After this unit you should be able to answer following questions A. Concept Questions B. Short notes 1. Containerization 2.

Nodal Points 3. Principles of transportation 4. Transportation policy 5. Freight rate structure 6. Inland Container Depots 7. Transportation infrastructure 8. Transportation modes 9. Material handling 10.Inter modal transport 11.Piggyback, fishy back, birdy back 12.TOFC, COFC 13.Unit train 14.Milkruns C. Section II descriptive questions [10 marks each] 1. What is transportation mode? Describe various modes of transportation, their advantages and cost elements. 2. Explain various pricing factors for transportation. 3. What is transportation performance? Distinguish between DRP & MRP.

What factors are required to be taken into account while selecting mode of transport to achieve minimum cost? Explain.

5. What is an inland container depot [ICD]? What type of coordination with transportation will be required?

Discuss principles and functions of transportation.


7. What is transportation environment and who are the participants in transportation decisions?
8. 9.

Explain transportation infrastructure. What are nodal points? What is their significance in transportation network? Explain how Selection of Carrier is done? Transportation


11. How transportation policy is chalked out for a company? Transportation functionality Transportation is the most visible of all functions of logistics and high contributor to logistics cost. We can see trucks, containers and wagonloads of material being moved from place to place as an activity directly associated with trade and business. We should also appreciate that this is an activity that adds highest amount of cost to the activity of making inputs and outputs available to consumers. Transportation function moves the products to meet customer expectations at minimum cost. Functions of transportation 1. Product movement: What is moved? Raw Material, Semi Finished items, WIP, Finished goods, packaging material, rejected material - movement is required up or down the supply chain. How is this done? What Resources are used? Resources used by transportation: A. Temporal - product is locked up during transit, hence inaccessible. We have to spend a positive amount of time in transporting the material. Time is a


resource [temporal resource] that is expended in transportation. During the time the product is locked up costs are incurred in proportion to the time B. Financial - several cost elements like administration costs, salaries, maintenance costs are expended. Loss on account of product loss and damage also needs to be accounted for. Fuel consumed is a big cost in transportation C. Environmental – this activity is a fuel guzzler, eats up natural fuels like oil, directly and indirectly. - 67% of all domestic fuel usage in the US is by transportation activity. Creates congestion, air pollution and noise pollution. Environmental cost is tangible and substantially intangible. As transportation utilizes temporal, financial and environmental resources items must be moved only when product value is enhanced 2. Product Storage: Temporary storage in stationary vehicles or Vehicles kept moving on a circuitous route - Product storage is expensive in a transport vehicle. But some times keeping overall cost in mind this is adopted. A. When unloading and loading is more expensive than storage B. When storage space is limited. [Situation when inventory levels are very high] Principles of transportation 1. Economy of scale


The fixed costs and costs like overheads of loading and unloading are spread over the distance through which the load is moved. When alternate transportation strategies are evaluated to meet customer service expectation. They are 1. These parties have very important roles to play in transportation environment. Hence in order to gain benefits in terms of reduction in transportation costs logistician tries to consolidate the bulk and then ship the consignment rather than shipping half truck loads or half container loads. Carrier is the service provider who carries the consignment from shipper to consignee. 4 . Economy of distance The transportation cost per kilometer comes down as the distance moved increases. Hence transportation is planned in a single long lap rather than number of short laps to reach the destination. But a transportation decision has number of parties to the decision. Parties to a transportation decision are those who have a stake in the transportation. Consignee is the party to whom the goods are sent 3. This benefit is Economy of scale 2. buyer and directly or indirectly government.It is common knowledge that per unit transportation cost comes down as the bulk of the items transported increases. They are seller. Shipper: shipper is a party who wants to transport the goods to his customer in a business transaction 2. economy of scale and economy of distance are fundamental. Participants in Transportation Decisions Normal commercial transaction has limited number of parties to the business decision.

