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First Certificate in English Grammar

First Certificate in English Grammar

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First Certificate in English

Explanations: Uses Exercises for further practise and consolidation

Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009

Present Perfect (Simple and Progressive) 5.Contents: 1. Present Continuous or Progressive 3. Present Simple 2. Exercises 7. Future Time (All forms) 6. Bibliography Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 . Grammar Reference 8. Past Time (All tenses) 4.

At the moment we’re sharing the house with my brother-in-law and his wife until they can have their own. The French Revolution begins. An annoying habit The present continuous is used to describe an annoying habit. It is used to describe what happens in a film or a book. Habitual actions The present simple is used to describe habitual actons. Susan meets David at school 1789. A frequency adver is compulsory. A time expression is necessary. Facts which are always true. The present simple is used tyo describe events in a narrative. Actions which are still in progress The presnt progressive is used to describe actions which are temporary and not yet finished. I’m listening to music now 2. The light from the Sun takes 8 mins 20 secs to reach the Earth The River Po flows into the Adriaqtic Sea. Whenever I see Tom. Plot summaries and historical tables. A time epression is necessary. when the events are summarised. he’s smoking! You’re making the same mistake again! 4. In Chapter one. or in a table of events. 3. You’re always complaining! She’s constantly borrowing money from us! Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 . I usually take the bus to school 3. A frequency adverb is often used. PRESENT CONTINUOUS OR PROGRESSIVE 1. 2. A repeated temporary event The present continuous can describe a repeated temporary action. and geographical descriptions. The present simple is used to describe facts in science.PRESENT SIMPLE 1. Habits over a period of time The present progressive can describe a temporary habit.

These are called STATE VERBS Be Believe Cost Depend Have Hear Know Matter Smell Suppose Taste Think Understand Some of these verbs can be used in the continuous form BUT with a change in meaning: Tim is being rather difficult at the moment. Some were sleeping ond the benches. Sally had managed to puesh her away to the front of the crowd. 2. 4. Background description The past continuous is used to describe actions still in progress. (Behave) I’m having lunch.STATE VERBS Some verbs are not normally used in the progressive. (Consider) PAST TIME (all tenses) Narrative 1. Interrupted past actions We often contrast an action still in progress with a sudden event which interrupts it. 3. Past before past The past perfect is used to describe a past event which took place before another past event. Note: it is not necessary to use past perfect if there’s a time expression tat states clearly the order in which the actions happened. (Eat) I’m tasting the soup. (Sample) I’m thinking of buying a new car. By the time the train arrived. While Sally was trying to get onto the platform. to cheek if it needs more salt. a man grabbed her handbag. Before the train arrived. There were a lot of people waiting in the station. because they describe activities which already extend in time. and is used for background description. Sally went into the station and bought a ticket. and others were walking up and down. Susan managed to push her away to the front of the crowd. Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 . Main events The past simple is used to describe finished events in the past.

We can also describe events that have not happened. Would Would is used to describe a person’s typical activities in the past. Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 . The idea of time or place in the speaker’s mind makes the event recent. usually in contrast with the present. A time expression is usually necessary. light his pipe and fell asleep. I always got up at six those days. A time expression may emphasise recentness. It can ONLY be used for repeated actions. Used to Used to is used to describe past habits. and in personal reminiscences. Present perfect simple The present perfect simple is used to describe events without a definite time. (Note: Time expressions are not necessary) Used to can also describe past states. Politeness and Uncertainty The past continuous with the verb WONDER has a polite meaning. I used to own a horse. PRESENT PERFECT Recent events 1. With the verb THINK the past continuous suggests uncertainty. I was wondering if you could help me. because the result of the event is present. No definite time is given for the event. Past simple The past ssimple is used to describe past habits or states. I’ve just borken my watch. (State) 2. I haven’t found her phone number yet. Jack would turn on the radio. The event may be connected with the present. (Habit) I lived in Australia several years. he was always getting into trouble. (I owned a horse once) 3. I’ve left my shopping bag behind. Every morning was the same. often an annoying habit. Past Continuous The past continuous can be used to describe repeated actions in the past. I was thinking of having a party next week. When he was young. but now I get up at eight.Habits in the past 1. A frequency adverb is compulsory. I used to get up at six. and is mainly used in writing. 4.

