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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

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Chapter 1 Introduction

When we talk of industries that have helped in the growth and expansion of the Indian economy, the leather industry is one name that holds the top position. The leather industry is one of the oldest manufacturing industries of India that has provided employment to approximately more than 2.5 million people in the country. Amongst all leather products, footwear manufacturing in India holds a prominent place. The leather industry of India alone generates the maximum revenue from exports. According to statistics, India's export of leather and leather products alone has generated revenue of US $ 1.5 billion dollars in 1999. In 2003 it had increased to US $ 2.16 billion and in 2004 to was estimated to have gone up to US $ 2.29 billion dollars. Apart from this non leather Indian footwear is also equally saleable with a production of 1056 million pairs of non leather footwear. The footwear components are also in high demand in the international market with exports going up to almost 179.21 million US $. The footwear industry in India has an immense potential of providing more employment to the unemployed youths as well increasing exports. The best possible utilization of available raw materials, proper planning and providing quality stuff to its customers has made this industry grow in leaps and bounds. The ISF or Indian Shoe Federation is a group of footwear and footwear components' manufacturers that help in promoting the growth of the Indian footwear industry worldwide. The ISF has always tried to follow practices that are transparent, modern, innovative fast and cost effective to gain maximum output with least wastage. In the simplest terms, productivity is the ratio between the quantity of goods and services produced and the quantity of resources used to produce them. Economists have come up with a number of intricate ways to measure productivity, but any business owner knows that if he or she is producing more of a product with the same number of resources, productivity has gone up. Of course, the opposite is true if fewer products are being produced.

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Worker productivity is one of the key issues for any business, but for small businesses with limited resources, getting the most out of the least is an essential element in establishing and maintaining competitiveness. Small businesses need to have tools in place to measure productivity and must combine increased productivity with a commitment to quality and efficiency. Innovative goal setting, planning, and organizing are essential to improving productivity. Some of the major threats to productivity, as cited in Industrial Management, include an ineffective use of technology and lack of worker training and support, in addition to "an aging workforce, a declining labor supply, a lack of qualified workers, and rising wage and benefit costs."

4 CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .

technology. 2. The data is going to be collected through questionnaire survey(employee engagement) of over 100 workers and employees of different companies across various shoe factories of Ambur. supply chain management and managerial style analysis at these factories is watched to get a clear picture. Chennai and use of inferential and descriptive statistics to extract relevant information’s from the data. employee behavior and how to cope up with issues regarding the decline in efficiency and change in strategy. Apart from this study.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION Assessment of the factors that affect or improve productivity namely: Technology. This research would help me to gain insight of the industry. Since here lays the opportunity for determining the reasons of decline in efficiency. managerial organization. I found this opportunity to be used as a platform for learning the upsides and downsides of a shoe factory.3 JUSTIFICATION Interested in making a career in the field of production. employee engagement.5 CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2. The study is based on the survey and observation of various factories in and around Ambur (Vellore district). 2. . payments and rewards system.2 SCOPE The project is about the study on the factors that affect productivity and the strategies one should apply to improve productivity. I would be able to utilize my managerial skills fully and help the industry cope up with the present crisis. payment and reward systems.

Sources of data . under the category-Probability sample 2. .Exploratory research. The time period was not sufficient to cover all details of retail sector. Target respondent .Primary & secondary. Sample size .4 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION Type of study .  An important limitation was the area of the study which covers only Chennai and Ambur wherein market information collected cannot be a final key. Data collection Mode .  The other limitation was the non-cooperative nature of the people to give information and interviews.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY  One of the most important limitations was the time period. Sampling method .100.simple random.6 2. managers of the factories.The workers and employees in factories at Ambur.Questionnaire method/ focus group discussions. Chennai.

7 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW .

The exports of leather and leather products gained momentum during the past two decades.1 Industry Overview The leather industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian economy in view of its massive potential for employment. There has been an increasing emphasis on its planned development.000 . aimed at optimum utilization of available raw materials for maximizing the returns.8 Chapter 3 Literature Review 3.69558 million in 1996-97. In the wake of globalisation of Indian economy supported with liberalised economic and trade policies since 1991. There has been a phenomenal growth in exports from Rs. Direct and indirect employment of the industry is around 2 million. particularly from exports. leather industry has tremendous potential for employment generation.000 Tanning & Finishing: 1. the industry is poised for further growth to achieve greater share in the global trade. Indian leather industry today has attained well merited recognition in international markets besides occupying a prominent place among the top seven foreign exchange earners of the country. growth and exports.25. Apart from a significant foreign exchange earner.320 million in the year 1965-66 to Rs. Policy initiatives taken by the Government of India since 1973 have been instrumental to such a transformation. The leather industry has undergone a dramatic transformation from a mere exporter of raw materials in the sixties to that of value added finished products in the nineties. curing & Carcass Recovery: 8. The skilled and semi-skilled workers constitute nearly 50% of the total work force. The estimated employment in different sectors of leather industry is as follows: Flaying.00.

leather garments. Vaniyambadi. The estimated production capacity in different segments is as under Hides:64 million pieces Skins:166 million pieces Footwear & Footwear Components Shoes:100 million pairs Leather shoe uppers:78 million pairs Non-leather shoes/chappals etc:125 million pairs Leather Garments:6 million pieces Leather Products:70 million pieces Industrial Gloves:40 million pairs Saddlery:6000 pieces The major production centres for leather and leather products are located at Chennai.000 Chappals & Sandals: 4. Dindigul in Tamil Nadu. Kanpur in .000 Leather Goods & Garments: 1.50. Ambur. footwear & footwear components.9 Full Shoe: 1. Calcutta in West Bengal. Ranipet. Trichi. tanning & finishing. namely. leather goods including saddlery & harness. etc.000 Shoe Uppers: 75.50.75.000 Structure of the industry The leather industry is spread in different segments.