They are the basic elements of transportation. He adds value to the supply chain by moving the material from supplier to the customer. 5. at the same time benefits to reach uniformly all over the country. minimum taxation. Flexibility in pick up and delivery times to consolidate movement. minimum cost. Public want goods produced at different parts of not only country but also world. These are the needs of the above parties. They also have to provide the necessary 5 . Their demand cannot be met without transportation. Economic prosperity to the society is the objective of the government of the day. Carriers’ strike in our country is a repetitive phenomenon to protest against role of government. Government: government while playing their role exercise control on all the players.4. General public is another party who has a large stake in the transaction involving transportation. He gets paid for his service. fuel and vehicle costs. Government represents general public whose interest they have to protect. Government also collects tax on the transaction. Roles and perspective of each party Shipper and consignee: Predictable and minimum transit time. Business between them initiates the need for transportation Carrier: What does he want? Revenue maximization and cost [labor. Carrier facilitates the business between shipper and consignee. specified pick up and delivery times. Government has a role to play as they are keenly interested in transportation and have a stake in it. zero loss and damage. timely exchange of information and invoicing. Transportation makes business happen which is fundamental to the economy of any society. They want the business to flourish. They look at transportation from this angle. taxation] minimization.

Government owned carrier service is probably the cheapest option for transportation available to business. When these parties with separate and distinct interests interact transportation environment is created. Government supports transportation by providing a network of roads. Government controls carrier rates and licenses. oil spills due tankers carrying cargo of crude oil. Eg. Airports and ATC. They have concern for safety as accidents of various kind have been a bye product of transportation.infrastructure to support transportation. Conflict of interests raises issues that interrupt smooth transport of goods in the country. Ultimately the consumer. Public What do public want? • Public as consumers trigger transportation activity by demanding products and services of high quality from all over the world at minimum cost. Government as the main arbiter steps in to iron out these differences in the interests of business. general public. Degradation of the environment is another threat about which public are concerned as transportation is at the root cause of many such concerns. has to bear the burden of tax. rise of noise levels. Hunger deaths in India in spite of self-sufficiency in food production are examples to illustrate the interest of the government. Degradation of atmosphere and water. Ports and Harbors. It is said that one of the causes that expedited the break up of Soviet Union was the weak infrastructure on account of which products could not be transported to far-flung parts of the country. What is transportation mode? 6 . Government wants taxes to support above activities in national interest.

The vehicle used indicates all other parameters of the mode. Mode of transport determines the transit time and thereby influences these costs • Obsolescence: Specially. Mode selection is an important decision in transportation strategy as it has an impact on cost transportation. We know 7 . March of bullock cart mode to mode of aviation is the contribution of Science & Technology to logistics performance. when the transit time is quite large the inventory can become redundant when it arrives at the point of use. These modes have emerged over a period of time representing changes in technology and contemporary business environment. If ship is the vehicle used. Longer the inventory is in transit larger are the costs. Pipeline & Air are well known modes of transport extensively used in logistics. Various important features of these modes like transportation time are discussed elsewhere in these notes.Mode of transport identifies transportation method or form. then we know that it is associated with other parameters of transport like water. ports etc. Science & Technology have played major role in development of these modes and relevant infrastructure. smoothness of passage & flexibility Impact of transportation mode on other costs associated with transportation • Movement costs: cost of power to drive the vehicle of transport depends on the mode selected • Inventory costs: It is quite clear that inventory holding costs are temporal costs and are directly proportional to the transit time. Rail. There are several options available now for moving goods and services from one place to another. risk or liability. transit time. Road. Transit capital remains blocked during transit time and unavailable for use. We can say such important features are. Water.

• • • • • Packaging: These costs are mode dependent as bad road condition needs robust packaging and smooth transit does not need such packaging. Insurance: This cost obviously proportional to risk of damage and loss in transit as this is the liability of carrier. In other words it is only cost and not value. But the current thinking is to reduce response time to customer need rather than increase the stock. This is done by improving information flow to anticipate demand and reduce transit time by changing to faster mode of transport. When we try to raise customer service level costs are incurred. This will also depend on handling system. So customer service should be raised to be able to meet customer expectations. as costs of inventory are well understood. But rise in customer service beyond a certain level does not result into increased revenue. Breakage: This depends on smoothness of transit and handling system associated with the mode. The second method is cheaper than the conventional. Other situations are product deterioration time & expiration date of the product. 8 . Pilferage: This cost can be eliminated by switching to options like container transport Customer Service Costs: Shortage of product when demanded by the customer leads to customer dissatisfaction and thereby loss of sale for the company. Conventionally.that in the changed environment. product life cycles are shrinking and hence this cost becomes highly relevant. companies stockpile to raise service level.

