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Randy J. Alarcon Keith Green F. Cabrera Hanna Mae D. Cambronero Charlz F. Fontamillas Erickson D. Malate Jett-Rett S. Santos Antipas T. Teologo Jr. Aaron M. Tiro Kristine Jean Diane A. Virtudez Jay Lyn A. Yao
Electronics and Communications Engineering TIP, 2007
A Proposal Report Submitted to the Electronics and Communications Department in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course Subject Broadcasting Engineering and Acoustics
Technological Institute of the Philippines
This is to certify that we have read and examined the paper prepared by RANDY J. ALARCON, KEITH GREEN F. CABRERA, HANNA MAE D. CAMBRONERO, CHARLZ F. FONTAMILLAS, ERICKSON D. MALATE, JETT – RETT S. SANTOS, ANTIPAS T. TEOLOGO Jr, AARON M. TIRO, KRISTINE JD A. VIRTUDEZ, JAY LYN A. YAO entitled “FM Broadcasting Station Proposal” and hereby recommend that it be accepted as fulfillment of the practicum requirement for the Course Subject BROADCASTING ENGINEERING AND ACOUSTICS.
Panel Member 1
Panel Member 2
This paper is hereby approved and accepted as a fulfillment of the requirement for the Course Subject BROADCASTING ENGINEERING AND ACOUSTICS.
Engr. Antipas T. Teologo Jr. Instructor, Broadcasting Engineering and Acoustics
TABLE OF CONTENTS Approval sheet Table of contents Abstract Chapter I: Introduction Chapter II: Review of Related Literature A. Broadcast Bands B. Broadcast Bands around the World C. Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis D. FM Stereo E. Dolby FM F. Adoption of FM broadcasting worldwide G. Microbroadcasting FM Broadcast Standards Classes of Stations FM Broadcast Frequency Allocation Radio – Frequency Protection Ratio (dB) FM Transmitter Considerations FM Stereo Broadcasting Broadcast Transmission Services Chapter II: Methodology Chapter IV: Result and Discussion Chapter V: Conclusion and Recommendation Chapter VI: Appendices a. FM KBP Manual b. FM Studio Layout c. Block Diagram for FM Radio d. Glossary e. References f. Curriculum vitae ..23 ..77 ..78 ..79 ..82 ..85 .. 6 .. 7 .. 7 .. 8 .. 9 .. 9 ..11 ..12 ..12 ..13 ……………..14 ..14 ..16 ..16 ..17 ..19 ..22 .. 2 .. 3 ............................................................... 4 .. 5
633 people in 13. Tabuk came from the word "Tobog". 9404. a living stream that runs from the upper part of the municipality that flows down to the lower part of the town which waters the wide fields of the residents of the place.It has been also a consistent hybrid producer for the past two years. Tabuk became the Cordillera’s second city after Baguio and surpassed Bangued. The location of it’s transmitter is at Tabuk. Pictures .01dB. it has a population of 78. It has 42 barangays with only 8 urban barangays. 2007. According to the 2000 census.93 ABSTRACT DZLA (DZ Logos Arithma) is an FM radio station operating at a frequency of 104.060 voters ratified Republic Act No. Its land area accounts to 741. 4 .70 hectares with a total population of 76. DZLA transmits a 5kW power with an ERP of 10kW. when 17. The main source of living is farming due mainly to its wide tract of lands for agricultural production specially on palay. An Act Converting the Municipality of Tabuk into a Component City of the Province of Kalinga to be Known as the City of Tabuk.g.788 as of 2005 NSO census. Tabuk is dubbed as the rice granary or the bread basket of the Cordillera.5 MHz.985 households.. the capital of Abra province on June 23. Tabuk is a component city and capital of the province of Kalinga. It has an Antenna Height Above Average Terrain (HAAT) of 200 ft. Kalinga with polar coordinates of 17˚24’ (Latitude) 121˚42’ (Longitude). In fact. with an antenna gain of 3.
the first experimental FM radio station. Ironically. Today AM is mainly the preserve of talk radio. Because of this history FM Radio is still referred to as "UKW Radio" in Germany. By the late 1960s FM had been adopted by fans of "alternative rock" music. but it wasn't until 1978 (the first year that listenership to FM stations exceeded that of AM stations) that FM became mainstream. Other European nations followed a bit later. Armstrong. Top 40 music stations and later even country music stations largely abandoned AM for FM. nowadays called VHF) which was not covered by the Copenhagen plan. religious programming. it was realized that FM radio was a much better alternative for VHF radio than AM. In 1937. FM radio was patented by inventor Edwin H. In 1948. The first FM broadcasting stations were in the United States. the FM radio broadcast was introduced in Germany. After some amplitude modulation experience with VHF. this shift has transformed AM into the "alternative band" that FM once was.Chapter I: INTRODUCTION In 1933. but initially they were primarily used to broadcast classical music to an upmarket listenership in urban areas and for educational programming.e. For this reason Germany began broadcasting on UKW ("Ultrakurzwelle". Germany (which did not exist as a state and so was not invited) was only given a small number of medium-wave frequencies. FM uses frequency modulation of the radio wave to minimize static and interference from electrical equipment and the atmosphere. After World War II. ultra short wave. 5 . ethnic (minority language) broadcasting and some types of minority interest music. when the superior sound quality of FM and the ability to run many more local stations because of the more limited range of VHF broadcasts were realized. in the audio program. W1XOJ. During the 1980s and 1990s. which are not very good for broadcasting. i. Because of the recent war. a new wavelength plan was set up for Europe at a meeting in Copenhagen. was granted a construction permit by the FCC.
("UKW.). A Class-D station transmitter power must not exceed 10 watts. 6 . A Class-C station is a non-commercial. The minimum transmitter power shall be 1kW." which stands for "Ultrakurzwellen" in German. community station having an authorized ERP of 1. Broadcast Bands The original FM broadcast band in the United States until 1946 was on 42 to 50 MHz with 0. Educational stations are under this class. is still widely used in Germany. Class-A station transmitter power must not exceed 25kW and an ERP not exceeding 125kW and limited in HAAT of 2. mobile. Class-A stations are only allowed in Metro-Manila and Metro-Cebu. Class-B station transmitter power must not exceed 10kW and an ERP not exceeding 30kW with HAAT of 500 ft. Broadcast stations in the Philippines are divided into classes. The FM broadcast station employs frequency modulation. The exact range of frequencies used varies around the world. The term "VHF" was previously in common use for "FM" within the EU.9 MHz.2 MHz channel spacing.000 ft. because it conflates a modulation scheme with a range of frequencies. This band was abandoned after World War II and is now allocated to fixed. meaning "ultra short wave". REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. but always falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. Each channel has a band of frequency 200 kHz wide. It is effectively shorthand for 'frequency band in which FM is used for broadcasting'.000 watts.The radio frequency spectrum used for FM is from 88 MHz to 108 MHz and is divided into 100 channels. and the instantaneous radio frequency is independent of the frequency of the modulating signal. The channels for FM broadcast station starts at 88. The minimum transmitter power shall be 10kW. Frequency modulation is a system of modulation where the instantaneous frequency varies in proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal.1 MHz and ends at 107. The term "FM band" can upset purists. and land mobile radio services. Chapter II.
sometimes referred to as the OIRT band. In Italy.B. In most of the Americas and the Caribbean. They cannot be pre- 7 . Broadcast Bands around the World Throughout the world. 0. Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis Random noise has a 'triangular' spectral distribution in an FM system. Greenland and Africa.03.001. This applies to both mono and stereo transmissions and to baseband audio (not the subcarriers). Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz. This band. This can be offset. only even multiples are used. 0. and 0. In the U. it is 87. The amount of preemphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. the broadcast band is 87. In North America. using the 76 to 90 MHz band with 0. These processes of boosting and then reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis.01.3 MHz.5 to 108.1 MHz channel spacing.S.8 to 108. Reducing the high frequencies in the receiver also reduces the high-frequency noise. to a limited extent. There are other unusual and obsolete standards in some countries. only odd multiples are used. The amount of pre-emphasis that can be applied is limited by the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. The frequency of an FM broadcast station (more strictly its assigned nominal centre frequency) is usually an exact multiple of 100 kHz. including 0. by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. In some parts of Europe. In the former Soviet republics. respectively.0 MHz.9 to 74 MHz is also used. and some Eastern Bloc nations. with the effect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest frequencies within the baseband.0 MHz. is slowly being phased out in many countries. Japan is the only exception. 75 s is used. C.074. "half-channel" multiples of 50 kHz are used. 0. or some portion thereof. In most of the world a 50 s time constant is used. an additional older band from 65.
emphasized as much because it would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. A new device. the IM cancelled high frequency clipper. It is important that stereo broadcasts should be compatible with mono receivers.g. A 19 kHz pilot tone. H. This multiplex. is also generated. dbx in the BTSC TV sound system. Armstrong. at exactly half the 38 kHz subcarrier frequency and with a precisely defined phase relationship to it. several systems to add stereo to FM radio were considered by the FCC. This is transmitted at 810% of overall modulation level and used by the receiver to regenerate the 38 kHz subcarrier with the correct phase. The Armstrong system was rejected by the FCC because it did not allow sub-carrier services. The M signal is transmitted as baseband audio in the range 30 Hz to 15 kHz. is able to produce heavy audio clipping at high audio frequencies. and the Zenith system has become the standard method in most countries. The S signal is amplitude-modulated onto a 38 kHz suppressed carrier to produce a double-sideband suppressed carrier (DSBSC) signal in the range 23 to 53 kHz. or none at all.). along with any other subcarriers. The final multiplex signal from the stereo generator is the sum of the baseband mono audio (M). M = (L+R)/2 and S = (L−R)/2. with low listener fatigue. D. The problems with pre-emphasis due to the high frequency energy in modern music can be greatly attenuated using psychoacoustics principles. and the DSBSC subcarrier.e. A stereo receiver will matrix the M and S signals to recover L and R: L = M+S and R = M−S. modulates the FM transmitter. 8 . as Oscar Bonello demonstrates in his March 2007 AES paper. the left (L) and right (R) channels are matrixed into sum (M) and difference (S) signals. including one submitted by E. i. which avoided many of the problems with the Zenith-GE pilot tone multiplex system. the inventor of FM. e. For this reason.. (Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programmedependent variable pre-emphasis. the pilot tone. FM Stereo In the early 1960s. A mono receiver will use just the M signal.
This results in the pre-emphasis acting in the wrong direction on the lower sideband of the difference subcarrier. it is normal practice to apply preemphasis to the left and right channels before matrixing. the reception of vertically and horizontally polarised signals at different phase relationships from the same transmitter site will further corrupt stereo reception and invoke an earlier resolution within the receiver to mono presentation. Adoption of FM broadcasting worldwide 9 .Converting the multiplex signal back to left and right is performed by a stereo decoder. and most car radios are arranged to reduce the separation as the S/N ratio worsens. the pre-emphasis is applied to the audio signals before encoding. which will have a further deleterious effect on the S/N of the difference signal. which is built into stereo receivers. See: Dolby noise reduction system. E. A short lived quadraphonic version of the Zenith-GE system used an additional subcarrier at 76 kHz. eventually going to mono while still indicating a stereo signal is being received. and to apply de-emphasis at the receiver after matrixing.e. decreasing the level as the frequency rises. Dolby FM used a modified 25 s pre- emphasis time constant and a frequency selective companding arrangement to reduce noise. Stereo FM signals are far more susceptible to noise and multipath distortion than mono FM signals. F. In order to preserve stereo separation. Dolby FM A commercially unsuccessful noise reduction system used with FM radio in some countries during the late 1970s. i.5 dB) as compared with a mono signal. • as mentioned above. In addition. For this reason many FM stereo receivers include a stereo/mono switch to allow listening in mono when reception conditions are less than ideal. including the following: • the addition of the two sidebands of the difference subcarrier to the baseband signal increases the noise bandwidth of the signal by a factor of three (9. This is due to several factors.
