPTUALISED AS A SUMMARY EVALUATION OF AN OBJECT. ATTITUDES ² LEARNED DISPOSITION IT MEANS THAT ATTITUDE RELEVANT TO PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR ARE FORMED AS A RESULT OF DIRECT EXPERIENCE WITH THE PRODUCT.  . WORD OF MOUTH INFORMATION ACQUIRED FROM OTHERS OR EXPOSURE TO MASS MEDIA ADVERTISING.

Eg : BRAND SWITCHING BEHAVIOUR MAY SEEM TO REFLECT A NEGATIVE ATTITUDE WITH THE BRAND. BUT IT MAY BE INFLUENCED BY A SPECIFIC SITUATION THAT IS HIS WISH TO ECONOMISE. ATTITUDES HAVE CONSISTENCY ATTITUDES ARE RELATIVEY CONSISTENT WITH THE BEHAVIOUR THEY REFLECT HOWEVER DESPITE THEIR CONSISTENCY ATTITUDES ARE NOT NECESSARILY PERMANENT. ATTITUDES OCCUR WITHIN SITUATION BY SITUATION WE MEAN EVENTS OR CIRCUMSTANCES THAT AT A PARTICULAR POINT IN TIME.  . THEY DO CHANGE. INFLUENCE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AN ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR.

STRUCTURAL MODELS     TRICOMPONENT ATTITUDE MODEL MULTIATTRIBUTE ATTITUDE MODEL TRY TO CONSUME MODEL ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE AD MODEL .

TRICOMPONENT ATTITUDE MODEL CONATION AFFECT COGNITION .

THE AFFECTIVE COMPONENT IS CONSUMER·S EMOTIONS OR FEELINGS ABOUT A PARTICULAR PRODUCT OR BRAND.   . THE CONATIVE COMPONENT IS CONCERNED WITH THE LIKELIHOOD OR TENDENCY THAT AN INDIVIDUAL WILL UNDERTAKE A SPECIFIC ACTION OR BEHAVE IN A PARTICULAR WAY WITH REGARD TO THE ATTITUDE OBJECT. THE COGNITIVE COMPONENT IS THE KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTIONS THAT ARE ACQUIRED BY A COMBINATION OF DIRECT EXPERIENCE WITH THE ATTITUDE OBJECT AND RELATED INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS SOURCES. IT MAY INCLUDE THE ACTUAL BEHAVIOUR ITSELF.

ATTITUDES TOWARDS MODEL EXPOSURE TO AN AD JUDGEMENTS ABOUT THE AD FEELINGS FROM THE AD BELIEFS ABOUT THE BRAND ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE AD ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE BRAND .

THE INFLUENCE OF FAMILY AND FRIENDS. MASS MEDIA AND INTERNET. DIRECT MARKETING. SOURCES OF INFLUENCE THE FORMATION O CONSUMER ATTITUDE IS TRONGLY INFLUENCED BY PERSONAL EXPERIENCE .   .ATTITUDE FORMATION  HOW ATTITUDES ARE LEARNED FORMATION OF AN ATTITUDE MEANS THE SHIFT FROM HAVING NO ATTITUDE TOWARD A GIVEN OBJECT TO HAVING SOME ATTITUDE TOWARDS IT. PERSONALITY FACTORS THE RECEPTIVITY AND SPEED WITH WHICH ATTITUDES A RE LIKELY TO BE ALTERED ARE INFLUENCED BY PERSONAL EXPERINCE AND PERSONALITY.

STRATEGIES OF ATTITUDE CHANGE        CHANGING BASIC MOTIVATIONAL FUNCTION ASSOCIATING PRODUCT WITH GROUP.EVENT OR CAUSE RESOLVING TWO CONFLICTING ATTITUDES ALTERING COMPONENETS OF MULTIATTRIBUTE NODEL CHANGING BELIEFS ABOUT COMPETITORS BRAND ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL COMMUNICATION AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR .

COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY 

THE DISCOMFORT OR DISSONANCE WHICH OCCURS WHEN THE CONSUMER HOLDS CONFLICTING THOUGHTS ABOUT A BELIEF OR AN ATTITUDE OBJECT Eg : WHEN A CONSUMER HAS MADE A COMMITMENT ² MADE A DOWN PAYMENT THEY OFTEN BEGIN TO FEEL COGNITIVE DISSONANCE WHEN THEY THINK OF THE UNIQUE POSITIVE QUALITIES OF THE BRAND NOT SELECTED. WHEN IT OCCURS AFTER A PURCHASE IT IS CALLED POST PURCHASE DISSONANCE. 