For transportation to take place a strong infrastructure is primary. limitations on speed.trucks. Rails. Prime movers – the powerhouses moving the vehicle of transport shortage of which seriously affect transportation. railway yards Vehicles. • Carrier organizations – are the transportation service providers in business. How do we measure relative importance of each mode? We measure relative importance of each mode as of now or over a specific time span by 9 . If we use this particular passage. weight. Shortage of good locomotives impairs the utility of railway as a mode of transport.passage to move on. Good service provides a vital fillip to business and trade. If this infrastructure is inadequate transportation gets slowed down resulting into a major obstacle in the growth of trade and business in that area. shape & speed Right of way.Transport infrastructure Infrastructure is the main facilitator for any activity to take place. roads. platforms. ships or wagons depending on the mode. Their size. Transportation is their core business. What are various features of modes or modal characteristics? Modal characteristics are features of a particular mode that indicate the relative importance of that mode. airways. Elements of transportation infrastructure • • • • Terminal facilities .well maintained loading unloading facilities. shipping lines are service providers. Railways. airlines. roadways. space for movement of vehicles. height etc. By measuring these features one can determine the relative importance of each mode.

As a result rail net work is facing very stiff competition there. If we try to compare these figures with US a much more prosperous economy. nature of traffic composition and revenue. RAIL NET WORK Rail network is fully owned and operated by the government in India. In simple terms how many rupees worth material is shipped in this mode. thereby being an important mode of transport in the country. System mileage: Mileage covered by the modal net work. Nature of traffic composition: what variety of goods are moved by this mode is a measure to indicate the spectrum of goods handled. we find that 37. Modal characteristics are System mileage. This is a better measure as this indicates the tonnage shipped by this mode as well.4% of ton-miles moved were by rail in 1990. Revenue: is the amount of transportation business in rupees or dollars transacted by a mode. Post world war business experienced auto boom and rapid spread of road network in the US. Rail network accounts for 226 billion tonne kilometres and 55.measuring the modal characteristics. This a major step for facilitating movement of goods through out the country at a very low cost for promoting trade & business in the country. This speaks of the flexibility of the mode. Traffic volume: is the amount of ton kilometers moved by a mode. This trend is quite relevant in India too which has forced the railways to assume a 10 . Traffic volume. Importance is the popularity or wide spread usage of this mode in business.8% of total tonne kilometers moved in 1982 in India. Like total length of roads in the road network in miles or kilometers is System mileage for road as a mode. Rail net work stands for maximum tonne kilometers moved in India now. This measure explains to what extent road is being used or how popular in business as a mode of transport today.

inter modal transport by railways through alliances and acquisition is practiced to provide hassle free service to customers.containers in two levels 11 . To capitalize on this basic advantage railways focus on specific products rather than on broad range. • • • • • Enclosed tri-level automobile car Cushioned appliance cars Unit trains .friendly posture in terms of service offered to customers who were taken for granted by the administration until now. Wooing raw material extractive industries that are away from waterways is an example of this customer friendly policy. Double stack containers. We can see an example of this practice in courier business. Development of Specialized Equipment: as a result of above change in thinking several special equipment are developed to attract customer in an environment of competition. All of these are in vogue in the US and some can be seen in India. It will not be very long before we see all of them here. Articulated cars .entire train carrying a single product that can go directly to the customer without getting shunted off in marshaling yards. Various modes of transport are used for taking the parcel to the addressee by this business. terminals but it operates with low running costs. In the US.flexible units with extended chassis that can hold ten containers. switching yards. Rail network needs a high capital investment due to right of way.