The annual availability of 166 million pieces of hides and skins is the main strength of the industry. Raw material supplies There exists a large raw material base. This is expected to go up to 218 million pieces by the end of year 2000. Some of the goat/calf/sheep skins available in India are regarded as speciality products commanding a good market. 70 million buffaloes. Tanning and finishing capacity With tanning and finishing capacity for processing 1192 million pieces of hides and skins per annum spread over different parts of the country. Indian Leather and Footwear Industry . Jalandhar in Punjab. According to the latest census. it claims the sixth position. These four species provide the basic raw material for the leather industry. It is an attraction for any foreign manufacturer who intends to shift his production base from a high cost location to low cost base. Delhi and Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh. In respect of sheep with 48 million sheeps. the Government of India has allowed duty free import of hides and skins from anywhere in the world. In order to augment the domestic raw material availability. most of which is organized along modern lives. Bangalore in Karnataka. 95 million goats. Abundance of traditional skills in training. India ranks first among the major livestock holding countries in the world. This is on account of population of 194 million cattle. finishing and manufacturing downstream products and relatively low wage rates are the two other factors of comparative advantage for India.10 Uttar Pradesh. the capability of India to sustain a much larger industry with its raw material resource is evident.

Nike. Gabor. Reebok. use of non-leather material is prevalent in the domestic market. and in accordance with the latest trends. Salamander and Colehaan are manufactured under license in India. Besides. St Michaels. UK and PFI. has gained international prominence in the area of Colours & Leather Texture forecasting through its . Germany. Clarks. Many Indian footwear factories have also acquired the ISO 9000. In the case of chapels and sandals. Reputed global brands like Florsheim. India. many global retail chains seeking quality products at competitive prices are actively sourcing footwear from India. Stacy Adams. India produces more of gent’s footwear while the world’s major production is in ladies footwear. While leather shoes and uppers are produced in medium to large-scale units. There are already many new domestic brands of footwear and many foreign brands such as Nike. Deichmann. Elefanten. Many units are equipped with In-house Design Studios incorporating state-of-the-art CAD systems having 3D Shoe Design packages that are intuitive and easy to use. Nunn Bush. It is the engine of growth for the entire Indian leather industry and India is the second largest global producer of footwear after China. Rockport. The footwear sector has matured from the level of manual footwear manufacturing methods to automated footwear manufacturing systems. The industry is poised for adopting the modern and state-of-the-art technology to suit the exacting international requirements and standards. the sandals and chappals are produced in the household and cottage sector. Adidas. With changing lifestyles and increasing affluence. One of the major factors for success in niche international fashion markets is the ability to cater them with the latest designs. domestic demand for footwear is projected to grow at a faster rate than has been seen. Florsheim. ISO 14000 as well as the SA 8000 certifications. have also been able to enter the market. Hasley. etc. Ecco. Puma.11 Indian leather industry is the core strength of the Indian footwear industry. Excellent facilities for Physical and Chemical testing exist with the laboratories having tie-ups with leading international agencies like SATRA. Reebok.

proven strength to produce footwear for global brand leaders and acquired technology competence.4% Major Competitors in the export market for leather footwear are China (14%).1200-1400 crore (Euro 217. The Indian Footwear Industry is gearing up to leverage its strengths towards maximizing benefits. particularly for mid and high priced footwear segments. There are nearly 4000 units engaged in manufacturing footwear in India. and about 90% of the workforces in the mechanized sector in South India consist of women. Spain (6%) and Italy (21%). . Strength of India in the footwear sector originates from its command on reliable supply of resources in the form of raw hides and skins. quality finished leather. While the traditional sector is spread throughout the country with pockets of concentration catering largely to the domestic market. the modern sector is largely confined to select centres like Chennai. Assembly line production is organized. India's share in global leather footwear imports is around 1. large human capital with expertise and technology base. They are trained to perform a particular function in the factory itself. Design and Retail information is regularly made available to footwear manufacturers to help them suitably address the season's requirement. this sector has opened up plenty of employment opportunities for women who have no previous experience.6-253. The total turnover of the footwear industry including leather and non-leather footwear is estimated at Rs. Ranipet.1 Million) including Rs. Resource strength of India in the form of materials and skilled manpower is a comparative advantage for the country.3-1723.12 outstanding success in MODEUROP. Kanpur and Delhi with most of their production for export.9 Million) in the household segment. Ambur. Agra. The footwear industry exist both in the traditional and modern sector. The industry is dominated by small scale units with the total production of 55%.8500-9500 crore (Euro 551. skilled manpower and relatively low cost labor. large installed capacities for production of finished leather & footwear. In fact.

com/ind_footwr_industry_overview. Policy initiatives taken by the Government 5. Capability to assimilate new technologies and handle large projects 6. Ready availability of highly skilled and cheap manpower 3. Growing fashion consciousness globally 3.htm 3. Rising potential in the domestic market 2. Use of e-commerce in direct marketing Strengths 1. Continuous emphasis on product development and design upgradation Weaknesses 1. High Growth 2.13 Source: http://footwearsinfoline. Huge labour force resulting in high labour charges 4. Unawareness of international standards by many players .2 SWOT Analysis of the Indian Footwear industry Opportunities 1. Large raw material base 4. Use of information technology and decision support software to help eliminate the length of the production cycle for different products 4. Lack of warehousing support from the government 2.tripod. Lack of strong presence in the global fashion market 5. International price fluctuation 3.

High competition from East European countries and other Asian countries 6. Limited scope for mobilising funds through private placements and public issues (many businesses are family-owned) 3.14 Threats 1. Lack of communication facilities and skills Source : http://footwearsinfoline.com/swotanalysis.tripod. Stricter international standards 5.htm . Difficulty in obtaining bank loans resulting in high cost of private borrowing 4. Major part of the industry is unorganised 2.

the company was set up initially asa small operation in Konnagar (near Calcutta) in 1932. This township is popularly known as Bata nagar.now called the Bata. . Its manufacturing and marketing operations heralded the rise and the development of a modernfootwear industry in India. footwear was produced primarily in the handicrafts and small enterprise segments. With 1250 stores across the country. Before Bata. the foundation stone for the first building of Bata's operation . used the µcurrent knowledge' from its international experience to create adaptive and innovative baseline standards for the shoe businesses in India. it also has the widest retail network within the BSO. Bata.15 3. Domestic Players: BATA:Bata India is the largest company for the Bata Shoe Organization in terms of sales pairs and the second largest in terms of revenues. In January 1934. it was already recognized as a leading shoe brand. the overall site was doubled in area. over the decades. By the time Bata had come to India in 1931. It was also the first manufacturing facility in the Indian shoe industry to receive the ISO: 9001 certification. Incorporated as Bata Shoe Company Private Limited in 1931. In the years that followed.3 Key Players of theI ndustries.

as well as a more trendy collection for ladies in the Marie Claire range and a sporty fashion collection for young adults in the North Star range. . Bata India has established a leadership position in the footwear industry and is easily the most trusted name in branded footwear.16 The Company went public in 1973 when it changed its name to Bata India Limited. Bata India has established itself as one of Asia's largest footwear retailer. Over the years. Its product range now encompasses classic shoes such as Ambassador for Men and comfort shoes such as Comfit for ladies. Today. It has cornered around 35per cent market share in the organized sector (and approx. Its retail network of 1250 stores gives it a reach/ coverage that no other footwear company can match. The stores are present in good locations and can be found in all the metros. mini-metros and towns with fashion trends and offers a good quality to price ratio.5% of the total footwear market)Almost 98 percent of the company's revenue is from the domestic market while the rest is from exports. The company currently sells over 45 million pairs of shoes every year and has an annual sales turnover of more than Rs 8000 million (USD 178 million). 8.

