This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Success in Business
Published by Martin Books Pty Ltd ACN 112 719 052 20 Blackwoods Road Boat Harbour NSW 2484 Australia Tel: (61 2) 6679 1051 Fax: (61 2) 6679 1535 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.martinbooks.com.au
Copyright 2002-2007 Martin Books All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher National Library of Australia Cataloguing- in-Publication entry: Overton, Rodney Managing Human Resources ISBN 978-1-921360-44-2
First published 2002 in soft cover eBOOK version September 2007
The writer - Rodney Overton
is an international award winning writer (published in four languages) of more than twenty-five popular business skills ‘how-to’ books covering a wide range of business, human resources, management, planning and sales and marketing topics. Publishers in a number of overseas countries produce and distribute localised versions of these books. He works as business consultant and strategist and has wide experience in facilitating, writing and developing business training courses.
Martin Books have a combined range of more than 100 books, CD ROMs and Training Facilitators Manuals available, covering areas of business such as Administration, Planning, Finance, Human Resources, Management, Marketing, Sales and Small Business. We also have a Training Facilitators Manual available for a training course titled HUMAN RESOURCES. Our books are distributed and published in three languages in a number of overseas countries.
covering areas of business such as Business Administration. More than ever the management of Human Resources in any organisation is a key success factor. Finally.our customer list reads like a who’s who of Australian business. Marketing. training and ideally promotion to mention but a few stages. The business press on almost a daily basis gives coverage to the latest round of retrenchments which often fly in the face of sound Human Resource management. Management. A recent and highly publicised case of a major retail chain hiring a new CEO was followed a short time after by news of major retrenchments by the new CEO! This book is intended as an aid for those who wish to study and learn the basics of Human Resources and to act as a prompt for those wishing to write their own Human Resources manual . Increasingly in many cases the only difference between companies selling similar products or services at almost identical prices and identical trading terms is their people. We currently have a combined range of more than 100 books. special thanks to all those people who have purchased our books . We also have a Training Facilitators Manual available on this topic. Our books are distributed and published in three languages in a number of overseas countries.their people.Foreword This book is an enlarged and vastly revised version of a similar and very popular title which was first published in 1994 with subsequent numerous reprints.com . Business Planning. Many people would agree that Human Resources Management is one of the most difficult tasks in operating a business . Successful Human Resources involves many stages from recruitment to induction. maximising the potential of your people is of paramount importance in business. Rodney Overton September 2007 rodney@sydneybusinesscentre. We welcome your feedback. Finance. Human Resources. comments and suggestions. Many organisations fail to harness and utilise their most valuable and potentially their most lucrative resource . Thus.if not the most difficult.from the novice small business operator to Human Resource professionals. Sales and Small Business. CD ROMs and Training Facilitators Manuals available. To do this successfully of course involves motivation and making people feel that they are an important part of the business.
..............................................1 • What is Human Resources?.................. 20 • Writing a Job Description.................................................................................................................................44 • Typology of organisations....................................................28 • Salary packages........................................50.............................................).................................21 • How to recruit and keep the best staff.......................18 • Basic requirements for recruitment.........................D.........................................................................................................46 • Managing change.......47 • Work cultures........................................ 33 • Planning for and managing replacement and restaffing..........................................22-23 • The interview process..........30 • A press release ...... 49 • Company culture.................................................... 53 • Downsizing...............................new personnel............................32 • Internal integration..............................................................................41 • Six steps to managing your career............................................................................................................................................27 • Body language.........................................................................................................................34.................60 .................57 • Code of conduct........36 • Disengagement interviews................................................ 35 • Why do people fail?...........45 • Bureaucracy.........5 • Steps in the Human Resources process.................................................................................... Induction and Integration.................................................................................................3 • Human Resources Planning and Development (HRPD)....................26 • A 10 step hiring process.................................................... 42 • Meetings................................................................9 • The politics of Human Resources............... 24 • Some interview questions..................................................................................29 • An Interview Evaluation.................25 • How to interview.............................................19 • Steps in the recruitment process...................................................................... 47 • Executing change...................37 • How to keep your staff interested..............59 • Creative negotiation.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 43 • Organisational structure....................................................... 51 • Cultural attributes.......................................... 11 • Components of Human Resources.............................. 38 3 Organisations and people.....................................................................2 • The role of the Human Resources Manager................... 17 • Staff recruitment............39 • Mission statements.......55 • Discrimination.........................................................................40 • Communication.....................................................................................................................................................................................10 • What should staff contribute to the business?..............................................................................52 • Crisis Management.........................................................................R..................................................................31 • Induction of new staff...........................................................................................P.........................54 • Some Peter Principles Occupational Health & Safety....................................................... 12-16 2 Recruitment...................... 4 • Human Resource Policies.............................58 • Negotiation.......................56 • An employee handbook .............Table of contents 1 Human Resource Planning and Development (H................................................................................................... 6-8 • An organisation and its stakeholders..........
.................................65 • Leadership .....77 • The people working for you will expect....................................................................................................................... 92 • A Performance Review............................................................................................84 • Leadership quiz........................................................................................109 • Some Mistakes Candidates Make at Job Interviews.............89 • Evaluating personal strengths ...........86 • Competency Based Training.........................90 • Setting personal goals and objectives......................................................75 • Motivation and needs...........110........................................................ 63 My Job ............................................................................... 72 • Motivation...................................................................................................................................• • • • The process of negotiation. 74 • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.............91 • Staff Appraisals.......... Empowerment..........................................................................................................................................................................................94 6 Case Studies............... 79 • Productivity and motivation...96 • Human Resources check list.......................................................................................................... 103 • Personality attributes............................................................. 98 • Community obligations and charities.105 • Personality traits............................................... 111 Index...................................................... 66-69 • Empowerment...76 • Motivation by shareholding... 102 • some people adages..................................................................96 • The changing world of work...............................106 • Some euphemistic translations.................................... 108 • Are you a people person?..................................................................................................................104 • Determinants of personality.........................................................................................................................................................................................................69 • Future vision....................62 Questions...................................... 88 • Training Needs Analysis......................................................................................... 64 4 Leadership and Motivation............................................................................................ 95 • An efficient office.............73.............101 • Interstate branches...................................................................87 • Recognition of Prior Learning...........................................80 • Does your workplace suffer morale problems?.....................82 • What attributes do you require to be a workaholic?............100 • Some acronyms.........93 • A Rating Form for Management................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................107 • Rating your manager..............................99 • State sales administration..................112 ....................................................................................................................................78 • Determinants of behaviour...........................................................81 • Stress and work....61 The negotiation conference........97 • Economies of scale.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................85 5 Training and Evaluation.......................70 • Leading a team................................................................................................................... 83 • Retaining scarce talent...........My Role............................................................................
1 Human Resource Planning and Development .
the people employed by an organisation and the use of their skills in that organisation . HR Managers have a responsibility to recruit. Those who arrive at work first get to choose their car spot. arguments. Human Resource managers should constantly ask themselves. out of all the countless tasks in the management of your business operation. “Why would someone want to come and work in this organisation?” Can you gain more from your people by empowering them? Can you increase the ability of your people to achieve by enhancing their self-esteem and improving their skill set? A well established definition of Human Resources is: Human Resources Management should be running their companies so people get more satisfaction from their work. Many organisations have no reserved car spaces. and their ability to work together. Your most precious possession is the people you have working there. and what they carry around in their heads. Human Resource issues can lead to tension. Their people are complaining to each other about the reserved car spaces for management.is readily acknowledged as the greatest resource that any organisation possesses. The management of many organisations are proud to boast about their good Human Resource policies while at the same time they have their people offside. disputes. bad blood. cliques and them and us mentalities. (to save the managers from having to walk an extra few metres). develop and motivate a team to produce defined results. Conversely many very successful organisations claim a major reason for their success is their people. the management of people is arguably the most difficult aspect of any business and the cause of many problems.Managing Human Resources What is Human Resources? Human Resources (HR) . Your most precious possession is not your financial assets. The greatest resource / asset of any business is its people. special toilets for staff and exclusive management dining rooms. Robert Reich 2 . However.
• Convene Human Resources meetings. • Establish methods for reviewing performance. • Contribute to work force morale.1-Human Resource Planning and Development The Role of the Human Resources Manager An effective Human Resources Manager may be responsible for all of these areas. • Establish quantitative control standards. Staffing. • Be responsible for hiring and training employees / staff. • Co-ordinate other Human Resources functions. • Be responsible for providing job descriptions. Directing and Controlling in the Human Resources area. • Be a spokesperson and figurehead for the organisation in Human Resource matters. • Provide and encourage a motivational environment. • Be responsible for Planning. and many others as well: • Understanding the needs and requirements of management and the organisation. 3 . • Be responsible for evaluating and comparing the performance of employees / staff.
always took great pride in claiming (usually after the second round at the local bar) that he was the possessor of high levels of ‘people skills’. ‘What’s that?’ Interestingly. Pay Promotion Training Job rotation Cross functional assignment Performance evaluation Supervision All of these areas are strong tools to modify behaviour. after the next round of drinks. This particular M. It is in the best interests of both the individual and the organisation to have a healthy organisation that can provide opportunities for growth. 4 . the same person spoke with some degree of pride and achievement about the ‘100 people I have fired in the last 3 years’.a true story In our recent experience we encountered the Managing Director of an organisation employing around 50 people. What’s that? .Managing Human Resources Human Resource Planning and Development (HRPD) Any company controls a portfolio of the most powerful tools for changing behaviour. Some organisational goals in the management of Human Resources: Productivity Promotability Innovation and flexibility Special skills Can management define what behaviours it wants in order to accomplish certain goals? Without such a specification we will not accomplish very much! There can be little growth and development for employees at any level in a sick and stagnant organisation.D. However when the phrase ‘Human Resources’ was introduced into the conversation his response was.
1-Human Resource Planning and Development Human Resource Policies A variety of policies relating to the human resources of the organisation need to be developed and monitored. including: • Security of employment • Conditions of employment • Remuneration Pay scales and methods Pay arrangements Compensation and benefits Incentive schemes Superannuation policy and arrangements Performance-based remuneration Incentive programs • Retirement policy. terms and conditions • Health and safety of employees • Equal opportunity and affirmative action • Promotions and transfers • Discipline procedures • Grievance procedures • Absenteeism policies and procedures • Training and development of employees • Recruitment procedures and standards 5 .
Managing Human Resources
Steps in the Human Resources process
RECRUITMENT of staff using a job description and specification. TRAINING and INDUCTION of staff to acceptable levels. ASSIGNING of staff to a job or area with specific responsibilities, goals, objectives and targets. MOTIVATION of staff to achieve goals, objectives and targets. FORECASTING, MEASURING, COMPARING Forecasting future Human Resources requirements. Review and evaluation of staff performance against goals, objectives and targets. REVIEW and EVALUATION of staff performance for advancement and promotion and for setting levels of remuneration Human Resources involves a number of functions in areas including: SELECTION and PLACEMENT • Forecasting future staffing needs • Recruiting staff • Handling redundancies, retirements and termination's of employment • Relocating employees to other positions or locations TRAINING and DEVELOPMENT • Inducting new recruits to the organisation • Training and developing new employees • Determining the future competencies and skill mix required by the organisation • Training employees to meet current and future needs CAREER DEVELOPMENT • Ensuring that employees develop new skills • Ensuring that employees are challenged in their jobs • Maintaining and monitoring performance appraisal systems • Maintaining an up-to-date succession plan, particularly for key positions within the organisation LEGISLATION • Making required government returns, such as fringe benefits tax and equal opportunity reporting. • Ensuring and monitoring conformity with all employment legislation such as health and safety and equal opportunity.
1-Human Resource Planning and Development
POLICY FORMATION • A variety of policies relating to the human resources of the organisation need to be developed and monitored, including: • Security of employment • Conditions of employment • Pay scales and methods • Retirement policy, terms and conditions • Health and safety of employees • Equal opportunity and affirmative action • Promotions and transfers • Remuneration • Discipline procedures • Grievance procedures • Absenteeism policies and procedures • Training and development of employees • Recruitment procedures and standards EMPLOYEE RELATIONS • Negotiating and liaising with unions, employee representatives and employees on such areas as: • Legislative matters • Workforce restructuring • Industrial democracy • Enterprise bargaining • Pay awards • Employment contracts EMPLOYEE WELFARE • Ensuring the health, safety and welfare of all employees through organising or monitoring such things as: • Conditions of work • Provision of specialist crisis counselling, such as alcohol or drug abuse • Confidentiality of personal employee details REMUNERATION • Pay arrangements • Compensation and benefits • Incentive schemes • Superannuation policy and arrangements • Performance-based remuneration • Incentive programs
Managing Human Resources
ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Designing and implementing organisation change initiatives Introducing organisation development and change programs, such as TQM, Benchmarking, ISO Certification, job redesign, enterprise bargaining Ensuring the organisation is structured in a way that will achieve its vision and objectives Implementing and overseeing internal communication programs MISCELLANEOUS In addition, personnel departments often undertake a variety of miscellaneous duties such as: Overseeing the company canteen Producing an employee newsletter or news video Making business-related travel arrangements for employees Overseeing the company nurse and doctor Liaising with outside consultants and organisations on personnel-related issues, such as arrangements for temporary staff, and making or recommending charitable contributions Managing and maintaining HR information systems (HRIS) Human Resources, People and Flight Centre Graham Turner, the Chief Executive of travel success story Flight Centre Ltd has this to say about the way his business is run. ‘Flight Centre does not sell travel the conventional way. Everyone is on meaningful profit-share incentives. It places considerable importance on people being able to earn whatever they put their mind to, through incentives that are not capped. People who work in the shops earn a profit based on their individual business; the team leader earns a profit on the whole business, and so on. Ownership is not just about profit share, but is about operating the business believing it is yours and not just the company’s. There are no privileges unless everyone has them. No company cars, no car parks, no secretaries, no individual offices, and no receptionists. Our structure is team bases. This is based on the inherent desire of the human race to live and work in families (teams of up to seven people), villages (3-5 teams) and tribes (100-300 people). Standard systems operate throughout the company. There is only one best way to do anything. If you have one small business operating successfully and you can systemise and replicate that business, there is no reason you cannot have 100 or more businesses operating successfully. Flight Centre believes that profit is the best way of knowing whether you are offering the community something it wants.’
and their two-way dependency relationship with an organisation. The illustration above shows six stakeholder groups.1-Human Resource Planning and Development An organisation and its Stakeholders OWNER INDUSTRY STAFF COMMUNITY SUPPLIERS CUSTOMERS ORGANISATION The ultimate success of any organisation depends on a number of stakeholders being satisfied with the performance of that organisation. Many people suggest that the best form of organisational performance is stakeholder satisfaction 9 . Balancing stakeholder satisfaction is very difficult to achieve. but the long term survival of any business depends on it.
• Forget about ‘brown nosing’. In the 1990’s well known business writer Max Walsh wrote in his Sydney Morning Herald column about an organisational disease which he called ‘the snake pit of organisational politics’. Never let people down and be aware that people have very long memories. build opposition or refuse to give support.develop contacts throughout your organisation and industry. • Be thoroughly professional in everything you do. • Offer information freely without expecting favours . • Spreading rumours and sowing inaccurate information about people or circumstances is a definite no. The negative • Never reinforce the failure of others to reinforce your cause. nonaggressive manner. 10 . communicating to superiors should be done on the basis that new news is bad news.eventually your critical mass of goodwill will be returned..Managing Human Resources The Politics of Human Resources The positive • Networking .. All employees soon learn that . threaten to withhold or reveal critical information. In the cover up process messengers are highly vulnerable and expendable. The cover-up routine is not confined to the top of the organisation. posturing for the benefit of your peers. • Continually promote and self market yourself in a positive. • Never indulge in power plays.
1-Human Resource Planning and Development What should Staff contribute to the Business? Staff should: Provide value for money for the organisation. Continually improve competence and personal development. Support managers and management in the achievement of their goals. so that undue administrative burdens are not imposed on managers and staff. and help improve the organisation’s effectiveness and competitiveness. Support the attainment of the organisation’s mission statement. innovation. 11 . flexibility and team working. Be an integrated part of the management process of the organisation. Assist in achieving continuous levels improvement in quality and customer service Reward people fairly and consistently according to their contributions. quality. risk-taking. Be easily manageable. Motivate other employees to achieve higher performance. Improve co-operation and effective team working at all levels. Help to support and change the culture of the organisation as expressed through its performance. Be easily controllable so that policies can be implemented consistently and costs contained within budgets.
values etc. geographical location. 12 . knowledge. how to work. against those plans or requirements. market growth rate.. RECRUITMENT and SELECTION The process of finding people and developing systems for deciding who to hire. MANPOWER PLANNING and HUMAN RESOURCE INVENTORY These activities draw on the job descriptions generated in job planning and assess the capabilities of the present H.R. how to fit in. STRATEGIC BUSINESS PLANNING To determine the organisation’s goals. products. STAFFING PROCESSES To ensure that the organisation acquires the necessary human resources to fulfil its goals. priorities. The changing focus of Human Resources Not so many years ago people used to wear gloves at work to protect their hands: now they wear gloves to protect the product. learns how to get along in the organisation. SOCIALISATION and INITIAL TRAINING After hiring. the new employee learns the ropes. The goal should be to facilitate the new employee becoming a productive and useful member of the organisation both in the short run and in terms of long range potential. currently required and those required in the future are addressed. JOB/ROLE PLANNING To determine what actually needs to be done at every level of the organisation. They may be focused on the numbers of people in given categories and /or designed to ensure that given assumed growth there will be an adequate supply of people in those categories. future directions. JOB ANALYSIS To specify what jobs need to be filled and identify the required skills. INDUCTION. how to master the particulars of the job and so on. Often considered as a dynamic kind of job analysis. where continuing reviews of skills. Part of this process is to communicate to prospective employees a basic understanding of the company and its approach to its people.Managing Human Resources Some Human Resource Components OVERALL PLANNING COMPONENTS The function of these components is to ensure that the organisation has an adequate basis for selecting its human resources and developing them toward the fulfilment of organisational goals. and organisation structure or design.
and other formal organisational actions in respect to the employee.1-Human Resource Planning and Development INVENTORY OF DEVELOPMENT PLANS An effort to plan for the growth and development of all employees. SUPERVISION and COACHING It is generally accepted that the first boss is crucial in giving new employees a good start in their careers. Also a basis for regular reviews between boss and subordinate to supplement day to day feedback and to assist with career planning and counselling.salary increases. and monitoring are considered to be important components. coaching. CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES To match the organisation’s needs for work with the individual’s needs for a productive and satisfying work career. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL and JUDGEMENT OF POTENTIAL These systems serve a number of functions . and maintain their job satisfaction? FOLLOW UP and EVALUATION OF DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES Devise a system to ensure that plans are implemented and that activities are evaluated against individual and organisational goals. remain motivated and productive. promotions. Can be done by department. guiding. with a set of activities that are neither too hard nor too easy. The system must provide some kind of forward movement for the employee through a succession of jobs. make on-going contributions. The system should be based on the organisation’s need to fill jobs as they open up and the employee’s needs to have some sense of progress in their working lives. The actual process of supervising. JOB DESIGN and JOB ASSIGNMENT The issue is how to provide optimal challenge to a new employee. division. and neither too meaningless nor too risky from the organisation’s point of view. Does management want the employee to know their potential for 13 . Potential conflicts can arise as to what level of feed back the employee receives. by thinking through its implications and value to furthering future total development. or total organisation. Co-ordination between HR and the immediate supervisor in this situation should be maximised. DEVELOPMENT PLANNING How will long term employees who may stay 30 or 40 years in the organisation. either by promotion or lateral movement to new functions or assignments. and that training of supervisors in how to handle new employees is a valuable organisational investment.