These generally simulcast on AM and FM. In the United Kingdom. During the 1980s and 1990s. By the late 1960s FM had been adopted by fans of "alternative rock" music. Top 40 music stations and later even country music stations largely abandoned AM for FM. leading to severe interference problems and. Ironically. in Ireland several unlicenced commercial FM stations were on air by the mid-1980s. ethnic (minority language) broadcasting and some types of minority interest music. Particularly in Germany after World War II. Third Programme and Home 10 . but it wasn't until 1978 (the first year that listenership to FM stations exceeded that of AM stations) that FM became mainstream. religious programming. as a result. the best available medium wave frequencies were used by the Allied occupation forces both for broadcasting entertainment to their troops and for broadcasting cold war propaganda across the Iron curtain The regional structure of German broadcasting meant that the few remaining AM frequencies available for civilian domestic broadcasting fell far short of the number required and the broadcasters looked to FM as an alternative Public service broadcasters in Ireland and Australia were far slower at adopting FM radio than those in either North America or continental Europe. The medium wave band in Western Europe is heavily overcrowded. However. Belgium. most MW frequencies are suitable only for speech broadcasting. this shift has transformed AM into the "alternative band" that FM once was. but initially they were primarily used to broadcast classical music to an upmarket listenership in urban areas and for educational programming. the Netherlands. Among the reasons for this were: 1. the BBC began FM broadcasting in 1955. FM broadcasting took a long time to be adopted by the majority of radio listeners.Despite having been developed in the 1940s. with three national networks carrying the Light Programme. 2. Denmark and particularly West Germany were among the first countries to adopt FM on a widespread scale. Today AM is mainly the preserve of talk radio. The first FM broadcasting stations were in the United States.
Only when commercial broadcasting was introduced to the UK in 1973 did the use of FM pick up in Britain. particularly where there are terrain difficulties.Service (renamed Radio 2. This is generally considered a form of microbroadcasting. It was not reopened until 1975.6 MHz was later used for BBC and local commercial services. The sub-band 94. Microbroadcasting Low-power transmitters such as those mentioned above are also sometimes used for neighborhood or campus radio stations.6 MHz. G. fire and ambulance) and the extension of the FM band to 108. enforcement towards low-power FM stations is 11 . particularly where there are economic or infrastructural problems. These three networks used the sub-band 88. "rolling out" a national FM broadcast network to reach the majority of the population can be a slow and expensive process.although AM talk stations are still very popular. Today. FM started in Australia in 1947 but did not catch on and was shut down in 1961 to expand the television band. In addition. as elsewhere in the developed world. though campus radio stations are often run over carrier current. Because it takes a large number of FM transmitting stations to cover a geographically large country.0 MHz between 1980 and 1995. it developed steadily until in the 1980s many AM stations transferred to FM because of its superior sound quality. As a general rule. most Australian broadcasting is on FM . In 2006 almost 500 such licenses were issued. FM expanded rapidly throughout the British Isles and effectively took over from LW and MW as the delivery platform of choice for fixed and portable domestic and vehicle-based receivers. Subsequently. Ofcom (previously the Radio Authority) in the UK issues on demand Restrictive Service Licences on FM and also on AM (MW) for short-term local-coverage broadcasting which is open to anyone who does not carry a prohibition and can put up the appropriate licensing and royalty fees. FM is more suited to local broadcasting than national networks. With the gradual clearance of other users (notably Public Services such as police.94. In such countries. Most other countries expanded their use of FM through the 1990s.6 to 97.0 . Radio 3 and Radio 4 respectively in 1967).
FM microbroadcasters generally do not reach as far as their AM competitors A. FM Broadcast Standards Parameters Frequency Band No.15000 Hz FM F3E 25 kHz above Upper Side Band 25 kHz below Lower Side Band Frequency Deviation Pre-Emphasis Pilot Subcarrier Antenna Polarization Type of Receiver Intermediate Frequency B. of Channels Bandwidth per Channel Permitted Bandwidth Channel Spacing Center Frequency Stability Baseband Frequency Type of Modulation Type of Emission Guardband Philippine Standards 88 -108 MHz 25 200 kHz 240 kHz (monophone) 800 kHz ± 2 kHz 50 .7 MHz 12 .stricter than AM stations due to issues such as the capture effect. and as a result. Classes of Stations Stations Class A Class B Class C Class D Authorized Power Not exceeding 15 kW Not exceeding 10 kW Not exceeding 1 kW Not exceeding 10 W ± 75 kHz (for 100% modulation) 75us time constant 19 kHz Horizontal or circularly-polarized Superheterodyne 10.
5 92.5 100.1 13 .1 89.3 89.5 96.9 90.1 93.9 98.1 97.7 91.9 94. FM2 FM6 FM10 FM14 FM18 FM22 FM26 FM30 FM34 FM38 FM42 FM46 FM50 FM54 FM58 FM62 FM66 Frequency (MHz) 88.3 93. FM Broadcast Frequency Allocation FMn = FM1 + (n – 1)BW (MHZ) Where: FM = Chanel Frequency in MHz FM1= Frequency in the 1st FM Channel (88.1MHz) n =Channel number BW = Channel Bandwidth (200kHz) Philippine Major Cities Frequency Assignments Channel No.3 97.C.3 101.7 95.7 99.
Radio – Frequency Protection Ratio (dB) Freq Spacing (kHz) 0 25 50 75 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Monophonic Steady Interference 36 31 24 16 12 8 6 2 -7 -15 -12 Tropospheric Interference 8 12 16 22 27 28 6 2 -7 -15 -20 Stereophonic Steady Interference 45 51 51 45 33 18 7 2 -7 -15 -20 Tropospheric Interference 37 43 43 37 25 14 7 2 -7 -15 -20 E.9 102.9 106.7 103.FM70 FM74 FM78 FM82 FM86 FM90 FM94 FM98 101.5 D.7 107. FM Transmitter Considerations 1.3 105.5 104.1 105. Construction 14 .
No circuit in excess of 150 V shall have any part exposed to direct contact. 2. 4. Grounding of Controls All external metallic handles and controls accessible to the operating personnel shall be effectively grounded. to less than 350 V within 2 seconds after the access door is opened. 3. 6. shall be installed in conduits of fiber or metal raceways for protection from mechanical injury. 15 . Bleeder Resistor Proper bleeder resistor or other automatic means shall be installed across all capacitor banks to lower any voltage which may remain accessible with access door open. 5. Enclosure The transmitter shall be enclosed in the metal frame or grille separated from the operating space by a barrier or other equivalent means. Wiring and Shielding Wiring between units of the transmitter. Interlocks All access doors shall be provided with interlocks which will disconnect all voltage sin excess of 350 V when any access door is opened. with the exception of circuits carrying radio frequency energy.The transmitter shall be constructed either on racks and panels or in totally enclosed frames protected as required by the Philippine Electronics Code and the Philippines Electrical Code.
and the second is the difference of the two (L-R). Studio-to-transmitter Link (STL) – stations in this service are to be used for relay of aural programming materials from studio to transmitter and between fixed facilities in other locations. FM Stereo Broadcasting Two audio channels (L and R) are mixed to provide two new signals. The difference signal (L-R) is DSBSC modulated in the 23 to 53 kHz slot about a stereophonic Subarrier of 38 kHz.All instruments having one more than 1. STL Frequency Band Allocation Band Frequency (MHz) 16 . The sum channel (L+R) is modulated directly n the baseband assignment between 50 and 15 kHz. The first is the sum of the two input channels (L+R). F. Broadcast Transmission Services 1. a system licensed as Subsidiary Communications Authorization (SCA) Parameters Pilot Subcarrier Stereophonic Subcarrier Stereophonic Subcarrier suppression level Philippine Standards 19 kHz ± 2Hz 38 kHz (2nd harmonic of Pilot Subcarrier) < 1% modulation of the main carrier G.000 v potential to ground shall be protected by a cage or cover. Some FM stations are frequency division multiplexing an additional channel on their carrier for the purpose of providing background music for public buildings.
Assign a frequency ranging from 88.9 MHz to be used by your broadcasting station. Remote Pickup Band Allocation Band Frequency (MHz) Band A Band B Band C 305 – 310 450 – 451 455 .3 MHz to 107.890 Chapter III.456 3. 17 . Remote Pickup Broadcast Stations – stations in this service are to be used for the transmission of aural programming materials and associated cues and data. METHODOLOGY In designing a broadcasting station.235 – 162. Communications.250 170.Band A Band B 310 – 315 734 – 752 860 – 880 942 .953 2.150 Band D 880 .615 166. and Control Links Band Allocation Band Frequency (MHz) Band A Band B Band C 4 -12 26.48 162. Coordination. these procedures must be followed: 1.10 – 26.
3. 5. for 1st adjacency channels use 60 dBu and 53 dBu and for 2nd adjacency use 60 dBu and 80 dBu). Using the FM Contour Chart and a slider (used when the ERP is more than 1kW). 6. Compute for the Aggregate and distance of the stations to your station location. the scale is 0. 8. 9. 7. 60 and 80) according to the computed radius. 53. List all the Co-channels. 1st Adjacency channels and 2nd Adjacency channels with their corresponding ERP and locations. Specify the antenna height above average terrain (HAAT). the effective radiated power (ERP). 18 . the transmitted power and the location of the station (choose a province with no station above or below 800kHz of your channel frequency). Get the scale of your map (in this project. The distance of the stations is their corresponding radius in the map.2. Since the distance is in miles. convert it to kilometers. Draw a horizontal line corresponding to this dBu field strength (for cochannels use 60 dBu and 15 dBu. determine which distance curve the intersection coincides with. From the intersection of the two straight lines. Locate each station in the map and plot their corresponding field strength in dBu (15.058 cm for every kilometer) and convert your distances to cm. 4. locate the ERP of the each channels in the slider and place it on the center line (or on the 40dB field strength line) parallel to the HAAT of your station.
04 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS: 1.5 MHz POLAR COORDINATES: 17˚24’ (Latitude) 121˚42’ (Longitude) TRANSMITTER POWER: 5kW ERP: 10kW ANTENNA HEIGHT: 200 ft. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION PREDICTION OF SERVICE AREA AND OF INTERFERENCE FM RADIO BROADCAST STATION (CALL SIGN): DZLA LOCATION OF TRANSMITTER: TABUK.62 uV/m 214. EXTENT OF FIELDS IN KILOMETERS 60 dBu 53 dBu 1 mV/m 25.75 446 uV/m 37.53 15 dBu 5. KALINGA FREQUENCY: 104. Application for FM BROADCAST AUTHORIZATION must show two field strength contours. these are the 48 dBu (251 uV/m) and the 60 dBu (1 mV/m) contours.01 ANTENNA GAIN: 3.01 dB 80 dBu 10 mV/m 8. 19 .Chapter IV.
45. THE ALLOCATION PROTECTION RATIOS FOR FM BROADCAST ARE AS FOLLOWS: FREQUENCY ADJUSTMENT CO – CHANNEL FIRST ADJACENCY (LOWER OR UPPER) SECOND ADJACENCY (LOWER OR UPPER) FREQUENCY SEPARATION 0 200kHz 400kHz RF PROTECTION RATIO (dB) 45 7 -20 RF SIGNAL RATIO 6O dBu : 53 dbu 1mV / m : 0.50) FM CHANNELS FIELD INTENSITY CHART (FCC) maybe used. The chart is based on an ERP of 1 kW. 4. when the aggregates sum of the “EXTENT OF FIELDS” of two stations (based on their frequency separation and RF protection ratio is greater than the physical distance between these two stations.62 uV / m 6O dBu : 15 dbu 1mV / m : 0.2. the accompanying sliders shall be used.466 mV / m 6O dBu : 80 dbu 1mV / m : 10 mV / m 3. The distance in miles obtained from use of the chart is converted to kilometers. In predicting the distance to the field strength contours (EXTENT OF FIELDS) F (50. INTERFERENCE IS IMMINENT. 20 . For other values of ERP.
the Logos Arithma Inc. as the proponent of this design. Only few will be wasted since the location of the station’s transmitter is located in the middle of Luzon and compared with other nearby stations. following all the standards set by the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) and KBP. Aside the from the proper selection of its frequency that enables the station to avoid interference with other stations it is located in a place wherein it can have a full capacity of transmitting the signal to various places since the place is actually feasible. Conclusion and Recommendation As a class B station operating at 10 kW ERP.Chapter V. it has higher ERP which gives an advantage over its competitors. The station.. 22 . DZLA has a high potential of becoming a prominent FM station at Tabuk Kalinga. strongly recommend our proposed FM radio station. could be somehow seen as a giant FM station after five years and we.