Nodal points should be well connected by rail network. Some characteristics of nodal points are as under. Such materials are coal. Nodal points should be closer to consumption points. There should be facilities for loading. 1. state also has the responsibility to distribute essential commodities through the public distribution system [PDS]. state exercises immense influence on the national economy. Rail network is the cheapest mode of transport for hauling bulk material in the country. fertilizer. 3. steal. cement etc that are to be made available at consumption centers. unloading. Bulk of material transported is either produced or in some form controlled by the state. if the state develops some facilities or nodes. KKK. necessary facility for inter modal handling. large amount of benefit may be derived by way of movement consolidation. Number of nodal points would depend on volume of distribution. Problems of our distribution system are well known what is produced never reaches the consumer in time and in good shape. State also owns the network of railways that encompasses entire country. 2. On the other hand. State owned rail network could link these nodes to the best advantage of state and thereby to that of national economy.Nodal points in distribution system [ref. Hunger deaths in a country that is self sufficient in food production is the indicator of our national logistical performance. Shipments from the nodal points would be by road in trucks or bullock carts 4. Hence the responsibility for logistics of those items falls on the state. Terminal and shunting facilities are required at these places. Nodal points should be connected to consumption centers by roads 12 . In the value chain of such commodities. Too many would be costly and too less would not make the desired change. pages [343 to 350] In the context of Indian economy. in spite of liberalization.

In India.5. Its popularity is growing everyday. Development of such nodal points in the country would give a shot in the arm to logistical operations in the country for essential commodities and bulk materials. As there is no need for shunting and waiting for.8% by railways.2 billion tonne kilometers in 1982. as in railways road transport reaches the goods to the consignee very fast. This is 44. 13 . as we saw earlier. nodal points are district headquarters where necessary operational support can easily be available. 6. High flexibility and speed: this is the strength of roadways. generally 200kms separate one nodal point from another. Nor any other mode can handle the variety as roadways do. No other mode can connect any given pair of shipper & consignee as roadways. post world war. So. Important features of this mode of transport are discussed below. Nodal points service an area with a radius of 100kms. Normally. roadways moved 179. ROAD TRANSPORT Road transport is rapidly pulling the carpet from under the feet of railways.2% of total tonne kilometres moved by all modes as against 55.

Now as more and more truck manufactures have come into business this difficulty is likely to be short lived. Disputes with government: on account of conflicting interests between the parties to transportation decision.Ultimate mode of transport: irrespective of the mode chosen ultimately the consignment reaches the doorsteps of the customer by road Low capital cost as compared to railways: railways obviously need huge amount of capital for setting up the infrastructure needed for movement of goods by rails. Vehicle availability: limited availability of trucks poses a constraint. This feature along with flexibility forms the formidable strength of this mode. Occasional fuel shortages: as the fuel is not available in full measure in the country internally. Maintenance and spares costs and availability of service facilities: as the road network is quite extended and reaches deep in the rural India nonavailability of such services is a problem. There is a feeling that this law is now outdated and new legislation should made to tackle the challenge of current business environment 14 . scarcity is experienced once in a while. Octroi posts are notorious for delays and harassment of carriers Old Motor Vehicles Act: the legislation that controls movement of vehicles on the roads is an important law for this business. We have experience of transportation contractors or carriers going on strikes to project their problems with the government. This feature makes roadways ideal for small shipments over short distances. Octroi: is a long-standing grouse of carriers. Operating costs are higher: due to fuel requirement and higher labor requirement.

accidents and damage. Mechanized water transport came into being in the form of steamships since 1800. Main advantage of water transportation is its capacity to move extremely large shipments at a very low cost. • • • • Low capital costs and low operating costs Low speed Capacity to carry huge bulk Limitation due to availability of harbor 15 . Construction of expressways and a national grid of highways is another important step in this direction. Main features of water transport are the following. Restrictive permits: carriers resent restrictive regime of permits and licenses imposed by the government all over the country. diesel driven ships came into existence since1920. Lack of policy. WATER TRANSPORT This mode is the link between countries separated by water. rivers or canals. lack of clarity in thinking receding water levels in rivers and tough competition offered by other modes of transport appear to be the hurdles.Bad and unsafe road conditions: pathetic condition of our roads a major stumbling block for business which causes delays. Developments in this area Entry of several manufacturers of trucks and trailers is relieving the strain from this business. Inland water Transport is not used to its full potential in India although we have used mechanized Inland Water Transport [IWT] since early 1800. Business is known to have existed between far off lands for a long time in the past. Water transport is classified into deep-water transportation and navigable inland water transportation or domestic water transportation on lakes. Sailing vessels existed since far away times.