I went to Merlo last year. I’ve left my shopping bag on the train. There is little difference in meaning between simple and continuous in this case. We’ve been walking for hours! Let’s have a rest. lie. and I refuse to start now! CONTRASTS BETWEEN SIMPLE AND CONTINUOUS 1. or has recently finished. wait. 2. the present perfect simple describes a state which lasts up to the present. I’ve never worn a tie to work. 2. stay prefer the present perfect continuous. Present perfect simple No definite time is given for the event. The tense used can depend on the time expression. That’s why I’m so dirty! Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 . Not Completed Use of the present perfect continuous can suggest that an action is not completed. Definite places If we think of a definite place for an event. Present perfect simple With verbs that describe states.I’ve broken my arm as you can see. or in How long. I’ve been in Mar del Plata three times 2. Compared with past simple Events described using the past simple have definite times. questions. I’ve lived in this house for five years. How long have you been waiting? 3. Present perefect simple This tense can describe an habitual action over a period of time up to the present moment. The verbs sit. Present perfect continuous The present perfect progressive also describes a state which lasts up to the present moment.. Extended or repeated events 1. Indefinite events 1. This is the first time I’ve eaten Japanese food. I’ve been living in this house for five years. this may suggest a definite time. I’ve been digging the garden.

Use of shall after I and we is more common in formal speech. Look out! There’s a bus coming! It’s going to hit us! I can see you’re going to have a baby. 2. Present cause We often make predictions because we can see the cause of the event. UNTIL and AS SOON AS a present tense form is used. and especially in impersonal statements. going to is also commonly used for predictions. I’ll wait fotr you until you get back Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 . This time next week we’ll be eating lunch on the plane! It is also used to predict a future state or habit at a particular time in the future. This means at the future time when we get there. In ten years time I expect I’ll be living in Buenos Aires. By the time we get there. although this refers to future time. we can say: The film has started. Perhaps she’ll be late. Giving the number of actions suggests completion. the film will have started. I think it’ll rain tomorrow. Future Perfect The future perfect looks back form a point in the future and refers to indefinite time up to that pint. 4. It is often preceded by I think or by opinion words like perhaps. You’re going to fall! 3. 5. Future Continuous The future continuous i used to describe a situation in the future at a particular time. In speech both will and shall are contracted to ‘ll. After time expressions WHEN. A time expression is also necessary. Future time clauses 1. Completed Use of the present perfect simple can show that an action is incomplete. Going to If a predicted event is very near.2. I’ve written ten pages of my homework assignment! FUTURE TIME (All forms) Prediction 1. Will Will is used to make predictions.

Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 . such as events in a timetable. I’ll wait here until you have finished Intention 1. I’m leaving tomorrow morning. Present Simple This tense is used to describe future events which we cannot control. Going to Going to is used to describe a present intention. Present progressive The present progressive is used to describe plans and arrangements which are definite. I can’t help you. They may be facts.45. or a law. Sorry. 2. Such arrangements may be written in a diary. Will Will is also used for decisions made at the time of speaking Oh! It’s Bob’s birthday tomorrow! I’ll buy him a present when I can. The present perfect can be used to emphasise the completion of an event.2. Plans and Facts 1. The plane for Brazil leaves at 9. I’m going to fix the television tomorrow 2.

Exercises FOR PERSONAL REFLECTION Which of the uses explained above you didn’t know? Did you find any interesting information in the explanations given? How would you organize that “new” information so that you remember it better? Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 .