And the new face of Bata India is now visible to the industry as well as its customers. Established in Kolkata in 1953 by a Bengali businessman. and isnow poised to expand in a big way.to make it suitable to a semi-urban target audience with an ethnic quotient. Khadims has grown steadily and today commands brand premium in several States. Mission: Ensuring customer delight and stakeholders return by delivering quality product at affordable price through extensive retail network Vision: To be in every Indian step.The first such store. The Khadim group of companies. mainly Tamil Nadu. the company is working towards positioning itself as a vibrant and contemporary young brand. one such player now emerging as a market leaderin the region. along with 100 per cent outsourcing. particularly in eastern region and South. backed by a brand perception of experience. . which has helped change consumer perceptions to a large extent. Khadim have grown mainly through our outsourcing strengths and today have as many as 27retail outlets in both urban and semi-urban centers and some 150 franchisee shops. has already gone into manufacture.000 sq ft and spread over four floors. housed in 30. as asmall trading outfit involved in footwear wholesale business. under `Khadim's Khazana'brand entailing an investment of Rs 50 crore in the next three years. Mr Satya Prosad Roy Burman. has been launched at Kanchrapara town in North 24 Paraganas district.Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.The company plans to launch 10 superstores initially in district towns. with a significant presence in the footwear segment. Today. Khadims: The Rs 120-crore Khadim group of companies. It has significantly transformed its retail formats to become more lifestyle-oriented. has redefined its business plans to leverage the Khadim's brand and register a major presence in lifestyle retailing in the semi-urban markets. The particular store concept being adopted by Khadim's . especially in the eastand south regions.17 Bata's smart looking new stores supported by a range of better quality products are aimed at offering a superior shopping experience to its customers.

Abdul Wahid & Company Hindustan Lever Ltd.. RSL Industries Ltd.. Florind Shoes Ltd.com/. Mirza Tanners Ltd. Punihani International Farida Shoes Ltd. Source : www. Super House Leather Ltd. T./OVERVIEW-OF-INDIAN-FOOTWEAR-INDUSTRY .scribd.18 A few other key players in the Industry are: Tata International Ltd. Presidency Kid Leather Ltd.

4. An engaged employee is aware of business context.etc. 3. Engaged people at work are positive. analyze and set goals for improvement. and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organization. Shoes. Improving productivity through employee engagement. Forward Shoes. Then do it again and again until the process is where it needs to be. It is a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization and its values. . and personal interviews with the General Managers. One of the best is to measure. Improving productivity through use of payment systems and incentive schemes. interested in and even excited about their jobs and prepared to go the extra mile to get them done to the best of their ability.H. CEO’s. Improving productivity through implementation of “Lean Manufacturing System”. 1. A.4 EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT Conceptual Information Employee engagement is the level of commitment and involvement an employee has towards their organization and its values. The below mentioned are a few strategies to improve productivity and efficiency in a shoe manufacturing firm. The below mentioned details are a result of a questionnaire study amongst workers working in Florence Shoes. There are some great methods that are proven to significantly improve productivity. Chairman’s of the above mentioned companies. Improving productivity through technology 3. Only then can you work toward a logical plan for improving productivity.19 Strategies to Improve Productivity in the Shoe Industry: Improving productivity is at the top of nearly every manufacturer's list but making it happen can be a challenge. 2.

20 ENGAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT Engagement and organizational commitment are two important concepts affecting work performance and the attraction and retention of employees. the two concepts are often confused. •Engaged employees will stay with the company. and thereby improves customer satisfaction and service levels •It builds passion. Source : en. They are indeed closely linked – high organizational commitment can increase engagement and high engagement can increase commitment. be an advocate of the company and its products and services. •There is a significant link between employee engagement and profitability. •They form an emotional connection with the company. Combinations of engagement and organizational commitment are illustrated in figure. This impacts their attitude towards the company’s clients. But people can be engaged with their work even when they are not committed to the organization except in so far as it gives them the opportunity to use and develop their skills.wikipedia.org/wiki/Employee_engagement Advantages of having engaged employees’ in the organization An organization’s capacity to manage employee engagement is closely related to its ability to achieve high performance levels and superior business results. However. commitment and alignment with the organization’s strategies and goals . •They will normally perform better and are more motivated. Some of the advantages of Engaged employees are. and contribute to bottom line business success.

21 •Increases employees’ trust in the organization •Creates a sense of loyalty in a competitive environment •Provides a high-energy working environment •Boosts business growth •Makes the employees effective brand ambassadors for the company •A highly engaged employee will consistently deliver beyond expectations. .

for manufacturing of cutting dies. Pattern grading Shoe upper patterns need to be graded for the whole scale of the assortment of the required shoe sizes. Individual parts are graded instantaneously. since the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century. CAD/CAM software is a PC-based system.etc are using them to cut costs and improve production and productivity. If any . shoe lasts and sole moulds. which enables the designer to check the graded parts on the monitor. Use of CAD/CAM in the footwear industry It is the use of computers and graphics software for designing and grading of shoe upper patterns and. Logos. The below mentioned are a list of how technology has made the “shoe manufacturing process” easier and how companies such as Farida Shoes. It automates routine procedures. The effects of technology are often unnoticed due to their intrinsic nature.5Effect of technology on productivity The growth of innovation in the economy. there are 2D and 3D versions of CAD/CAM systems in the shoe industry.22 3. which is made up of program modules. Today. CAD systems today have been developed with a much wider range of functions. English or American sizing. has seen likewise a great gain in the productivity of the average worker as the capacity of labor has increased exponentially.. The effects of different technology on employee productivity are enormous and worth noting in any economic account of the way that people live in the modern world. TAW Shoes. It enabled manufacturers to perform complex grading relatively easily and quickly. textures and other decorations can be incorporated into product designs of both the uppers and soles to help reinforce branding on all areas of the model. increasing speed and consistency whilst reducing the possibility of mistakes. which can be French.