4 Frequency modulation 23 . relevant engineering data and rules and regulations of the Federal Communication Commission.9 megahertz. 2. 2. Channels of FM broadcast stations begin at 88. DEFINITION OF TERMS 2.Chapter VI. 2.1 megahertz and continue in successive steps of 200 kilohertz to and including 107.1 FM broadcast band That portion of radio frequency spectrum from 88MHz to 108 MHz. The band is divided into 100 channels. INTRODUCTION The increasing importance of the role of FM broadcasting in the Philippines has encouraged broadcast engineers and the National Telecommunications Commission to pool their resources together and come up with technical standards and rules and regulations relating to FM broadcast. Appendices a. FM KBP Manual FM BROADCASTING STANDARDS 1.2 FM broadcast channel A band of frequencies 200 kilohertz wide and I designated by its center frequency.3 FM broadcast station A station employing frequency modulation in the FM broadcast band and intended to be received by the general public. and other data supplied by manufacturers of radio equipment and by licensees of FM broadcast stations. These standards and regulations shall be revised from time to time to be effective and compatible with technical progress. These technical standards and regulations were derived from CCIR recommendations. 2.
6 kilometers in the horizontal plane expressed in millivolts per meter for one (1) kilowatt antenna input power. in milivolts per meter for one (1) kilowatt antenna power. and the instantaneous radio frequency is independent of the frequency of the modulating signal. (Generally. a different antenna height will be determined for each radial direction from the antenna. 2.6 Frequency Swing The instantaneous departure of the frequency of the emitted wave from the center frequency resulting from modulation. This ratioshould be expressed in decibels (dB).6 milivolts per meter.5 Center frequency The carrier frequency allocated by the Authority. 2.A system of modulation where the instantaneous frequency varies in proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal. The average of these various heights is considered as the antenna height above average terrain). 2. Where circular or elliptical polarization is employed the antenna height above the average terrain shall be based upon the height of the radiation center of the antenna which transmits the horizontal components of radiation.6 kilometers in the horizontal plane. The height of the radiation center of the antenna above the terrain 3 to 16 kilometers from the antenna. 2. to 137.8 Antenna field gain The ratio of the effective free space field intensity produced at 1. 2. b.9 Antenna power gain The square of the ratio of the root mean-square free space field strength produced at 1. to 137.7 Antenna height above average terrain (HAAT) means a. (If specified for a particular direction. antenna power 24 .6 millivolts per meter.
the term “effective radiated power” is applied separately to the horizontal and vertical components of radiation.14 Radio-frequency (RF) Protection Ratio The value of the radio-frequency wanted-to-interfering signal ratio that enables. For FM broadcasting stations. 2.10 Effective radiated power (ERP) The product of the transmitted power ( transmitter output power les transmission line loss) multiplied by (a) the antenna power gain or (b) the antenna field gain squared. the radio-frequency protection ratio to be obtained at the output of a receiver. 2.11 Field intensity “Field intensity” as used in these standards shall mean the electric field intensity in the horizontal direction.13 Service area As applied to FM broadcasting. 2. a frequency swing +75 kilohertz is defined as 100 percent modulation. means the service resulting from an assigned effective radiated power and antenna height above average terrain. 2. under specified conditions.gain is based on the field strength in that direction only).12 Free space field intensity The field intensity that would exist at a point in the absence of waves reflected from the earth or other reflecting objects. 2. Where circular or elliptical polarization is employed . 25 .15 Percentage modulation The ratio of the actual frequency swing to the frequency swing defined as 100 percent modulation. 2. expressed in percentage.
2.16 Multiplexing In its simplest sense, multiplexing implies that two or more independent sources of information are combined for carriage over a single medium, namely, the radio frequency “carrier”, and then are separated at the receiving end. In stereophonic broadcasting , for example, program information consisting of left and right audio signal are multiplexed onto an FM carrier for transmission to receivers which subsequently recover the original audio signals.
2.17 FM Stereophonic Broadcast The transmission of a stereophonic program by a single FM broadcast station utilizing the main channel and a stereophonic sub-channel.
2.18 Channel A transmission path. The distinction between the concept of a “Channel” and a “signal” are not always clear. The usage herein distinguishes between transmission channels; e.g., main channel, stereophonic subchannel, etc., and left and right audio “signal”.
2.19 Composite Baseband signal A signal which is the sum of all signals which frequency-modulates the main carrier. The signal can be represented by a formula which includes all signal components: the main channel signal, the modulated stereophonic subchannel, the pilot subcarrier and the SCA subcarrier(s). 2.20 FM Baseband The frequency band from 0 Hertz (Hz) to a specified upper frequency which contains the composite baseband signal.
2.21 Main Channel The band frequencies from 50 (or less) Hz to 15,000 Hz on the FM baseband
which contains the main channel signal.
2.22 Main Channel Signal A specified combination of the monophonic or left and right audio signals which frequency-modulates the main carrier.
2.23 Stereophonic Sound The audio information carried by plurality of channel arranged to afford the listener a sense of spatial distribution of sound sources. Stereophonic sound includes, but is not limited to, biphonic (two channel), triphonic (three channel) and quadraphonic (four channel) services.
2.24 Stereophonic Sound Subcarrier A subcarrier within the FM broadcast baseband used for transmitting signals for stereophonic sound reception of the main broadcast program service.
2.25 Stereophonic sound Subcarrier The band of frequencies from 23 KHz to 99 KHz containing sound subcarriers and their associated sidebands.
2.26 Subchannel A transmission path specified by a subchannel signal occupying a specified band of frequencies. 2.27 Subchannel Signal Subcarrier(s) and associated sideband(s) which frequency-modulate the main carrier. It is synonymous with “subcarrier”, as in the stereophonic subcarrier or SCA subcarrier.
2.28 Pilot Sub-carrier A pilot sub-carrier serving as a control signal for use in the reception of FM stereophonic broadcast. 2.29 Left (or Right) signal The electrical output of a microphone or a combination of microphones placed so as to convey the intensity, time, and location of sounds originating predominantly to the listener’s left (or right) of the center of the performing area. 2.30 Left (or Right) stereophonic channel The left (or right) signal as electrically reproduced in the reception of an stereophonic broadcast.
2.31 Stereophonic separation The ratio of the electrical signal caused in the right (or left) stereophonic channel, to the electrical signal caused in the left (or right) stereophonic channel, by the transmission of only a right (or left) signal.
2.32 Frequency Deviation The peak difference between the instantaneous frequency of the modulated wave and the carrier frequency.
2.33 Injection Ratio The ratio of the frequency swing of the FM carrier by a subchannel signal to the frequency swing defined as 100 percent modulation, expressed in percentage. The total injection of more than one subchannel signal is the arithmetic sum of each subchannel.
40 Available line 29 . 105 x 8.” 2. 2. the available length in inches.37 SCA The term SCA is an acronym for a “subsidiary Communication Authority. consequently it is sometimes referred to as “transmitter crosstalk”. 2.2. 2.g. Such crosstalk may be due to distribution within the stereophonic generator or FM transmitter.38 Index of Cooperation As applied to facsimile broadcasting. Such crosstalk may be due to causes external to the stereophonic generator.39 Line-use ratio As applied to facsimile broadcasting is the ratio of available line to the total length of scanning line.35 Linear Crosstalk A form of “crosstalk” in which the undesired signal(s) is created by phase or gain inequalities in another channel or channels. and the reciprocal of the line use ratio (e. 2.34 Cross-talk An undesired signal occurring in one channel caused by an electrical signal in another signal. is the product of the number of lines per inch.36 Nonlinear Crosstalk A form of crosstalk in which the undesired signal(s) is created by harmonic distortion or intermodulation of electrical signal(s) in another channel or channels.2 x 8/7 = 984). consequently it is sometimes referred to as “system crosstalk”. 2.
2. F. provide no interference is caused to other station maintaining a regular operating schedule within such period.42 Optical density The logarithm (to the base 10) of the ratio of incident to transmitter or reflected light.44 Operating Power This is the product of the plate voltage (Ep) and the plate current ( Ip) of the last ratio stage and efficiency factor.m. 2.Means the portion of the total length of scanning line that can be used specially for picture signals.45 Last radio stage The oscillator of radio-frequency-power amplifier stage which supplies 30 .41 Rectilinear scanning The process of scanning an area in a predetermined sequence of narrow straight parallel strips. The factor F shall be established by the transmitted manufacturer for each type of transmitter and shall be specified in the instruction book (s) supplied to each customer with each transmitter. expressed: Operating power =Ep x Ipx F. 2.43 Experimental period The period between 12 midnight to 5:00 a. local standard time (16002100 GMT). This period may be used for experimental purposes in testing and maintaining apparatus by the licensee of any FM broadcast station on its assigned frequency and not in excess of its authorized power. 2. FM This is the indirect method of determining the operating power of each station for the purpose of specifying the operating power range of FM transmitters. 2.
4 as issued by the existing regulatory body.1 Class-A Stations A class-A station shall have an authorized transmitter power not exceeding 25 kilowatts and an Effective Radiated Power (ERP) not exceeding 125 kilowatts and limited in antenna height of 2. CLASSES OF FM BROADCAST STATIONS. 3. 4. The minimum transmitter power shall be 1 KW. Class-A station shall only be allowed in Metro-Manila and Metro-Cebu. community station having an authorized radiated power not exceeding 1. 4.) 4.power to the antenna.46 Qualified technician As applied to FM broadcasting means a person who is a holder of any class of radio Telephone Operator’s License or its equivalent except those mention in Section 7. 2.000 watts (ERP). 4.2 Class-B station A Class-B station shall have an authorized transmitter power not exceeding 10 kilowatts and an Effective Radiated Power not exceeding 30 kilowatts.000 feet above average terrain.4 Class-D station A class-D station shall an authorized transmitter power not exceeding 10 31 . and limited in antenna height of 500 feet above average terrain. The minimum transmitter Power shall be 10 KW.3 Class-C station A Class-C station is a non-commercial. ALLOCATION OF FREQUENCY FOR FM BROADCAST STATION (See Table 1. 4.
9 90. Table 2 Channel No. 202 206 210 214 218 222 226 230 234 238 242 246 250 254 258 262 266 270 Frequency (mHz) 88. Educational station shall be allowed to operate with Class-D transmitter power.3 93.1 89.1 93.5 100. Legaspi.5 96.watts.5 All classes of FM station shall be protected to the 1 mV/m cotour or 60 dBU contour.7 91.1 97.9 98. 4.3 97. 4.3 101.7 95. Cebu.9 32 .9 94.7 99.6 Table of Assignments The frequency assignment for the cities of Manila. Laoag. Davao and Zamboanga shall be selected from table 2.5 92.1 101.3 89.
7 Radio frequency Protection Ratios 4.3 105.7.5 104.7 103.5 4. RADIO-FREQUENCY PROTECTION RATIOS (dB) (based on the horizontal component of radiation) ____________________________________________ Frequency Spacing (kHz) ____________________________________________ 0 200 400 60 dBu : 15 dBu 60 dBu : 53 dBu 60 dBu : 80 dBu R.1 105.1 The following radio frequency protection ratios (Table 3) provide for the minimum physical separation between stations and protection of stations from Interference. For this reason the assignment of two 33 .7 megaHertz.7 107.274 278 282 286 290 294 298 102.F.9 106.7.2 Intermediate frequency amplifiers of most FM broadcast receivers are design to operate on 10. Signal Ratio 4.
2 Transmitting Facilities 5. Any site particularly suitable for FM broadcasting in an area.2 All component parts shall be in accordance with generally accepted standards or those of the International Standards.7.6 or 10. 5. 4. 5.7.1 Safety Requirements 5.1 Conformity with Electrical Wiring Rules All equipment using electrical power shall conform with the provisions of the Philippine Electrical Code and the Philippines Electronics Code so as to ensure the safety of property.5 A commercial broadcast entity may establish only one primary FM radio station within the geographical boundaries of any province. in 34 . equipment.1 Location and Layout a. and personnel and the public in general.stations in the same area.3 FM Broadcast Stations. shall not be authorized to operate in the same city or in nearby cities with a frequency separation of less than 800 kHz.1. 4. one with a frequency 10. should be avoided if possible.7.4 The nature and extent of the protection from interference accorded the FM stations is limited solely to that which results from the application of the radio frequency protection ratio.8 megaHertz removed from that of the other.1. 5 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS 5.2. 4.