coal slurry. Pipe lines are stationary 16 .cement by hydraulic suspension Main features of this mode of transport • • • Reliable all weather means of transport Low energy consumption Pipeline being under ground space occupation is minimal Pipeline operates all the time except when it is shut down for maintenance No empty container or wagon to be brought back Highest fixed costs.000 km of pipeline exists in India for crude and petroleum products. crude. Pulverized dry bulk material . lime. Gases and vapors . iron ore. In India pipelines are extensively used for transporting crude and petroleum products. vapors and solids in powder form are also transported in pipelines. in India LPG pipeline is in existence. petroleum products are transported in a pipeline. Slurries . • • • • Not flexible by nature. and lowest operating costs [not labor intensive]. More than 5. huge quantity of water is necessary which is a concern for environment.• • • Maneuverability is low due to size Deep-water ships designed for ocean and lakes are limited to deep-water ports Shallow water vessels like diesel towed barges are flexible but are limited by their range of operations and speed PIPELINES What is transported in a pipeline? Generally liquids like oils. In India pipeline is used for transporting iron ore. In addition to the products above slurries.natural gas. gases. LPG. due to right of way and laying of pipeline.

Rope way connects point of supply and demand by shortest route. AIR TRANSPORT Generally. Products can be shipped directly from the factory as time is of high importance 17 . This mode is good when gradients are steep as road or rail would take a very long route to negotiate the gradient. • Test marketing is easy. Moving entire facility to meet peek demand. Rope way causes minimum ecological imbalance.perishables market in gulf countries • Overcomes the hassle and cost of setting up depots and service centers overseas • Full potential of peak seasonal demand can be exploited. Fruits produced in hilly area are brought to the low land for further transportation to consumption centers. this transport mode is used in emergency rather than in normal times. • Speed of transport is highest highest • Fixed costs are lower than rail or road or pipe line. This mode of transport can release capacity of other modes for transport for essential commodities ROPE WAYS Used for transporting materials in hilly and otherwise inaccessible area. But operating costs are • Air transport brings distant markets closer .• • Physical state of the commodity to be transported is a limitation.

Some of the principles are commercial nature and some of them are structured by the state. Hilly roads. Vehicle utilization: Carrier likes to gain maximum mileage out of his vehicle. C.Freight rate structure Freight rates are transportation rates charged by carriers for shipping the goods to the consignees premises. If vehicle is idle it is a big loss to the carrier organization. bad roads. Damage to the vehicle and also the cargo. Hence the carrier would like to run his vehicle at top speed to cover max. Semi fixed costs: • Salaries of the staff • Miscellaneous maintenance expenses directly related to running of the transport vehicle. These rates are structured round some principles. E. Variable costs: • Cost of fuel and lubricants • Maintenance directly attributable to a particular trip.g. Fixed costs: • Interest on capital invested in the fleet • Depreciation • Insurance premium • Administrative overheads and expenses on fixed facilities B. Principle of freight rates: 1. Should cover actual cost of transportation: fundamental principle is that the rate should cover the cost without fail. Factors influencing cost of transportation A. Distance at min 18 . war effected sea routes 2.