quality improvement and handling versatile pattern design.. when die costs are relatively high for samples or low quantity styles. Companies like Florence. . eliminating grueling and time-consuming work. the designer can change the grading specifications immediately and regrade the parts in no time. wastages and space acquisition by the old clicking(cutting) machines. As the result using the software is more accurate. Farida.. Example: This software is common in the large sized shoe manufacturing firms where they calculate the cost for their articles for all their customers using these softwares. Sole design CAD/CAM software can be used to generate machining data for shoe sole models and moulds Shoe sole mould makers are able to strengthen their capabilities of mould design and production techniques to meet the market demands for shorter product life cycle. automated leather cutting machines have drastically reduced use of manpower and time. Ltd.(large enterprises) use this technology to quickly produce samples in their Research and Development departments. It helps also introduction of detailed documentation and supports effective staff training. In Mohib Shoes India Pvt.23 discrepancies are found. as the consumptions of materials. the whole process of taking the pattern and its grading is shortened. Computerized cutting systems use graphics data output of CAD systems as input. Automated leather cutting Automated cutting machines are widely used today in the footwear industry to cut uppers from leather. leathers are more accurate. Cost calculation The CAD software can perform instant and highly accurate calculations for material consumption and product cost of the shoe.

2. Florence.etc. is a set of tools and methodologies that aims for the continuous elimination of all waste in the production process. 3.etc. The concept of automation has been used in the footwear industry in various places. all our efforts are directed towards achieving one thing and only one thing. also reducing the effort of pushing the article along the line. also called Lean Production.24 Source : en. impact on employee fatigue is lesser and also their actions are made faster. This only shows signs of increasing. Florence Group.wikipedia. Lean Manufacturing. full shoe’s which have increased productivity to great folds. thereby reducing time taken for the production of an article and hence increasing productivity and reducing cost on a long run. 1. This has made the average worker much more efficient and able to accomplish multiple tasks at once using machines as aids and tools. Aqeel Ahmed. a few customers have made it a norm for the usage of automatic conveyors. Process Specific Automation: Certain operations take a lot of time and also require a lot of finesse and accuracy.R. The main .org/wiki/CAD/CAM_in_the_footwear_industry Automation technology The process of automation has never stopped or even slowed down as even more basic tasks of the economy are today performed by machines. pasting. In fact. shoe finishing. Chairman.Automatic conveyor lines have been used in the manufacturing of uppers. Example: Automatic conveyors are being used in many companies like Farida. Althaf Shoes. Some of these operations have been studied and automated like stitching.6 Lean Manufacturing System as a strategy to improve productivity “ At the factory. manufacturing excellence”. As automatic conveyors ensures movement of articles along the conveyor on a faster basis. skiving.P.

as well as process preparation times and product/model conversion times. 2.Reduce defects and unnecessary physical wastage. 7. and unnecessary product characteristics which are not required by customers. 4. Inventory levels . while minimizing machine downtime. Utilization of equipment and space . 3. more effective use of equipment and space leads to lower depreciation costs per unit produced. Cycle Times . particularly works-in-progress between production stages. increased labor productivity and elimination of bottlenecks and machine downtime can be achieved. Labor productivity . some of the goals include: 1. companies can generally significantly increased output from their existing facilities. costs associated with reprocessing defective items. 6. both by reducing the idle time of workers and ensuring that when workers are working.Minimize inventory levels at all stages of production. Flexibility . More specifically. they are using their effort as productively as possible (including not doing unnecessary tasks or unnecessary motions).Have the ability to produce a more flexible range of products with minimum changeover costs and changeover time.Use equipment and manufacturing space more efficiently by eliminating bottlenecks and maximizing the rate of production though existing equipment.25 benefits of this are lower production costs. preventable defects. 5. Output – Insofar as reduced cycle times. increased output and shorter production lead times.Reduce manufacturing lead times and production cycle times by reducing waiting times between processing stages. more effective use of labor results in lower labor costs per unit produced and lower defects lead to lower cost of goods sold. Key Principles of Lean Manufacturing . Most of these benefits lead to lower unit production costs – for example. Lower inventories also mean lower working capital requirements. including excess use of raw material inputs. Defects and wastage .Improve labor productivity.

6. 4. timing and outcome of all actions by workers. Pull-production – Also called Just-in-Time (JIT). when it is needed. When this is successfully implemented. transporting materials between workstations is waste because it can potentially be eliminated. this list has been modified and expanded by various practitioners of lean manufacturing and generally includes the following: 1. detours. Originally 7 main types of waste were identified. sequence. This in turn requires a high level of worker involvement in the continuous improvement process. However.26 Key principles behind Lean Manufacturing can be summarized as follows: 1. Pull-production aims to produce only what is needed. This eliminates variation in the way that workers perform their tasks. Standard processes – Lean requires an the implementation of very detailed production guidelines. Any material. For example. called Standard Work. increases the risk of producing the wrong thing and increases the possibility of having . the production cycle time can be reduced by as much as 90%. 2. Production is pulled by the downstream workstation so that each workstation should only produce what is requested by the next workstation. Quality at the Source – Lean aims for defects to be eliminated at the source and for quality inspection to be done by the workers as part of the in-line production process. process or feature which is not required for creating value from the customer’s perspective is waste and should be eliminated. Recognition of waste – The first step is to recognize what does and does not create value from the customer’s4 perspective. backflows or waiting. Continuous improvement – Lean requires striving for perfection by continually removing layers of waste as they are uncovered. interruption. 5. Continuous flow – Lean usually aims for the implementation of a continuous production flow free of bottlenecks. This increases the risk of obsolescence. Over-production – Over-production is unnecessarily producing more than demanded or producing it too early before it is needed. 3. which clearly state the content.