2 Antenna System a. The antenna must be constructed such that it is clear of surrounding buildings or objects that would cause shadow problems. It shall be standard to employ horizontal polarization. Electrical Performance Standards The general design of the FM broadcast transmitting system (from input terminal of the microphone preamplifier. through audio 35 . or a large region. c. may be shared by and be made available to as many applicants as possible.3 Transmitter and Association Equipment a. whether it is intended to serve a small city. In case of shared ownership. In the event a common tower is issued by two or more licensees for antenna and / or antenna supporting purposes. a metropolitan area. 5. However circular or elliptical polarization of the clockwise or counterclockwise rotation may be employed. b.2. if so desired. the licensee who owns the tower shall assume full responsibility for the maintenance of the tower structure.e. The location should be so chosen that line-of-sight can be obtained from the antenna over the principal city or cities to be served. its painting and lighting requirements. The transmitting site should be selected consistent with purpose of the station. For the protection of air navigation.. b.2.the absence of other comparable sites. only one licensee shall assume such responsibility. the antenna and supporting structure shall be painted and illuminated in accordance with ATO regulations. 5. i.
5% 36 . Pre-emphasis shall employed in accordance with the impedance-frequency characteristics of a series inductance-resistance network havinga time constant of 75 microseconds (See Annex Fig. through audio facilities at the transmitter. the lower limit shall fall from the 3 dB limit at a uniform rate of 2 dB per octave (5 dB at 15.. from 50 to 100 Hertz and the lower limit shall fall from the 3 db limit at a uniform rate of 1 db per octave (4 db at 50 Hertz).500 to 15. from 7. 2) The transmitting system shall be capable of transmitting a band of frequencies from 50 to 15.500 Hertz and 3 db the upper limit.) At any modulating frequency between 50 and 15. The deviation of the system response from the standard pre-emphasis curve shall lie between two limits.000 Hertz and at modulation percentages of 25. The lower the limit shall be uniform from 100 to 7. but excluding equalizers for the correlation of deficiencies in microphone response shall be in accordance with the following principles and specifications: 1) The transmitter shall operate satisfactorily in the operating power range with a frequency swing of + 75 kiloHertz.000 Hertz.facilities at the studio through lines or other circuits between studio and transmitter. 3. 2).3.000 Hertz. 50 and 100 percent combined audio frequency harmonics measured in the output of the system shall not exceed the root-mean-square values given in the following table: Modulating Frequency 50 to 100 Hz Distortion . The upper of these limits shall be uniform: (no deviation) from 50 to 15.000 Hertz.000 Hertz). which is defined as 100 percent modulation.
500 to 15. The measurement shall be made using 400 Hertz modulation as a reference.500Hz 7. 6) The transmitting system output noise level (frequency modulation) in the band of 50 to 15.5% . if a compression amplifier is employed. and audio facilities) contribute over one-half of these percentage since at some frequencies the total distortion may be come the arithmetic sum of the distortion of the divisions. The noise-measuring equipment shall be provided with a standard 75 microsecond de-emphasis. 8) Automatic means shall be provided in the transmitter to maintain the assigned center frequency within the allowable 37 . 7) The transmitting system output noise level (amplitude modulation) in the band of 50 to 15. and without compression. 5) It is recommended that none of the three main divisions of the system (transmitter.. Harmonics shall be included to 30. The noise measuring equipment shall be provided with standard 75 microsecond de-emphasis. and the ballistic characteristics of the instrument shall be similar to those of the standard VU meter.3. the ballistic characteristic of the instrument shall be similar to those of the standard VU meter.0% 4) Measurements shall be made employing a 75 microsecond de-emphasis in the measuring equipment and 75 microsecond pre-emphasis in the transmitting equipment.000 Hz .000 Hertz.2.100 to 7.000 Hertz shall be at least 60decibels below 100 percent modulation (frequency swing + 75 kilohertz).000 Hertz shall be least 50 decibels below the level representing 100 percent modulation. studio to transmitter circuit..
13) Any emission appearing on a frequency removed from the carrier by between 120 kHz. whichever is the lesser attenuation. Construction In general.tolerance of (+ 2000 Hertz). 11) Allowances shall be provided in all component part to avoid overheating at the rated maximum output power. in watts ) decibels below the level of the unmodulated carrier. 12) If a limiting or compression amplifier is employed. and 240 kHz. 14) Any emission appearing on a frequency removed from the carrier by more than 240 kHz and up to and including 600 kHz shall be attenuated at least 35 db below the level of the unmodulated carrier. and maintenance of the equipment. precaution should be maintained in its connection in the circuit due to the use of pre-emphasis in the transmitting system. 9) The transmitting shall be equipped with suitable indicating instruments for the determination of operating power and with other instruments as are necessary for proper adjustment. or 80 decibels. the transmitter shall be constructed either on rocks and panels or in totally en-closed frames protected as required by the Philippine Electronics Code and the Philippine 38 . 10) Adequate provision shall be made for varying the transmitter output power to compensate for excessive variation in the line voltage or for others factors affecting the output power. inclusive. 15) Any emission appearing on a frequency removed from the carrier by more than 600 kHz shall be attenuated at least 43 +10 Log10 ( Power. shall be attenuated at least 25 decibels below the level of the un-modulated carrier. operation. b.
d) All plate supply and other high voltage equipment. 2) Grounding of controls. All external metallic handles and controls accessibility to the operating personnel shall be effectively exposed to direct contact. a) All access doors shall be provided with interlocks which will disconnect all voltages in excess of 350 volts when any access door is opened. including transformer. b) Means shall be provided for making all tuning adjustment. shall be protected so as to prevent injury to operating personnel. c) Proper bleeder resistor or other automatic means shall be installed across all capacitor banks to lower any voltage which may remain accessible with access door open to less than 350 volts within 2 seconds after the access door is opened. rectifiers and motor generator. All metallic parts shall be connected to ground. The transmitter shall be enclosed in a metal frame or separated from the operating space by a barrier or other equivalent means. filters. requiring voltages in excess of 350 volts to be applied to the circuit. e) Power equipment and control panel of the transmitter shall meet the above requirements exposed 220 volts AC switching equipment on the front of the power control panel is not recommended.Electrical Code and those set forth below: The transmitter shall comply with the following: 1) Enclosure. from the front of the panels with all access doors closed. Wiring and Shielding 39 . c. A complete dead front type of switchboard is preferred. 3) Interlocks on doors.
000 volts with suitable over-voltage protection device(s) across the instrument terminal in case the winding opens. 2) Wiring between units of the transmitter. shall be so installed as to be easily and accurately read without the operator risk contact with circuits carrying high potential radio-frequency energy. or properly shielded. 3) Circuits carrying radio-frequency energy between units shall be coaxial. either with insulated leads properly cabled and supported or with rigid bus bar properly insulated and protected. or two-wire balanced lines. 40 . it is good practice to protect voltmeters subject to more than 5. no protective case is required. d. 4) All stages or units shall be adequately shielded and filtered to prevent interaction and radiation. 2) In case the plate voltmeter is located on the low potential side of the multiplier resistor with the potential of the high potential terminal to the instrument at or less than 1.000 volts on the movement).1) The transmitter panels or units shall be wired in accordance with standard switchboard practice.000 volts above ground.000 volts potential to ground on the movements shall be protected by a cage or cover. shall be installed in conducts or approved fiber or metal raceways for protection from mechanical injury. Metering equipment 1) All instruments having more than 1. However. with the exception circuits carrying radio-frequency energy. 3) Transmission line meters and any other radio-frequency instrument which is necessary for the operator to read. (some instruments are designed by the manufacturer to operate safely with voltages in excess of 1.
That: 41 . 2) In the event that the plate voltage or plate ampere in the last radio stage is defective.2. 2) In the event that the frequency monitor becomes defective. Installation 1) The installation shall be made in suitable quarters. 2) Since an operator must be on duty at the transmitter control during operation. either at the transmitter or at the place where the transmitter is controlled. the operating power shall be maintained by means of the radio-frequency power meter. f. as furnished by the manufacturer of the equipment. the station may be operated without such equipment pendings its repair or replacement for a period not in excess of 60 days without further authority of the Commission: Provided. Indicating Instruments 1) Each FM broadcast station should be equipped with indicating instrument for measuring the plate voltage and current of the last radio stage and the transmitting line radio frequency power. shall be retained at the transmitter location. 5. Frequency Monitor 1) The licenses of each station have in operation.e. Other technical data. a frequency monitored of a type approved by the Commission which shall be independent of the frequency control of the transmitter. g. suitable facilities for his welfare and comfort shall be provided at the control point. An accurate circuit diagram.4 Monitoring Equipment a.
3 Stereophonic Transmission Standards a.000 Hertz plus or minus 2 Hz. replacement monitor has been 3) If conditions beyond the control of the licensee or permittee prevent the restoration of the monitor to service within the above allowed period. b. An entry shall be made in the station log as to the method used and the result thereof. shall be transmitted that frequency-modulate the main carrier between the limits of 8 to 10 percent. The modulating signal for the main channel shall consist of the sum of the left and right signals. A pilot subcarrier at 19. c) The frequency of the station shall be compared with an external frequency source of known accuracy at sufficiently frequent interval to insure that the frequency is maintained with the tolerance. 42 . informal request may be filed with the Engineer in Charge of the Region in which the station is located for such additional time as may be required to complete rep[airs of the defective instrument or equipment.a) Appropriate entries shall be made in the operation log of the station to show the date and the time the monitor was removed from and restored to service. 5. b) The Engineer in Charge of the Region in which the station is located shall be notified both immediately after the monitor is found to be defective and immediately after the repaired or installed and is functioning properly. Modulation Monitor The modulation monitor (deviation monitor) is an optional requirement for an FM station. The FM station may refer to the monitoring section of the Authority. to the Standard Authority of the KBP of to other FM station for modulation measurements.
simultaneously in the main channel. and the stereophonic subcarrier and its sidebands signal shall cross the time axis simultaneously and in the same direction. The maximum modulation of the main carrier by all SCA subcarrier be limited to 10 percent. h. i. m. k. l. The stereophonic subcarrier shall be suppressed to a level less than one percent modulation of the main carrier.000 Hertz. Amplitude modulation of the stereophonic subcarrier shall be used. j. The phase difference between the zero points of the main channel signal 43 . when only a steady state left (or right) signal exists. g. At the instant when only a positive left signals applied. The sum of the side bands resulting from amplitude modulation of the stereophonic subcarrier shall not cause a peak deviation of the main carrier in excess of 45 percent of total modulation (excluding SCA subcarriers) when only a left (or right) signal exists. e. d. f. shall be within plus or minus 3. The modulation signal for the stereophonic subcarrier shall be equal to the difference of the left and right signals.c. the deviation when only a left (or right) signal exists shall not exceed 45 percent of total modulation (excluding SCA subcarriers).5 percent of unity for all levels of this signal and all frequency from 50 to 15. The stereophonic subcarrier shall be the second harmonic of the pilot subcarrier and shall cross the time axis with a positive slope simultaneously with each crossing of time axis by the pilot subcarrier. the main channel modulation shall cause an upward deviation of the main carrier frequency. The stereophonic subcarrier shall be capable of accepting audio frequency from 50 to 15. The pre-emphasis characteristics of the stereophonic subchannel shall be identical with those of the main channel with respect to phase and amplitude at all frequencies. The ratio of peak main channel deviation to peak stereophonic subchannel deviation.000 Hz.
n. Cross-talk into the stereophonic subchannel caused by a signal in the main channel shall be attenuated at least 40 decibels below 90 percent modulation. For required transmitter performance the maximum modulation to be employed is 90 percent (excluding pilot subcarrier) rather than 100 percent. religious. detailed weather forecasting. and other material of broadcast nature expressly designed and intended for business. Illustrative services include: background music stereocasting. o. but which are of interest primarily to limited segments of the public wishing to subscribe thereto. 5. special time signal.1 Permissible uses of the SCA must fall within one or both of the following Categories a. 44 . when only steady state left (or right) signal exists.000 Hz. 100 percent modulation is referred to include the pilot subcarrier. Transmission of programs which are of a broadcast nature. Cross-talk into the main channel caused by a signal in the main stereophonic subchannel shall be attenuated at least 40 decibels below 90 percent modulation.4.4 Subsidiary Communications Authorization (SCA) 5.000 Hz it will be assumed that (l) and (m) of this section have been complied with. educational. q. Note: If the stereophonic separation between left and right stereophonic channel is better than 29. professional. p. labor. For electrical performance standard of the transmitter and associated equipment. trade.and the stereophonic subcarrier sidebands envelope. agriculture. or other groups engaged in any lawful activity. shall exceed plus or minus 3 degrees for audio modulating frequencies from 50 to 15.7 decibels and audio modulating frequencies between 50 to 15.
b. Transmission of signals which are directly related to the operation of FM broadcast station; for example: relaying of broadcast material to other FM and standard AM broadcast stations; remote cueing and other circuits; remote control telemetering functions associated with authorized STL operation, and similar uses. 5.4.2 An application for SCA shall specify the particular nature and purpose of the proposed use. If visual transmission of program material is contemplated, the application shall include certain technical information concerning the visuals system, on which the Authority shall rely in issuing an SCA. If any significant change is subsequently made in the system, revised information shall be submitted. The technical information to be submitted is as follows: a. A full description of the visual transmission system. b. A block diagram of the system, as installed in the station, with all components including filters, identified as to make and type. Response curves of all composite filters shall be furnished.