CAREER COUNSELLING. BENEFITS. How to ensure that the organisational rewards are linked to the needs of the individual and to the needs of the organisation for effective performance and development of potential. PROMOTIONS and JOB CHANGES An effective HR system should concentrate on developing career paths. Managers should set goals and philosophies based on what the organisation is trying to reward and what employees needs actually are. At different career stages and in different types of careers employees will need different ‘things’. reward systems should become more flexible. The individual wants to attend the course. PERQUISITES. PLANNING. RECOGNITION As organisational careers become more varied and as social values surrounding work change. systems of job rotation. Training should. Many companies have great difficulty addressing this area and use consistency and other organisations as models. outside development programmes and other educational activities are necessary in the total process of human growth and development. talents. They should be matched to the needs of the individual and the needs of the organisation. they will remain uninvolved in their own development. and lay the groundwork for realistic individual. Evidence suggests that optimal challenge is what keeps human growth and effectiveness going. FOLLOW UP and EVALUATION The organisation should provide a means for employees at all levels to become more proactive about their careers and a method for discussions. as much as possible be tied to job/role planning. ORGANISATIONAL REWARDS. This should be linked to performance appraisal. PROMOTION. PAY. values and plans fit with opportunities the organisation can offer. changing assignments.Managing Human Resources promotion? If individuals do not get good feedback around their development needs. TRAINING and DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES Companies should realise that periods of formal training. Employees cannot manage their own growth development without information on how their own needs. and lateral job moves to ensure growth of human resources. Can the organisation open up the communication channel between employees. for most by promotion. their bosses and the HR system. because they can see a benefit in their career path and see that it fits into their total career. development planning? 14 .
but in the vast majority of 15 . 2 in every market it competes in. Managers should be trained in handling preretirement employees. Conversely there is nothing wrong with less motivated and involved employees if the quality of their work meets the required standards. PERSONAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMMES (P. mechanical and financial assistance should be provided. while GE aspires to be No.I. job sharing. part time work. relationships with other workers. and then the training required for that work once the employee sees the need for it? For this strategy to work continuous feedback is required between employees and managers. Rather than attempting to ‘cure’ levelled off employees by remotivation. GE and a few other big companies have cultures that strongly encourage effective management and people development. But "people" as a success factor is like the weather . ALTERNATIVE PATTERNS OF WORK and REWARDS Rostered days off. by skilled. are just a few examples. "People" are the key to business success. child care programmes. They should cater for the needs of the organisation as well as the employee and be closely linked to each other. pay and many other issues. obsolescence. Welch claims that their core competence is developing people. ENRICHMENT and ROTATION After a few years of employment many workers become unresponsive to the job requirements and pay more attention to factors such as the type of supervision. JOB REDESIGN. job redesign or rotation perhaps they should examine whether these employees are in responsive mode or not. but no one does anything about it.P. as most people realise. Psychological.1-Human Resource Planning and Development PLANNING FOR and MANAGING DISENGAGEMENT Organisations should recognise various options to deal with problems of loss of motivation. personalised programme for all or some employees? RETIREMENT PLANNING and COUNSELLING There should be a clear planning function that forecasts retirements and feeds this information into replacement and counselling functions. Legendary former GE Chairman Jack Welch makes an interesting point that.) Is it desirable to design a special. and ultimate retirement. flexible working hours. specialist counsellors.1 or No.everybody talks about it. CONTINUING EDUCATION and RETRAINING Is it better to provide challenging work.
Even if you go against their preferences. You cannot not communicate.F. and they forget the importance of communicating with everyone about what's going on with the company. and if you act on that input. and will be more likely to follow whatever the outcome. If you want somebody to repeat a behaviour. When you ask for people's input. "I don't care about you. Everyone involved gets in one room and one manager is in charge. Discussion focuses on one problem. If you want it done." but all the employees see is the stone wall of silence. If you wait too long. The Greatest Management Principle in the World. it is amazing how people can resist in many subtle ways that ultimately sabotage the outcome. but some action is always taken. "I’m in charge and I know what I'm doing. respond quickly. refers to the fact that not communicating with someone says to them. People want to know what is going on and how it does or will affect them. The decision may be to act now or to delegate the problem to a task force if more information is essential. Before initiating change or "improvements. and that is his key point. No one leaves the room until the top manager decides what action will be taken on the problem. they appreciate being heard. Not communicating says you don't care about them. But employee emotions are extremely time sensitive. This is one reason GE has been so successful with their "workout" sessions. respect you for asking. Skinner and has been rejected by some people because it applies as much to rats in a cage as it does to humans. Face time says "I care about you" like nothing else. and you cannot overdo that. The most effective communication is always face to face. the emotional peak passes and you will not have another chance like that for a long time. that does not happen.Managing Human Resources companies. Consistency is extremely important. It shows people you care about them. reinforce it with some type of reward that they will appreciate. The reinforcement principle of behaviourism was discovered by B. This is one way GE keeps their people "electrified" and loyal. 16 . you sustain their enthusiasm and energies. And guess what? It works just as well on both (including kids). You lift their hopes when you seek their input." let the people who will be responsible for implementation have a say in the way the changes will be handled. Managers get busy putting out fires and trying to be sure clients' needs are met. They may rationalise that. You do not have to do what they ask. That axiom. ask the doers. Michael LeBoeuf a few years ago wrote a book called. That is obvious but so often not done. even if you really do. If you do not ask. Avoid e-mails or memos for any information which might be misunderstood or possibly construed as negative." Studies of non-managerial employees usually find that they consider internal communication to be inadequate. from The Pragmatics of Human Communication. Here are a few key truths about people as a success factor which may be helpful for you: That which gets reinforced gets repeated.
2 Recruitment. Integration . Induction.
co-operative manner? 3. These are the true basics and without them nothing in Human Resources management is possible.Managing Human Resources Staff Recruitment Selection . MOTIVATION Motivation is the roof and spire of the building. Does the candidate have the appropriate attitude to accomplish the task and fit in with the team in a positive. Three major considerations in the selection process: 1. Selection. skills.Supervision These three items. they stand on solid foundations. and in good management the solid foundation stones are: SELECTION TRAINING SUPERVISION Individuals as a rule tend to have a far different perception of motivating factors than does management.Training . Why is it important to take great care in filling a job vacancy? • To benefit the company • To avoid the expense of having to hire a replacement after a short time • To increase profits • To create a team work atmosphere • The wrong person may create disharmony • The right person will do the job better • To raise levels of professionalism. What is the candidates time frame? Short. Does the candidate have the appropriate aptitudes. as to what really motivates them. qualifications and experience to do the job? 2. and Supervision are the absolute corner stones of good Human Resources management. Roofs and spires don’t stand on air. medium or long term? Will they last and show resilience? 18 . Training.
In order to achieve these aims the organisation will be faced with a number of problems: Defining the nature of the job and determining how many people will be required to do it. The reduction of staff turnover by the correct selection of suitable people. Have a competitive edge that gives them the will to win and makes them unafraid of embarking on tough courses. The maximisation of the return to the company of the investment made in the employee.2-Recruitment. The maximum use of management time in pro-active. Providing a workable job description. Be able to energise others 3. The four E’s of recruiting people: People must have: 1. carrying out operational plans and coming up with the numbers 19 . Induction. Building and maintaining long-term stable relationships with customers. Integration Some basic requirements for good recruitment include: The recruitment of the correct number of people to meet the sales and overall objectives. To be able to execute by setting a vision. Determining the type of person required to do the job. productive activity rather than ‘putting out fires’. To minimise the problems which can be inherent in recruitment and employment. 4. Deciding where responsibilities for recruitment and appraisal will lie. Maintaining of a high level of responsibility by management for employees / staff. Plenty of energy 2.
• Offering the job and negotiating terms and conditions.and writing a person description. the Sales Manager. • Checking references of those preferred. by advertising.do the applicants meet our person specification? • Preparing a short list. • Identifying sources of talent .ideally this should be presented to candidates at the first interview. qualifications and experience will be required? • Preparation of a job description . • What type of person would be best? • What skills. • Review and evaluation of effectiveness.where can we find an ideal person? By head hunting. by internal promotion? • Call for applications . • The induction process.who should interview? The Human Resources person. • Training and retraining the person • Evaluating the training. • Promotion or transfer. 20 . • Screening the applications . a committee? • Second and third interviews may be required.Managing Human Resources Steps in the Recruitment Process • Analysing the tasks of the position .phone or written. • Psychological testing. • Interviewing the candidates .
The aim being to convey in a few sentences a broad picture of the job which will clearly identify it from other jobs and establish the role of the job holder. such as: • Frequency (hourly. weekly. No attempt is made to describe in detail how they are carried out. order of importance. etc. ensures that. recommends. chronological order. Induction. completes. co-ordinating. operating. Integration Writing a Job Description An essential ingredient for successfully hiring any employee is a Job Description. continually.2-Recruitment. The Job Description should be based on a detailed job analysis and be as factual and brief as possible. but some indication is given of the purpose or objectives of each task. 21 . REPORTING TO The title of the manager or superior to whom the job holder is directly responsible is given under this heading. MAIN TASKS: Some suggestions for identifying the main tasks: • Identify and list the tasks that have to be carried out. • Decide on the order in which tasks should be described. The job titles of all the posts reporting directly to the job holder are given under this heading.g. e. thus indicating the purpose of the job and giving a lead for setting targets and performance standards. organising. • State what is done as succinctly as possible and why it is done. directing and motivating staff and controlling. 7 or 8 main activity areas remain. PERFORMANCE MEASURES How will the performance of the person be measured? Obviously very important for sales positions. and the processes of management that are carried out. • Analyse the initial list of tasks and simplify the list by grouping related tasks together so that not more than. setting objectives. say. daily. Some commonly used headings are:JOB TITLE The existing or proposed job title indicates as clearly as possible the function in which the job is carried out and the level of the job within that function. planning.). Many people start paragraphs with an active verb. OVERALL RESPONSIBILITIES This section describes as concisely as possible the overall purpose of the job. supervises. prepares. • Describe each main task briefly and separately in short numbered paragraphs. liaises with.
Pay over the market rate and expect more. 5 SHOW YOU CAN DO IT Know how to do every job in your organisation. Say thank you. 6 DELEGATE Do what you do best and delegate the rest. preferably three. Most people would rather feel needed and respected than be given a pay increase. Retain the ultimate authority though. initiative and integrity in everyone you employ. You should listen to both groups very closely. Don’t let your ego get in the way of the team performance. Tell everyone that you expect their absolute best. 2 DON’T PAY PEANUTS Don’t pay peanuts unless you want monkeys. Acknowledge each person’s contribution to your success. 22 . The two groups who have the best information on your business and its performance are your staff and your customers. Three staff should be able to do the critical tasks. 4 HAVE A BACK-UP Everybody should be able to do at least two jobs in the company. you show that you think the job is worthwhile. You can also act as a back up. If you can show an employee that you have taken the time to learn their job. Look for intelligence. Give your staff the responsibility and authority to do their jobs . 7 COMMUNICATE Talk to your staff and ask for their suggestions. Reward your employees both financially and emotionally. Show them where they fit in the system that produces the final result. Trust them to do their job.and let them do it! Give encouragement. 3 BUILD A TEAM Let each employee know they are a valuable member of the team.Managing Human Resources How to recruit and keep the best staff 1 HIRE THE BEST Your success depends upon your staff.
skills. Let your staff know that your deputy has your confidence and your authority when you are absent.2-Recruitment. What is the candidates time frame? Short. medium or long term? Will they last and show resilience? 23 . Three major considerations in the selection process: 1. Does the candidate have the appropriate attitude to accomplish the task and fit in with the team in a positive. Get suggestions on how to improve your product. co-operative manner? 3. Induction. 9 ENCOURAGE CREATIVITY Meet with your staff at least once a month for a brainstorming session. Reward ideas that work. Set a high example. qualifications and experience to do the job? 2. 10 HAVE A SECOND-IN-COMMAND Groom a deputy who shares your goals and ideas. Encourage on-going commitment. customer satisfaction or profit. Integration 8 ENCOURAGE PRIDE Show pride in your company and its products and encourage others to take pride in their work. Don’t accept second best personally or your staff will follow your lead. Then go on holidays to test the system. Does the candidate have the appropriate aptitudes. service.
It will also assist in the first line manager to become aware of the criteria adopted for selection and the overall rationale used. Interviews should not be ad hoc. First line managers should be involved in the selection process of people who will work under them to increase the probability that the person selected will be someone able to relate to their immediate superior. Because of time involved managers should only be meeting with people who seem qualified to fill the vacant position. They should be carefully planned to provide the best results. The interview process is as relaxed as possible and applicants are given ample opportunity to answer questions. The interview should relate to work issues and should not infringe the personal rights of applicants. Notes are taken for future reference and applicants are ranked according to predetermined criteria. Questions are not ambiguous and are designed to gather information relevant to the position applied for. Interviewers should ensure that: Questions are not discriminatory to certain groups of applicants. a person who will have a commitment to getting the newcomer trained and integrated into the work group as quickly as possible. 24 . Where possible an independent person should be part of the interview panel to assist in ensuring consistency and lack of bias.Managing Human Resources The Interview Process Personal interviews are an important part of the selection process. The interview process is consistent for all applicants.
team member or peer. • Give me an example of a good decision you made recently. • Describe a complicated task that you have had difficulty teaching someone to perform. Induction. how have you determined when you were pushing too hard? • Give me an example of when this happened. • How satisfied were you in that situation and why? • Describe a face-to-face meeting in which you had to lead or influence a very sensitive individual. Integration The Interview Process Some suggested interview questions • When dealing with a direct report. • What were the alternatives you considered? • Why was it a good decision? TO ALL STAFF Now that we have established KWALITY CONTROL please THINK AHEA D 25 .2-Recruitment. • What approach did you take? • Why were you successful? • Tell me about a time when there was not much room for creativity in your work.
it is useful to bring up strengths in their resume.’ yes. Consider their sense of style. • Consider how this person makes you feel. • Look at the other person’s appearance. firmness and dryness of handshake. including taste in clothes. • Would it be depressing. a drain. • Ask. and listen. With such people. ‘What happened here?’ and observe how the interviewee responds. • Let it be the other person’s interview. • Do you like being with them? • What contribution do you think this person would make to the mood of the people around them? • Ask yourself what it would be like to work with this person on a daily basis. or a privilege? • What is the feeling the other person projects . I see and I agree’. let them. inspiring. • Once the other person starts to talk. • The best way to make people feel comfortable is to respond positively every time they do well. every aspect of their appearance is important. Avoid dominating the interview. and act positively. • Look for something about the other person you like and mention it. Remember you are trying to see how the other person functions at their best. sincere. Nod agreement. boring. confidence projected and tone of voice. of course. poised. • Allow the other person to talk. or setting rigid goals.some suggestions Before the interview know what you are looking for • Prepare a list of features you are looking for. • The interview begins the moment the other person walks in the door. Be patient and take your time to discover the other person. Smile! • Make positive comments like. Some people don’t function well under stress and any interview situation unnerves them. good.optimism or defeat? • Is this person really interested in their work? • Do they have a strong sense of industry? • Will they enhance the productivity of the workplace? • Would you feel comfortable going to lunch with this person? • Are they socially aware. exactly. Be appreciative. • Do they feel comfortable with their style or is it for impression? • Is this person reaching or are they understated? • If you are hiring someone to project the company image. Ask yourself why you feel this way. Pay attention to your first impression. Try to get an idea of the other person’s thinking.Managing Human Resources How to Interview . and confident? • Do you feel any embarrassment for them or being with them? 26 . Ask yourself how you feel in the other person’s presence.