please see section 2. or even unnecessary or difficult physical movements. Defects – In addition to physical defects which directly add to the costs of goods sold. This not only results in inefficient use of labor and equipment but the act of re-processing often causes disruptions to the smooth flow of production and therefore generates bottlenecks and stoppages. Waiting results in a significant cost insofar as it increases labor costs and depreciation costs per unit of output. For example. which slow down the workers. even by lean manufacturers. this might include walking around the factory floor to look for a tool. 6. Waiting also includes small delays between processing of units. such as moving materials between workstations. Extra inventory leads to higher inventory financing costs. Motion – Motion includes any unnecessary physical motions or walking by workers which diverts them from actual processing work. production to incorrect specifications. higher storage costs and higher defect rates. For more on this. Inventory – Inventory waste means having unnecessarily high levels of raw materials. late delivery. . Waiting – Waiting is idle time for workers or machines due to bottlenecks or inefficient production flow on the factory floor. The idea is that transportation of materials between production stages should aim for the ideal that the output of one process is immediately used as the input for the next process. the inefficient use of labor and space and can also be a source of minor production stoppages.27 to sell those items at a discount or discard them as scrap. due to poorly designed ergonomics. 4. provision of incorrect information about the product. 7. 2. works-in-progress and finished products. there are some cases when an extra supply of semi-finished or finished products are intentionally maintained. Transportation . 5. is when something has to be re-done because it wasn’t done correctly the first time.Transportation includes any movement of materials that does not add any value to the product. use of too much raw materials or generation of unnecessary scrap. Correction – Correction. Also. However. this may include errors in paperwork. 3. or reprocessing. Transportation between processing stages results in prolonging production cycle times.5 below.

pitt. unavailability of a mixing formula may potentially suspend the entire process or create defective items due to timeconsuming trial-and-error tests. Lack of correct information often leads to defects and bottlenecks. at the other end of the conveyors. At Florence Shoes.. etc. ways to solve problems. This might include information on correct procedures.edu/ETD/available/etd-05282003. 8. it is mandatory that companies follow heijunka./Abdullah. Knowledge Disconnection – This is when information or knowledge isn’t available where or when it is needed. Source: etd. specifications.. 9. They would calculate the demand and pass it onto the cutting and materials department which would schedule their activities to match the production demand. Over-processing – Over-processing is unintentionally doing more processing work than the customer requires in terms of product quality or features – such as polishing or applying finishing on some areas of a product that won’t be seen by the customer. racks named after each model are kept and would have a small storage space where stock of materials that is required for the days production would be stored.library.pdf Situation: As a part of the ECCO production system of working. . The demand calculation of each of these racks are done by the supervisor and production manager’s in charge.28 issues associated with reworking typically consume a significant amount of management time and therefore add to factory overhead costs. For example.

Head-A. Corrective maintenance is concerned with the fix or buy decisions for plant equipment. Total productive maintenance is the technique to ensure machine availability and reliability in the production process. Example: . by using flags. one that will not require too much maintenance.etc: Total Productive Maintenance “Every week we submit a report about all the problems that took place on the shop floor due to machinery breakdowns. Visual Systems A visual system is a shop floor concept where the idea is to make basic task and process information available to the operator at a glance. Maintenance prevention tries to avoid maintenance in the first place by selecting the right kind of machine. digital displays. and encouraging them.Maintenance Dept. Farida Shoes.H. with an emphasis on small incremental improvements.Shoes and Accessories. sirens. A main theme of Kaizen is to create a culture of continuous improvement. corrective maintenance and maintenance prevention. we regularly check all our machines and ensure that there is minimal loss of production due to machine problems”P. A few other Lean Manufacturing Techniques being used in Florence Shoes.Kaleem.29 Continuous Improvement / Kaizen Kaizen is a Japanese term for “continuous improvement”. to identify opportunities for improvement. It includes preventive maintenance.M.etc as done in Delta Shoes-Farida Group.. As a part of our system of operating. largely by assigning responsibility to workers. Preventive maintenance is the regular checks made on machines to ascertain their proper functioning by the technical team.

as the minimum wages in the industry is raising and so is the offerings by the players in the domestic market itself. yellow and green. companies are being forced to increase their pay packages and also offer incentives to retain their employees. was used in Delta ShoesFarida Group where they had the system of flags. With increasing competition not only from domestic players. Companies in and around Ambur have now started offering higher pays with annual increments and performance appraisals happening every six months(different from the past scenario where increments where once in two years and performance appraisals once in a year) and also complying with all government regulations and offering services for the society at large as a part of their CSR practices which are monitored by the companies with whom they do business. With all this happening. which is increasing productivity. teams and the organization at large. groups. The above mentioned are a few tools of the “lean manufacturing system” being used across shoe companies to improve the productivity and efficiency of the individuals. 3. Every worker would be equipped with three flags of colors red.7 Strategies to improve productivity through payment systems and incentives Salaries form a very important aspect of motivating an employee. yellow symbolized malfunctioning of machines and technical problems and the red was if the workers had too much of small inventory lying by their side and needed supervision to set priorities. The green symbolized problems related to inadequate supply of materials or absenteeism of the worker to that workstation. a Japanese tool for visual signs for enhancing productivity.30 “Andon”. . companies are left with only one choice to remain strong in the market. Pakistan. Thailand. but also from countries like China. it should be attractive enough to bring them to the company and retain them also. be it for the staffs or the workers. Indonesia and countries from the African continent. However. companies operating in this market are being forced to bring down their average product cost by controlling their expenses and overheads in order to retain their business and grow subsequently.

the plan has no effect on motivating the efforts of plant employees. and transportation costs) are beyond the control and efforts of the plant employees.. it seems the companies are doing well. the plan does motivate them. Despite these drawbacks. FSIPL Phase-2).31 In order to help alleviate a tight labor market and boost plant performance. Shoes and Accessories) indicated that many of the factors used to calculate profits (e. Incentive plan 2: Contribution plan:- . plant employees regard profit sharing as a reward at the year's end for company performance rather than as a daily motivator for plant production. Since they have some control over activities that generate profits. An employee who has worked for the company for ten or more years and has built up a respectable sum in the profitsharing retirement fund is not apt to seek employment elsewhere. Ayub (GM-Production. First. with the theory being that fewer employees would cut payroll costs and force the remaining workers to work harder. Waseeq (GM-Admin. companies still use profit-sharing plans. On the other hand. who do not work harder or smarter as a result of such a plan. companies in the past have leaned toward job elimination. they tend to stabilize the employment situation for older employees. pricing. who have little first-hand knowledge of these factors within the realm of their jobs at the plant. Based on the number of recent expansions and new plants being developed. Incentive plan 1: Profit Sharing:According to Mr. primarily for two reasons. However.H. To increase net profits. Mr. executives like profit sharing. motivate them through financial benefits and also attract employees for their growth. inventory evaluation.g.-A. material costs. Second. An alternative approach to job elimination is the use of incentive plans. Companies are offering the below mentioned incentives to retain employees. There is a 8-17% attrition level in the companies operating in Ambur with absenteeism above 12% which effects productivity drastically. companies are using many forms of motivation bonus plans for hourly workers.