5.4.3 SCA operations may be conducted without restriction as to time, so long as the main channel is programmed simultaneously. 5.4.4 Nature of the SCA
a. The SCA is of a subsidiary or secondary nature shall not exist apart from FM license or permit. No transfer or assignment of it shall be made separate from the FM broadcast license and failure to transfer the SCA with the FM license renders the SCA void. Any assignment or transfer of an SCA shall, if desired,be requested as part of the main station’s transfer or assignment application. The licensee or permit must seek renewal of FM license or permit; failure to renew the latter automatically terminates the SCA. b. The grant or renewal of an FM license or permit shall not be furthered or promoted by the proposed or past operation under an SCA; the license must
establish that this broadcast operation is in the public interest wholly apart from the SCA activities.
5.4.5 Multiplex Operations Engineering Standards a. Frequency modulation of SCA subcarriers shall be used. b. The instantaneous frequency of SCA subcarriers shall at all times be within the range 20 to 75 kHz; Provided, however, that when the station is engaged in stereophonic broadcasting, the instantaneous frequency of SCA subcarrier shall at all times be within the range 53 to75 kHz. c. The arithmetic sum of the modulation of the main carrier by SCA subcarriers shall not exceed 30 percent: Provided, however, that when the station is engaged in stereophonic broadcasting, the arithmetic sum of the main carrier by the SCA subcarrier shall not exceed 10 percent. d. The total modulation of the main carrier, including SCA subcarriers, shall meet the requirements of 6.2.2. e. Frequency modulation of the main carrier caused by the SCA subcarrier operation shall, in the frequency range 90 to 15,000 Hz, be at least 60 dB below 100 percent modulation: Provided, however, that when thestation is engaged in stereophonic broadcasting, frequency modulation of the main carrier by the SCA subcarrier operation shall, in the frequency range 50 to 53,000 Hz, be at least 60 dB below 100 percent modulation. f. The center frequency of each SCA subcarrier shall be kept at all times within 500 hertz of the authorized frequency. 5.4.6 Facsimile engineering standards The following standards apply to facsimile broadcasting under SCA operations.
a. Rectilinear scanning shall be employed, with scanning spot progressing from left to right and scanned lines progressing from top to bottom of the subject copy.
b. The standard index of cooperation shall be 984. c. The number of scanning lines per minute shall be 360. d. The line-use ratio shall be 7/8, or 315 degrees of the full scanning cycle. e. The 1/8 cycle or 45 degrees not included in the available scanning line shall be divided into 3 equal parts, the first 15 degrees being used for transmission at approximately white level, the second 15 degrees for transmission at approximately black level, and the third 15 degrees for transmission at approximately white level. f. An interval of not more than12 seconds shall be available between two pages of subject copy, for the transmission of a page-separation signal and/or other services. g. Amplitude or (frequency-shift) modulation of the subcarrier shall be used. h. Subcarrier modulation shall normally vary approximately linearly with the optical density of the subject copy. i. Negative modulation shall be used, i.e., for amplitude modulation of subcarrier, maximum subcarrier amplitude and maximum radio frequency swing on black; for frequency modulation of subcarrier, highest instantaneous frequency of subcarrier on black. j. Subcarrier noise level shall be maintained at least 30 dB below maximum (black) picture modulation level, at the radio transmitter input. k. The facsimile subcarrier transmission shall be conducted in the frequency range between 22 and 28 kHz. Should amplitude modulation of the carrier be employed the subcarrrier frequency shall be 25 kHz with sidebands extending not more than 3 kHz in either direction from the subcarrier frequency. Should frequency modulation of the subcarrier be employed the total swing at the subcarrier shall be within the range from 22 to 28 kHz, with 22 kHz
corresponding to white and 20 kHz corresponding to black on the transmitted copy. In multiplex operation, the modulation of the FM carrier by the modulated subcarrier shall not exceed 5 percent. In simplex operation , the modulation of the FM carrier by the modulated subcarrier shall not exceed 30 percent.
up to the turnover point which is the transmitter input.1 The studio being the recognized source of program materials and other forms of intelligence of various kinds and content. 5. However. Each shall be associated with a control room for which the operational area of the studio may viewed with. and the acoustic treatment of such studio and control rooms shall be in accordance with good engineering practice. frequency modulation of the FM carrier cause by the aural signals shall. b. must be properly equipped to faithfully respond to these impressions and produce the same to the highest degree possible.000 Hertz.5. 5. The external effects from both regular and main transmitters shall substaintially be the same as to frequency and stability. an announcer shall perform simple panel type functions like level adjustments and switching during his/her board hours. Studios and control rooms shall be constructed that they are adequately insulated from source of extraneous noise and vibration.2 Auxiliary Transmitter a.5 Studio. when the studio and the control rooms are integrated into one. The regular and the optional main transmitter shall be located in a single place.5. An auxiliary transmitter shall be provided and may be installed in 48 .6.6 Emergency Equipment & Facilities 5.i.6. b. 5. be at least 60 dB below 100 percent modulation. 5. be at least 60 db below 100 percent modulation. During periods of multiplex facsimile transmission. in the frequency range from 50 to 15.2 Studio location and Layout a. in the frequency range from 20 to 30 kHz. Equipment and Allied facilities 5. Frequency modulation of the FM carrier caused by the facsimile shall.1 Alternate Main Transmitter a.
Remote Pick-up Broadcast Station c.the location as the regular main transmitter or in another location. Communication.1 Broadcast auxiliary services fall under these three categories: a. Coordination. A licensed operator shall be on control whenever an auxiliary transmitter is placed in operation. c.2 The frequency bands and the transmitter power output authorized for the above services are as follows: a. Remote Pick-up Broadcast Station BAND A BAND B 315-325 MHz 450-451 MHz 49 . Studio-to-Transmitter Links (STL) b. and C shall be 15 watts. Its operation power shall not be less than 10 % or never greater than the authorized operating power of the main transmitter. a type-approved modulation monitor and frequency monitor are required to be installed with it. 5. Broadcast Auxiliary Services 6. b. Studio-to-Transmitter Link BAND A 300-315 MHz BAND B BAND C 734-752 MHz 942-952 MHz The maximum power allowance for STL BANDS A. shall be kept on hand. When installed in a location different from that of the regular transmitter. a reasonable variety and number of spare components appropriate to the equipment installed at the site.7 Spare Component Parts In order to cut down-times during scheduled on-air operations. b. B. 6. 6. and Control Link. d.
and Control Link shall be: BAND A . it becomes impossible to continue 50 .67-26.100 watts (SBS) BAND B . B.1 Hours of Operation 7.1 MHz 162.The license of each FM station shall be maintain a minimum operating schedule of two-thirds of the total hours that is authorized to operate. due to causes beyond the control of the licensee.1.615 MHz 166.150 MHz BAND D 432.250 and 170. 7. Cooperation.1 Minimum Operating Schedule . and Control Link BAND A BAND B BAND C 4-12 MHz (non-exclusive) 25. OPERATING REQUIREMENTS 7.160 watts (ERP) BAND D . and C shall be 35 watts.235-162. Communication.3 The National Telecommunication Commission shall authorized the employment of any one or all this broadcast transmission services to a station depending on the necessity and availability of frequencies for the purpose. Coordination.5-433 MHz 437.5-438 MHz The maximum power allowable for Communication.BAND C 455-456 MHz The maximum power allowable for remote Pick-up BANDS A. except in emergencies when.200 watts (for repeater) 6. c. Any AM or FM station authorized to operate is entitled to used any broadcast transmission services relevant to the efficient operation of the station where the use of physical lines or cables are not feasible.160 watts (ERP) BAND C .
3 If a permanent discontinuance of operation is being contemplated.2. The station may cease operation for a period not exceeding 10 days. 7. 7.2 Other operating Requirements 7.2. This the product of the plate voltage (Ep) and the plate current (Ip) of the last radio stage. 7. Operating 51 . and shall not be exceed the limits of 5 percent above and 10 percent below the authorized power. 7. that is.1. and an efficiency factor. The information shall be entered in the program and operating logs at the time the broadcast was aired. the station may be operated with reduced power. then the licensee shall not notify the appropriate regulatory body in writing.2 Broadcast outside the authorized regular operating schedule (as before regular sign-on schedules and/or beyond the regular sign-off schedules may be aired without prior authorization from the appropriate regulatory body provided the program falls under emergency category or of very important relevance to the station existence.2.1 The center frequency of each FM broadcast station shall be maintained within 2000 Hertz of the assigned center frequency. except that in an emergency when it becomes impossible to operate within the authorized power. at least two (2) days before the actual discontinuance is affected.2 The percentage of modulation shall be maintained as high as possible consistent with good quality transmission and good broadcast practice and in no case less than 85 percent nor more than 100 percent on peaks of frequent recurrence during any selection which is normally transmitted at the highest level of the program under consideration.1. The operating power of each station shall be determined by indirect method. F. 7.3 The operating power of each station shall be maintained as near as practicable to the authorized operating power.operating.
5 If a limiting or compensating amplifier is employed. The efficiency factor.4.1 The station license and other instrument (s) of station authorization shall be posted in a conspicuous place and in such a manner that all terms are visible.1 Radio operators holding a valid radiotelephone first class operator’s license.3. shall be established by the transmitter manufacturer for each type of transmitter.4 The station equipment shall be so operated. 7.4 Operators Requirements 7. 7.4. 7.2. care should be maintained in its use due to pre-emphasis in the transmitting system. a photocopy of the station license and other instrument(s) of station authorization shall be posted. at the place the licensee considers to be principal control point of the transmitter. the licensee may be required to take such further steps as may be necessary to eliminate the interference.Power = Ep x Ip x F. 7.3 Posting of Station and Operator Licenses 7. In either case. tuned and adjusted that emission outside of the authorized channel do not cause harmful interference to the reception of the other stations.2 of this section. 7. Station shall achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable with their existing equipment. At all other control point listed on the station authorization.4.3. FM broadcast station shall maintain the bandwidth occupied by their emissions in accordance with the specification set forth in this section. should harmful interference to the reception of other radio stations occur. except as provided for in paragraph 7.2 A station which is authorized with a power of 10 kilowatts or less 52 . shall be in actual charge of the transmitting apparatus and shall be on duty either at the transmitter location or remote control point. F.
b. necessary to be performed during the course of normal operation. except those specified in subparagraphs (a) through (d) of this paragraph. shall be required to terminate the 53 . when the equipment is so designed that the stability of the frequency is maintain by the transmitter itself within the limits of tolerance specified. Those external adjustments that may be required as a result of variations of primary power supply. d.may be operated by person holding commercial radio operator’s license of any class except those with an aircraft radiotelephone operator authorization or a temporary limited radiotelephone operator class license. Those adjustment necessary to effect any change in operating power which may be required by the station’s instrument(s) of authorization. may cause off-frequency operation or result in any unauthorized radiation. and none of the operation. except when under the immediate supervision of a radio-telephone first class operator. Those necessary to commerce or terminate transmitter emission as a routine matter. a person holding other than ratio telephone first class operator’s license and not acting under the immediate supervision of a radio-telephone first class operators. Should the transmitting apparatus be observed to the operating in a manner inconsistent with the station instrument of authorization and none of the above are effective in bringing it to the proper operation. shall be limited to the following: a. c. Those external adjustments which may be necessary to insure modulation within the limit required. Adjustments of the transmitting equipment by such operators.