Let the candidate talk and not be bombarded by the C. The interviewers discuss their findings and make a specific hire / reject recommendation with reasons why. The C.s peers in other.O. The candidate is invited over for an interview. 4. persuade and communicate clearly over the phone? 5. Every city has a master of profession . project.E. Can the person. The C. The C. talks with the candidate on the phone for 30 minutes. socialises with the candidate in a different environment. 1.O. It will require considerable amounts of time and effort.O. The visits are brief and need to be reciprocated by reviewing the peer’s candidates in turn.E. Who knows or should know about this person? 6. 3. Is the candidate a music or movie buff? Off to the concert hall or theatre with the candidate and spouse. How does this person act in a social setting? Especially important for sales people as they need to be their most skilful and persuasive.E. Does the home life match the description in the interview? 7.O.O.E. Integration A Ten Step Hiring Process Below is a hiring process which will obviously not suit all organisations.E. A trip to the Master.O. Induction. non competitive companies in the town. The C. Check out the candidate in the Industry. The successful candidate has to pass muster with the master.O. The candidate sees 2 or 3 of the C. The C. 27 . talks with some outside sources. 10.their leads can be a good way to find candidates in the first place. See the candidate’s personal values at work in the most revealing setting. It is usually most helpful in addressing some-one’s strengths or weaknesses after you hire them. Make a point of knowing the masters .E. 2. 9. talking about his success. master executive secretary etc. The personnel manager should be able to identify what management is looking for and be secure enough not to screen out unusual or intimidating candidates. master purchasing agent. The candidate is invited over for a number of follow up interviews. A trip to the counsellor. talks with the candidate for 30 minutes.master controller.2-Recruitment. Also a good integrity test.O. They talk to the C. 8.E. but should ensure a quality candidate.E. The industrial psychologist’s analysis is often enlightening but never binding. for 30 minutes. talks with the candidate in their home in the presence of their wife and children.
or intense concentration More interested in the other person than you Cocky. chin forward Poker face Mouth open Two people looking at each other Nervousness Confidence Negative view Negative view Positive acceptance Holding something back Shock. goal orientated Critical. arms swinging Walking with hands in pockets Walking with hands on hips Walking with hands behind back Open hands Arms crossed Straddling a chair Crossed legs Hand to cheek Body drawn back Hands behind head Rubbing nose Hands closed in front Head inclined Locked ankles Sitting back with legs crossed Hand to back of neck Playing with tie. holding back feelings Attracted. ring.Managing Human Resources Body Language Many skilled interviewers make a special point of studying the body language of the people being interviewed. deep thought Distant. Leaning forward It is generally accepted that: • 55% of a negotiator’s message is perceived non verbally • Only 7% depends on what is said • And 38% depends on how it is said 28 . secretive Bursts of energy Pre occupied Sincerity Defensive Domineering Settlement less likely Evaluation. It can provide an insight into the interviewee. needs reassurance Ready to go Rapid walk. Clammy handshake Steepling of hands Downcast eyes Face turned away Relaxed mouth. critical Relaxed aggressiveness Puzzlement Self control Interested Nervous. etc. but unconvinced Frustration Anxious.
Integration Salary Packages The total value of an employment package can comprise provision of some of the following perquisites and / or other items. Induction. BASE WAGE / SALARY BONUS PERFORMANCE INCENTIVES SHARE OPTIONS SUPER-ANNUATION USE OF A VEHICLE TELEPHONE .2-Recruitment. The total cost to the employer when totalled will give a ‘package value’.PRIVATE HOUSING PERSONAL and FAMILY TRAVEL INSURANCE SCHOOL FEES TAX ADVICE CAR PARKING EMPLOYEE DISCOUNTS HOLIDAYS EXPENSE ACCOUNT CLOTHING ALLOWANCE OTHERS 29 .
9. 8. 3. 10 30 .Managing Human Resources An Interview Evaluation After the interview the following summary could be a useful assessment: Ranking Appearance Personality Maturity Aptitude Objectives Experience Education Overall assessment Others . . 5. . 6. Total 1. . . 4. 2. 7. .
... . Specify degrees. This should include positions with high visibility in well-known companies... honours. at (. stockholders and employees. as well as universities attended.... s/he held positions of ...... commitment and / or ideas. where s/he was responsible for . S/he will be responsible for primary responsibility.. board members.. Induction. State Date Name has been promoted to title at company. if this is pertinent to the position and reflects well upon both companies......." said name earned a type and level of degree from ... as . if any.... Previously.... specify city or neighbourhood only. with . If the person is in a position that could invite sensational publicity. If you distribute the press release to your vendors. spokesperson's title of company........ 31 . customers.. Name joined company in year as title... • You need not use a cover letter when mailing a press release....... keep personal details to a minimum..... "Quote showing person's productivity or worth to company”... honours.) where s/he was responsible for .... and association affiliations..2-Recruitment... . Prior to joining company.. "Quote showing person's dedication. For Immediate Release Contact's name Contact's phone number Contact's fax number Company Promotes Name to Title City... Avoid specific information about the children that may jeopardise their safety. worked for ..... lives in . Integration A Press Release for New Personnel • Use this press release to take advantage of the opportunity that hiring a new employee offers. Quote the person or a company official on this personnel change... • Just remember to fold it so the headline appears when it is removed from the envelope. and their (number of) children. the people who offer/ develop/ create (short company profile) with offices in . said spokesperson's name...... a quote may help add credibility and build morale... The quote should address the way this promotion will contribute to the company achieving its goals...
• Mail and filing room procedures. such as:• Wages are paid weekly / fort nightly etc. • You are on employed on a trial / probationary period or basis. • Product training. • Visits to various sections for orientation. • Have a work area and materials prepared. Staff evaluation policy. • Use of office equipment in general. Holiday Policy. • Use of telephone. • Details of office or business hours.Managing Human Resources Induction of New Staff New staff should be made to feel welcome to the business right from the outset. a visit to the sales territory with sales manager or mentor. Training based on the Job Description should be an important part of the Induction period. • Details of EEO and OH&S policies • Payroll procedures. The induction process should allow the Human Resources Manager. 32 . • A list of staff names. • You are employed on a daily / weekly / casual / permanent basis. • Details of publications available to the staff member. • Staff procedures. Sick leave policy. • Keys or passes for access to buildings. and special consideration should be given to their questions and needs until they become familiar with day to day procedures. • Wages are paid in cash / to a bank account. Further Training in learning about the company’s products and systems is part of the Induction process. The recruit should be made comfortable working with the rest of the team and be ready to contribute results as soon as possible. • For sales representatives. • Meetings with various key people. • Ensure a meeting on the first day. NEW STAFF SHOULD BE GIVEN AND / OR MADE FAMILIAR WITH: • A LETTER of ENGAGEMENT detailing pertinent and relevant terms and conditions of employment. and the appropriate supervisor the opportunity to gain information about the new recruit and introduce them to the company and the rest of the team. positions and responsibilities of other staff in the firm. • Time reporting policy. • Regular communication for first weeks. • Travel or meal reimbursement policies.
External survival and internal integration problems are therefore. Every group must know what its heroic and sinful behaviours are. POWER and STATUS Consensus on criteria for the allocation of power and status. This area of consensus is crucial in helping members manage their own feelings of aggression. 33 . with the experiences of each organisational culture being unique. in a patterned way the nature of the underlying technology. BOUNDARIES Consensus on group boundaries and criteria for inclusion and exclusion. One of the most important areas of culture is the shared consensus on who is in. two sides of the same coin. INTIMACY Consensus on criteria for intimacy. maintains and loses power. even though the underlying issues around which the culture is formed will be common. what gets rewarded with property. Every organisation must work out its rules of the game for peer relationships. friendship and love. the age of the organisation. for relationships between the sexes. a group is impossible by definition. and power. who is out. Induction. and what gets punished through the withdrawal of rewards. and ultimately excommunication. If members cannot communicate with and understand each other. and by what criteria one determines membership. and the nature of the parent culture within which the organisation evolves? LANGUAGE Common language and conceptual categories. Every organisation must work out its pecking order and its rules for how one gets. REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS Consensus on criteria for allocation of rewards and punishments. and the actual events experienced. Integration Internal Integration Problems Matching People to Business Conditions A group or organisation cannot survive if it cannot manage itself as a group.2-Recruitment. and for the manner in which openness and intimacy are to be handled in the context of managing the organisation’s tasks. Usually the solutions will reflect the biases of the founders and current leaders. Does the organisational culture reflect. Every organisation will have different solutions to these problems and face different issues. status. the prior experiences of group members.
the selection process is often less one of matching candidates with job requirements. MANAGEMENT IS CONSIDERED A ‘MYSTERIOUS’ ACT A great number of executives feel that management. so that members can respond to them and avoid the anxiety of dealing with the unexplainable and uncontrollable. executives believed that a good manager can handle any situation. COMPATIBILITY WITH PEOPLE. rather than those who are more specialised. 34 . such as a manager’s ‘style’ and the degree to which he ‘fits in’ with his colleagues. Rather. In most organisations.Managing Human Resources IDEOLOGY Consensus on ideology and ‘religion.’ Every organisation. senior executives have often tended to search for ‘universal managers’. or they risk demoralising them or losing them to competitors. BELIEF IN THE ‘UNIVERSAL MANAGER’ For many years. Some critical elements. The pressure though is to reward performance with promotion. PROMOTION IS CONSIDERED A ‘JUST REWARD’ There is little question that the nature of jobs changes as one moves up the ladder . and many managers feel that they have very little choice but to promote their best performers. Consequently. Growth businesses are those that are more mature and seen as minor variations of a common theme. it may get short shrift. objective rewards are still largely hierarchically based. Furthermore. despite its importance. executives are rarely trained in selection. irrespective of its idiosyncratic demands. especially at senior levels. is mysterious and defies objective analysis. As a consequence. Consequently. rather than as specialised business problems that create particular demands on the management in place. are too abstract to be measured and too sensitive to be identified explicitly. like society.the best salesman seldom makes the best sales manager. NOT JOBS There seems to be a pervasive desire for people to surround themselves with individuals of similar kind. LACK OF SKILL Hiring subordinates is a skill an executive is expected to posses by virtue of his or her position. a manager just gets a sense of all these factors and makes decisions accordingly. faces unexplainable events that must be given meaning. since selection is always time consuming and often tedious. and only a few executives are naturally gifted in this area.
it is sending a clear message that supports internal recruitment and self development activities. training etc. • The management of these processes are linked to other parts of the system through implicit messages that are sent to employees. even though these careers may not involve promotions. • Accountabilities will rest squarely with supervisors and management. • Instituting special programmes of orientation or training for new incumbents to specific jobs as these jobs open up. job assignment. Integration Planning for and Managing Replacement and Restaffing Human Resource Planning and Development (HRPD) should address issues such as: • Updating the human resource inventory as retirements or termination's occur. and those processes should be designed to match the needs of the organisation with the needs of employees throughout their evolving careers. and be seen as a total system for maximum effectiveness. because the employees are unable to influence them in any way. • A company that manages its recruitment in a secretive manner may be sending a message to employees that the company is passive and complacent about their careers. 35 . Induction. • Regardless of who designs and manages the HRPD programme or system. • Continuously reanalysing jobs to ensure that the new incumbent is properly prepared for what the job now requires and will require in the future. who will control the rewards and opportunities. • The various components should be linked to each other.S.2-Recruitment. For example if the company decides to display all its vacancies ‘in house’. • Managing the Information System (I.) on what jobs are available and determining how to match this information to the Human Resources available in order to determine whether to replace from within the organisation or to go outside with a new recruiting programme. • Planning activities should be closely linked to the processes of supervision.. and be managed to ensure coordination between the planning functions and implementation functions. the ultimate goal should be that the HRPD programme be ‘owned’ by middle management.
PREJUDICE. They were working to the wrong priorities They thought that they were doing it Poor management Personal problems CREATIVITY.Managing Human Resources Why do People Fail? Some common reasons in their order of frequency. They do not know why they should do it. There are obstacles beyond their control. HABIT. for why people fail are: They do not know what they are supposed to do They do not know how to do it. Why risk changing the status quo with the inherent risks of failure? PREJUDICE Fear + ignorance = prejudice ‘That would never work here. we just don’t do things like that’. INERTIA The best way of all to overcome creativity! 36 . INERTIA CREATIVITY HABIT FEAR What are barriers to people embracing and engaging in creative activities? We have always done it this way. There was not enough time to do it. They think that their way is better. They do not think it will work. FEAR. and. They have a poor attitude and / or lack motivation They lacked the skills to do the job.
its policies. or burn out. If someone has been a poor manager. Integration Disengagement Interviews What do you do when people resign? It is quite amazing just how few organisations carry out ‘debriefings’ when people resign from their organisation. such as lack of training and career development. then say that would be a better manager with more training. Enlightened thinking suggests that this is an opportune time to gather valuable feedback about the organisation. Tackle the issues. For many people who are leaving there is a huge temptation to relieve years of frustration by being absolutely frank about the reasons for leaving . goals and people. Some suggested questions for obtaining feedback might be: What are your long term goals? Why are you leaving at this time? What did you most enjoy about working here? What was disappointing about working here? How do your family relate to your work? Why did you choose to work here? What does your new position offer. Exit interviews should be conducted by all organisations when people leave to go and work elsewhere. Exit interviews should obviously be conducted by someone other than the person’s immediate supervisor to assure there is no bias and to ensure absolute confidentiality. Give honest feedback.2-Recruitment. steering away from being brutally frank is probably the best course of action.4% of more than 3. They present an ideal opportunity for the organisation to receive meaningful feedback about itself and to learn what has triggered a resignation.just 8. In Australia the Bureau of Statistics is very proud of its low staff turnover rate . 37 . Attracting highly skilled staff is very difficult and most organisations are keen to learn the reasons why people are resigning. not the person. that outweighs those available here? Was the training you received here of benefit to you? How could our organisation have helped you more? Are you disappointed in this organisation. Induction.often people problems. while conversely call centres average a 36% staff turnover rate. For those who are leaving. Resist the temptation to be vindictive.200 staff in a recent survey. but never burn your bridges. Good exit interviews can make the work environment a better place for those who follow. but do not make it personal. and your achievements here? According to data supplied by the federal government 22% of the national workforce left their jobs in the year 2000.
• They succeed because of empathy. • No person is identical to another person and since no people problems are identical there is no standard formula for solving people problems. A ‘do as I say. Running the business like a dictatorship 5.job rotation and projects Ensure opportunities for growth.keep staff informed about what the business is achieving and trying to achieve Encourage and reward contributions by staff Give staff leaders to work with . Salary paid is different to what was offered at the interview 2. fear or simply because of circumstances which were too much against them. A technologically backward work place 8. 9. patience. 4. Not providing opportunities for ongoing staff training 6. ignorance. restraint and courage. 10. 8. 6. intolerance. 5. Provide a variety of work . • They fail because of inexperience. knowledge. Pressure to complete work on time and then the leader or manager fails to review the job for weeks 10. A ‘school’ approach to hours A MANAGER • A manager is someone who manages people. learning and promotion Recognise good work Encourage your staff to take chances and to ‘take risks’ to broaden their point of reference Involve your staff in the ‘big picture’ . 7. ‘Forget’ salary reviews 3. 38 . 3.Managing Human Resources How to keep your staff interested 1. Feedback consists of ‘you did this wrong’ 4. Lack of planning 9.not managers Reward staff as individuals Encourage and have a team environment Provide a work environment that balances work and personal life How to lose your staff 1. and every manager will have their own unique style anyway. not do as I do’ work environment 7. 2.
3 Organisations and People .
your special means for creating value. What are the basic requirements of a meaningful mission statement? The components to help make a mission / vision useful and valid could include: A focused concept . and set out to achieve that vision. make a contribution.something beyond platitudes. A sense of worthwhile purpose . A plausible chance of success . 40 . You will need to start by establishing the values of your organisation.What is it? Does your organisation have a Mission Statement? Could Human Resource issues be addressed more readily if you did have a Mission Statement? All members of the organisation should focus on. and then develop and deploy the statement and vision throughout your organisation. Further the mission statement should define: The Customer . at least plausible to strive for. and believe in that statement and vision. or delivers.Managing Human Resources A Mission Statement . if not perfectly attainable. but in terms of a basic defining need premise that leads that person [or entity] to consider doing business with your enterprise. in order to win and keep the customer’s business. What makes you special . is from the South Australian Film Corporation: ‘We will stimulate and assist the film and video industry and community to achieve sustained economic and cultural benefits that are valued by the people of South Australia’.something that is really worth doing.defined not in terms of some market segment or statistical category. sells. make the world a better place in some way and win people’s commitment.S. A very good real life example of a Mission Statement is this one from the Department of Administrative Services [D.defined not in terms of what your organisation does. but in terms of the fundamental value it represents in matching the customers need premise. makes. something that can create value. Another excellent example which I noticed in the employment columns of a newspaper.]: ‘To be recognised by our customers and the government as Australia’s best provider of services and a leader in public sector reform’.A. The value premise .something people can realistically believe to be possible and. The statement and vision should be founded on a set of values held by all members of the company. A value creation premise that people can actually picture as existing.
Selling and representing your work mates and work place to others. They are irretrievably linked. persuading. Seeking out and processing information.over 50 percent of a message is perceived non verbally. Communication is about getting through and being understood. The ability to influence and persuade others.’ 41 . to answer with more than a straight out yes or no answer. Don’t forget though. consulting. Business communication covers many facets and can include: Being aware of non verbal behaviour . Providing feedback to others. On the first day on the job as the new manager. Motivating others. Communication is used to address issues such as: How When What Why Who Where Open questions can be prefixed with any of these six words. If we work as a team we can accomplish a lot. I expect you to do exactly as I say and to follow my instructions in your work as a team. and convincing. Business communication is. Listening. Questioning. Seeking out and listening to feedback about yourself. Effective meeting skills. The ability to select appropriate methods of interfacing with others. ‘Now it is essential that we work as a team. the new person called a meeting of his staff and had this to say. and open the channels of communication. Selling and representing your self to others.3-Organisations and People Communication and Human Resources What is Business Communication? Human Resource skills involve high levels of business communication skills. An open question will cause the person the question is directed at.