Shoes and Accessories was that higher paid. so there is no wait until year-end. Again. A similar type of fund in which a contribution both voluntarily on the part of the employee and the company with a difference that the contributed amount can be withdrawn annually with the idea that this fund could help employees pay off some of their annual expenses like for the school fees of their children. GM-Production-KHLI) pointed as quality defects often increase because of the emphasis on quantity. this plan builds good will through company contributions. most of whom can afford to contribute to the plan and gain company-matching funds. The popularity of the piece-work system has been greatly reduced by mechanization. Such bonuses are popular with plant employees. skilled employees can afford to contribute to a fund. Second. Incentive plan 3: Piece bonus systems:The piece work bonus system is reported to provide excellent incentives for productivity improvement. However. the piece bonus system had a flaw that Mr. Employees are encouraged to earn individual bonuses for daily output above the standard. other incentives being offered are: 1. However.Safeer (Asst. with company contributions and voluntary employee contributions put into a retirement fund.etc. Attendance bonus-One day salary is given extra if 100% attendance is maintained by the employee . 401(k) plans are popular with executives. what was observed when this idea was proposed to the workers at A.H. they also tend to create stability among older employees who have built up a respectable retirement fund as a result of the plan. Like the profit-sharing plan. but only a small fraction of the semiskilled or unskilled workers can afford to do so. Apart from these. Such bonuses are paid weekly.32 The plan operates like a profit-sharing plan.

33 2. Ration incentives. Performance based awards-The best performer in these units across categories of operations are identified and awarded either financially or otherwise 3. Travel/ vacation bonus-Holiday plans for the family if attendance and performance are satisfactory(the word satisfactory is defined differently by different companies) 4. factory operating in Patchakuppam. Attendance bonus incentive has been successful enough in making employees attendance records better.etc(daily necessities) is given for maintaining good attendance records and for performance. where a quantity of rice/wheat. .A unique type of incentive offered by Glamour shoes. piece bonus system is most common and successful. From the above mentioned incentives.

34 CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION .

35 Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Interpretation 1. Table Showing “Do you know what is expected of you at work?” Particulars Yes No To some extent No. 5% of the respondent felt they are unaware of what was expected of them and 2% knew to an extent what the companies expected from them. of respondent 73 5 2 Percentage 91 6 3 Inference: 91% of the respondents feel they are well aware and educated about what their job roles are and what is expected of them at work. Chart Showing “Do you know what is expected of you at work?” .

No. of respondent 77 0 3 Percentage 97 0 3 Chart Showing “Do you have the materials and equipments you need to do your work right?” .36 2. While none of the respondents felt they were deprived of any material/equipment unavailability. Table showing “ Do you have the materials and equipments you need to do your work right?” Particulars Yes No Sometimes Inference: 97% of the respondents feel they have all the required materials and equipments to fulfill their job duties are and what is expected of them at work.3% felt it happened on a rare occasion.

Table Showing “At work. do you have the opportunity to do what you do best every day? “ . do you have the opportunity to do what you do best every day? “ Particulars Yes No To some extent No. Chart Showing “At work.37 3. 14% of the respondent felt they are don’t have the opportunity to do what they do best every day and 19% to an extent have the opportunity to do what they do best every day . of respondent 54 11 15 Percentage 67 14 19 Inference: 67% of the respondents feel they have the opportunity to do what they do best every day.

38 4. Chart Showing “In the last seven days. have you received any recognition or appreciation for doing good work ?” 5. . of respondent 54 11 15 Percentage 67 13 20 67% of the respondents feel they have received some recognition or appreciation for doing good work. have you received any recognition or appreciation for doing good work?” Particulars Yes No To some extent Inference: No. 13% of the respondent felt they have not received received some recognition or appreciation for doing good work and 20% to an extent have received some recognition or appreciation for doing good work . Table showing “In the last seven days.

24% of the respondent felt the supervisor. seem to care about you as a person? “ .39 Table Showing “Does your supervisor. of respondent 61 19 Percentage 76 24 Chart Showing “Does your supervisor. seem to care about you as a person? “ Particulars Yes No Inference: 76% of the respondents feel their supervisor. or someone at work. seem to care about you as a person. or someone at work. did not seem to care about them as a person No. or someone at work. or someone at work.

40 6. do your opinions seem to count? “ 7. No. 64% of the respondent felt Chart Showing “At work. Table Showing “At work. of respondent 37 43 Percentage 46 64 46% of the respondents feel at work. do your opinions seem to count?“ Particulars Yes No Inference: their Opinions did not seem to count. . their opinions seem to count.

41 Table showing“Are you clear of the organization’s mission and vision/ Are you aware about the company’s purpose of existence?” Particulars Yes No To some extent Inference 41% of the respondents feel they are clear of the organization’s mission and vision. of respondent 33 42 5 Percentage 41 53 6 Chart showing “Are you clear of the organization’s mission and vision/ Are you aware about the company’s purpose of existence?” 8. Table showing “Do you have a best friend at work?” . No. 53% of the respondent felt they are not and 6% to an extent feel they are clear of the organization’s mission and vision.

of respondents=80 No. . Chart showing “Do you have a best friend at work?” 9.42 Particulars Yes No Total no. of respondent 57 23 Percentage 71 29 Inference: 71% of the respondents felt they have a best friend at work and 29% felt they did not.

43 Table showing “In the last six months. Chart showing “In the last six months. someone at work talked to them about their progress and 18% felt nobody spoke to them regarding their progress at work. has someone at work talked to you about your progress?” Particulars Yes No No. of respondent 66 14 Percentage 82 18 Inference: 82% of the respondents felt in the past six months . has someone at work talked to you about your progress?” .

Chart showing “In the last year. 21% felt they received opportunities only to an extent. While 27% of respondents felt they haven’t received any such opportunity.44 10. have you had opportunities at work to learn and grow?” . of respondent 36 27 17 Percentage 45 34 21 Inference: 45% of the respondents felt in the last year. they have been provided with opportunities by their companies to learn and grow. Table showing “In the last year. have you had opportunities at work to learn and grow?” Particulars Yes No To some extent No.