time. If the destination is known for this kind of delays carrier would charge higher rates. Normally if the destination is a production center one would always find return trip to consumption center. When the load has an odd shape speed of the vehicle is reduced to accommodate the center of gravity.]: a delay at the terminal brings down vehicle utilization as the vehicle is idling. Hence vehicle can not be driven fast. If the destination does not offer opportunity for a return load carrier asks for a higher rate as would not be able to utilize his vehicle during return trip. • Density. consignment light by weight: when the consignment is light by weight the truck becomes full without full load being loaded. While structuring the rates carrier would like to charge more if opportunity for maximum utilization is limited. 3. • Obtaining a return load [market factors]. O • Nature of goods. Hence rates are high when such goods are shipped. Such goods are detrimental to the safety of the transport vehicle and operating staff. So he hikes his rates when the consignment is light. formalities. But the cost incurred by the shipper while 19 . Quote higher rates if following are not conducive to the above • Road conditions are bad. Traffic Bearing Capacity: transportation adds value by making the product available to the customer. But the other way round probability of return load is very low. for loading unloading (handling) etc. shape and size of the product. • Terminal detentions [congestion. hazardous. This brings down the utilization apart from being risky. • Stowability. insurance]. corrosive[liability. Hence the carrier doesn’t get paid for the full load.

20 .transporting should not outweigh the value added. ♦ Area of operation. 6. 4. The freight is expected to generate enough money to cover all these requirements. The carrier structures rates keeping this principle in mind. Selection of Carrier Following care is to be taken while selecting a carrier for shipping the consignment to the consignee. Government Policy: freight rates are controlled by the state for promotion of certain type of trade and development of certain type of industry as per the industrial policy prevalent at that time. capital investment and margin for reasonable return on investment. Profit: Freight rate should cover costs of operation. Is it professional? Family or proprietorial? ♦ Volume of business or business turns over. Business should generate enough funds to provide for future development of business. Public use: state introduces the principle that the transportation of essential commodities should be done at a lower rate. 5. to get an idea of the infrastructure the company can afford to provide for business. It should also compensate entrepreneurial time and efforts. the length and breadth of business. ♦ Shipper should carefully see constitution of the carrier’s constitution to assess what kind of an organization he has to deal with. the extent to which the carrier can reach the goods in the country. Freight rates are hiked or depressed by state the to meet the objectives of the policy.

for ascertaining reliability. ♦ ♦ Record of claims settlement by carrier to know how good or bad the carrier is whenever there is a claim settlement Reference from other shippers’ banks. Transportation policy Before one tries to formulate transportation policy for his company one should understand components of transportation decisions. • Mode of transportation Air . Components of transportation decisions The average transit time quoted by the carrier for some well known destination. The size of fleet owned by the carrier which can be committed to business at any given time. Transportation decisions weigh cost/benefit with respect to these components before finalizing the choice which would ultimately formulate the policy. but very fast Road . ♦ Strength of fleet. ♦ Ask for up to date clients list for seeking the opinion of other clients of the carrier.most expensive. highly flexible 21 . ♦ Type of business the carrier is doing will indicate if the carrier is suitable for the shipper.relatively quick and inexpensive.♦ Branch offices or associates’ office. ♦ Ask specifically for list current clients. carriers’ associations as a measure of confidence. Check if the carrier can manage his his operations at far away places through the network of own offices or the offices of associates.

22 . But the benefit ceases after a point if you go on increasing the transportation cost.Rail . Increased transportation cost results in savings in inventory cost as increased transportation cost crashes transportation time. • Trade off . This is the point of trade off which should be identified and we must stop increasing transportation cost beyond this.An inexpensive mode for large quantities Water . In this case.customer service efficiency & growth in business Improvement in customer service level cost money to the company.cost of transportation and cost of inventory Transportation decision is about establishing the trade off point between cost of transportation and cost of inventory. Trade off . But improved service level ensures customer loyalty and growth in business. • Carrier in house or out sourced whether product owner performs the function or out sources it.the slowest but most economical for large overseas consignments Pipeline . But improvement beyond a certain level may not result into benefits proportionately.primarily for oil and gas Transportation decision here is selection of mode for transportation of goods from our company • Route and network selection Route is the path the product takes and network is locations and routes along which a product can be shipped. We have to identify this level and should not expend resources for improvement beyond this point. the transportation decision is selection of network.