Managing Human Resources Six Steps to Managing Your Career 1 SELF ASSESSMENT List your transferable skills. Discover the extent and the limits of your own authority. 3 OPPORTUNITY AWARENESS Explore one or more jobs and gather information. When you take control Discover from your new staff how they tackle their own jobs. but how you do it. 2 INTERPRETING DATA Consult your mentor and/or career counsellor and/or significant other in your life. These should relate not only to the job’s result. Discover what is regarded as the essential purpose of your job. List employment likes and dislikes and your reasons for them. 42 . Decide how you will get to where you want to be. and your reasons for discarding them. Get clear success criteria. 5 TRANSITION TRAINING Produce a thoroughly written version of your career transition strategy and discuss it and its rationale with your counsellor. needs. Develop a list of possible career action steps which could provide opportunities for improved worklife satisfaction. Get proposals from them on how working can be improved and what they would like to see done. Summarise your preferred skills. Make sure that at least some of these are put into practice for the sake of morale. values. and/or significant other. 4 DECISION LEARNING Make decisions based on what you have learnt. mentor. List discarded options. 6 TRANSITION ACCOMPLISHED Get out the champagne. if for nothing else. interests and achievements to date.
Participation groups can be frustrating for those who don’t get what they want. Hence the expression. Groups can make the simple complex. Meetings are often just plain boring. Groups can lessen personal accountability for work. as people get to work in a positive. is less likely to miss an important contingency than is a person working alone.” Committees are frequently used to postpone work or to avoid facing a controversial problem. People may be forced to associate with colleagues they would rather avoid. especially for those who already know the material being covered. A good way to invite commitment is to ask for involvement in the planning of any project. or for those who operate at a higher pace than others. 43 . A team approach should synergise thought. Spread workload so that more gets done. Foster more satisfying work relationships. Committees can encourage controversy or conflict. Group assignments can foster unequal workloads that are a fertile ground for resentment and lowered morale.3-Organisations and People Why do people resist meetings? Meetings use more collective time to perform a simple task than any individual would use. productive manner with peers. Meetings and Teamthink Teamwork at meetings can increase creativity. Improve planning. Participants stimulate one another. Team work can reduce resistance to change by encouraging those who implement a program to feel allegiance to it. (Lets delegate that to a committee) Meetings can put individuals on the spot by pressuring them to state opinions publicly. so that the whole becomes far greater than the sum of the parts. “a camel is a horse designed by a committee. with numerous viewpoints. Group work dissipates the glory any individual would have received for doing a good job. Participation groups can be frustrating for those who don’t get what they want. A critical group.
teams WORK RELATIONSHIPS WORK STRUCTURING Competitive Departments. skills in hierarchy Low Internal. participatory Collaborative Groups. assembly lines Specialisation.Managing Human Resources Organisational Structure Old and new paradigms OLD STRUCTURE SPAN OF CONTROL COMMUNICATION DECISION MAKING Tall Narrow Downward Autocratic NEW Flat Wide Multi directional Democratic. within groups upon individuals Merit. group DIFFERENTIAL STATUS CONTROL High External. COMPENSATION FOCUS Seniority 44 . divisions Sequential Official position SKILL BASE Multi skilling INNOVATION PROCESS POWER BASE Simultaneous Expertise.
and physical and mental behaviour Universities Prisons Hospitals etc. intellect. Number of products Problem solving Creating new ideas Research organisations Design and Engineering Consulting organisations Number of ideas Indoctrination Changing people’s habits. Number of people leaving Service Distributing services either directly to consumer or to above types Military Government Advertising Taxi companies Extent of services performed 45 . attitudes.3-Organisations and People What goals do organisations have? TYPE OF ORGANISATION MAJOR FUNCTION EFFECTIVENESS CRITERION Typology of organisations EXAMPLES Habit Replicating standard and uniform products Highly mechanised factories etc.
CHARACTERISTICS of BUREAUCRACY Division of Labour Rules and procedures Authority Impersonality Careers and merit BUREAUCRACY POSSIBLE BENEFITS • Stability • Efficiency • Control POSSIBLE PROBLEMS • Red tape • Inflexibility • Dominating authority • Position protection Staff Rooms Many companies in the past set up their staff rooms as lacklustre and often small spaces and were at a loss to understand why usage of the facility by their staff was low. These specially designed spaces take on a new persona and can even introduce a cafe ambience with a design theme and ‘funky’ colours’. The aim being to encourage staff to interact in-house at break times rather than going out. Or: Any company giving less than two-thirds of its energies to its business. or any institution. and more than one-third of its energies to its organisation. that exists to carry out an organisation. Mediocrity in a bureaucracy exists.Managing Human Resources Bureaucracy A definition of bureaucracy might be: A business. casual and relaxing staff rooms. when the penalty for success gets to be as big as the reward for failure. Enlightened companies are now commissioning interior decorators to design and implement stimulating. 46 .
on a systematic. and many are necessary if a change is to be maintained. what has happened in their working relationships and other issues for review before the planning meeting. and change has its enemies. Many organisations are living with the effects of successful short term change results that have not been maintained Probably the most important requirement for continued change is a continued feedback and information system that lets people in the organisation know the system status in relation to the desired states.3-Organisations and People Managing Change Do you have conscious procedures and commitment? Organisational change will not be maintained simply because there has been early success. But change is its motivator. could be preceded by a weekend away at a retreat by the managers (and wives) concerned. new forces in the environment. POLITICAL ACTIONS Broaden the political support for radical actions. it is a good sign that you are doing something significant. Organisation sensing meetings in which the top of an organisation meets. goal directed basis. As an example an annual 5 year planning meeting. forthcoming planning issues. Realise the level of dissatisfaction and discomfort with the current situation. Feedback from outside parties. planned basis. There are a number of interventions that are possible. If some people become upset. Robert Kennedy SOME COMMON FEEDBACK SYSTEMS ARE: Periodic team meetings to review a team’s functioning and what it’s next goal priorities should be. Renewal conferences. Periodic meetings between interdependent units of an organisation. Sensitise key factors / champions to the need for change. Performance review on a systematic. Progress is a nice word. their personal and company priorities. with a sample of employees from a variety of different organisational centres in order to keep appraised of the state of the system. 47 . to examine themselves.
Employees who are not at home when the card carrier arrives are invited to talk to the boss on their return to duties. Articulate core values and beliefs. Discard preconceived notions. I think this is sometimes a good rule to follow in human relations as well. Cure all It has been reported that. There is a little rule of sailing where the more manoeuvrable ship should give way to the less manoeuvrable craft. Being part of Change can be fun and exciting. involve people and be honest Reinforce and institute change. 8. 9. 7. You may not need to be an expert to achieve significant change. 5. CHANGING WORK HABITS Question assumptions.10 Steps 1. 6. Think about what the customer wants. 2. Define clearly what needs to be established. in a break with contemporary practice. 3. Analyse the organisation and its need for change Create a shared vision and common direction Separate from the past Create a sense of urgency Support a strong leader role Line up political sponsorship Craft an implementation plan. Develop enabling structures Communicate. Volkswagen halved absenteeism at its plants in Germany by handdelivering get-well cards to workers who call in to advise that they are too sick to come to work that day. Being an outsider can be an advantage. Working in teams can be helpful and very effective. Assess business priorities. Psychologist Joyce Brothers 48 . 10. 4. Expect resistance and be prepared to deal with it.Managing Human Resources Executing Change .
’when you start trying to anticipate what he will find you get better as a manager’. The work force are kept informed of costs. profit and loss and accord a high priority to what surplus is all about. The good managers welcome his visits because. with scope for equity sharing and retraining. ‘to see it being done right’.000 km a year visiting his plants and warehouses. for this type of scheme to work. They are ‘market driven’. 49 . Performance standards are designed to provide ‘stretch objectives’. There is a broadening of the agenda for joint problem solving and the facilitation of conciliation. .Cultures A simple definition of a work place culture is that its culture is the personality of the business. acknowledging the claims of employees . Finally in good. the additional tasks include making relations less adversarial. However there needs to be a genuine desire embodied in a published mission statement. In these settings. Common factors that lead to involvement and pride in ownership are: a high degree of communication high pay / incentives promotion from within stress on training recognition of the ‘social’ side of work a genuine respect for the individual We quote the example of a successful and well known Australian manufacturing company. Concentration on profitability should help employees identify with overall company goals.not to catch people making mistakes.3-Organisations and People People at Work . This attitude change has major implications for employee participation.and shareholders. Work place cultures are affected by: • levels of trust • risk taking • stress • fears and anxieties • social interaction • factions and politics • the structure of reporting relationships • company policies • personnel practices • work flow and work loads • management and supervisory styles • job design Many successful companies show a high profit orientation. a positive attitude to such visits is. The CEO of another Australian company travels over 160. well run organisations. Everybody is a ‘manager’.
50 . “They tried to tell us that we would come out jacks of all trades and masters of none. London. it would mean that any client would receive a constant quality whether they purchased the services the company offered in Australia.” Another leading and well respected Australian company director with an MBA from Harvard.Managing Human Resources Company Culture FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS A well known and respected director of an Australian company.” A common view of these two people is that. staff go to great lengths to discourage arrogance. usually after the second port: “It is not only the MBA courses that produce arrogant graduates. It took a couple of years in industry to teach me I knew very little. which operates in a number of overseas countries likes to relate this story. that it would probably be years before we worked ourselves up to a job senior enough to look on business from the high perspective from which we had been regarding it at school. was that the common standards and phraseology being talked about would all be set in Melbourne and it was a case of do everything the Australian way.’ An Australian owned company operating in the U. says that even there. The word was intended to mean there would be an internationally accepted internal standard and systems. ‘To be a successful manager and not just a back room specialist. It soon became obvious to the staff and management world wide.K. Ultimately managerial positions overseas have to be filled by Australians because they are the only ones prepared to perpetuate the gospel laid down by Melbourne headquarters.. The company found itself with serious problems of how to handle the discontent and complaints about corporate imperialism! The ultimate result of this philosophy was that creative and dynamic staff soon left because their freedom of thought was being eroded and only customers who are attracted to and want to buy Australian will remain as customers. I came from University with a doctorate degree in economics thinking I knew everything in the world. and other parts of the world. started to use the word ‘seamless’ to describe what the Australian headquarters called a ‘consistent level of standards’. Tokyo. one needs many qualities which are not intellectual but personal. To those in the Melbourne head quarters. New York or Singapore. such as leadership. But that is a warning young people find difficult to accept. that what the word ‘seamless’ really meant.
will train staff to the optimum level. Forgetting curves persist for several reasons. new firms merely graft opportunities or challenges onto existing structures rather than take bold steps into the future. pride. STRUCTURE An organisation that has evolved successfully around one type of product or market environment can rarely change rapidly. but it is also due to too slow a pace of change. habits of thinking. but because their forgetting curves were too long. probably the wrong mix of skills in the work force. Yet all too often. It was not the great electronic companies that made the conquest of computers possible. a trade union structure inherited from earlier and different times. Education. new people. arrogance or just plain obstinacy are invariably present when forgetting curves are long. This is the irony and the threat. A long established company will have old plant. but companies that were working in different areas. buildings and stock holdings. The newcomers simply had nothing to forget. will build up staff to the minimum level needed to work the equipment and will not be burdened by surplus plant. This was not through lack of knowledge and skill on the part of the original companies. indoctrination. ATTITUDES Dedication to past traditions. early retirement and restructuring of firms are all methods that need to be considered and acted upon. but small companies that were almost complete strangers to the field. and an ethos ill suited to the changing world. 51 . nor indeed lack of enterprise. People who can recognise the foothills of some dramatic change rather than merely seeing them as perturbations in the normal run of business are vital to innovation. The reluctance to change comes in part from the attitudes described already. surplus machinery and buildings and will carry stock no longer relevant to the business. These constraints will be compounded by old style attitudes towards management methods.3-Organisations and People Forgetting Curves FUTURE SHOCK It was not the great companies traditionally linked with radio valves that made the great success of semiconductors. These are common human characteristics and should not be regarded as failings.will immediately acquire the most up to date equipment. changing responsibilities.in whatever country . A new company that has full access to latest technology .
‘The Customer is King (or Queen)’. seems a fitting adage for the new millennium and should be practised at all times. 52 . • The chance to learn on the job and to go on learning.a job which enables the person to grow. EMPLOYEES The chance to learn The first element involves treatment of on the job and to go employees. CUSTOMERS The second leg of the stool. performance is critiqued to work out ways for improvement. Employees dedication and loyalty is seen as a quid pro quo as a perception of fair treatment by the company.e. feedback on performance is provided.Managing Human Resources Cultural Attributes . • A desirable future . • A feeling that their work is useful to society. Dedication to the service ethos should be a powerful value in successful companies.people are not left completely on their own so that they do not know what to do next. Employment security. • Adequate elbow room . i. • A situation where they can get help and respect from their work mates. targets for performance are set. But the boss is not breathing down their neck. Shareholder accountability should be safeguarded by those elements of organisational culture that encourage productivity and sound financial management.The Three Legged Stool The Criteria for a Satisfying Job • An optimal level of variety . yet allows operators to settle into a satisfying work rhythm. The importance of quality service should be instilled early in every employee’s career and constantly reinforced by management. good wages and benefits and employee safety are seen as the major issues in a lot of companies.one that avoids boredom. which forms a prominent part of on learning the psychological contract between company and employee. Can your company conduct competitive customer service competitions to encourage excellence in customer service. SHAREHOLDERS or OWNERS The third leg of the stool.
in 50% of cases it will interfere with business. and able to handle a major crisis? Is your organisation capable of handling a major crisis? Do you have a crisis management team with clearly defined strategies for crisis? Can you get accurate information about your crisis. to your premises? Or your business was hit by an earthquake? (These are actual examples from our own work experience. 53 .) When this was originally written Sydney had just experienced a major hail storm. At the time of a major revision of this book Sydney was experiencing bushfires with major loss of property. IN A MAJOR BUSINESS CRISIS Do your key employees have a (confidential) list of after hours phone numbers? Who is the back up person if you are unavailable? Which Government Departments would you need to contact? Are their phone numbers on your list? Would the switchboard operator be able to handle incoming calls and questions in a crisis? Would a dedicated 1800 phone line be appropriate for use in a potential emergency? SOME POTENTIAL PROBLEM AREAS • Industrial accidents • Environmental problems • Union problems / strikes • Product recalls • Rumours / media leaks • Government regulatory problems • Terrorism • Embezzlement • Bad debts • Loss of a key supplier • Loss of a major customer What if your business burnt down on a Sunday night? What if there was no power supply one morning. Tarpaulins to cover roofs had to be flown in from China. which was reported as being Australia’s second worst natural disaster.3-Organisations and People Crisis Management Is your organisation prepared for the unexpected? Is your organisation prepared for. fast? Statistics suggest once a crisis commences: in 70% of cases it will escalate. and weeks later many people affected by the storm were still experiencing difficulties. in 50% of cases it will effect profits.
’ 54 .have identified several phases in the process. ‘The pearl was once a bitter almond. A cauliflower is nothing but a cabbage with a university education.Managing Human Resources Downsizing . by performing at least one rung below the maximum level of incompetence. employed more than 400.2 million cars and trucks.000 people to produce more than 4. DO YOU HAVE A POSITIVE ATTITUDE TOWARD SUCCESS? 1) Are you happy only when you are doing better than others? 2) Do you feel that achievement commands respect? 3) Is it important to you to do well in the things you undertake? If you answered yes to these questions you have a positive attitude to be being successful.2 million motor cars. In the same year Toyota employed only 97.Some Peter Principles DOWNSIZING People responsible for downsizing . often on a major scale . Many companies.S. THE GRIEF PHASE Shock Staff drop their work Staff congregate in groups for long periods of time trying to understand the ramifications A paralysis of feeling THE DEPRESSION PHASE Bargaining has failed A sense of helplessness and loss of control sets in Pessimism and hopelessness take place Some people with low skills remain in this phase until retirement ACCEPTANCE A recognition that the job and its benefits are lost An ability to look for new work and move on emotionally Rehabilitation and rebirth In 1991 General Motors in the U.000 people to make around 4.a euphemism for staff retrenchments. Mark Twain said: Training is everything. organisations and managers peak at an optimum size or level of competency.
) All organisations should have an Occupational Health and Safety policy in place which is clearly understood by all employees. The organisation should have a system for investigating. The only entry for at least a year read. reporting and recording incidents and accidents with an emphasis on prevention.H. and many organisations have a full time officer to handle this complex task. Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should have the knowledge. “We have a committee that looks after that. was the proud response. Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should be able to develop and implement preventative strategies. and be made aware of changes in Occupational Health and Safety issues. Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should be able to represent both employer and employee in the consultative process. O. H. & S.3-Organisations and People Occupational Health and Safety (O. Are your employees equipped with appropriate protective equipment? Does your organisation have an easily accessible FIRST AID station and a trained person to render emergency assistance? Does your organisation have a list of emergency phone numbers to be used in emergency situations? Does your organisation have an emergency procedure plan in place? Of course Occupational Health and Safety is a far more complex subject than this. They have a meeting now and again after our other meetings”. came up. Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should implement training policies to effectively address relevant issues in their organisation. & S. skills and competencies to carry out their tasks. & S. Those responsible for administering the Occupational Health and Safety policy should be aware of current legal requirements and keep up to date with changes in legal requirements and community expectations. Some of the issues to address: Employees need to be aware of the factors involved in work related injuries and disease. and be able to identify potential and existing risks and hazards. the subject of O. at work In a general discussion with a construction company with 50 workers which we were doing some consulting work for. ‘Jim to buy some band aids to stock up the first aid kit’. 55 . “We even keep minutes”.H. A little later the appropriate minute book was shown to us. Those responsible for the Occupational Health and Safety policy should be equipped with the necessary skills to carry out and perform these policies and their functions under this policy.
including the recruitment and promotion of women and minorities. A University of Melbourne study their skill set? has estimated it costs a professional services firm about $75. “Why management. Companies rating in the top 100 had an average return of 18%. Good equal-opportunity practice Can you increase their makes good business sense. • In most companies 80% of the profits come from 20% of the customers.Managing Human Resources Discrimination At the time of writing Sue Goward was the high profile head of the Office of the Status of Women. ‘Discrimination does not come cheap. diversity. It found that companies rated in the bottom 100 for equal opportunity had an average of 8% return on investment.000 to replace a key employee. ability to achieve by Surveys show that poor equal-opportunity enhancing their selfpractices contribute to high staff turnover and esteem and improving absenteeism. In fact it is almost passé to talk constantly ask about discrimination. The lesson is clear: to be competitive. would someone want to A study in the United States rated the come and work in this performance of the Standard & Poors 500 organisation?” companies on equal-opportunity factors. Its costs are not just financial penalty or damaging Human Resource publicity for a company. 56 .’ The PARETO PRINCIPLE • In most companies 80% of the sales come from 20% of the customers. • In most companies 80% of the complaints come from 20% of the customers. organisations need to take advantage of the Can you gain more from range of talents of their staff and strengthen your people by their business profiles and management empowering them. In press article she claimed that. it is better known as bad themselves. but also lost managers should opportunity.