Chart showing ““Do you think your organization cares about your family?” .45 11. Table showing “Do you think your organization cares about your family?” Particulars Yes No Total no. of respondent 34 46 Percentage 43 57 Inference: 43% of the respondents felt their organization cares about your family while 57% felt they did not. of respondents=80 No.

e.make a living. Only 16% of the respondents felt they worked because they liked the company and they were satisfied with all the facilities provided by them.46 12. Chart showing “What inspires you to work for the company?” . to .. i. of respondent 49 18 13 Percentage 61 23 16 Inference: 61% of the respondents felt they worked for a salary. 23% said they worked for the career growth the company offered them. Table showing “What inspires you to work for the company?” Particulars Salary Career Growth Love for the company No.

47 CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS .

• 97% of the respondents feel they have all the required materials and equipments to fulfill their job duties are and what is expected of them at work. • 76% of the respondents feel their supervisor. 14% of the respondent felt they are don’t have the opportunity to do what they do best every day and 19% to an extent have the opportunity to do what they do best every day . • 67% of the respondents feel they have the opportunity to do what they do best every day. While none of the respondents felt they were deprived of any material/equipment unavailability. their opinions seem to count. 82% of the respondents felt in the past six months . or someone at work. someone at work talked to them about their progress and 18% felt nobody spoke to them regarding their progress at work. 13% of the respondent felt they have not received received some recognition or appreciation for doing good work and 20% to an extent have received some recognition or appreciation for doing good work .3% felt it happened on a rare occasion. did not seem to care about them as a person • • 46% of the respondents feel at work. 64% of the respondent felt their opinions did not seem to count.48 Chapter 5 Findings Through survey of workers: • 91% of the respondents feel they are well aware and educated about what their job roles are and what is expected of them at work. . 53% of the respondent felt they are not and 6% to an extent feel they are clear of the organization’s mission and vision. • • 71% of the respondents felt they have a best friend at work and 29% felt they did not. • 67% of the respondents feel they have received some recognition or appreciation for doing good work. seem to care about you as a person. or someone at work. 41% of the respondents feel they are clear of the organization’s mission and vision. 24% of the respondent felt the supervisor. 5% of the respondent felt they are unaware of what was expected of them and 2% knew to an extent what the companies expected from them.

e.49 • 45% of the respondents felt in the last year. i. to .make a living.. they have been provided with opportunities by their companies to learn and grow. . • 43% of the respondents felt their organization cares about your family while 57% felt they did not. While 27% of respondents felt they haven’t received any such opportunity. 21% felt they received opportunities only to an extent. 23% said they worked for the career growth the company offered them. • 61% of the respondents felt they worked for a salary. Only 16% of the respondents felt they worked because they liked the company and they were satisfied with all the facilities provided by them.

50 CHAPTER 6 RECOMMENDATIONS .

• Supervisor should interact with the employee not only about their performance but their well being and family to increase employee involvement letting the employee realize that the company care for his family. . Performance metrics should be developed • Periodic Training and opportunity for growth should be given to the employees both in technical and non.51 Chapter 6 Recommendations • Organization should get input from employees. • There must be a flawless. • Organization should make an effort to make all employees fully understand the mission and vision of the company. • Appraisal and recognition should happen in a fair way to trigger the employees’ performance. They know what's contributing to the low engagement and can give valuable suggestion of how to improve it. It also encourages the existing responsible employees. • Lenient approach towards the irresponsible employees should be overcome by strict measures so that the sense of responsibility increases among the employees. • Performance should be the key criteria for promotion and productive employees should be rewarded and recognized in a fair way.technical aspects of work. transparent relationship between the higher and lower levels of management. • Employees should be empowered according to their designation because this makes them feel important and in turn promotes employee engagement along with the quality of the work done.

• The usage of technology should be enhanced and must be used in atleast all the basic activities that are performed in the factories so that the concept of standardization would take over and help improve productivity. in an interview). we could see the effect of MBWA. • Employees should be motivated regularly.D’s of the company are so busy with their schedules that they spend very less time at factories. I still feel the performance in the factories could be bettered if MBWA could be practiced. alcoholism and increase productivity and of course the level of employee engagement on the whole. • One strong way to increase the level of employees commitment towards the organization is by inducing the concept of industrial social welfare(ISW). Just by standardizing processes. in other words the management should benchmark the practices of EID Parry ltd for it’s a proven. The objective is to enhance the overall quality of life of the employees and to promote a positive work culture. it is essential that companies launch team of supervisors or a quality circle comprising members from the shop floor who are adequately trained that would work closely with the workers as the entire system is banking on the very fact that these tools that are trying to be implemented have to be accepted.52 • Supervisor should set example by coming to company on time and encouraging discipline in the company to make the employee more responsible. If they and the production in charge would make more frequent trips to these factories. companies can gain productivity boosts of upto 16%(Quoted by Mr. • Since the concepts of Lean Manufacturing are complicated and deals with changing the work culture. The M. • Also it should be mandatory for the KPO at all factories to submit a report in person to the top level management every week regarding their performance and practices. • Industrial Social Work: The philosophy on which industrial social work (ISW) operates is 'Employee… employee and beyond'. Parry's industrial social workers take the initiative in .Gopalakrishna Bachi-Managing Director-Bachi Shoes. this is possible by inducing awards like the “Employee of the month” in each department. sure shot way to reduce absenteeism.

etc.53 matters that go far beyond work. spouse and their children. The programme focuses on education for a better life. group sharing sessions for creating awareness and communicating messages about current developments. family economics. habitual disorder and shop floor behaviours. . Initiatives include quiz competitions. youth development. It identifies and addresses serious industrial issues like absenteeism. • Performance based rewards: An employee’s bonuses must be linked to their performance in a way that is beneficial to both the company. to home. health. • Improper communication between the upper and the lower level management should be managed and a more transparent.