Above decisions form the core of transportation policy DESIGN OPTIONS FOR A TRANSPORTATION NETWORK Transportation network options Supplier Supplier s Retail stores supplier Retail stores Supplier Retail stores Retail stores ALL SHIPMENT S VIA DC Retail stores DIRECT SHIPMENT DIRECT SHIPMENT WITH MILK RUNS Supplier NETWORK STRUCTURE DIRECT SHIPPING PROS • NO DC • COORDINATI ON EASY CONS • HIGH INVENTORY • SIGNIFICANT RECEIVING MILK RUNS FROM DC 23 .


no other decisions are relevant. Inventory costs and receiving costs are high.deliver like a milaakman. as the distance is long cost per unit is expected to be low. 5. in the absence of warehouse product moves directly. Customer also will have to receive consignments directly from the supplier. 6. Movement consolidation 2. Long route. 2. 4. Time of transportation is short. Single supplier to a number of retailers . 25 . inventory will have to be held at customer’s place to cover transportation lead time. Decisions are on dispatch to dispatch basis. Mode and quantity decisions can be changed from dispatch to dispatch 7. From a number of suppliers deliver to a single retailer E. hence low cost. Transport cost reduction • All shipments via Central Distribution Center Suppliers send the supplies to Distribution centers and Distribution center caters to the needs of retailers. Decision points are quantity and mode.2.g. directly connected to customer’s schedule. 3. Toyota plant in US Features: 1. Truck utilization 3. Simplicity of operation. as the network is simple as it consists of only shipper and retailer management of operation is simple. • Direct shipping with milk runs: 1.

a number of intermodal combinations are available to the shipper. 2. Coordination is complex. Benefits of 26 . The more popular combinations are TOFC [Trailer On Flat Car] and COFC [Container On Flat Car]. Inter-modal transportation:In addition to the five basic modes of transport. Features: 1. Economies of scale in inbound transportation to DC. As the tailored network is synthesized management may involve several decisions. 5. DC stores inventory and acts like a transfer point for supplies to individual retailers 4. Consolidation of small lots . Supply to DC with movement consolidation results into supply chain costs reduction when distances are large.reduction of outbound transportation cost • Tailored Network Tailor made to the company needs. From DC Outbound transportation cost is low as retailers are close to DC • Shipping via Distribution Center Using Milk Runs Small lot sizes to large number of retailers from DC. Matches the needs of the company 2.Features: 1. This may be a new network synthesized from above models. Features: 1. Intermodal movements combine the cost and/or service advantages of two or more modes in a single product movement. Or for some logistical mission one model and for some other mission another model.


Standardization of handling methods and equipment 7. Benefits of owning containers by product owners 28 . Water tight and air tight outer shell 5. Easily be stuffed or unstuffed in a short time 4. Reduction in loss. Eliminates multiple handling of contents as this is shipped as a single unit 5. air tight door seals and locks 7. Potential areas for containerization are food stuff Universal advantages of container as a packaging unit 1. Interior washable to required hygienic standard 8.Containerization [kkk pages 350 to 362] Containers were introduced in US during 1955 and in India during 1960 Features of a container: 1. Internal lining that doesn’t buckle under temperature and can be easily cleaned 6. Construction to allow circulation of air around cargo. Watertight flooring. Equipped with fittings to facilitate safe and easy handling 3. Reduction in packaging cost as container itself acts like a package 8. Insulation to protect refrigerated cargo. Reduction in paper work 3. Robust but still light to ensure several handlings during unbroken transport of goods by several modes 2. Container can easily be transshipped. Consolidation of movement of small lots 6. Expedites door to door pick up and delivery 4. pilferage and damage of goods 2. Optimizes the services of various modes.