. Do you find anything in common? Look at these categories. Change these sentences into Present Progressive a) He paints beautifully. Define – in your own words. Decide if the verb must take an –ing form and justify your choice briefly. a) I ____________________ of moving town.what is a stative or state verb: 2. d) Charles always complains about everything! Look back on the previous sentences think and answer: What is the difference in MEANING between the sentences? Stative Verbs 1. c) People get their services paid via internet nowadays. Complete the sentences with the verbs given. b) Sarah is nervous.FROM THEORY TO PRACTISE.. Which ones refer to state verbs? TICK them • • • • • • Senses Abilities Feelings Mind states Emotions Other 3. I’m fed up with the noises here! THINK Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 . Look back to the different verbs mentioned that are stative. Exercises to learn Present Simple vs Present Progressive 1.

Which function do they take: a) Adjectives? b) Adverbs? c) Nouns? Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 . Write sentences with the verbs given. Follow the instructions carefully. THINK c) The cookers ____________________ the wine to see if it’s got the flavour they want. HAVE 4.b) George ____________________ that this is not the right thing to do. HAVE e) Argentina ____________________ many different and colourful landscapes to see. a) FINISH: Future time reference b) COMB: Habit c) SEE: Future arrangement d) TEASE: Annoying habit Other uses of the -ing form: Read the poem and extract the –ing forms. Note: The verbs Must be only in present simple or continuous. TASTE d) Mary ____________________ dinner with some friends tonight.

. But all the same Bertha threw off her coat. She hardly dared to breathe for fear of fanning it higher.) and justify your choices clearly.In the following texts identify the use of the past time (narrative. She hardly dared to look into the cold mirror . trembling lips. dark eyes and an air of listening. and the cold air fell on her arms.that shower of little sparks coming from it. with big. TEXT 1 TEXT 2 TEXT 3 “It was dusky in the dining-room and quite chilly.. habitual action in the past. radiant. and yet she breathed deeply. deeply.but she did look. But in her bosom there was still that bright glowing place . she could not bear the tight clasp of it another moment. that she knew must happen .Past Time 1.. etc. by Katherine Mansfield Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 .. and it gave her back a woman. waiting for something .” Extracted from BLISS. infallibly. divine to happen ... It was almost unbearable. with smiling.

c) Nick (lie) __________________ down on the grass for a while. b) Mary (not wear) __________________ her glasses at that time. she (fall) __________________ asleep. g) The police (get) __________________ to Mark’s house as fast as they could. Write sentences to illustrate the different uses of the past progressive tense: 3. Put the verbs into a suitable tense: a) The police (pay) __________________ no attention to Clare’s complaint because she (phone) __________________ them so many times before. but the burglars (disappear) __________________. d) Tony (admit) __________________ that he (hit) __________________ the other car.2. I (think) __________________ about something else. f) Helen (feel) __________________ very tired. 4. next to some tourists who (feed) __________________the ducks. I (not listen) __________________ to you. Invent a story that provides an explanation for the following picture: 200 words maximum Remember:  Give your story a good tittle (don’t underline the tittle)  Write your story using the PAST time  If possible. include some phrasal verbs or vocabulary developed in class Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 . e) Sorry. but said he (not damage) __________________ it. and while she (finish) __________________ her homework. so she (not notice) __________________ what kind of car the man (drive)__________________.