1 In the program log a. An entry showing. b. and the time is it announced as a mechanical record. An entry of the time each station identification announcement (call letters.3 A station shall employ at least one full-time first class radiotelephone operators whose primary duty shall be to effect and ensure the proper functioning and transmitting equipment.2 In the operating log a.5. If a speech is made by the political candidate. such as “record”. 7. frequency and location) is made. ”speech”. If the mechanical record is used. An entry of the time the programs begins and ends.5.5 Log Requirement The licensee or permittee of each FM broadcast station shall maintain separate program and operating logs and shall require entriesto be made as follows: 7. 7. An entry of the time the station begins to supply power to the antenna and the time it stops. d.station’s emissions. An entry briefly describing each program broadcast such as “music”. “transcription” etc. paid for. An entry showing that each sponsored program broadcast has been announced as sponsored.4. the name and political affiliation of such a speakers shall be entered. the entry shall show the exact nature thereof . each program of network origin. 7. etc. b. together with the name at the beginning and opening of the complete program. the name of the network originating the program. or furnished by the sponsored. 54 . c. “drama”.
c. An entry of each interruption to the carrier wave. 4) The entries required concerning quarterly inspection of the condition of the tower lights and associated control equipment and an entry when towers are cleaned and/ or repainted. An entry of the time and result of the test of auxillary transmitter. and duration.5. 5) Entries which described fully any experimental operation of transmitter.F. d. stage plate volt-meter readings. or power meter readings. An entry of the following every 30 minutes: 1) Operating constants of the last radio frequency stage ( total plate current and plate voltage) 2) Any other entry required by the Instrument of Authorization. b. A notation of all frequency checks and measurements made Independently of the frequency monitor and of the correlation of these measurements with frequency monitor Indications. the following entries are recommended: a. 7. its cause. or an interruption of program transmission. A notation of the calibration check of automation recording devices. An entry of the data and time of removal to the restoration to service of any of the following equipment in the event it becomes defective: 1) Final R. 55 . 2) Final R. c.3 If a maintenance log is keep aside from the operating log.F. stage plate volt meter readings. 3) Transmission line radio frequency voltage current.
The log shall be made available upon request by an authorized representative(s) of the appropriate regulatory body during the reasonable hour of the day. Key letters or abbreviations may be used if proper meaning or explanation 56 .5.5 Logs of FM broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two (2) years: Provided. and in such detail that the detail required for the particular class of station concerned are readily available. If t he entries required above are not application thereto then the entries shall be made so as to fully describe the operation.6) Any other entries required by the current Instrument of Authorization of the station and the provision of this subpart. shall be retained by the licensee or permittee until such claim and complaint has been fully satisfied or until the same has been barred by the statue limiting the time for the filling of suits upon such claims. shall be retained by the licensee or permittee until he is specifically authorized in writing by the appropriate regulatory body to destroy the: Provided further. 7. however.5. 7. having actual knowledge of the fact required. 7.5.4 A log must kept of all operations during the experimental period.7 A log shall be kept in orderly manner in suitable form. who shall sign to log when starting duty and again when going off duty. that logs involving communications incident to a disaster or which include communications incident to or involved in an Investigation by the appropriate regulatory body and concerning which licensee or permittee has been notified. 7.6 Each log shall be kept by the person or persons competent to do so. that logs incident to or involved in any claim or complaints of the licensee or permittee has notice.5.
5.6. and indicate the date of correction.6.Is contained elsewhere in the log. Rough log(s) may be transcribed into condensed form but in such cases the original rough or memoranda and all portion(s) thereof shall be preserved and made part of the log. be employed by the SCA holders to activate the deactivatesubscribers multiplex receivers. Any necessary correction may be made only by the person originating the entry who shall strike out the erroneous portion. obligated. Subchannel leasing agreement shall be reduced to writing. 7. or willfully destroyed within the period of retention provided by the rules. initial the correction made. 7. Prior permission to engage in any new or additional activity must be obtained from the Authority pursuant to application therefore.1 Operation conducted under a Subsidiary Communication Authorization (SCA) shall conform to the uses and purposes authorized by the Authority in granting the SCA application. and made available for inspection upon request. 57 . with the right to reject any material which it deems inappropriate or undesirable. when authorized by the Authority.8 No log or portion thereof shall be erased. The use of these or any othercontrol techniques to delete main channel material is specifically forbidden. 7.2 Superaudible and subaudible tones and pulses may. the licensee or permittee must retain control over the station’s facilities. 7.3 In all arrangement entered in to with outside parties affecting SCA operation.6. kept at the station.
8 Program and operating logs for SCA operation may be kept on special columns provided on the station’s regular program and operating log sheets.5 To the extent that SCA circuits are used for transmission of program material. 7. that in the event of a change in the general description of the material transmitted. b. 58 .7. in any event. 7. 7.6. Time subcarrier generator is turned on. an entry shall be made in the SCA program log indicating the time of each such change and a description thereof. however. c. each licensee or permittee shall maintain a daily program log in which a general description of the material transmitted shall be entered once during each broadcast day. 7. Time modulation is applied to subcarrier.6.6.4 The logging announcements and other requirements imposed on logs and station identification are not applicable to material transmitted on authorized subcarrier frequencies. Time subcarrier generator is turned off. Provided.6. However.6 Each licensee or permitee shall maintain a daily operating log of SCA operation in which the following entries shall be made (excluding subcarrier interruptions of five minutes or less): a.7 The frequency of each SCA subcarrier shall be measured as often as necessary to ensure that it is kept at all times within 500 Hz of the authorized frequency. the measure shall be made at least once each calendar month with not more than 40 days expiring between successive measurements. d.6. Time modulation is removed from subcarrier.
A station in the broadcasting service operated for the purpose of retransmitting the signal of an FM radio broadcast station without significantly altering any characteristic of the incoming signal other than its frequency and power output. extra-heavy rains. Transmission of information concerning school closings and transportation problems.4 Primary FM station.7. floods. In addition. 7. at the discretion of the licensee and without further Commission authority. emergency point-to-point messages may e transmitted for the purpose of requesting or dispatching aid and assisting in rescue operations. 8.1.7 Operation During Emergency When necessary to the safety of life and property and in response to dangerous conditions of a general nature. 8.1 Definition of Terms 8. An FM broadcast translator station which rebroadcasts the signals of a commercial FM radio broadcast station. tidal waves.1.1.1 FM Broadcast Translator. widespread fires. Examples of emergency situations which may warrant either an immediate or delayed response by the license are: Tornadoes. 8. industrial explosions.1. is appropriate. and if requested by responsible pubic official.3 Non-commercial FM translator station. FM broadcast stations may. 8.2 Commercial FM translator station.9 Technical standards governing the SCA operation shall be observed by all FM broadcast stations engaging in such operation. transmit emergency weather warnings and other emergency information. FM BROADCAST TRANSLATORS AND SIGNAL BOOSTERS 8. widespread power failures. typhoons.6. earthquakes. An FM broadcast translator station which rebroadcasts the signals of a non-commercial FM radio broadcast station. In order to provide FM broadcast service to the general public. The FM radio broadcast station radiating the signals which are retransmitted by an FM broadcast translator station or by an FM booster 59 . and civil disorders. discharge of toxic gases.
2. 8. An FM broadcast booster station shall be located within the 1 millivolt per meter predicted flat terrain contour and within the 60 . A maximum of 2 translator stations may be licensed for each primary station. A station in the broadcasting service utilizing a signal booster that operates on the same frequency as the primary FM station.2. 8. 8.4 The technical characteristics of the retransmitted signals shall not be deliberately altered so as to hinder reception on conventional FM broadcast receivers.2.FM Translators provide a means whereby the signals of FM broadcast stations may be retransmitted to areas within the province in which direct reception of such FM broadcast stations is unsatisfactory due to distance or intervening terrain barriers. 8. 8.6 FM broadcast booster stations provide a means whereby an FM radio broadcast station may provide service to areas of low signal intensity in any region within the province.5 FM broadcast booster station.1 Purpose and Permissable Service .3 The transmissions of each FM translator shall be intended for direct reception by the general public and any other use shall be incidental thereto. Precautions shall be taken to avoid unintentional retransmission of such other signals. Means reception by radio of the program of a radio station.5 An FM translator shall not deliberately retransmit the signals of any station other than the station it is authorized by license to retransmit. 8.1. 8. The FM translator shall be located within the province in which its primary station is located. converted.station. and suitably amplified.2. The maximum translator power allowable is 100 watts.2 An FM translator may be used only for the purpose of retransmitting the signals of an FM broadcast station which is received directly through space.2.2.2 Licensing Policies 8. and the simultaneous or subsequent retransmission of such program by a broadcast station.6 Rebroadcast. 8.1.
An FM broadcast booster station is authorized to retransmit the signals of the primary station only.province in which its primary station is located. FM booster station or FM translator station as provided for in the FM radio frequency protection ratio.1 Unattended Operation A station authorized under this subpart may be operated without a licensed radio operator in attendance if the following requirements are met: 61 . 8.2.2. however. 8.2. that locally generated signals may be used to excite the booster apparatus for the purpose of conducting tests and measurements essential to the proper installation and maintenance of the apparatus.10 An authorization for FM translator station or booster station shall not be granted should the predicted 1 milivolt per meter field strength contour extend into the boundary of another province. 8. provided.8 An FM broadcast translator station or an FM booster station with a power of 100 watts or less may be operated by a person designated by and under the control of the licensee and not be a licensed operator. 8.9 An authorization for a commercial FM translator station or booster station shall not be granted if its signal shall interfere with any existing principal station. It shall not retransmit the signals of any other station nor make independent transmission. 8. Such stations will not be authorized to establish a point-to-point FM radio relay syatem. 8. The maximum allowable power of a booster station is 100 watts. A maximum of 2 booster stations may be licensed for each primary station.11 Each application for an FM broadcast booster station shall include a statement concerning the steps which have been taken in the design and location of the equipment to insure that the areas of service from the primary FM station will not be degraded by operation of FM booster station.2.7 The transmission of an FM broadcast booster station shall be intended for direct reception by the general public.3.2.3 Operational Requirements 8.
The on-and-off control (if at a location other than the transmitter site) and the transmitting apparatus shall be adequately protected against tampering by unauthorized persons. d. Such information shall be kept by the licensee. 8. 2. 8.2 Power Limitations a. The translator shall be equipped with suitable automatic circuits which will place it in a non-radiating condition in the absence of a signal on the input channel.a.3. The power output of the final radio frequency amplifier of a station authorized under this subpart shall not exceed 100 watts.) Stations employing multiple radio frequency amplifiers will be licensed as a single station provided that the total power output shall not exceed 100 watts.3.2 Emissions and Bandwidth a. The authority shall be supplied with the name. b. c. Standard width FM channels will be assigned and the transmitting apparatus shall be operated so as to limit spurious emissions to the lowest 62 . b.) No limit is placed upon the effective radiate power which may be obtained by the use of horizontally polarized directive transmitting antennas. should such action be deemed necessary by the Authority. An application for authority to construct a new station pursuant to this subpart or to make changes in the facilities of such a station. 1. address and telephone number of a person or persons who may be contacted to secure suspension of operation of the translator promptly. The license of an FM translator or FM booster station authorizes the transmission of either F3 or F9 emission (frequency modulation). which proposes unattended operation shall be include an adequate showing as to the manner of compliance with this section.
4 Consideration should be given to accessibility of the site at all times of the year and to the availability of facilities for the maintenance and operation of the FM translator.3. 1. Greater attenuation than that specified in paragraph c) of this subsection may be required if interferences result outside the assigned channel. antennas used to receive signals to be rebroadcast. c.) The frequency converter and associated amplifiers of an FM 63 . Applications for new station or for changes in the facilities of existing stations will not be accepted for filing unless the transmitting apparatus to be employed is type-accepted. 8. Transmitting antennas. b. Any emission including intermodulation products and radio frequency harmonics which are not essential for the transmission of the desired aural information shall be considered to be spurious emissions.practicable value. and transmission lines are not subject to the requirement for typeacceptance. The following requirements must be met before the translator or booster equipment will be type-accepted by the authority. c. 8.5 Equipment and Installation a. The power of emissions appearing outside the assigned channel shall be attenuated below the total power of the emission as follows: Distance of emission from center frequency 120 to 240 kHz Over 240 and up to 600 kHz Over 600 kHz Minimum Attenuation below unmodulated carrier 25 dB 35 dB 60 dB d.3.