CHAPTER EIGHT
REFERENCE GROUPS, SOCIAL CLASS AND FAMILY INFLUENCES

WHAT IS A GROUP   



IT IS DEFINED AS TWO OR MORE PEOPLE WHO INTERACT TO ACCOMPLISH MUTUAL OR INDIVIDUAL GOALS. THE POWER OF REFERENCE GROUPGROUPITS ANY PERSON OR GROUP THAT SERVES AS A PT. OF COMPARISON FOR AN INDIVIDUAL IN FORMING GENERAL OR SP. VALUES, ATTITUDES, OR A SP. GUIDE FOR BEHAVIOUR BROADENED PERSPECTIVE INFLUENCING FACTORS

FRIENDS ARE MOST LIKELY TO INFLUENCE THE PURCHASE DECISION. AFTER FAMILY. SHOPPING GROUPS TWO OR MORE PEPLE WHO SHOP TOGETHER FOR FOOD.TYPES OF REFERENCE GROUPS  FRIENDSHIP GROUPS ALSO KNOWN AS INFORMAL GROUPS SINCE THEY ARE USUALLY UNSTRUCTURED AND LACK SPECIAL AUTHORITY LEVELS. CLOTHING OR TO PASS TIME  .

 WORK GROUPS THE SHEER AMOUNT OF TIME THAT PEOPLE SPEND AT THEIR JOBS PROVIDES AMPLE OPPORTUNITY FOR WORK GROUPS TO SERVE AS A MAJOR INFLUENCE ON THE CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOURS OF MEMBERS VIRTUAL GROUPS THANKS TO TECHNOLOGY WE ARE WITNESSING THE EMERGENCE OF THIS GROUP CONSUMER ACTION GROUPS IT HAS EMERGED IN RESPONSE TO THE CONSUMERIST MOVEMENT WHO ASSIT IN MAKING THE RIGHT PURCHASE DEICISION AND CONSUME PRODUCTS IN A HEALTHY AND RESPONSIBLE MANNER.   .

CELEBRITY AND REFERENCE GROUPS APPEALS      CELEBRITIES EXPERTS COMMON MAN SPOKESPERSON SPOKES.CHARACTERS SPOKES- .

FAMILY    CONSUMER SOCIALISATION OF CHILDREN ADULT CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION INTERGENERATIONAL SOCIALIZATION .

FUNCTIONS OF THE FAMILY  ECONOMIC WELL BEING EMOTIONAL SUPPORT SUITABLE FAMILY LIFESTLES   .

DYNAMICS OF HUSBAND ²WIFE DECISION MAKING THE RELATIVE INFLUENCE OF HUSBANDS AND WIVES CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS HUSBAND DOMINATED.FAMILY DECISION MAKING  KEY FAMILY CONSUMPTION ROLES . A LOOK AT THESE ROLES PROVIDES FURTHER INSIGHT INTO HOW FAMILY MEMBERS INTERACT IN THEIR VARIOUS CONSUMPTION RELATED ROLES. WIFE DOMINATED. JOINT OR AUTONOMIC  .THERE ARE 8 DISTINCT ROLES IN THE PROCESS.

 EXPANDING ROLE OF CHILDREN IN FAMILY DECISION MAKING THERE HAS BEEN A TREND OF CHILDREN PLAYING A MORE ACTIVE ROLE. THE SHIFT IN INFLUENCE HAS OCCURED AS FAMILY HAVE FEWER CHILDREN. MORE DUAL INCOME COUPLES AND THE ENCOURAGEMENT BY MEDIA TO ALLOW CHILDREN TO ´EXPRESSµ THEMSELVES.  FAMILY LIFE CYCLE .

IT INVOLVES FAMILY INCOME.WHAT IS SOCIAL CLASS  SOCIAL CLASS AND SOCIAL STATUS IT IS FREQUENTLY THOUGHT OF AS RELATIVE RANKINGS OF THE MEMBERS OF EACH SOCIAL CLASS IN TERMS OF SPECIAL STATUS FACTORS SUCH AS WEALTH. DYNAMICS OF STATUS CONSUMPTION IT IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH CONSUMERS ENDEAVOUR TO INCREASE THEIR SOCIAL STANDING THROUGH CONSPICUOS CONSUMPTION AND POSSESIONS. OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OR PRESTIGE AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT   SOCIAL CLASS CATEGORIES THEY ARE USUALLY RANKED IN A HIERARCHY RANGING FROM LOW TO HIGH STATUS. POWER AND PRESTIGE. .

REPUTATIONAL MEASURES PAGE 3 TYPES. LOWER MIDDLE CLASS.   .MEASUREMENT OF SOCIAL CLASS  SUBJECTIVE MEASURES LOWER CLASS. UPPER MIDDLE CLASS AND UPPER CLASS. OBJECTIVE MEASURES THEY CONSISTS OF SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC OR SOCIO ECONOMIC VARIABLES CONCERNING THE INDIVIDUAL UNDER STUDY.