Use of telephones How to air complaints 6] These are your benefits Holidays Rostered days off Work insurance Hospital and medical benefits Free parking Training program Christmas bonus Savings plan Profit .3-Organisations and People An Employee Handbook .sharing plan Suggestion awards Service awards Credit union Education plans Medical dispensary Employee purchases Cafeteria Monthly magazine Social club. which is given to all employees when they commence working for the company. This handbook could contain information on the following: 1] Welcome message 2] History of the organisation 3] This is our business 4] You and your future 5] What you will need to know Working hours Reporting to work ‘Time clock’ Rest periods Absence from work Reporting absences Employment record Pay period Shift premiums O. & S. etc. annual outing.a suggested Outline As a component of their Human Resources policy an organisation should have an employee handbook. H. Sporting activities 7] These special services are for you 8] Index / table of contents 57 .
Managing Human Resources Code of Conduct Many organisations produce a Code of Conduct for their employees. Internal auditors may be responsible for checking procedures. including cultural issues. Everything must be above board and be seen to be so. Procedures might include: Protection of confidential information Avoiding conflicts of interest Directing media contacts to media relations Prohibiting drugs and alcohol Eliminating the risks of fraud and corruption Prohibiting gambling Discouraging and reporting gifts and entertainment A code of ethics may be necessary to support a Code of Conduct and to address issues. A code of ethics may be necessary to support a Code of Conduct. Employees would be expected to read it. such as: What do we as an organisation think is worthwhile? What are our core values? What sort of principles are we using for our decision making process? These issues and values can be developed at monthly staff meetings 58 . ask questions of their supervisor and then sign it to indicate they understand the ethical procedures of the organisation.
harmful behaviour confronted effectively. at least relatively. People who try to resolve conflicts through the use of power often get the creativity of their opponents turned against them. Negotiation is a complex process that includes. is an old adage veteran diplomats like to use. and each party is striving to maximise its portion: the idea of splitting the difference may lead to a quick agreement that leaves everyone satisfied. and new and more satisfactory ways of sharing a broad range of resources negotiated. and that outcomes favourable to both sides are possible. can be an opportunity rather than a problem. THE UTILITY OF BARGAINING Bargaining is often legitimate. This implies that negotiation is an exercise in relative power. Conflicts of need arise naturally and can produce beneficial results. what is seen as a win-lose confrontation (usually by both parties) frequently winds up as a lose-lose: neither party gets what it really needs. This view implies there must be a winner and a loser. during negotiation. Consequently. The two begin to bargain when the customer perceives that the price of the object is not fixed. but is not limited to bargaining 59 . such as when a shopkeeper would rather sell for less than not at all. when properly managed. If we could believe that conflict. CREATIVE NEGOTIATION: A WIN . How much each side wins or loses depends on its relative power and its skill in using this power. Most of us see differences between us as problems to which we must apply our imagination to get our way.3-Organisations and People Negotiation Negotiate is what we do when the other side can hurt us’. and the customer would be willing to buy if the price were right.WIN APPROACH More than ever before conflict must be resolved beneficially. in which one side tries to win as much as possible while minimising the risk of getting hurt. we might free ourselves from the mental tyranny of misusing power in negotiation. or threatening to use it. Negotiation can be more than a contest in relative power. Bargaining is also useful when limited resources must be shared.
You can assert your control by influencing and optimising the effect of the clues you are sending. you only get one chance to make a first impression). we negotiated together. bargaining may be the best way to settle an issue. when the relationship is short term and formal. when ideologies conflict. It is usually used to describe a commercial transaction or a trade off: Union-management talks being a good example. when haggling is expected and appropriate. when the use of power threat are endemic. in areas such as: • Symbols of authority • Symbols of expertise • Vocabulary and articulation skills • Personal character development • Personal packaging When competitiveness or suspicion pervades a relationship. techniques that may occur in negotiation but are not essential to it. compromising or trading. peers and staff measure your professionalism? They are continually using clues to assess you (don’t forget. Even Moses when he came down from the mountain after getting the Ten Commandments admitted to some negotiating. The word bargaining is more or less synonymous with haggling. He said.Managing Human Resources Creative Negotiating Creative negotiating is a process whereby two or more parties meet and through artful discussion and creativity. but adultery is still in’. I got him down to ten. or when impasse exists. Measuring your professionalism How do your customers. confront a problem and arrive at an innovative solution that best meets the needs of all parties and secures their commitment to fulfilling the agreement reached. 60 . ‘Well. This includes bargaining.
What led up to these negotiations and what possible solutions are available? Research the present conditions. aspirations. Evaluate both yours and that of the other party. What is the best alternative if my final offer is rejected? What is the next best alternative? Choose strategy or tactics. What do you need out of the negotiations? Assess motivations. Research the opponent or opposition. Are there third parties or other people such as lawyers involved? Identify the power figures on the other side. viewpoints. change agents. What tactics best suit this situation? 61 . Familiarise yourself with the opponent’s past behaviours. Research the history of the conflict.3-Organisations and People The Process of Negotiation Preparation and planning . successes and failures. writings. tactics. Is a site visit appropriate? Formulate requirements. and those wishing to maintain the status quo? Determine the costs of a stalemate. Consider time and timing.do your homework ahead of time. Who are the decision makers. philosophy. speeches. How much pressure will I be under to achieve an agreement? Should we finalise the matter later? Identify all the parties to the negotiations.
The remarks do not deal with matters of substance. This is the problem solving stage. or can be introduced at appropriate or (advantageous) or vital times. a statement of purpose. or charter. The meeting can be held at each others office or a neutral site. but all the activity of working out an agreement. rituals. Agreements may be reached in stages. shaking hands or be far more complex and need some type of formal ratification. The reasons for the negotiation are summarised in unequivocal words. Discussion . the crux of the negotiation.Managing Human Resources The Negotiation Conference Pre negotiation discussion This may be done to establish a relationship. to soften up the opponent. or a review of the background to the conference may come at this step. Establishing the agenda. Opening the meeting. Introductions. This includes not only bargaining. as the purpose is to become acquainted amicably. and there may be several stages at which agreements are reached. This is vital. Formalities. arrival and protocol. or to assess the potential problems involved in the negotiation. This may vary between nodding of heads in agreement or the construction of a complex legal document. The formal opening of the meeting and the presentation of the participants may establish rank. A formal agreement may be examined for loopholes. Conclusion. This can range between the parties saying ‘okay’. ambiguous words or phrases etc. Seldom is anything critical discussed. Ratification. This step primarily sets the tone of the conference. Developing an agreement. You must ensure that all the items you consider critical are on the agenda. 62 . and other aspects of each party’s relationship to its counterpart. This is where the art of negotiation. Review and adjustment.Give and take. Statement of the problem. Great care should be taken at this stage against any possible misconceptions. precedence. Establishing ground rules. seating arrangements. relaxed and friendly environment that will discourage tension and competitiveness and encourage co-operation and a willingness to solve problems. good or bad is displayed. breaks. work schedules (hours. The goal is to create an informal. Matters such as the use of facilities. etc. Initial remarks. This should be a step to a statement of the goals desired.) and support services can be discussed.
. What is your attitude regarding the situation? . What solutions have been attempted so far? 3. sorrow. A question is a point of departure. fear. A question is a beginning of adventure. A question is an invitation to creativity.that is not clear? The questions: 1.. What is it about.. How would your life be different if this situation were changed? 12. What benefits do you receive from having this situation? 7.e.. 6. What is it about these attempts that did not work? 4.. judgement. criticism.. anger.. A question pokes and prods that which has not yet been poked and prodded. hurt.What are they? A question is an opening to creation. I would like to get clear about my relationship to.. 5...g. What is your feeling regarding the situation? . What one thing are you willing to change to make this be what you would like it to be? 63 . A question has no end and no beginning. What is the goal you would like to achieve? 2..e.. What would you like to see happen? 9. Q. A question is a disguised answer.g. What else would you like to see happen? 10. contempt. TWELVE BASIC QUESTIONS Introduction Q. A question is seductive foreplay. A question wants a playmate. A question is an unsettled and unsettling issue.3-Organisations and People Questions . What do you need to do at this time? 11.... What would you like to get clear about today? A. What is the reality of the situation? 8.
Managing Human Resources
My Job - My Role
This quick quiz should be done from memory, without reference to any outside prompts. The most important areas of activity for me are: 1] 2] 3] The major outcomes required from my job are: 1] 2] 3] Targets which I am expected to meet are: 1] 2] 3] The most important people/departments for me to interact with are: 1] 2] 3] The individuals / groups I have direct authority over are: 1] 2] 3] For most people at work there is: A role that should be performed, a role that the person thinks they are performing and there is a role that they are actually performing. A common method of overcoming these problems is Management by Objectives [MBO], or similar setting of objectives for a person’s position. Some of the criteria used to set these objectives: CLEAR definite, specific and unambiguous. MEASURABLE in terms of quantity and / or quality CONSISTENT will contribute to the desired end result of the organisation or unit. CHALLENGING encouraging personal skills and knowledge growth ACHIEVABLE possible for the job holder ACCEPTABLE agreed to and accepted by both the person and the person’s manager.
4 Leadership and Motivation
Managing Human Resources
What type of leadership should an effective leader provide? Some of the myriad leadership responsibilities of management include: Showing the way, and defining the goals and intentions of the organisation. Going ahead of, in a spiritual relationship with your people. Guiding, people into alternate methods and directions. Causing progress, and setting in motion people and activities for progress. Being decisive, and maintaining constant flow and growth. Having grace under pressure Creating pathways with the leader’s values and visions. Controlling and influencing actions of people and the organisation. Directing and maintaining cohesive achievement. Commanding and exerting authority in the context of effective leadership. Raising morale, of people and the organisation. Being the first and more important, letting others be the first, and receive the credit. Heading the team and being ultimately responsible for what happens. Beginning, and setting in motion the stimulus and movement for motion. Each of us wants continuing reassurance on two points: 1. ‘Tell me what you expect of me.’ 2. ‘Tell me how I am getting on.
Good supervision is the art, of getting average people, to produce superior work.
a living symbol. mission and direction that define the focus of an enterprise. Equal and fair treatment. Good training. which is not necessarily a charismatic style but a constant and persistent pattern of reinforcing the organisational goals. Information on what is happening and on what is going to happen. Continually evolving. elaborating. The Team Builder Puts the correct people in the correct places for the leadership team. a good listener and be prepared to collaborate with the management team. The people working for you will expect: Clear direction and objectives. A good example. within the enterprise. and makes the necessary decisions and changes. and a buck stopper for their own enterprise. using their individual strengths and resources. and interpreting this meaning for the people in the organisation. The Living Symbol Leads in a highly visible manner. Encouragement of effort.4-Leadership and Motivation Leadership The Visionary Creates meaning by crafting a vision. Recognition of their performance and of their worth as individuals. This will involve simple. continuously developing them as a team and as individual leaders who can produce the desired results. To develop as a team. Good working conditions. sorts the truth from the challenges. This association will result in the leader being automatically associated with a concept of success. 67 . This person needs to be open minded. at every opportunity. The Buck-stopper Faces the difficult issues. Protection from hazards. including target dates. This person will become a ‘human logo’. An even work flow free from peaks and troughs. Each of these people needs to be a visionary. welds them into a focused team to advocate the common goal. based on their present work to prepare them for advancement Proper equipment and adequate resources. everyday actions that enable people to associate the leader with the success of the organisation. a team builder.
Managing Human Resources Leadership Steps PROCESS LEADER BEHAVIOURS BASIS Power Base Legitimate ASSIGN Reward Coercive Expert Referent Information Direct Order Instruct Plan OUTCOMES IMPLEMENT Guide Support Monitor Delegate EVALUATE REWARD Control Review Critique Appraise Revise Feedback Reward Punish PERFOR -MANCE Productivity Satisfaction Turnover Absenteeism 68 .
The circle NEW ORGANISATIONAL FORM 69 . skills. Change can be rapid to meet challenges. This invariably involves a vast shift in the way management and staff operate and will need to involve dedication and commitment. As with all change in the work place. • Decisions are made at the top. The pyramid TRADITIONAL JOB SPECIFICATIONS People work cooperatively. • Change is slow and rare and comes from the top. authority and control are shared. reinforced at a number of meetings.What is it? Empowerment is a fundamentally different way of working together. Many people consider EMPOWERMENT as yet another buzz word in a seemingly never ending string of business solutions with a catchy name. Control and co-ordination come through continual communication. • Movement and communication between divisions is minimal. Organisations are structured in such a way that people feel that they are able to achieve the results they want and that they can do what needs to be done. • Each person is responsible for their own job. many employees find it very difficult to embrace EMPOWERMENT and to come to terms with it.4-Leadership and Motivation Empowerment . Employees feel responsible not for just doing a job. As with most other new business ideas. Teams work together to improve their performance continually. The CUSTOMER is in the centre. Responsibility. EMPOWERMENT involves both managers and employees in rethinking old ways and learning new ones. achieving higher levels of productivity. but also for making the whole organisation work better. • Feedback and communication is from the top down.
we have been doing lots of work on performance ethics. At Westpac. "It is a simple communication to everyone in the company about performing better. chief executive David Morgan put his name to the "barbecue cards". Bell and Brown say that any change in culture that creates a desirable employer brand has to come from the top of an organisation. honesty and integrity. uses his or her power to effect change Enjoys intimidating staff and is often autocratic Is one dimensional Quells conflict rather than drawing differences out Is a workaholic with few if any close relationships HR at the banks At Hewitt Associates. has been keen promoter of better communication and motivation of staff. consistent. being more in control. John McFarlane. and having the courage to be different. Similarly. We want to be the bank with the human 70 . bullying and inconsistent Feels threatened by divergent opinions and will surround him or herself with people of similar views Withholds information. "The hard-faced image of the banks is not going to help us grow. about what gets our people excited and performing well." McFarlane says.Managing Human Resources Good Leadership Demonstrate concern for people Provide for opportunity and assist in self development Provide an atmosphere encouraging self-satisfaction and pride Encourage team effort Maintain complete fairness. Encourage public service Encourage creativity Commit ourselves to productivity and quality Maintain consistency Dedication to improvement Keep things simple and basic Build on a basis of ‘need’ Give attention to detail Conserve resources Listen carefully to what others are saying and ‘take it on board’ A Bad Boss Is dictatorial. the chief executive of ANZ Banking Group. Maintain open. and regular communication." In early 2001. grow and break out". McFarlane says: "In terms of running the bank. the bank began a program of what it calls "perform. and signs off personally on many pieces of communication with staff.
It often takes extreme courage and strength to make a decision . 71 . get to know yourself .4-Leadership and Motivation face.but you must do it if you want your life to progress and if you want to grow. how you are going to do it and how much you are prepared to gain or sacrifice while getting it.either way .intimately. • Be the best at what you do. • Stay the best at what you do You are responsible for your life. goals and objectives? Improved quality and productivity? Suppliers’ desires and expectations? Core competencies? Vital issues affecting your business and organisation? Personal desires and ambitions of the leadership team? And compare against your local competitors? And compare against the worlds best practices? A Personal Goal • Be good at what you do." Future Vision How will you rate and address: Customer requirements? Employees’ desires and expectations? Improved employee job satisfaction? Improved communications. Ultimately you decide what you are going to do. Obstacles. Everything is not black and white . both up and down? Active employee support for company vision. destiny. 100% responsible. A yes/no decision every time. brick walls. Completely. and everyday hassles will constantly try to hold you back (mainly in the form of other people) but it is up to you whether you let these affect you or not. organisations and movements to blame. totally. When you peel back all the layers of yourself and the world it is as simple as that. Enhancing the people agenda is vital for us. Finally. for customers but equally importantly for our people. and life is complicated. • Get better at what you do. Stop looking around for people. whatever will throw you chances here and there but it is up to you to take hold of them.far from it. Fate. utterly.
20. 2. 6. 18. Variety: the chance to do different things from time to time. Working conditions: the amount of comfort and safety on the job. Company policies and practices: the way company policies are put into place. Recognition: the praise for doing a good job. Compensation: the pay for the amount of work done.human relations: the way the boss handles subordinates.technical: the competence of my supervisor in making decisions. 7. Co-workers: the way co-workers get along with each other. Supervision . 8.20 Work related needs and requests 1. 4. Independence: the chance to work without supervision. Achievement: the feeling of accomplishing something at work. Supervision . Activity: the chance to be busy all the time. 15. Community service: the chance to do things for other people. Advancement: the chance for advancement. 3. 5. 14. 16. Ability utilisation: the chance to do something with my abilities. Responsibility: the freedom to use my personal judgement. Authority: the chance to tell other people what to do. Social status: the chance to be recognised in the community.Managing Human Resources Leading a team . 12. 19. Creativity: the chance to try doing things my way. Security: the provision of steady employment in my job. Ethical values: the chance to do things that do not go against my conscience or ethics. 72 . 10. 17. 11. 9. 13.
