Bit Hydraulics Optimization

Drilling Fluid Circulation
Purposes
Control formation pressures Drive motor/turbine Cool the bit Clean cuttings from the hole bottom Clean cuttings from the bit Transport cuttings to surface

Bit Hydraulics

2 DP 9/1/2004

Bit Hydraulics Optimization Fluid Pressure Fluid Flow Rate Fluid Density and Viscosity PxQ PHP= 1714 Frictional Pressure Losses Nozzle Flow Area (TFA .sq.) Nozzle Pressure Drop (psi) Nozzle Horsepower (HSI) Nozzle Impact Force (lbf) Nozzle Velocity (ft/sec) 3 DP 9/1/2004 PxQ BHP= 1714 .in.

Pressure Loss Factors Pressure In Pressure Out Flow In Flow Out Equipment and Wellbore Geometry – – – Flow Area Length Constrictions Flow Rate Mud Properties – – – 4 DP 9/1/2004 Weight Plastic Viscosity Yield Point .

Eq.PStdpipe=PSurf.+PDrill String+PMWD/Motor+PBit+PAnnulus Pressure Losses Surface Equipment – – – – – – – Standpipe Kelly Hose Swivel Kelly Pipe Collars BHA Drill String Motor/Turbine Bit Nozzles Annulus 5 DP 9/1/2004 .

0 45 55 55 55 2.00 3.0 40 40 40 40 2.0 6 DP 9/1/2004 .0 2.0 3.0 2.) Hose Length (Ft.) ID (In.0 4 5 5 6 2.0 3.Pressure Losses Surface Equipment Case Stand Pipe Length (Ft.) ID (In.) ID (In.) Swivel Length (Ft.5 3.5 4.) Kelly Length (Ft.25 4.5 2.) 1 2 3 4 40 40 45 45 3.5 3.) ID (In.25 3.0 4.

000 5.992 2 1/8 – 2 9/16 5 5 6 5/8 19.965 2¾ – 3¾ 3¼ – 3¾ 4 5/8 .276 4.Pressure Losses Drill Pipe Drill String D1 D2 OD Nominal Weight ID (in.5 25.5 2.) (in.6 25.5 7 DP 9/1/2004 .2 4.) Tool Joint Body (lb/ft) 3½ 15.

) (in.3 2¾ 3 2 7/8 3 1/16 8 DP 9/1/2004 .Pressure Losses Drill Pipe D1 D2 Drill String Heavy Weight Drill Pipe OD Nominal Weight ID (in.) Tool Joint Body (lb/ft) 3½ 25.3 2 1/16 2 3/16 4½ 5 41.0 49.

) 1½ 2½ 1½ 3¼ 8 .0 44.Pressure Losses Drill Pipe D1 D2 Drill String Heavy Weight Drill Pipe Drill Collars OD (in.) OD (in.0 143.0 165.) 4¾ 4¾ 8 9 DP 9/1/2004 Weight ID (lb/ft) Weight (lb/ft) 54.0 ID (in.

Pressure Losses MWD PDM Turbine RSS MWD and Downhole Drives 10 DP 9/1/2004 .

Pressure Losses Bit Flow Rate Mud Weight Nozzle TFA Pressure Drop HSI JIF 11 DP 9/1/2004 .

Pressure Losses Annulus Flow Rate Mud Weight Casing ID Drill String OD Length 12 DP 9/1/2004 .

000 feet Max.+PDrill String+PMWD/Motor+PBit+PAnnulus 13 DP 9/1/2004 . Standpipe Pressure = 3000 psi Flow Rate = 238 GPM Mud Weight = 14.Example of Pressure Losses Hole Size =8-1/2" Depth Out = 15.5 ppg At Maximum HSI Surface Equipment Loss = 20 psi Internal Drill String Loss = 968 psi MWD/Motor Loss = 0 Bit Pressure Drop = 1890 psi Annulus Loss = 122 psi Total Loss = 3000 PStdpipe=PSurf.Eq.

Hydraulics Optimization 3000 psi Standpipe Pressure Standpipe HP System Loss HP Bit Nozzle HP JIF/sq. 14 DP 9/1/2004 . in.

and excessive standpipe pressure. equipment wear. 15 DP 9/1/2004 . Flow Rate must be low enough to avoid hole erosion. Back-reaming. Bits with large junk slots. High flow rates often require large or open nozzles. widely spaced teeth/inserts and numerous jets are helpful.Hydraulic Recommendations Flow Rate Requirements Flow Rate must be high enough to transport cuttings. high open face volume. bit body balling and lack of chips at surface indicate cuttings transport or sloughing problems.

Aggressive designs with widely-spaced blades and teeth are helpful. Maximum HSI obtained when nozzle pressure drop is 65% of standpipe pressure. high mud weights. Deep holes. waterbased mud and reactive formations. 16 DP 9/1/2004 . cuttings packed on teeth indicate static or dynamic chip hold down problems.Hydraulic Recommendations Maximum Hydraulic Horsepower Maximize nozzle HSI when cutting structure or bottom hole balling is the limitation.

17 DP 9/1/2004 . Obtained when the pressure drop across the bit is 50% of the total pump pressure.Hydraulic Recommendations Maximum Jet Impact Force Maximize JIF in shallow holes where cuttings return and bit/hole balling are both potential limitations. Common in shallow holes with high ROP in reactive formations.

Blank nozzles generate crossflow. 3 to 7 HSI recommended (not always possible). 18 DP 9/1/2004 .Hydraulic Recommendations Other Guidelines 30 to 50 gpm per inch of hole diameter. 18% or less flow through centerjet (=18% of TFA). Blank the nozzle pointing to the cone with fewest gauge row inserts.

Hydraulic Program Design Goal: Determine nozzle sizes and flow rate to deliver maximum HSI or JIF within specified operating constraints. Maximum Standpipe Pressure 2. Fixed TFA 19 DP 9/1/2004 . MWD and Motor Considerations 6. Maximum Pump Horsepower 4. Mud Weight 5. Minimum and Maximum Flow Rate 3. Constraints: 1. Fixed Flow Rate 7.

Derive Nozzles from TFA at optimum GPM. 4. Find GPM giving maximum HSI or JIF based on frictional losses. 20 DP 9/1/2004 . 2. Identify Maximum Standpipe Pressure. Specify HSI or JIF optimization and TFA/GPM constraints. 3.Hydraulic Program Calculation Method Nozzles ? Flow Rate ? 1.

Hydraulic Program Cases Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 21 DP 9/1/2004 .

Hydraulic Program Demo 22 DP 9/1/2004 .

Hydraulic Optimization Field Results Carboniferous Formation Oil Base Mud in North Sea Shale Formation Water Base Mud in Columbia 23 DP 9/1/2004 .

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