2. shall be attenuated at least 60 decibels below the fundamental output carrier level.translator shall be so designed that the electrical characteristics of a standard FM signal. If a manual adjustment is provided to compensate for different average signals levels. The overall frequency response of the apparatus within its assigned channel when operating at its rated power output and measured at the output terminals. 3. introduced into the input terminals will not be significantly altered by passage through the apparatus except as to frequency and amplitude.) The local oscillator oscillators employed in the translator equipment shall. a label shall be affixed at the adjustment control 64 . shall provide a smooth curve. provision shall be made for determining the proper setting for thecontrol and if improper adjustment of the control could result in improper operations.) Radio frequency harmonics at the output terminals of the transmitter. varying within limits separated by no more than 3 decibels. 4.) The apparatus shall contain automatic circuits which will maintain the power output constant within 2 decibels when the level of the signal at the input terminals is v aried over a range of 40 decibels and which will not permit power output to exceed the maximum rated power output to exceed the maximum rated power output under any condition. when subjected to variations in ambient temperature between minus 30 degrees and plus 50 degrees centigrade and in primary supply voltage between 85 percent and 115 percent of the rated value. All other emissions appearing outside the assigned channel shall conform with the specifications set forth in paragraph (3) below. assuming zero variation of the received primary station signal from its assigned frequency. be sufficiently stable to maintain the output carrier frequency of translator within plus or minus 0.005 percent of its assigned frequency. including stereophonic subchannel.
shielding. 1) The local oscillator or oscillators employed in the exciter.bearing a suitable warning.005 percent of the frequency assigned to the primary station. shall be sufficiently stable to maintain the output center frequency of the exciter within plus or minus 0. 6) The amplifying devices employed in the final radio frequency amplifier shall be of the appropriate power rating to provide the rated power output of the transistor or booster. The automatic control may include a time . The normal operating constant s for operation at the rated power output shall be specified.delay feature to prevent interruption in the operation of the station caused by the fading or other momentary failures of the incoming signal. 2) Automatic means shall be provided for limiting the level of audio frequency voltage applied to the modulation to the modulator to insure that 65 . 7) Wiring. The exciter employed to provide a locally generated or modulated input signal to the transistor shall be type-accepted and shall meet the following specifications for type-acceptance by the authority. and in primary supply voltage between 85 percent and 115 percent of the rated value. and construction shall be in accordance with accepted principles of good engineering practice. d. when subjected to variations in ambient temperature between minus 30 degrees and plus 50 degrees centigrade. The apparatus shall be equipped with suitable meters or meter jacks so that appropriate voltage and current measurements may be made while the apparatus is in operation. either due to absence of a transmitter signal or failure of the receiving portion of the transistor or booster. 5) The apparatus shall be equipped with automatic controls which will place it in nonradiating condition when no signal is being received on the input channel.
h. are set forth by the Authority. shall be made only by a licensed technician or licensed engineer. The following procedures shall apply: 1) Any manufacturer of apparatus intended for use by a station authorized under this subpart may be request type-acceptance by following the procedures set forth by the Authority. 2) Apparatus for used by stations authorized under this subpart which has been type-accepted by the Commission will normally be authorized with-out additional measurements by the applicant. or technical measurements. shielding. g. such as the replacement of tubes.accepted apparatus may be made by a license technician or licensed engineer. modification of type-accepted equipment and limitations on the findings upon which type-acceptance is based. The installation of anFM translator or booster station employing the type . and construction shall be in accordance with accepted principles of good engineering practice. 3) Other rules concerning type-acceptance. Repairs which require the replacement of attached component adjustment of critical circuits. Simple repairs. e. including information regarding withdrawal of type-acceptance. 3) Wiring. Any test or adjustment which requires the radiation of signals for their completion and which could result in improper operation of the apparatus 66 . f. Type-acceptance will be granted only upon satisfactory showing that the apparatus is capable of meeting the requirements of paragraphs c) and d) of this sub-section.the frequency swing in excess in 75 kHz will not occur under any condition of modulation. fuses or other plug-in components and the adjustments of non-critical circuits which require no particular technical skill may be made by a qualified person.
i. Separate transmitting antennas are permitted if both horizontal and vertical polarization is not to be provided. 4) Any chane in the location of the translator or booster except the move within the same building or upon the same pole or tower. 3) Any change in the overall hieght fo the antenna structure. Formal application is re any quired for any of the following changes to be made on NTC Form in the case of FM broadcast translator station and FM broadcasts booster stations: 1) Replacement of the translator or booster as a whole. 8) Any changed of authorized transmitter operating output. 67 . No change. either mechanical or electrical. 8.shall be made by or under the immediate supervision of a licensed firstclass radio-telephone operator or licensed engineer. 6) Any change of input or output frequency of a translator. 2) A change in the transmitting antenna system including the direction of radiation or directive antenna pattern. 9) Any changed in any authorized principal community or area being served. The transmitting antenna may be designed to produce either horizontal or vertical polarization.3. 7) Any change of primary station of translator.7 Equipment Changes a. may be madein the FM translator or booster apparatus which has been type-accepted. 10) other equipment changes not specifically reffered to above. or combination of horizontal and vertical polarization. 5) Any horizontal change in the location of the antenna structure which would (i) be in excess of 500 ft or (ii) would require notice to the Air Transportation Office (ATO). b.
the licensee shall promptly notify the Authority in writing where the station is 68 . The output frequency of an FM booster station shall be the exact frequency of its primary station. Adjustment of the frequency determining circuits of an FM translator or booster shall be made by a licensed technician or licensed engineer in accordance with Subsection 7. An FM translator is not required to adhere to any regular schedule of operation.1. 8. the licensee of an FM translator is expected to provide a dependable service to the extent that such is within its control and to avoid unwarranted interruptions to the service provided. However.C 8. Time of operation a. If an FM translator station is Inoperative for 10 days or more. Frequency tolerance The licensee of an FM translator station shall maintain the center frequency at the output of the translator within 0. only equipment having the required stability will be approved for use by an FM translator or booster.18.104.22.168.4 Technical Operation and Operators 8. b. Frequency monitors and measurements a. b. The licensee of a station authorized under this subpart is not required to provide means for measuring the operating frequency of the transmitter.1.4. In the event that a station under this subpart is found to be operating beyond the frequency tolerance prescribed in Subsection 22.214.171.124.01 percent of its assigned frequency. However. the licensee shall promptly suspend operation of the station and shall not resume operation until the station has been restored to its assigned frequency.5.
Failure of an FM translator station to operate for a period of 30 days or more.4. shall be displayed at the translator or booster site on the structure supporting the transmitting antenna. Station inspection The licensee of a station authorized under this subpart shall make the station and the records required to be kept by the rules in this subpart available for inspection by representatives of the Authority.4. promptly describing the cause of the Inoperation and the steps being taken to place the translator in operation again and the licensee shall promptly when operation is resumed.5. if the licensee does not reside in the community served by the translator or booster. b. to any authorized representative of the Authority. so as to be visible to a person standing on the ground at the transmitter site.4. shall be deemed evidence of discontinuance of operation and the license of the station may be cancelled at the discretion of the Authority. Posting of station license a. address. The display shall be maintained in a legible condition by the licensee. c. 69 . and the name and address of a person and place where station records are maintained. d. An FM translator shall not be permitted to radiate during extended periods when signals of the primary station are not being retransmitted. and telephone number of the licensee or local representative of the licensee. 8. 8. except for causes beyond the control of the licensee. The call sign of the translator or booster together with the name. The station license and any other instrument of authorization or individual order concerning the construction of the station or the manner of operation shall be kept in the station records file maintained by the licensee so as to be available for inspection upon request.located.
In the event of malfunction. Including the current of authorization.2 The licensee of an FM translator shall not broadcast the programs of any FM broadcast station without obtaning prior consent of the primary station whose programs are proposed to be retransmitted. and other pertinent documents. the operation shnall immediately cause the operaton of the station to cease untill the malfunction is corrected or untill the conditions requiring suspension of operation are corrected.4.4. 8. b. contracts.5.6.5 Other Operating Requirements 8.7 Additional Orders In cases where the rules contained in this part do not cover all phases of operation or experimentation with respect to external effects.8. An operator holding a valid restricted radio telephone operator permit shall observe the operation of a station authorized under this subpart by obtaining reception of its transmissions.5. The authority 70 . The licensee of a station authorized under this subpart shall maintain adequate station records. the Authority may make supplemental or additinal orders in each case as may be deemed necessary. 8. permissions for rebroadcast. maintenance records. official correspondence with the authority. or upon notice by the authority. The records to be maintained where an antenna structure is required to be marked or lighted shall be governed by the provisions of the Air Transporttaion Office (ATO) c. b. 8. Station records shall be retained for a period of 2 years.1 Station Records a. Operator requirements a.
b. Standard Pre-Emphasis Curve Figure 3. corporation or single proprietorship including trade name as registered in the Department of Trade. 10. 9.3 An FM translator is ot authorized to rebroadcast the transmissions of any class of station other than a primary FM broadcast station. the NTC compilation of laws. regulations. the Public Information File shall be kept on file at each broadcats station and shall contain the following: a. Figure 2. 8.50) Field Strength Chart for FM Channels and Sliding scale for use with Figure 1. the Technician Standards.5. Documents as to mode of ownership whether partnership. c. e. circulars and memoranda. Prediction of Coverage Figure 1. or any other broadcaters organization. A copy of the station license. Evidence of membership in the KBP. F(50.6 PUBLIC INFORMATION FILE An updated Public Information File shall made available at all times to the NTC inspector or to any interested party. Copies of the program standards. 71 . ANNEXES A.shall be notified by the call letters of each stations rebroadcasts and the licensee of the FM translator shall certify that written consent has been received from the licensee of the station whose programs are retransmitted. Simple Form For Prediction of Service Area and Interference Studies. Documents on all changes of transmitter equipment. d. including the incorporated changes in the license and the corresponding of construction permits.
In predicting other field strengths over areas not in the horizontal plane.1. The chart is based on an effective power of 1-kilowatt radiated from a halfwave dipole in free space which produces an unattenuated field strength at 1. the F(50.1.50) chart gives the estimated 50 percent field intensities exceeded at 50 percent of the locations in decibels above 1-microvolt per meter.1. Dividers may be used in lieu of the sliding scale.50) field intensity chart (figure 1).6 kilometers of about 103 dB above 1-microvolt per meter (137. To use the chart for other powers.6 millivolts per meter). If the 50 percent field intensity is defined as that value exceeded for 50 percent of the time. the effective radiated power to be used is that in the horizontal plane in the pertinent direction. the appropriate vertical plane radiation pattern must. Prediction of coverage A. the sliding scale associated with the chart should be trimmed and used as the ordinate scale. and the chart then becomes direct reading (in microvolt per meter and dB above 1 microvolt per meter for this power and antenna height. this F(50. The sliding scale is placed on the chart with the appropriate graduation for power in line with the horizontal 40 dB line on the chart. A. A.1. In predicting the distance to the field strength contours.2. 72 . The right edge of the scale is placed in line with the appropriate antenna height graduations. of course. shall be used. the signal strength or distance is determined by the interpolation between the curves connecting the equidistant scale.ANNEX A 1. In predicting the distance to the field stregth contours.3.. be considered in determining this power. All predictions of coverage made pursuant to this section shall be made without regard to interferences and shall be made only on the basis of estimated field strengths.) Where the antenna height is not provided. the effective radiated power to be used is the power in the direction of such areas.