He called these factors motivators and he thought that the lower level needs of survival and safety. achievement. issues such as achievement. more attention was focused on the worker. or maintenance factors. Frederick I. Many people at first glance think that money is the all important motivator. recognition. Maslow believed that an individual must satisfy one need before feeling free to take on the tensions associated with the next level and before trying new behaviours aimed at satisfying the next higher need. A sense of belonging. Focusing more specifically on the work situation. He placed five needs in a hierarchy from most basic to most mature: Basic or psychological (as needed for survival). ego status and self actualisation Sequence. and the nature of the work will over ride money considerations. centred on issues not directly related to work and were factors that most people assumed would be met. he found overlapped both categories. However research shows that as long as a reasonable and fair income is supplied. job security. with money seldom discussed! 73 . In some of our tutorials we ask people what work issues they talk about in their breaks . Among his motivating factors were the challenge of the job itself. which he labelled dissatisfiers. and growth.what motivates people at work? The Traditional theory of motivation. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory As the Human Relations movement grew. Motivating factors.invariably the answer is achievement. Herzberg believed that only those needs that corresponded to Maslow’s ego status and self-actualisation levels were direct sources of work motivation. safety. and good working conditions. Abraham Maslow held that individual unsatisfied needs are the main source of motivation. recognition. and the nature of the work. responsibility. Maintenance factors. a sense of belonging. recognition. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory. evolved early in 20th century from the scientific management theory. It held that money is the prime motivating factor and that financial rewards should be related directly to performance.4-Leadership and Motivation Motivation . advancement. Among Herzberg’s maintenance (dissatisfier) factors were salary.
Managing Human Resources What motivates people at work? National surveys of workers consistently indicate the following important motivating factors: Element Achievement Recognition Nature of work Responsibility Advancement Wages / money Ranking 41 33 26 23 20 15 What motivates you? What do you do best? How often do you do that? What would you rather be doing than your present job? Is there anyone with whom you would like to exchange jobs? What appeals to you about the other job? Can any part of this be included in your present work? What stands in the way of you doing this? What part of your job do you do least well? How much of the time do you do this? When are you most productive? How often does this positive situation occur? What does your productivity depend upon? Are you able to ‘run’ with your most productive times or does your schedule or other duties cut them short? When are you happiest in your work? Are these times the same as your productive times? 74 .
living quarters. security PHYSIOLOGICAL Basic need for food. authority. safety. routine. sexual needs. personal growth and development. participation. discussions. independent thought and action. selffulfilment. to become more like one’s natural self SELF ESTEEM Status. helping other people SAFETY Need for security and protection from physical and emotional harm Health care. being informed. autonomy.4-Leadership and Motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs focuses on the inner needs of individuals SELF ACTUALISATION Drive to become what you are capable of Inherent well-being. privileges. drink. trust. prestige. belonging. clothing and physical fitness 75 . the opportunity to fulfil one’s basic potential. financial reward. fringe benefits. achievement Ego and status. professional group membership SOCIAL BELONGING Need for affection. selfesteem. attention Self respect. feedback. stability. friendships. esteem needs for accomplishment. recognition. recognition. acceptance and friendship Social needs for affection and caring relationships.
Esteem Social Safety Safety and security Security Competence General wage increases Stability Air Food Shelter Sex Psychological WHAT CAUSES WORK DISSATISFACTION SATISFACTION Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Company policy Company administration Supervision Relationship with supervisor Work conditions Wages Relationship with peers Personal life Relationship with subordinates Status Security Items are listed in order of importance.actualisation SPECIFIC FACTORS Challenging job Creativity Advancement at work Achievement in work Job title Earn a pay rise Peer recognition The nature of work Quality of supervision Compatible work mates Professional friendships Safe work conditions Fringe benefits Job security Heat and air conditioning Base salary Canteen Working conditions Ego.Managing Human Resources Motivation and Needs ORGANISATIONAL GENERAL FACTORS Growth Achievement Advancement Recognition Status Self esteem Self respect Companionship Affection Friendship NEED LEVELS Self . Status. from the top 76 .
one successful manufacturing organisation we know of is currently 66% owned by family members and the remaining 34% is owned by twelve key staff. The message is clear.work . Further you could make shares conditional upon specified service periods being completed. friends and spirit .is rubber.family. the company gives them one free. The other four . For every five shares they buy.are made of glass. The organisation could: Issue newly created shares to staff at a discount Issue staff with contributing shares. An approach to issuing shares could be to allocate shares on the basis of length of service. One ball . If the company was to become an unlisted public company there could be several options. which would mean that they are partly paid with the proviso that they become fully paid at a later date Offer staff interest free loans to buy fully-paid shares Issue share rights or options. One way of doing this is to create a special class of shares that give a profit entitlement but not an equity entitlement. Life is similar to a juggling act with five balls. How can this risk be minimised? Many organisations already pay key staff a performance bonus. Another way is to offer these people a stake in the business by means of share ownership. giving staff the opportunity to buy shares at a specific price at a specific date Any share scheme would need to be structured in such a way that control of the business was not lost by its original proprietors. Another organisation in the western suburbs of Sydney offers all employees the chance to buy company shares through a scheme that enables them to contribute 10% of their wages into a share pool. They worry that their larger and more affluent competitors might make them offers which they could not possibly match. As an example of staff share ownership. Glass shatters. 77 . health.4-Leadership and Motivation Motivation by shareholding Many newly successful businesses are forced to think long and hard about retaining their key employees. Rubber bounces.
• Good training. • Recognition of their performance and of their worth as individuals. Most people are stumped by the apparent contradiction. He offered the inheritance of his business empire to whoever could create the best dish of food that was both hot and cold at the same time. including target dates. • Good working conditions. The winning dish was the hot fudge sundae. based on their present work to prepare them for advancement • Proper equipment and adequate resources. • An even work flow free from peaks and troughs. and was fond of food and intellect. HOT and COLD There is a story about a business tycoon who had no heirs. the runner-up created Baked Alaska. • Equal and fair treatment. • To develop as a team. • Information on what is happening and on what is going to happen. • Encouragement of effort. People in business who can hold opposites in their vision simultaneously can win the empire! This contextual shift is an interesting analogy for management! 78 . • A good example.Managing Human Resources The people working for you will expect: • Clear direction and objectives. • Protection from hazards.
4-Leadership and Motivation Motivational Determinants of Behaviour The Individual • • • • • • • • • • • drive force emotion instinct need urge want desire wish feeling impulse striving Environmental event Effort Incentive • • • • • • • purpose interest intention goal plan aspiration attitude value Behaviour Performance Environmental event 79 .
TASK Manipulating to perform Money for unpleasant jobs Threaten and manage by fear Increase productivity attempts External rewards FEELINGS EVOKED/RESULTS Disheartenment Working for a price Question own values Eventually become accustomed to threat Ignore threats and find own comfort level Short lived gains Erosion of effectiveness When expected. Quick adjustment Company cannot afford these offers Cynical acceptance Ineffective due to inflation and taxes Does not permit a change in life style No real incentive to produce Usually viewed as merited and expected Short lived gratitude Powerful and often lasting motivator Lack of self esteem Start looking for alternative job Many almost bankrupt companies have been saved by increased worker participation Must be a genuine threat Self motivation Best way of increased productivity Offers appealing to greed Minor wage increases Threat of losing job Provide stimulus Identify and tap into people’s inner drives See that people are matched with their capabilities and preferences 80 .Managing Human Resources Productivity and Motivation Most businesses suffer a common problem in motivating their people to greater productivity. has no motivating effect Requires ever increasing rewards Short lived. though very few people would agree to the premise that they are doing (being allowed) what they want to do and being used to their full potential. In simplistic terms the answer is to identify their needs and employ their strongest talents.
and growing levels of complaints Absenteeism Negativity General tardiness Poor appearance of the work place Lack of discipline Long. sour faces Staff openly discussing their discontent and grievances WHAT CAUSES LOW MORALE? Some common (and often easily rectified) causes: • Inaccessible management • Poor communication • Unrealistic goals • Hard to understand goals • Aloof management • Poor leadership by management • Lack of coaching by management • Bloated hierarchy (or workers think so) • Poor job placement • Poor work environment • No room for promotion or advancement • Lack of understanding of job responsibilities THE HIGH MORALE ENVIRONMENT • • • • • • • • • Interesting work Innovation welcomed A sense of accomplishment Recognition of effort Fair treatment of people Responsibility Appropriate compensation Attractive work conditions Opportunities for personal growth • Feeling important • A sense of belonging • Opportunities for advancement 81 .4-Leadership and Motivation Does your Workplace suffer Morale Problems? Some common and often overlooked signs of morale problems: Poor and uncooperative attitudes Lack of enthusiasm Lack of commitment ‘Them and us’ mentality Nit picking and fault finding High.
Frustration 3. Vague speech patterns 5. Insomnia Burn out (a severe form of stress) Five stages of Burn Out can be readily identified: 1. Isolation and disinterest 82 . Depression 7. eating.Managing Human Resources Stress and Work Some common causes of stress.drinking. Withdrawal 5. Lack of enthusiasm and interest 2. drugs 4. Increased. smoking. Stagnation 4. in order of occurrence: Type of work performed Lack of communication Under staffing Employer’s demands Preoccupation with work Incompetent supervisors Not allowed to do a good job Fellow workers Incompetent subordinates Stress . Brooding 6. Irritability over trivial matters 2. Inappropriate anger 3.some warning signs Rapid pulse Intestinal distress Insomnia Frequent illness Nail biting Irritability Persistent fatigue Lack of concentration Hunger for sweets Increased use of alcohol and drugs Seven sure signs that you need a holiday: 1.
4-Leadership and Motivation
What attributes do you require to be a workaholic?
You do not think you are one, or admit to being one. You work through lunch and tea breaks. You work while waiting on the telephone. You get up early, regardless of when you go to bed. You can’t keep away from work on weekends, and ‘clean up’ then. You work on holidays. You take pen and paper to bed with you. You find it difficult to do nothing. You are energetic and competitive. You are able to work any time and anywhere. Travel time is used to process paper work. You are loath to take holidays. You are not looking forward to retirement. Your work habits exceed expectations. Your work is important by its sheer volume. Much of your work is for work’s sake, with little major impact. Statistics suggest few workaholics ever become a successful C.E.O.
Former McKinsey managing director, Ron Daniel, once outlined the company’s recruitment philosophy. “The real competition out there is not for clients, it is for people. We look to hire people who are first, very smart; second, insecure and thus driven by their insecurity; and third, competitive. Put together 3,000 of these egocentric, task-orientated people, and it produces an atmosphere of something less than humility.”
Managing Human Resources
Retaining scarce talent
One of the top strategies for retaining scarce talent is to identify the top 10 percent to 20 percent of the key people on staff and taking special care to keep them. These key people may be high-potential individuals or those who are critical to completing a major project. However, companies should not lose sight of the big picture. All people count, and smart companies realise this. Companies do not become great because of only a few key people—everyone must count all the time. Organisations should customise their solutions based on their workforce, culture, business situation, and business strategy. In general, companies should use a combination of components for creating total rewards and provide opportunities for individual growth, a positive workplace, a compelling future, and total pay. Some examples of successful strategies for retaining scarce talent are: Develop a buddy system. Provide a mentor for scarce talent that keeps them happy from day one. A good start goes a long way. Stay "state-of-the art" with your expectations of scarce talent. And make sure you pay scarce talent for developing new skills and competencies or your competitors will. Offer win-win project incentives for people remaining with your company until the successful completion of the project. Project incentives clearly acknowledge a person’s contribution to the company. And while many companies may already be doing this annually, consider incentives more frequently for those workers that prove to be increasingly valuable. Research shows that you may lose scarce talent within the first three years. Make people owners in the company through stock options as early in their careers as possible. Focus on key-talent workers below management level who may be more up-to-date on key technical skills and knowledge. Provide exciting and challenging work that people want to do. Look for the kind of business that interests people. This is a great way to keep individuals motivated. Produce meaningful (and breakthrough) work for your customers which in return will also be meaningful (and exciting) for the workforce. Provide excellent colleagues with whom people want to learn and work. Hire and train top-notch leaders people admire. Provide "feel good" benefits such as casual dress, longer vacations, flexible hours or work schedules, a pleasing and comfortable space, and amenities like a fully stocked kitchen and health club. Some companies even provide umbrellas in the workforce lobby for when it rains, allow pets at work, and provide car pools and transportation for employees’ children before and after school. Most companies are not in the business of buying talent at any price. Companies that have proven themselves over the years focus on strategies that keep key people who add value. The solution is total rewards. It is more than just how much people are paid or how many
4-Leadership and Motivation
share options they have.
Leadership - the delicate balance
Leading a group - try this checklist YES NO
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.
I would most likely act as the spokesperson for the group I would encourage overtime work I would allow members complete freedom in their work I would encourage the use of uniform procedures I would permit the members to use their own judgement in solving problems I would speak as a representative of the group I would needle members for greater effort I would try out my ideas in the group I would let the members do their work in the way they think best I would be working hard for promotion I would tolerate postponement and uncertainty I would speak for the group if there were visitors present I would keep the work moving at a rapid pace I would turn the members loose on the job and let them go for it I would settle conflicts when they occur in the group I would get swamped by details I would represent the group at outside meetings I would be reluctant to allow the members any freedom of action I would decide what should be done and how it should be done I would push for increased production I would let some members have authority which I could keep Things would usually turn out as I had predicted I would allow the group a high degree of initiative I would assign group members to particular tasks I would be willing to make changes I would ask members to work harder I would trust the group members to exercise good judgement I would schedule the work to be done I would refuse to explain my actions I would persuade others that my ideas are to their advantage I would permit the group to set its own pace I would urge the group to beat its previous record I would act without consulting the group I would ask that group members follow standard rules and regulations
Managing Human Resources 86 .
5 Training and Evaluation .
Workplace reform. companies and the nation from: Increased productivity and efficiency.) Competency Based Training was adopted by Australian business and industry to gain benefits for workers. B. Provides consistency across enterprises. Offer increased opportunities for advancement. Appraise performance on the job. Improved quality of products and services to customers. Cost effectiveness . Increased skills levels. Comparisons are made against specified standards . Recognise skills and abilities acquired through experience in the workplace. Improve the responsiveness of training to industry requirements. Fairness . Companies assess workers in order to: Recognise skills and abilities acquired through non-formal training. • Equal Opportunity legislation.ensuring the right competency is being assessed. • Occupational Health & Safety legislation.no risk to candidates in accordance with OH & S practices. • Compliance with enterprise policy and procedures.the total will be more than the parts.ensuring the result would be the same no matter where or by whom the assessment was conducted. Develop coherent and consistent training standards. 88 . Practicality . Linked to Industry or employment requirements . Some Features of Competency Based Assessment are: Measurement of actual outcomes and performance.not other people. Increased international competitiveness. • Safety .not classroom practices.no discrimination: • Underpinning the core values of the organisation. noise. Self paced. Good assessments will be HOLISTIC .industry does not want to indulge in expensive assessments. Some factors considered in selecting assessment methods are: Validity . distractions.Managing Human Resources Competency Based Training (C.in the work environment. Multi skilling of workers leading to greater versatility. T. privacy. Reliability .
However it is important that the applicant for recognition can demonstrate the skills and knowledge at this point in time. when or where the standards were achieved. . L. • Identify training and development needs. • Promotion. • Status in present job. It does not matter how. • Selection into a new job.5-Training and Evaluation R. • Recognise self worth. 89 . • It provides motivation for employees to participate in training. What are the benefits of RPL for individuals? • Shorten time taken for qualifications. What evidence is acceptable as Recognition of Prior Learning? Historical Interview data Examination of products Reports from supervisors and referees Prizes Awards Certificates Current . • Save money.Recognition of Prior Learning Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is the acknowledgement of skills and knowledge obtained through: • Formal training • Work experience • Life experience The main focus of RPL is the benchmarks or competency standards achieved.Performances or tests set to increase relevant current competencies. P. Why have PRIOR LEARNING assessed? To gain: • Selection into a course or training program. What are the benefits of RPL for organisations? • It optimises use of training resources.
has rather facetiously devised a new grading standard. your competitors can easily catch up by making the same investment. in order to meet objectives. Part of this survey could be asking staff to demonstrate their competence and have Prior Learning assessed. WHAT DOES IT ALL MEAN? An acquaintance of ours. which is yet to be tested or applied in the academic field. It offers new competency standards which include: 100% Unbelievably competent 80% Mega competent 20% Unbelievably incompetent 15% Painfully incompetent 5% Irrevocably incompetent 0% Rampant stupidity If your competitive advantage lies only in your equipment. Some issues to address are: What training needs does the organisation have. goals and targets which have been set? What Training needs does the organisation have in order to meet National Standards? A survey could be conducted to ascertain these needs. who is heavily involved in advanced training techniques with a very well known Australian training organisation.Managing Human Resources Training Needs Analysis Some organisations embrace Training Needs Analysis as part of Competency Based Training (CBT) and Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). Japanese catch cry 90 .
................... You will be surprised at how many different types of careers can be built from a given set of skills and interests...... Career development activities Written communication skills 13. 1........ Ingenuity and creativity ......... 7... a 2 for a moderate weakness...... In-service educational TOTAL opportunities .... The answers to the four questions below can help that analysis : • • • • What are my six strongest skills? What is my greatest accomplishment in life? Is it saleable? Why should an employer hire me instead of someone else? Rate your self on each of the characteristics listed below.. 4......... Ambition and self motivation 5........... Promotion policies Conscientiousness .. decision Prior work experience ............ Give yourself a 5 for a major strength.....5-Training and Evaluation Evaluating personal strengths and weaknesses When you have established your goals and objectives.. 11....... Travel requirements 9.......... Academic achievement (grades) . 10.. and a 1 for a major weakness...... 91 ..... 15.. research...........Company policies and .. etc..... try to discover ways in which your skills can be used...........) operations.. Reputation of company Leadership ability ........ Participation in . Salary Administrative knowledge and ability2.............. Cooperativeness 3. Fringe benefits ........... an analysis of your personal strengths and weaknesses is in order.. Freedom in working Sociability ...... procedural manual 16........ human resources.... Work associates Educational credentials ............... Clear job responsibilities Maturity and poise .. 12.... Job security ........... 6.. 8... Immediate superior Intelligence ..... a 4 for moderate strength..... Supervisory responsibilities Oral communication skills .... environment Technical competence (marketing. a 3 for a characteristic that is neither a strength nor a weakness........ When you have developed a list of your basic skills......... Job title ............. Then go over these strengths and weaknesses with a friend and ask for their candid opinion. finance... making 14...