54

CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION

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Chapter 7 Conclusion Increasing productivity means being able to generate greater results without more people, more resources, more money, more time or more energy. In other words, learning how to do the work so that less energy is required to produce the same results, producing higher results using the same amount of energy. The result is abundance for everyone. The last few years have seen major companies reducing their employee headcount without reducing the actual workload. People are struggling to keep functioning under increasing demands from management. Management is struggling to keep functioning under the ever faster pace of business. Employee engagement or commitment is obviously critical. There are infinite studies linking employee engagement with outcomes such as productivity and retention. Thus this project gave me an opportunity in learning various aspects of employee engagement and how important it is for an organization to involve and actively keep the employee engaged in the company. Employee engagement level at these companies were at a moderate range as most of the employee are aware of their responsibility towards the company and feel the company provides them the opportunity to learn and grow but it can be further be improved by making each employee realize the mission and vision/ purpose of existence of the company, and having healthy transparent relationship between the higher and lower level of management. Thus the very concept is vital in any organization and experience helped me understand how important employee engagement is for the survival of any company and by how not effectively managing it can make or break any company. Lean manufacturing initiative focusing on cost reduction and increase in turnover by systematically and continuously eliminated non value added activities. In today's competitive market lean manufacturing is turning out to be "The solution" across the spectrum for survival and success. Lean manufacturing has helped organizations achieve productivity and more by

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introduction of easy of apply and maintainable techniques and tools. Its focus on waste reduction and elimination will soon be part of organization culture and turn every process into a profit center. Use of technology has significantly improved efficiency and productivity at these firms. However, as the cost of technology is high, few companies have been unsuccessful in procuring and utilizing technology properly. By standardization(automation) and use of CAD/CAM applications, companies can reap unlimited benefits.

57 CHAPTER 8 ANNEXURE .

Do you know what is expected of you at work? (i.58 Annexure Name: ________________ Contact: _______________ Age: __________ Area (Location): _______________ 1.e. At work. your responsibilities) o o o Yes No To some extent 2. do you have the opportunity to do what you do best every day? o o o Yes No Sometimes . Do you have the materials and equipment you need to do your work right? o o o Yes No Sometimes 3.

do your opinions seem to count? Yes………………………………………………. Does your supervisor. or someone at work.No 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 (Mark your answer anywhere between 0 to 10 where 0 stands for a complete No and 10 stands for complete Yes) 7. In the last seven days. have you received any recognition or appreciation for doing good work? o o Yes No 5. Are you clear of the organization’s mission and vision/ Are you aware about the company’s purpose of existence? o o o Yes No To a certain extent 8. At work. Do you have a best friend at work? o o Yes No . seem to care about you as a person? o o o Yes No Sometimes 6.59 4.

In the last year. has someone at work talked to you about your progress? o o Yes No 10.What inspires you to work for the company? • • • Salary Career growth the company offers Passionate about the company .60 9. have you had opportunities at work to learn and grow? o o o Yes No Not many opportunities 11. In the last six months. Do you think your organization cares about your family? o o Yes No 12.

61 CHAPTER 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY .

tripod.pdf http://footwearsinfoline.htm http://www.com/nutshell_industry.com/industry-article/21/2096/value-thinking-in-process-oflean-manufacturing1.shoetrades.php .com/leather.org/pubs/journals/jom/matters/matters-9811.asp http://leather.62 Chapter 9 Bibliography http://footwearsinfoline.indiabizclub.tripod.com/ind_footwr_industry_overview.com/dev/ftmanu.com/info/indian_leather_industry_overview www.htm http://www.tms.fibre2fashion.eximbankindia.html http://www.

The Progress of the Thesis: Questionnaire has been approved from the External guide.63 Response Sheet 1 Details of Student Name ID Number Batch Phone No. . And now the further stage is to conduct the field survey for primary data. Specialization Email ID The Topic of the study : : : : : : : C.Aathif FW810/01492/MKT UGP/FW/07-10/HR 9840786871 MBA (Marketing & HR) x_aathif@yahoo.com “Strategies to improve productivity and efficiency in shoe manufacturing companies ” Date when the Guide was consulted: 15/12/10 The outcome of the discussion: Formulation of the questionnaire.Md.

Aathif FW810/01492/MKT UGP/FW/07-10/HR 9840786871 MBA (Marketing & HR) x_aathif@yahoo.64 Response Sheet 2 Details of Student Name ID Number Batch Phone No. . The Progress of the Thesis: Just started the collection of primary data through questionnaire which is to be filled up by the employees.Md.com “Strategies to improve productivity and efficiency in shoe manufacturing companies ” Date when the Guide was consulted: 2/01/11 The outcome of the discussion: Discussion regarding collection of primary data. Specialization Email ID The Topic of the study : : : : : : : C.

com “Strategies to improve productivity and efficiency in shoe manufacturing companies ” Date when the Guide was consulted: 29/01/11 The outcome of the discussion: Discussion regarding collection of primary data. Specialization Email ID The Topic of the study : : : : : : : C.Aathif FW810/01492/MKT UGP/FW/07-10/HR 9840786871 MBA (Marketing & HR) x_aathif@yahoo.Md. The Progress of the Thesis: Collection of Primary data through Questionnaire will be completed very soon… .65 Response Sheet 3 Details of Student Name ID Number Batch Phone No.

66 Response Sheet 4 Details of Student Name ID Number Batch Phone No.com “Strategies to improve productivity and efficiency in shoe manufacturing companies ” Date when the Guide was consulted: 09/02/11 The outcome of the discussion: Discussion regarding data interpretation. Now the next step is to analyze the data and present the found data through graphs and tables… . The Progress of the Thesis: Collection of primary and secondary data is over.Aathif FW810/01492/MKT UGP/FW/07-10/HR 9840786871 MBA (Marketing & HR) x_aathif@yahoo. Specialization Email ID The Topic of the study : : : : : : : C.Md.

added value to the findings & recommendation and asked to proceed further. recommendations and conclusion was discussed in order to make the correction The Progress of the Thesis: Reviewed by the faculty.Aathif FW810/01492/MKT UGP/FW/07-10/HR 9840786871 MBA (Marketing & HR) x_aathif@yahoo.Md.67 Response Sheet 5 Details of Student Name ID Number Batch Phone No.com “Strategies to improve productivity and efficiency in shoe manufacturing companies ” Date when the Guide was consulted: 28/03/11 The outcome of the discussion: Findings. . Specialization Email ID The Topic of the study : : : : : : : C.

Md.68 Response Sheet 6 Details of Student Name ID Number Batch Phone No Specialization Email ID The Topic of the study : : : : : : : C. .Aathif FW810/01492/MKT PGP/FW/08-10/HR 9840786871 MBA (Marketing & HR) x_aathif@yahoo.com “Strategies to improve productivity and efficiency in shoe manufacturing companies ” Date when the Guide was consulted: 1/04/11 The outcome of the discussion: Final Report ready. The Progress of the Thesis: Final report checked by the faculty.

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