The first Winter Youth Olympics will be held in Innsbruck. Graham and Sally (try) ____________________ to find a house for ages.Present Perfect 1. but they can’t find one they can afford. Do these forms agree with what has been exposed in the theory? January • • January 1 . but she finds it difficult. Put each verb into the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Someone (eat) ____________________ the cakes! What you (buy) ____________________ your sister for her birthday? My throat is really sore. Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 .Poland will adopt the Euro. Choose the most suitable time expression: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) I haven’t seen Jerry for/ since a long time. How many people you (invite) ____________________ for the party? Those two cats (sit) ____________________ on that branch for the last hour. What have you been doing today/ yesterday? Have you eaten Italian food before/ already? I’ve been living here in/ since the end of last year. Brenda (learn) ____________________ Russian. I’ve written to David last week/ recently. It’s ages ago/since i last went to a football match. It (rains) ____________________ all day! Why can’t it stop! I (do) ____________________ everything you asked. I’ve been trying to get in touch with Amanda for ages/ for the last time. Actually I had dinner with Sue last night/ lately. Answer these questions: a) What is the difference between past simple and present perfect simple? b) What is the difference between present perfect simple and present perfect continuous? 2. Future Time 1. January 13–22 . Read to some predictions and highlight the future forms used. 3. Austria. I (sing) ____________________ all evening.

February • February 5 . Write sentences using the adverbials indicated. Please Please Me.Unless the European Council votes to extend current copyright law.639. rather than one unified command under the Combined Forces Command. 2. also future.090 mi). will fall out of copyright.e: decisions taken at the moment of speaking) c) We use present progressive to refer to future arrangements.Super Bowl XLVI will be played at Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis. f) Future perfect is used to describe an action that will be finished before another action. April • April 17 . All sentences must have a future time reference: a) Tomorrow b) By the year 2012 c) Next week d) By that time e) In the next ten years Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 . March • March 22 .1790 astronomical units (26. d) We use will to express a near future based on a preent evidence.The United States will cede wartime control of the military of the Republic of Korea after 50 years and dissolve the Combined Forces Command.778. Two distinct military commands (South Korea and the United States) will operate in Korea during wartime.• January 31 . 16.433 Eros. The Beatles debut album. Indiana. b) We use “be going to” to indicate on-the-spot decisions (i. e) The sentence “ I will be visiting my parents next month” is incorrect. 3.019 km. True or false? Correct the false statements: a) We can use present simple to denote future time reference. NASA studied Eros with the NEAR Shoemaker probe launched on 1996-02-17. the second-largest Near Earth Object on record (size 13×13×33 km) will pass Earth at 0.

etc) Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 . Fill in with the grammatical structure that corresponds to each future form: WILL Will+infinitive BE GOING TO Future forms PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE FUTURE PERFECT FUTURE CONTINUOUS 5.4. Write as many sentences as you wish using these verbs: GIVE HAPPEN BE CONTRIBUTE Remember:  All sentences must have future time reference  Try to use ALL forms studied (see chart on the previous exercise)  Use clear time references to back up your choices (adverbs. adverbials.

were became began blew broke brought built burst bought burst caught chose came cut dealt did drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave froze got gave went grew had heard hid held hurt kept knew laid led Past Participle been become begun blown broken brought built burst bought burst caught chosen come cut dealt done drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen gotten given gone grown had heard hidden held hurt kept known laid led Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 .Grammar Reference: List of Irregular Verbs in English Present be become begin blow break bring build burst buy burst catch choose come cut deal do drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly forbid forget forgive freeze get give go grow have hear hide hold hurt keep know lay lead Past was.

leave let lie lose make meet pay quit read ride run say see seek sell send shake shine sing sit sleep speak spend spring stand steal swim swing take teach tear tell think throw wake wear win write left let lay lost made met paid quit read rode ran said saw sought sold sent shook shone sang sat slept spoke spent sprang stood stole swam swung took taught tore told thought threw woke (waked) wore won wrote left let lain lost made met paid quit read ridden run said seen sought sold sent shaken shone sung sat slept spoken spent sprung stood stolen swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woken (waked) worn won written understand understood Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 .

Heinemann.english.edu Contact: gonza432_2@hotmail.com Gonzalo Velo de Ipola 2009 .com Gardendigest.com Classicreader.purdue.Bibliography Consulted: FIRST CERTIFICATE LANGUAGE PRACTISE by Michael Vince. 1996 Webpages Consulted: Wikipedia.com Owl.

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