Place the numerals 1. Goal analysis takes time. 2. Some of the factors that must be considered when answering these questions are: • desired income • geographical location • amount of travel • job security • independence • autonomy • and company size What price are you prepared to pay to get ahead? Are you willing to move whenever and wherever your firm dictates? When you answer these questions. Assign the other eight to the two middle groups in a similar manner. For the top group. what job would it be? The best way to determine what you really want out of life is to answer such questions honestly. or 4 in the spaces following each item to show the group to which the item has been assigned. What are your priorities? The list of factors shown to the right. which relate to work environments and advancement potential. putting the four most important to you in the top group and the four least important to you in the bottom group. it is difficult to plan how to get there. 92 . you should go a step further and rank the four items from most important to second most important. you will have clearer understanding of your goals.Managing Human Resources Setting personal goals and objectives When setting personal goals and objectives. you should ask yourself the following questions: What kinds of tasks or activities have I enjoyed the most? What kinds of tasks or activities have I enjoyed the least? If I could have any job I wanted. but without some idea of where you want to go. can help you find out. and so forth. values and priorities. 3. Rate them by first dividing the items into four groups.
3. Has anything changed in your life? Do we need to update your personnel file? 2. What course would you like to do that would develop your personal skills (unrelated to the job)? 93 . What one thing could I change in the workplace that would improve your productivity? 4. What one skill would you most like to improve? 11. If you had to argue that one of my assessments of your performance is wrong.. What is the best way to measure the job you are doing? 8... 1. How could you improve in the areas I identified as needing attention? 12.5-Training and Evaluation Staff Appraisals An Agenda for an Appraisal Meeting 1. 6.. contacts. 7. Are we measuring that adequately? 9. Has your Job Description become out of date in any way? 15. 4. b) My job would be more efficient if somebody else was responsible for . 2.. How do you rate the communication within the business? 5..) Review Job Description Amend Job Description Identify performance issues Identify additional resource requirements Set and review performance targets Determine and professional development initiatives Confirm next review Appraisal question booster Some questions (in no particular order) which may assist you to conduct a better appraisal interview. 8. Finish these phrases: a) My job would be easier if I was the one who . Update personnel file (addresses. How do you rate me as a communicator? 6. How do you set about the job you are doing? 3. c) The one piece of equipment (within reason) that I wish we had is . 5. Do you feel that you are given adequate feedback about the job you are doing? 7. which one would it be? Why? 14. Do you agree with my assessment of your performance? 13. etc. 10. What course or training program would you like to do that would directly improve your on-the-job performance? 16.
. personal goals.. -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 JOB KNOWLEDGE Procedures........... compliance.... other.......... other -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 CO-OPERATION Work relationships...... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 ATTITUDE Towards management.......................... persuasiveness. other...............Managing Human Resources A Performance Review JOB PERFORMANCE Quantity......... other.............. Date.......... quality..................... conformity.... economy of operation....... others.... job......... Position......... other.... neatness.... fluency...... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 SELF ORGANISATION Work planning...... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 COMMUNICATION Expression. appearance. time control. -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 PRESENCE Personality.. ambition................................................ Since last review • Improvement? 94 • Deterioration? • No change ....... regulations... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 SELF MOTIVATION Initiative....... authority and responsibility limits..................... other........... other.... company........ TOTAL RATING. -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Name .......................
Manage sales growth 9... Plan a broad programme for their division or store 2.. which of the following best describes the person’s attitude towards their organisation.. Wants to use their position as a stepping stone to a major position elsewhere. Do you feel that the person has the capacity to grow in case the business expands in size and activity? .. Dedicated to helping it reach its objectives............... Carry out the current programme 3... Personally supervise subordinates 6. with personal ambitions subordinated to this goal.Doubtful Poorly Adequately Not Excellently observed 95 ...Yes.... Delegate authority to subordinates 5.. Handle stock and expense control In your estimation.. Review and evaluate work of subordinates 7.5-Training and Evaluation A Rating Form for Management How well does the person? 1.. Make wise and prompt decisions 4...No...... Make contacts with outside organisations 8... Wants to establish a secure position for themself with the organisation....
6 Case Studies .
5. 3. I have received recognition and praise for doing good work My supervisor. my opinion seems to count The mission/purpose of my company makes me feel that my job is important My fellow employees are committed to doing quality work I have a best friend at work In the past year I have had opportunities at work to learn and grow The changing world of work Old Have a job Office Success equals career ladder Authority Status equals position Entitlement Loyalty to company Salaries and benefits Job security Identity defined by job Bosses and manager Employees New • Do work • Virtual space • Success equals career lattice • Influence • Status equals impact • Marketability • Commitment to work and self • Contracts and fees • Personal freedom/control • Identity defined by and organisation circumstances and work done • Customers. 10. 6. someone at work had talked to me about my progress At work. or someone else at work. 9. 4.6-Case Studies The 12 attitudes that indicate an efficient office 1. 12. 7. I know what is expected of me at work I have the materials and equipment I need to do my work right At work I have the opportunity to do what I do best every day In the past 7 days. 11. 8. has talked to me about my progress There is someone at work who encourages my development In the past six months. 2. clients and leaders • Vendors 97 .
98 . and participate in. My new employer pays me what I am worth. or mechanistically? Do you consult your work force about likely changes and invite their co-operation? Does your organisation aim to develop fully the potential of individuals throughout their careers? How do you assess employees for retraining? Are your contacts with schools. the goals of this organisation are unclear. shareholders and the community? Are you familiar with the mainstreams of technical change as they affect your organisation? Do you know how to obtain information and advice? Do you intend to initiate change? Is your organisation keeping pace with the technology in your industry? Are new technologies likely to undermine your own competitive position? Are you investing sufficiently in R&D and product development to provide product and market leadership opportunities? Is there resistance to change in the organisation? Is management receptive to change and practised in its implementation? Are all employees informed about. To me. decisions affecting them directly? Is the participation genuine or contrived? When introducing technological changes do you think them out in terms of the needs of people. part time work. That does not happen here.) Is the perpetuation of privileges and distinctions at different levels of the organisation generally acceptable? Are you too forthright? What you really want to say My efforts mean nothing to this organisation I was neglected and overlooked for training and promotion This organisation does not care about anyone’s family Everyone hates or detests the boss I feel as though I am underpaid I am sick of the poor reputation and work standards of this organisation How to say it Communication and feedback between management and staff are poor Training and career development programs were insufficient or did not help me.Managing Human Resources A Human Resources Check List Is the correct priority being given to the interests of employees. Our boss does not have the respect of staff because their management skills are lacking. I need to work somewhere my family commitments are recognised. phased retirement. and the community sufficiently close? Is there scope for a relaxation of some of the traditional habits of employment? (Flexible hours. job sharing. customers.
originally:10 production people were producing 100 units per hour. a manufacturing company based in Sydney found a lucrative niche market for it’s products and continuously expanded their production and facilities. which required 10 people and 1 supervisor. this company no longer exists in this form. When the company’s production had increased 10 fold to 1. Invariably in this situation customer focus is lost and activity becomes more important than results. Organisations and companies take business processes such as purchasing. Management realised and accepted grudgingly that their major problem was the Big is good college of organisational management syndrome. comprising:• 100 production people • 10 supervisors • 1 manager • 3 assistant managers • 18 people in human resources • 19 people in long range planning • 22 in accounting and procedures. they realised that this diseconomy of scale was not all just a bureaucratic proliferation and empire building. and • 23 in purchasing and expediting When management had recovered from the initial shock at the vast increase in people. They were amazed at the results. which in simplified form were. inflexibility. with lack of innovation. accounting and expediting and create fragmented departments with bureaucratic job titles. These days of course.000 units per hour they required not 110 people (10 times as many) as thought but 196 people. and constantly increasing overheads and ‘analysis paralysis’. walls and barriers and major increases in non productive overhead costs.6-Case Studies Economies of Scale In the early 1990’s. Most people are able to identify an organisation with these problems! Keeping close to the customer! A suburban bus company accused of failing to pull up at bus stops to pick up passengers. lack of responsiveness. A few years later the company management decided to carry out a meaningful survey of the cost benefits and economies of scale they thought they had achieved by producing 10 times more product. In due course. the demand for the company’s products grew ten fold. said it would never be able to keep to the timetable if it did! 99 . (though some of that was obviously inherent).
• To give tangible expression to the organisation’s belief in private enterprise. particularly that of being a responsible unit in society. • To increase the organisation’s identification with a particular segment. by relating implementation of charity donations to profitability. • To strengthen the organisational image as a market leader. • To plan and integrate organisational participation in charity. • To increase identification of employees with the organisation and the community. • To underline the importance of profits from another perspective. 100 . Aged care support. by fostering self reliance rather than dependence.Managing Human Resources Community Obligations and Charities Many organisations express their acceptance of their obligations to the community in which they operate by apportioning a percentage of after tax profits for allocation to appropriate causes and projects. creativity and entrepreneurial action. with charity projects supported by the organisation with a positive motivational impact. community.g. e. Some goals in this respect might be: • To reinforce organisational philosophy and values. responsibility. This expression of the organisation’s acceptance of its obligations to the community in which it operates should create or reinforce the operations and activities of the organisation in a variety of ways to create benefits for both the organisation and the beneficiaries. particularly on government. professional development and management development activities which are to the mutual benefit to all concerned. through specially targeted support to segments or niche areas.
able to promote a team environment. with an appropriate pay scale. The State Manager’s wife sat in on the interviews (without explanation as to why she was there) and asked a few questions of those being interviewed. Six weeks later many of the previous applicants permitted themselves a wry smile when they saw this position re advertised. and supplied no further information than that outlined here. in the paper that week). some people were not surprised when they saw the same position advertised (in exactly the same terms) a further two times over the next few months. sales and service orientated.6-Case Studies State Sales Administration A company placed a very large advertisement (it was the largest job ad. Further. enthusiasm. The advertisement said nothing about the companies products. During the course of several interviews the State Manager’s wife left the interview without excusing herself and did not return. determination. The advertisement informed prospects that their company was the state branch of a national organisation. What duties would you expect a STATE SALES ADMINISTRATOR to perform? In due course over 100 written replies were received in response to the advertisement and interviews were arranged with the State Manager for 7 people. What would you have done differently? 101 . career focused. customers or its people. results orientated. for a STATE SALES ADMINISTRATOR. ability to take direct control of customer enquiries. which aroused mixed feelings in some of those asked to attend for an interview. all on a Saturday. routine word processing and presentation of reports’. Most applicants were surprised to find during the course of the interview that the position advertised as STATE SALES ADMINISTRATOR was merely an internal clerical position. The advertisement went on to outline the following requirements for the position which included. commercial appreciation. ‘maturity.
threats (analysis) TQM Total quality management USP Unique selling point MBO Management by objectives MD Managing Director MIS Management (or Marketing) information system MIT Managing information technology MRP Materials resource planning 102 VAM Value adding manufacture VAM-M Value adding management manufacture VSP Voluntary separation package WIIFM What’s in it for me? . check. insurance and freight Critical path method Electronic data input Free alongside ship Free into store Fast moving consumer goods Free on board Free on wharf General Manager OEM Original equipment manufacture OEM Original equipment manufacture OEM Original equipment manufacture PDCA Plan. stupid Long term unemployed SBU Strategic business unit SWOT Strength. weaknesses.evaluation and review technique POS Point of sale QA QAE Quality assurance Quality assurance engineering QBS Queen bee syndrome QCS Quality customer service QM Quality management QWG Quality workshop group QWL Quality of work life R&D RDO RHIP ROI RPL RRP Research and development Rostered day off Rank has its privileges Return on investment Recognition of prior learning Recommended retail price HRM Human resource management HRPD Human Resource Planning and Development IT JIT Information technology Just in time manufacturing Kaizen Japanese concept of continuing improvement in all aspects of a persons home and work life. desire. action AQL Acceptable quality level AS Australian Standard CAD CAM C&F CBT CEO CIF CPM EDI FAS FIS FMCS FOB FOW GM Computer aided design Computer aided manufacturing Cost and freight Competency based training Chief Executive Officer Cost. KISS LTU Keep it simple. opportunities.Managing Human Resources Some Human Resource Acronyms AIDA Attention. do. act PERT Programme. interest.
The benefits were thought to be an increased national presence. for meetings to see each other for discussions). The M. and of course more profits on the bottom line.who was also now Managing Director (M.D. On a number of occasions the branch managers asked the M. After two years the ongoing bad feeling between the two owners was resolved by one of them buying the other one out. On a number of occasions the new manager asked what was expected of the new branch. budgets or policies for future directions. expecting the new owner to say something motivational about the companies future and their role in it. In due course an experienced manager to run the new branch was recruited and that person spent six weeks at head office ‘learning the business’ and preparing to open the new branch. was lost for words and could not find anything at all to say. what budgets he was expected to set and perform to and a number of other similar questions. but set some budgets of his own. When the topic of budgets was raised a firm answer or commitment could never be obtained. kept referring to the other as the person who would be responsible as the person to report to. On a visit to one of the branches by the new sole owner . the former co-owner used to enjoy visiting the branches he had helped create. and we will take this new state by storm. In due course the new branch was opened. The two co-directors who ran and owned the company (although they worked in offices only 15 meters apart they used to make appointments. much to the chagrin of the remaining director. to address them. The general feeling seemed to be.) .the manager there convened a meeting of staff and invited the M. days in advance. much to the embarrassment and disappointment of the staff in this branch.D. but after three months was struggling to gain market share.D. Despite this. However after a year the new branch was showing significant growth and market share and was running at a modest profit. The new manager found this situation difficult. much to the surprise of one of the directors. for annual or six monthly managers meetings to discuss strategies and to 103 . Despite the change in ownership head office still did not supply any guide lines.6-Case Studies Interstate Branches A company with two interstate branches decided that the time was opportune to open a third interstate branch in another state. The new branch continued to perform well and exceed the optimistic budgets the branch manager had set. what was expected of him (no Job Description was ever supplied) who he would report to. and in three months be in profit’. ‘We are market leaders here. with optimistic and profitable projections for the next three years.D. a further step towards a national network of branches. increased purchasing power.
The secret lies in psychological gratification in addition to monetary rewards. ‘I don’t want my managers talking to each other and discussing sales and wages’.D. In due course the M. when they compared branch sales. The branch managers were not among the people he would phone at home. and found other jobs. 104 . What would you have done? Some simple People adages If competent people are hired. On various pretexts he fired all the branch managers over a short period. In all cases the replacement managers were inexperienced. to find out what ‘was happening’. internal people. and physical skills is that different personalities may require different approaches. was both surprised and hurt about the feedback he was getting from suppliers and customers about the lack of respect the branch managers and people working in the branches and in the industry had for him. By the time the third branch manager was ineptly and publicly dismissed the owner / M. was held in ridicule. If they are provided with challenging responsibilities. the M. His reaction to this was swift.D. Not surprisingly.D. generally performing well beyond the technical relationship of a fair day’s work for a fair days pay. The branch managers overcame this by having regular meetings on the telephone. wages and profitability. they will be able to do the work that is required. who had been earmarked as future managers without their knowledge. They will respond to this feeling by slightly under working. used to phone selected people working in the branches at home. After the first manager was fired morale sagged and gossip in the branches and in the trade flourished.Managing Human Resources review operations on a ‘big picture’ scale.D. they will respond with enthusiasm and creativity. refused point blank and admitted that. Economies or efficiencies were never achieved by leaving employees feeling that they are slightly underpaid. In order to keep in touch with the branches. a number of key people in all the branches looked for. Another important difference between developing behavioural skills. The M.
People with a high need and motivation to succeed (internals) can be described as continually striving to do things better. In jobs requiring sensitivity to the feelings of others. This is most often described in terms of measurable personality traits that a person exhibits. judgmental of others. who tend to be less satisfied with their jobs) see themselves as pawns of fate. tact and the ability to adapt to complex and changing situations this person may be viewed negatively. An individual high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic.6-Case Studies Major personality attributes influencing organisational behaviour As a manager it may assist you to understand the behaviour and personality of your subordinates. which describes the growth and development of person’s whole psychological system. Some people (internals) believe they are masters of their own fate. They want to overcome obstacles and feel that their success or failure is due to their own actions. Personality can be thought of as the sum total ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Other people (externals. 105 . Machiavellianism. The extremely high-authoritarian personality is intellectually rigid. use it’ is consistent with a highMach perspective. A long standing definition of personality is ‘the dynamic organisation within the individual of those psychological systems that determine their unique adjustments to their environment’ According to psychologists Personality is a dynamic concept. ‘If it works. Locus of control. distrustful and resistant to change. This propensity to assume or avoid risk has been shown to impact on how long it takes managers to make a decision and how much information they require before making their choice. believing that what happens to them in their lives is due to luck or chance. Risk taking People differ in their willingness to take chances. and believes that ends can justify the means. Named after Niccolo Machiavelli who wrote in the 16th century on how to gain and manipulate power. Personality looks at some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum of the parts. Authoritarism. deferential to those above and exploitive of those below. Achievement orientation. Rather than looking at parts of the person. maintains emotional distance.
but growth is optional. process. Culture establishes the norms. while generally stable and consistent. ENVIRONMENT concerns the culture in which we were raised . HEREDITARY refers to those factors which were determined at conception. Change is inevitable. temperament. SITUATIONS seem to differ substantially in the constraints they impose on behaviour .g. To obtain strong results including sustained growth and profit. The HEREDITARY argument can be used to explain why someone’s nose resembles her mothers or why someone is a good athlete. friends. energy level. the norms among our family. and inherent psychological makeup.people. does change in different situations. when their parents were also. Physical. located in the chromosomes. SITUATION influences the effects of hereditary and environment on Personality. physiological. they would be fixed at birth and no amount of experience would alter them. business strategies and leadership. Different demands in different situations call forth different aspects of one’s Personality. e. Church or a job interview. An individual’s Personality. moderated by situational conditions. sex. who your parents were and their biological. and biological rhythms. facial attractiveness. 106 . loyal customers and a high performing workforce the company needs to embrace the five elements of an organisation . muscle composition and reflexes. customers. stature. while others such as a picnic in the park constrain few people. The HEREDITARY approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individuals personality is the molecular structure of the genes.Managing Human Resources Determinants of Personality An adults personality is considered to be made up of both hereditary factors (was their Personality determined at birth?) and environmental factors (the interaction with their environment).g. and other influences that we experience.our early conditioning. and values that are passed along from one generation to the next and create consistencies over time. and social groups.some situations may constrain behaviour e. attitudes. If all Personality characteristics were completely dictated by hereditary.