 AFFLUENT CONSUMER MIDDLEMIDDLE-CLASS CONSUMER NON AFFLUENT CONSUMER   .

CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR APPLICATIONS     CLOTHING . FASHION AND SHOPPING THE PURSUIT OF LEISURE SAVING . SPENDING AND CREDIT SOCIAL CLASS AND COMMUNICATION .

CHAPTER NINE COMMUNICATION AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR .

BASIC COMMUNICATION MODEL MESSAGE CHANNEL (MEDIUM) (MEDIUM) RECEIVER (CONSUMER) (CONSUMER)  SENDER (SOURCE) FEEDBACK . COMMUNICATION IS THE TRANSMISSION OF A MESSAGE FROM A SENDER TO A RECEIVER VIA A MEDIUM OR CHANNEL OF TRANSMISSION.

THE MEDIUM : IT CAN BE IMPERSONAL OR INTERPERSONAL. . MASS MEDIA IS MOSTLY PRINT. THE MESSAGE : IT CAN BE VERBAL OR NON VERBAL OR BOTH. AN INFORMAL SOURCE OR ´WORD OF MOUTHµ COMMUNICATION. BROADCAST OR ELECTRONIC. FEEDBACK : IT IS AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF BOTH INTERPERSONAL AND IMPERSONAL COMMUNICATION.     THE SENDER : MAY BE A FORMAL COMMUNICATION SOURCE. THE RECEIVER : HE IS LIKELY TO BE A TARGETED PROSPECT OR A CUSTOMER.

THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS        THE MESSAGE INITIATOR CREDIBILITY OF INFORMAL SOURCES CREDIBILITY OF FORMAL SOURCES CREDIBILITY OF SPOKESPERSON MESSAGE CREDIBILITY TARGET AUDIENCE FEEDBACK PROCESS .

DESIGNING PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION             COMMUNICATION STRATEGY TARGET AUDIENCE MEDIA STRATEGY MESSAGE STRATEGY MESSAGE STRUCTURE AND PRESENTATION RESONANCE MESSAGE FRAMING ONE SIDED V/S TWO SIDED MESSAGES COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING ABRASIVE ADVERTISING SEX IN ADVERTISING ETHICS IN COMMUNICATION .

CHAPTER TEN CONSUMER DECISION MAKING AND BEYOND .

 THE CONSUMERS DECISION TO PURCHASE OR NOT IS AN IMPORTANT MOMENT FOR MOST MARKETERS.   . INSIGHTFUL. EFFECTIVE. INPUT VARIABLES THAT AFFECT THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS INCLUDE COMMERCIAL MARKETING EFFORTS AS WELL AS NON COMMERCIAL INFLUENCES AND ALSO BY CONSUMERS PSYCHOLOGICAL FIELD. OUTPUT PHASE INCLUDES THE ACTUAL PURCHASE AND POST PURCHASE EVALUATION. IT CAN SIGNIFY WHETHER A MARKETING STRATEGY IS WISE. OR WHETHER IT WAS POORLY PLANNED AND MISSED THE MARK.

IT ALSO INCLUDES THE FULL RANGE OF EXPERIENCES ASSOCIATED WITH USING OR CONSUMING PRODUCTS INCLUDING THE SENSE OF PLEASURE AND SATISFACTION DERIVED FROM POSSESING OR COLLECTING THINGS.   THE PROCESS OF GIFT EXCHANGE IS AN IMPORTANT PART OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR. . VARIOUS GIFT GIVING AND RECEIVING RELATIONSHIPS ARE CAPTURED BY THE 5 CATEGORIES CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IS NOT ABOUT MAKING A PURCHASE DECISION.

  THE SENSE OF PLEASURE DERIVED FROM POSSESING COLECTING OR CONSUMING THINGS CONTRIBUTES TO CONSUMER SATISFACTION AND OVERALL QUALITY OF LIFE . . THESE CONSUMPTION OUTCOMES OR EXPERIENCES INTURN AFFECT CONSUMER·S FUTURE DECISION PROCESSES.

IT REALLY STRESSES LONG TERM COMMITMENT TO THE CUSTOMER BY MAKING THEM FEEL SPECIAL AND BY PROVIDING THEM PERSONALISED SERVICES. SALES PROMOTION AND GENERAL ADVERTISING MAY BE USED AS A PART OF A RELATIONSHIP MARKETING STRATEGY. . ALTHOUGH DIRECT MARKETING.RELATIONSHIP MARKETING   MANY FIRMS HAVE ESTABLISHED RELATIONSHIP MARKETING PROGRAMS SOMETIMES ALSO CALLED LOYALTY PROGRAMS TO FOSTER USAGE LOYALTY AND A COMMITMENT TO THEIR COMPANY·S PRODUCTS AND SERVICES.

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