However. This may be obtained by averaging a large number of equally spaced points. and the graphs should be plotted with the distance in kilometers as the abscissa and the elevation in meters above mean sea level as the ordinate. it is not necessary to take the curvature of the earth into consideration in this procedure as this factor is taken care of in the charts showing signal strength. At least one radial must include the principal community to be served even though such a community may be more than 16-kilometers from the antenna site. for each radial. by using a planimeter. then one or more such radials are drawn in addition to the eight evenly spaced radials. The radials should be drawn for each 45 degrees of azimuth starting with True North. 73 .1. in the event none of the evenly spaced radials include the principal community to be served.5.1. A. In cases where the terrain in one or more directions from the antenna site departs widely from the average elevation of 3 to 16 kilometers sector. or obtaining the median elevation (that exceeded for 50 percent of the distance) in sectors and averaging these values. The profile graph should indicate the topography accurately for each radial. the elevations between 3 and 16 kilometers from the antenna site are employed. The average elevation of the 13-kilometer distance between 3 and 16 kilometers from the antenna site should then be determined from the profile graph. Profile graphs shall be drawn for eight radials beginning at the antenna site and extending 16-kilometers therefrom.A. the predicted method may be indicate contour distances that are different from what may be expected in practice. The antenna height to be used with this chart is the height of the radiation center of the antenna above the average terrain along the radial in question. such additional radials shall not be employed in computing the antenna height above average terrain. In determining the average elevation of the terrain. a mountain ridge may indicate the practical limit of service although the prediction method may indicate otherwise.4. For example.
STATIONS ALLOCATION OF FREQUENCIES FOR FM BROADCAST Channel-designation of FM broadcast frequencies are shown in the table shown in the table below.7 98.5 89.9 90.3 88.1 99.3 89.1 74 .7 89.1 Channel No.1 89.9 92.3 91.3 98.7 101.1 88.3 99.Table 1.5 88.5 91.9 99.3 101.9 91.1 98.1 100.9 101.5 98.7 100. Frequency(MHz) 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 Frequency(MHz) 88.1 101.7 90. 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 269 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 98.7 99.1 91.1 90.9 89.9 100.5 90.7 91.3 90.7 88.9 102.5 99.5 101.3 100. Channel No.5 100.
9 95.5 97.9 96.7 102.5 106.9 104.3 102.1 97.7 93.9 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 102.5 102.1 106.1 95.5 104.7 97.3 93.5 92.9 93.222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 92.7 96.7 94.9 97.3 106.9 105.1 96.7 95.3 95.5 94.3 105.1 93.3 96.5 107.1 104.1 107.5 103.7 107.9 107.7 103.9 103.3 97.9 106.9 94.5 95.1 105.3 103.7 105.5 105.7 92.5 96.5 93.1 94.3 107.7 104.3 94.9 75 .7 106.3 92.1 103.3 104.
FM Studio Layout 77 .b.
c. Block Diagram for FM Radio 78 .
Antenna power gain – it means the square of the ratio of the rms free space field strength produced at 1. Center frequency – it is the average frequency of the emitted wave when modulated by using a sinusoidal signal.d. Field intensity – it is the electric field intensity in the horizontal direction. Main channel – the band of frequency from 50 to 15000 Hz which frequency modulate the main carrier. Effective radiated power (ERP) – it is the product of the transmitter power and the antenna power gain or the antenna field gain square. 79 .6 mV/m. Pilot subcarrier – it serves as a control signal for use I reception of FM stereophonic broadcasts. in mV/m. in the absence of waves reflected from the earth or other reflecting objects. Crosstalk – An undesired signal occurring in one channel caused by an electrical signal in another channel. FM stereophonic broadcast – the transmission of a stereophonic program by a single FM broadcast station utilizing the main channel and stereophonic subchannel. Frequency swing – it means the instantaneous departure of the frequency of emitted wave from the center frequency resulting from the modulation.6 km in the horizontal plane. Multiplex transmission – it means the simultaneous transmission of two or more signals within a single channel. Free space field intensity – it is the field intensity that would exist the point.6 km in the horizontal plane expressed in mV/m for 1 kW antenna input power to 137. GLOSSARY FM Broadcast Terminology Antenna Height Above Average Terrain (HAAT) – It is the height of the radiation center of the antenna above the terrain 3 to 16 kilometers from the antenna. Antenna field gain – it is the ratio of the effective free space field intensity produced at 1.
Authorized frequency – the carrier frequency authorized by the authority. Authorized Operating Power – “Authorized operating power” is the power authorize by the authority. by the transmission of only a right (or left) signal. to the electrical signal caused in the right (or left) stereophonic channel. Daytime – “daytime” the term refers to the period of time between 2200 Universal Time Coordinates (UTC) to 1000 Universal Time Coordinates (UTC) or 6:00 AM to 6:00 PM local standard time. Maximum Rated Carrier Power – “Maximum Rated Power” Is the maximum power at which the transmitter can be operated satisfactorily and is determined by the design of the transmitter. Operating frequency – the carrier frequency at any particular time. Modulator stage – “modulator stage” means the last audio amplifier stage of the modulating wave which modulates a radio-frequency stage. Stereophonic subchannel – the band of frequencies from 23 to 53 KHz containing the stereophonic subcarrier and its associated sidebands. 80 .Service Area – it refers to the area bounded by a field intensity that is equal or greater than the minimum value necessary to permit a desired reception quality in the presence noise and interference. Operating power – “Operating power” is the transmitting output power. an from which the RF Protection Ratio is extended. Stereophonic subcarrier – it is the second harmonic of the pilot subcarrier frequency in which is employed in FM stereophonic broadcasting. Modulated Stage – “modulated stage” means the radio frequency stage to which the modulator is coupled and in which the continuous carrier wave is modulated in accordance with the system of modulation and the characteristic of the modulating wave. Stereophonic Separation – it is the ratio of electrical signal caused in the right (or left) stereophonic channel.
Experimental Period – the term “Experimental Period” means that the time between 12 midnight to 5:00 AM local standard time or 1600 to 2100 Universal Time Coordinates (UTC) Spurious Emission – the emission of any frequency outside of the assigned channel or authorized band of frequencies and tolerances allowed by these regulations. Authority – the National Telecommunications Commission. as a result of the modulating process. Emission outside the assigned channel. unless it is due to overmodulation. is not considered spurious.Nighttime – the term “nighttime” refers to the period of time between 1000 Universal Time Coordinates (UTC) to 2200 Universal Time Coordinates (UTC) or 6:00 AM to 6:00 PM local standard time. 81 .
REFERENCES Books Blake. Ampoloquio. Communications Engineering Black Book J. Electronic Communication Systems (2nd Edition) C. Soon.e.J. Electronic Communications Engineering (Superbook) 82 .
Curriculum Vitae Personal Information Name: Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Age: Sex: Religion: Citizenship: RANDY J.March 2003 Date: June 2003 .R. ALARCON 13 June 1986 Palico II.Present Imus Pilot Elementary School Primary Education Affiliations ECE-DSG IECEP ECE-Quizzards MAPS 5th Yr. Imus. Cavite 21 Male Roman Catholic Filipino Education Electronics and Communications Engineering Technological Institute of the Philippines Imus Institute Secondary Education Date: June 1993 .Present June 2005 . Representative Member Treasurer P.Present Oct 2006 .f.O. July 2007 .Present 83 .Present July 2006 .March 1999 Date: June 1999 .
Present Romblon State College Secondary Education Odiongan South Central Elementary School Primary Education Date: June 1993 .March 2003 Date: June 2003 .March 1999 Affiliations Academic Scholar IECEP ECE-Quizzards MAPS Member Member P. CABRERA 22 Febraury 1986 Odiongan.Present Oct 2006 . Romblon 21 Male Aglipayan Filipino Education Electronics and Communications Engineering Technological Institute of the Philippines Date: June 1999 .O.Present June 2005 .Present July 2006 . June 2003 .Present “ 84 .Personal Information Name: Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Age: Sex: Religion: Citizenship: KEITH GREEN F.R.
Bicol 21 Female Roman Catholic Filipino Education Electronics and Communications Engineering Technological Institute of the Philippines Date: June 1999 .Present S. Camarines Norte.Personal Information Name: HANNA MAE M.Present San Francisco National High School (former Vinzons Pilot High School-Annex) Secondary Education Zantua-Abordo Elem. Y.March 2003 Date: June 2003 . 2006 .March 1999 Affiliations TIP UASA IECEP UASA Treasurer Member Member S. School Primary Education Date: June 1993 .2007 85 .Y.Y. CAMBRONERO Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Age: Sex: Religion: Citizenship: 22 May 1986 Talisay. 2006 . 2006-2007 S.
Fontamillas Irma F. FONTAMILLAS 27 Feb. Fontamillas Filipino Address : Religion : Father’s Name : Mother’s Name: Citizenship: Education PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARY : Odiongan South Central Elementary School (1993 – 2000) : Rombon National High School (2000 – 2003) : Technological Institute of the Philippines (2003 – present) Affiliations IECEP TIPMSC and EMMC Member Math and Physics Society Member 86 . Valenzuela City Iglisia Filipina Independiente Charlie F. 1986 21 Tamarraw Hills.Personal Information Name : Birthday : Age : CHARLZ F.
IECEP-TIPMSC MEMBER. MALATE 24 September 1986 20 419 Real St. IECEP-EMMSC. Las Pinas City Christian Malate. Josefina D. Robotics Society 87 . Filipino Education PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARY : Las Pinas Elementary School : Las Pinas National HighSchool : Technological Institute of the Philippines Affiliations MEMBER. Malate. Pulanlupa.Personal Information Name: Birthday: Age: Address: Religion: Father’s Name: Mother’s Name: Citizenship: ERICKSON D. Francisco S.
Manila Roman Catholic Ronald S. 1986 21 Antipolo St. Sta. Rosalinda S. Cruz.Personal Information Name : Birthday : Age: Address: Religion : Father’s Name : Mother’s Name: JETT – RETT S. SANTOS September 16. Santos Education PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARY : Esperitu Santo Parochial School (1993 – 2000) : Manuel Luis Quezon High School (2000 – 2003) : Technological Institute of the Philippines (2003 – present) Affiliations IECEP TIPMSC and EMMC Member Ministry of the Altar Servers (KOA/MOA) 88 . Santos Ma.
School Primary Education Date: June 1993 .Present 89 .Present S.Y. 2007-2008 S.March 2003 Date: June 2003 .Present Barosong National High School Secondary Education Barosong Elem.Personal Information Name: Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Age: Sex: Religion: Citizenship: Antipas T. 2006-2007 S.Y. Tigbauan. Y. Iloilo 20 Male Roman Catholic Filipino Education Electronics and Communications Engineering Technological Institute of the Philippines Date: June 1999 . Teologo Jr. Representative President Member VP-External scholar S. 2003 .March 1999 Affiliations TIP VOICE ECE-DSG ECE QUIZZARDS IECEP MAPS DOST Associate Editor 4th Yr.Y. 2006 . 14 December 1986 Barosong. 2006-2007 S. Y.Y. 2007-2008 S.
Personal Information Name : Birthday : Age: Address: Religion: Father’s Name: Mother’s Name: Citizenship: AARON M. Monton Filipino Education PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARY : Santol Elementary School (1993 – 2000) : Lapaz National High School (2000 – 2003) : Technological Institute of the Philippines (2003 – present) Affiliations IECEP TIPMSC and EMMC Member 90 . 1986 20 Bunga Tanza Cavite ROMAN CATHOLIC Rodello S. TIRO October 02. Tiro Celestina R.
Personal Information Name : Birthday : Age: Address: Religion: Father’s Name : Mother’s Name: Citizenship: KRISTINE JD A. Virtudez Cheryll A. Virtudez Filipino Education PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARY : Corpus Christi School (1992 – 1999) : Pilgrim Christian College (1999 – 2003) : Technological Institute of the Philippines (2003 – present) Affiliations IECEP Quizzards IECEP TIPMSC and EMMC Member Math and Physics Society Member 91 . VIRTUDEZ 10 July 1985 20 4F Anita Bldg. Juanito B. Pandacan. Manila Roman Catholic Maj.
March 1999 Date: June 1999 . Cruz. Marinduque 21 Female Roman Catholic Filipino Education Electronics and Communications Engineering Technological Institute of the Philippines Malindig Institute Secondary Education Date: June 1993 . 2006 . YAO 14 July 1986 Balogo Sta.Present Balogo Elementary School Primary Education Affiliations IECEP ECE-Quizzards Member Member S.2008 92 .Present S.Personal Information Name: Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Age: Sex: Religion: Citizenship: JAY LYN A. 2007 .March 2003 Date: June 2003 .Y. Y.
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