Regularity and reliability of transport service Infrastructure of containerization 1. Deep water ports 2. The deep water ships stand a long way off on sea. Cargo from shallow ports is loaded on the barges. LASH [Lighters Aboard A Ship] All ports are not accessible to deep water vessels. Concept of RORO is driving the truck loaded with the container directly on to the deck of a ship and driving off the deck on reaching the destination. Ensures supply of containers 2. Good storage system Major benefits of containerization to business 1. Standardized size of containers reduces reduce capital as well as operational costs 4.1. Control of internal cleanliness as per product need 5. It can be used for delivery after arrival 6. Truck loaded with container uses the ship as a mobile bridge! You may have seen passenger buses rolling on to ferries and rolling off after crossing the river. Reduction in handling time and thereby turn around time of vehicles 3. Reduction in packaging cost as container itself is a robust packaging 5. Need for enclosed warehouses redundant 6. Product specific internal fittings can be provided 3. Mechanized handling equipment Roll On/Roll Off [RORO] High cost of lifting a container from the truck and loading on to a ship made logisticians look for a new idea. Reduction in transportation costs if the traffic is two way 4. the 29 . Integration of various modes of transport 2.

export import formalities. Inland container depots Inland Container Depots [ I C Ds ] ICDs are dry ports. Deep water ports being limited in number suffer congestion as deep water ships carrying export cargo dock only at deep water ports. • Serve as consolidation facility and should have handling equipment. • ICD to be located after ascertaining export import potential and good road network. • facilitate customs clearance. ICDs ensure that businessperson does not have to go to the deep water ports with his cargo for clearing import/export formalities. Cargo crosses the dock and goes into the waiting ship. After reaching the destination barge is placed on shallow waters to reach the port. The exporter books his cargo at an ICD and completes all export formalities. Congestion gets created at natural deep water ports when export cargo arrives from hinterland. Facility to group small consignments and create container loads needs handling equipment. Dry ports at a distance far away from the shoreline handle all the import export formalities. This hinders exports. Thereon ICD moves the containers by movement consolidation to natural port. One of the objectives of creating ICDs is to facilitate harnessing export potential of hinterland. Hinterland is deprived of natural deep water ports because of geography. ICDs act like deep-water ports installed inland or interior where the natural benefit of shoreline is non-existing. • connect major ports [able to handle container ships] to hinterland.barges are towed to the ship. The huge crane of the ship lifts the entire barge and places it on the deck. Hence this location analysis is essential. 30 . This a large warehouse where containerized cargo is accepted for export.

ICD consolidates consignments arriving by trucks and transfer the cargo in containers to another mode. four inland container depots (ICDs) at Jaipur. Bhiwadi and Bhilwara. • The infrastructure at the ICDs has been strengthened with the deployment of better equipment. handling agencies. reduction of transit time from ICDs to ports. Jodhpur. shipping companies.• goods transfer from road to rail and otherwise. 31 . along with an air cargo complex at Jaipur's Sanganer Airport act as efficient and convenient gateways for outbound cargo. The customs department.  Benefits of containerization can be fully exploited only when we have a good net work of ICDs [Inland Container Depots] While most of the bulk goods are transported by rail. • Decongest major ports. all other goods are transported by road. surveyors for authentication of stock. • Tariff at the Jaipur and Jodhpur ICDs has been reduced by 20 per cent. banks. Inter modal transfer is a major operation in an ICD. customs house agents and clearing and forwarding agents are all based at the ICDs. This has resulted in the quicker handling of containers. recently. the dwell time is down to 1. This is another benefit provided by ICDs which is of immense importance for a country with weak infrastructure like ours. compared to three days at other ICDs. say rail for onward movement to a natural port. • Although Rajasthan is a land-locked state. Of the total export cycle time.9 days. • increase the export potential of industries in the hinterland and also simplifies import of goods by hinterland.

JNPT is directly connected to the following Inland Container Depots: Ludhiana Kerala Nagpur Mumbai (Wadibunder) Chinchwad (Pune) Bangalore Chennai Jaipur Jodhpur Baroda Mirage Kandla Mulund Delhi Sabarmati Pune Hyderabad Visakhapatnam Muradabad (U. To overcome the problem of a limited lifting capacity of Indian Airlines.• The air cargo complex provides facilities for customs inspection and shipment of non-bulk goods for exports by air. a scheme of bonded trucks has been started.P) Aurangabad Kanpur Malanpur Agra -- 32 .P) Kolkata Pitampur (M.

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