Submissive 5. Self-assured 13.6-Case Studies Personality traits Researchers have identified 16 PERSONALITY TRAITS. Trusting 10. Expedient 7. Relaxed Outgoing More intelligent Emotionally stable Dominant Happy-go-lucky Conscientious Venturesome Sensitive Suspicious Imaginative Shrewd Apprehensive Experimenting Self-sufficient Controlled Tense 107 . Serious 6. Uncontrolled 16. which have been found to be generally steady and constant sources of behaviour. Affected by feelings 4. Tough-minded 9. Reserved 2. allowing prediction of an individual’s behaviour in specific circumstances by weighing the characteristics of their situational relevance 1. Forthright 12. Practical 11. Less intelligent 3. Timid 8. Group-dependent 15. Conservative 14.
a Funding.Managing Human Resources Some Euphemistic Translations Business speak for the new millennium Alternative body image. person with an Charm free Cerebrally challenged Consensual monogamy Cosmetically different Corporate recovery services specialist Corporate downsizing Corporate right sizing Differently abled Dipstick Equity retreat Experientially enhanced Fop. lack of Gross national product Harvesting Geographical mobility will be encouraged Management Initiated Attrition Market adjustment Member of the career-offender cartel Member of the mutant albino generic-regressive global minority Motivationally deficient Non discretionary fragrance Persons with difficult to meet needs An obese person Boring Stupid Exchanging sex partners Ugly Bankruptcy accountant Retrenching workers Firing large numbers of workers Physically or mentally disabled Originally a device for measuring oil levels Stock market crash Old Someone whose coat and trousers match Excuse for most forms of inaction Politician’s measure of economic welfare Mass slaughter of helpless fish Extended country sales calls needed IBM talk for firing Fall in stock market Mafia member White person Lazy Body odour Serial killer Re-visiting a site Bombing a site previously bombed Service users Recipients of government benefits Servicing a target Bombing somewhere to ruins STD Once a form of telephone communication Severely euphemised Disabled Spend more time with my family (coalition) Have accepted a board position Spend more time with my family ( socialist) Have accepted a media position Statutory senility Retirement age Terminally inconvenienced Dead Vertically challenged Short 108 .
When assigned tasks. In this engagement we set very high standards for performance. I received good coaching to help me improve my performance. My work was interesting and challenging. Team meetings were conducted in a way that builds trust and mutual respect. Disagree 1 2 3 When assigned tasks. I received prompt feedback on my work. I understood how they fitted into the overall aims for the engagement. whether good or bad. My work made good use of knowledge and ability. When corrected for something I did or omitted. I felt I was a member of a well functioning team. I thoroughly understood what was expected of me. Help was available when I needed to have questions answered. My engagement helped to learn and grow. it was done in a constructive way.6-Case Studies Rating your Manager This rating form can be used by staff to rate their managers Rate on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). I was kept informed of things I needed to know to do my job properly. I had the freedom to make the necessary decisions to do my work properly. TOTALS 109 Agree 4 5 . I was actively encouraged to volunteer new ideas and make suggestions for improvement.
12.your skills could do with a brush up below 40 . 4. 10. 17. 15. 11.Managing Human Resources Are you a people person? Enter your response in the appropriate column • For a mostly answer put a 3 in the mostly column • For an occasionally answer put a 2 in the occasionally column • For a hardly ever answer put a 1 in the hardly ever column Mostly Hardly Occasionally ever 1. skills and values into account when assigning tasks? Do you know your employees’ career goals so you can match future promotions? Can you give your employees the space for personal grief after they suffer loss? Can you step back from your own ego and avoid acting like an expert when discussing personal problems? Do you have a strong sense of the ridiculous and an ever-ready sense of humour about life at work? TOTAL Scoring higher than 50 .your skills are excellent 40 . 3. 6. ideas and solutions? Do you allow employees to make their own decisions? Do you genuinely care about your employees? Can you empathise with employees’ feelings? Do you assist employees prioritise difficult tasks? Are you patient? Do you ensure the work environment is free of distractions? Are you able to instil your employees with confidence to solve their own problems? Do you allow your employees free rein to air their grievances? Do you take your employees’ interests. 13. 18. 7. 5. 16.49 . 8. 9. Do you treat employees’ feelings as valid? Are you scrupulous in keeping confidences? Are you able to reassure insecure employees? Do you support employees in taking risks? Are you able to solicit employees feelings. 2. 14.you really need some work on your people skills 110 .
Here are the top five categories . A recent study surveyed hiring managers to identify the most common mistakes candidates make. or the one who pulled out a sandwich and began eating? Yet other bloopers are simply a result of nerves . For example. While still others use profanity or ramble on about their personal problems and social lives rather than answer . Many of these mistakes are the result of being unprepared and knowing nothing about the job or company. How They Act The second most common way candidates flub their interviews is what they do. Bad Attitudes 111 .questions about the job or company. one candidate replied: "I'm open to anything. Some come in with a pre-determined script and sound as if they are reading from a textbook. then turned around and fell to the floor! 3. And many make the mistake of bringing up money and hours-required in the first interview.6-Case Studies Some Mistakes Candidates Make at Job Interviews Not feeling so great about your last interview? Take heart. Several hiring managers complained of nail-biting while another watched in horror as a candidate jumped up to make a point." and "customers are annoying. Some stem from a lack of common sense or courtesy." While a man applying at a drug treatment facility anxiously asked if they drug-tested employees and whether they'd give advance notice." Another candidate at a children's organisation stated that he "hates kids." He was 37! 2. Many hiring managers complain about candidates showing up late and the surprising number who interrupt the interview to take calls on their cell phones. when asked what interested her about the position. Others are because candidates don't listen to the questions being asked or try to bluff their way through technical questions. Others give oneword answers with no further elaboration. I really need to get some medical insurance.or ask .along with some real-life examples: 1. And which is worse? The candidate who asked the hiring manager to hurry up because he wanted to have lunch. Others complain about former bosses. What They Say (or Don't Say) According to the survey. But the "Too Much Information" award has to go the candidate who said: "I'm only here because my mum wants me to get a job. One woman brought her children along. the number one mistake interviewees make relates to how they communicate.or two much coffee. Chances are the interviewer has seen worse." Those interviewing for customer service positions confessed: "I'm not a people person. Others are too candid.
No one likes a braggart. facial piercings. Besides highlighting ignorance in action. another who wore dark glasses throughout the interview and a candidate with dirty fingernails wearing jeans and a t-shirt oh. How They Look Coming to the interview improperly groomed and dressed is the fourth most common mistake. Along with the usual culprits: bad posture. HR practitioner 112 . There's also the candidate who mentioned his arrest after saying on his application he had never been arrested . One candidate spent the better part of the interview looking at his watch. I want to know what they are going to deliver and when they are going to deliver it.Managing Human Resources The third most-cited category of mistakes has to do with the candidate's attitude. They're Dishonest Common forms of dishonesty include exaggerating about achievements or misrepresenting knowledge. Many hiring managers complained of interviewees who show little energy or interest in the conversation.or the candidate with the super-sized ego who demanded to be hired and said the company could do no better. by the way. tattoos. Effective time management is critical. 4. know-it-all or name-dropper .and the one who actually stole something from the interviewer's office. No one I work with would wonder how I see their performance. the survey confirms that truth is stranger than fiction and proves that life is not all that rosy on the other side of the interview process either. fluorescent-colored hair and poor hygiene. too! 5. hiring managers also told of a candidate who did not wear shoes.com Results speak for themselves. Source: CareerBuilder. are those who show no enthusiasm. he was drunk. Then there's the interviewee who declared he was "used to a higher class of business." On the other side of the coin. one who wore a skirt slit to her derriere.
the. human resources 97 Coaching 13 Code of Conduct 58 Communication. signs you need a 82 Hot and cold 78 How to interview 24. 51 Comparing 6 Components of Human Resources 12-16 Compatibility 34 Competency based training 87 Conduct. outline 57 Herzberg 73 Hewitt Associates 70 Hierarchy of needs 75 Hiring acid test for 22 10 step process 27 Holiday. 25 to keep your staff interested 38 to lose your staff 38 to recruit 22 Human Resource acronyms 101 at the banks 70 checklist 97 communication 41 components 12-16 definition 2 inventory 12 manager. when you take 42 Counselling retirement 14 Creative negotiation 60 Creativity 36 Crisis management 53 Criteria for a satisfying job 52 Cultures 49-52 Cultural attributes 52 Cure all 48 Customers 52 Determinants of behaviour 79 Development plans. 103 . human resources 41 Community Obligations 99 Company culture 50. HR and 70 Bargaining. Peter 23 E’s. cultural 52 Authoritarism 104 Bad boss. Prue 56 Habit 36 Hand book employee. continuing 15 Employee handbook. and objectives 91 Good leadership 70 Goward. people 103 Analysis job 12 needs 89 ANZ Banking Group 70 Appraisal performance 13 staff 92 Are you a people person? 109 too forthright? 97 Attitudes 51. bad. vision 71 General Motors 54 Goals organisational 4 personal 71 personal. inventory of 13 processes. a 70 Boundaries 33 Buck stopper. why people 36 Fear 36 Feedback. code of 58 Conference.com 111 Case studies Cure all 48 Economies of scale 98 Human Resources. 54 of an efficient office 96 Attributes. 111 State sales administration 100 Volkswagen 48 What does it all mean? 89 What’s that? 4 Change executing 48 managing 47 Changing world of work. for hiring 22 Acronyms. negotiation 62 Continuing education 15 Control.Index Achievement orientation 104 Acid test. a 70 Banks. the 96 work habits 48 Charities 99 Check list. role of 3 planning and development 4 policies 5 politics of Human Resources defined 2 Ideology 34 Induction 12. utility of 59 Behavioural determinants 79 Belief in the universal manager 34 Bell and Brown 70 Body language 28 Boss. job 15 Euphemistic translations 107 Evaluation of development 113 activities 13 Evaluating personal strengths and weaknesses 90 Executing change 48 Expectations of people 78 Failure. some 101 Adages. 8 Follow up 13 Forecasting 6 Forgetting curves 51 Four E’s of recruitment 19 Future shock 51 Future. 34 Interstate branches 102. 8 Interstate branches 102.a 57 relations 7 welfare 7 Employees 52 Empowerment 69 Engagement. career Discrimination 56 Disengagement interviews 37 planning 15 Do you have a positive attitude toward success? 54 Does your workplace suffer morale problems? 81 Downsizing 54 Drucker. 32 Inertia 36 Internal integration 33. letter of 32 Enrichment. People and Flight Centre. the 67 Bureaucracy 46 Burn out 82 Business communication 41 speak 107 Career counselling 14 development 6 development processes 13 CareerBuilder. 103 Manager. new 41 Memo 25 Moses 60 Six steps to managing your career 42 Some Mistakes Candidates Make at Job Interviews 110. systems 47 Filling a vacancy 18 Flight Centre. four of recruitment 19 Economies of scale 98 Education.
typology of 45 Overall planning components 12 Owners 52 Package. 74 and needs 76 and productivity 80 by shareholding 77 shareholding. new personnel 31 Process of negotiation. efficient. induction of 12. role of 3 rating 108 universal 34 Managing change 47 replacement 35 restaffing 35 your career. writing a 21 Design 13 Enrichment 15 My 64 Planning Redesign 15 /role playing 12 Rotation 15 Judgment of potential 13 Juggling 77 Keeping close to the customer 98 Lack of skill 34 Language 33 Leadership 66-72 good 70 quiz 85 steps 68 Leading a team 72 Le Boeuf.win 59 New staff. the. John 70 McKinsey & Co 83 Management crisis 53 is considered a mysterious act 34 rating form 94 Manager a 38 Human Resources. attitudes of 96 Open questions 41 Organisation. 60 Process 61 Utility of 59 Win . new 44 goals 4 rewards 14 stakeholders 9 structure 44 Organisations. the 61 staffing 12 steps in the HR process 6 Productivity and motivation 80 Professionalism. Michael. 16 Legislation 8 Letter of engagement 32 Living symbol. 75 Matching people 33 Measuring 6 your professionalism 60 Meetings 43 and team think 43 Memo to all staff 25 Machiavellianism 104 Mission statements 40 Morale problems 81 Morgan. to 42 Manpower planning 12 Maslow 73. measuring your 60 Promotion is considered a just reward 34 Promotions 14 Punishments 33 Questions open 41 ten basic 63 what are they? 63 . 25 questions 25 Interviewers should ensure that 24 Interviewing how to 26 Intimacy 33 Inventory Human Resource 12 of development plans 13 Job Analysis 12 changes 14 Descriptions. of Human Resources 10 Portfolio of tools 4 Potential judgment of 13 problem areas Power and status 33 Prejudice 36 Press release. setting 91 improvement programs 15 evaluating 90 Personality attributes 104 determinants of 105 traits 106 Peter principles 54 Planning and development components. the 67 Locus of control 104 McFarlane. work related 72 Negotiation 59-62 Conference 62 Creative 59. David 70 Moses 60 Motivation 73. my role 64 Needs. old and new 44 Pareto principle 56 Patterns of work 15 Pay 29 People. overall 12 disengagement 15 job/role 12 manpower 12 overall components 12 replacement and restaffing 35 retirement 15 Policies.25 process 24. salary 29 Paradigms. a 71 goals and objectives. an. 32 Occupational Health & Safety. adages 103 at work 49 114 matching 33 Why do they fail? 36 will expect 78 Performance appraisal 13 review 93 Person description 20 Personal goal. human resources. six steps. and its stakeholders 9 Organisational development 8 form. 5 Policy formation 7 Political actions 47 correctness 101 Politics.Managing Human Resources Interview disengagement 37 evaluation 30 how to 24. by 77 traditional theory 73 what motivates people? 74 what motivates you? 74 Motivational determinants 79 My job. analysis 89 Needs. (OH&S) 55 Office.
my role 64 Rating your manager 108 Rating management. the 67 Volkswagen 48 Welch. my 64 RPL. a 72 think 43 Ten step hiring process. euphemistic 107 Turner. a 59 Work habits. performance 93 Rewards 33 Risk taking 104 Role of the Human Resource manager 3 Role. 88 Salary packages 29 Satisfying job. 8 Twain. 19. 20. planning 35 Requirements. attributes 83 Writing a job description 21 . a 27 The people working for you will expect 78 snake pit of organisational politics. criteria for 52 Scale economies of 98 Selection and placement. for management 94 your manager 108 Recognition of Prior Learning 88 Recruitment. 111 Staff Appraisals 92 Contribution 11 Hand book outline 57 Recruitment 18. planning 35 Retaining scarce talent 84 Retirement planning 15 Retraining 15 Review. 23 Recruitment and selection 12 Replacement 18 Rooms 46 Selection 18 Staffing processes 12 Stakeholders 9 State sales administration 100 Steps in the HR process 6 in the recruitment process 20 Strategic business planning 12 Stress and work 82 Structure 51 organisational 44 Success. 23 basics 19 four E’s of 19 steps in the process 20 Reich. Jack 16 Westpac 70 What are questions? 63 attributes do you require to be a workaholic? 83 causes work 115 dissatisfaction? 76 satisfaction? 76 do you do when people resign? 37 does it all mean? 89 goals do organisations have? 45 is business communication? 41 is Human Resources? 2 motivates people at work? 73 motivates you? 74 should staff contribute to the business? 11 type of leadership should an effective leader provide? 66 What’s that.Index Quizzes Are you a people person? 109 Human Resource checklist 98 Leadership 85 My job . 18-20. Graham. 10 Three legged stool. attitude to 54 Supervision 13 Talent. 6 process 12 major considerations 23 Setting personal goals and objectives 91 Shareholders 52 Shareholding motivation by 77 Six steps to managing your career 42 Skinner. future 71 Visionary. basic of good recruitment. B f. a true story 4 When you take control 42 Why do people fail? 36 do people resist meetings 43 is it important to take care in filling a job vacancy? 18 Win-win approach to negotiation. 16 Socialisation 12 Some Mistakes Candidates Make at Job Interviews 110. Mark 54 Twelve attitudes of an efficient office 96 Twenty work related needs 72 Typology of organisations 45 Utility of bargaining 59 Universal manager 34 Vision. portfolio of 4 Toyota 54 Training 18 and development 6 competency based initial 12 needs analysis 89 Translations. Robert 2 Remuneration 7 Replacement. the 52 Tools. and selection 12. 22. 19 Restaffing. 22. the 67 leading. retaining 84 Team builder. a form. changing 48 place morale 81 related needs 72 satisfaction /dissatisfaction 76 Workaholic.