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HISTORY OF MALAYSIAN

ART
(VCL 215)
Prof. Dr. Muliyadi Mahamood
Liberal Studies Department, FSSR
03-5544 4103, 017-284 0593
muliyadi2004@yahoo.com; yadi@salam.uitm.edu.my
OBJECTIVES
THE STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
1. UNDERSTAND THE DEVELOPMENT
OF MALAYSAN CONTEMPORAY ART
N RELATON TO SOCO-CULTURAL
DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNTRY.
2. ANALYZE STYLSTC DEVELOPMENT
OF MALAYSAN CONTEMPORARY
ART.
3. CONDUCT RESEARCH ON
MALAYSAN CONTEMPORARY ART N
TERMS OF FORM, CONTENT AND
CULTURAL CONTEXT.
SYLLABUS CONTENT
I. EARLY MALAYSIAN ART
W COLONAL PANTERS
W PENANG WATERCOLORSTS
W NANYANG PANTERS
II. THE PRE-INDEPENDENCE ERA
W WEDNESDAY ART GROUP
W ANGKATAN PELUKS
SEMENANJUNG/SEMALAYSA
W CONTEMPORARY BATK PANTERS
SYLLABUS CONTENT
III. THE POST-INDEPENDENCE ERA
W UNVERSAL STYLE N MALAYSAN
ART
W THE NEW SCENE PANTERS
W ARTWORKS OF THE POST-
NATIONAL CULTURAL CONGRESS:
SEARCHNG FOR DENTTY
SYLLABUS CONTENT
IV. THE PLURALIST ERA
W PANTNG, SCULPTURE AND
PRNTMAKNG
W NSTALLATON AND ELECTRONC
ART
W NEW MEDA AND DGTAL ART
EVALUATION
W COURSE
WORK/ASSIGNMENT : 40%
W FINAL EXAM : 60%
W TOTAL : 100%
TEXT BOOK
W Muliyadi Mahamood, 2007. Modern
Malaysian Art: From the Pioneering Era
to the Pluralist Era (1930s-1990s).
Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publication and
Distributors Sdn. Bhd.
MALAYSIAN CONTEMPORARY
ART 1930s-2010
1930s-1960s:
W PENANG WATERCOLORSTS
W NANYANG PANTERS
W WEDNESDAY ART GROUP
W ANGKATAN PELUKS SEMENANJUNG
W BATK PANTNGS
Abdullah Ariff, 1948. "Coconut Plantation-Dawn, water color, 38x56cm.
Gec(ceIIe Chen. 10. McIhe( cnc Chi|c".
ci| pcinI. 4 x 80 cm
ik Zcinc| /Licin. 15. Wcycnc Ku|iI Ke|cnIcn". ci| pcinI. 81. x 10.7 cm
Mcz|i McI Scm. 11. MencnIi e|cycn". ci| pcinI. 7 x 2 cm
MALAYSIAN CONTEMPORARY
ART 1930s-2010
1960s:
W UNVERSAL STYLE N MALAYSAN
PANTNGS
1970s-1980s:
W THE SEARCH FOR DENTTY
1990s-2010:
W THE PLURALST ERA
Syec /hmcc Jcmc|. 11. Iu|i:cn". ci| pcinI. 33 x 74 cm
brahim Hussein, 1969, "My Father and the Astronout.
Sulaiman Esa, "Garden of Certainty , 1995.
u:cf Ghcni. 188. Si(i Ic(i X/88".
Mixec mecic. 128 x 183 cm
Awang Damit Ahmad, 1998. "Marista Pun-pun, mixed media, 153x183 cm.
ART APPRECIATION
ART WORK
W FORM
W CONTENT
W CONTEXT
VISUAL CULTURE
VSUAL CULTURE SPANS A VAST
RANGE OF EXPERENCE
WORLD OF VISUAL
COMMUNICATIONS
W TELEVSON, FLMS, VDEOS,
ADVERTSEMENTS, TRAFFC SGNS,
SGNALS N BOTH URBAN AND RURAL
ENVRONMENTS WARNNG AND
ALERTNG US, GRAFFT ON
BULDNGS AND VEHCLES,
PHOTOGRAPHS N NEWSPAPERS,
PANTNGS N GALLERES, SERAL
STRPS AND CARTOONS, THE
PACKAGNG ON CONSUMER GOODS
NONE
OF THESE
FORMS OF COMMUNCATON S
OUTSDE HSTORY: ALL ARE
DETERMNED BY HOW WE LVE AND
NTERACT WTH OUR ENVRONMENTS
NOW AS WELL AS BY WHAT
HAPPENED N THE PAST
METHODOLOGIES OF ART
HISTORY
W FORMAL ANALYSS
W CONTEXTUAL ANALYSS
W BOGRAPHY
FORMAL ANALYSIS
W FORMAL ANALYSS: DESCRBNG AND
ANALYSNG WHAT YOU SEE N A
WORK OF ART; LOOKNG AT THE
WORK OF ART TO TRY TO
UNDERSTAND WHAT THE ARTST
WANTS TO CONVEY VSUALLY.
FORMAL ELEMENTS
W COLOUR
W LNE
W SCALE
W SHAPE
W LGHT
W COMPOSTON
COMPOSITION
W BALANCE
W ORDER
W PROPORTON
W RHYTHM
Abdullah Ariff, 1948. "Coconut Plantation-Dawn, water color, 38x56cm.
Gec(ceIIe Chen. 10. McIhe( cnc Chi|c".
ci| pcinI. 4 x 80 cm
FORMAL ANALYSIS
W N A SENSE, THERE'S NO SUCH THNG
AS PURE FORMAL ANALYSS,
TOTALLY DVORCED FROM
CONTEXTUAL ANALYSS.
CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS
W CONTEXTUAL ANALYSS: TRYNG TO
UNDERSTAND THE WORK OF ART N A
PARTCULAR CULTURAL MOMENT.
CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS
W THS CAN MEAN FOCUSNG ON THE
WORK OF ART N TS OWN TME OR AT
ANOTHER PONT N HSTORY. T CAN
ALSO MEAN LOOKNG AT THE SOCAL,
POLTCAL, SPRTUAL AND/OR
ECONOMC SGNFCANCE OF THE
WORK.
Abdullah Ariff, 1948. "Coconut Plantation-Dawn, water color, 38x56cm.
Gec(ceIIe Chen. 10. McIhe( cnc Chi|c".
ci| pcinI. 4 x 80 cm
CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS
W PEOPLE INVOLVED
W PHYSICAL ASPECT
W SOCIAL ISSUES
CONTEXTUAL QUESTIONS:
FOCUS ON THE PEOPLE INVOLVED IN
THE CREATION
W WHO WERE THE PATRON, ARTST,
VEWERS?
W WHAT SORTS OF RECORDS DD THE
ARTST LEAVE ABOUT THE CREATON
OF THS WORK?
W DD THE ARTST SAY ANYTHNG
ABOUT HS OR HER NTENTONS N
CREATNG THE WORK?
CONTEXTUAL QUESTIONS:
FOCUS ON THE PEOPLE INVOLVED IN
THE CREATION
W WHAT WERE THE PATRON'S MOTVES
N SPONSORNG THS WORK?
W WERE OTHER ARTSTS OR
WORKSHOP ASSSTANTS NVOLVED?
CONTEXTUAL QUESTIONS:
FOCUS ON THE PHYSICAL WORK OF
ART, ITS LOCATION AND USE
W WHEN WAS THS WORK MADE?
W WHERE WAS T ORGNALLY
LOCATED?
W DOES THE WORK MAKE USE OF RARE
AND COSTLY MATERAL?
W DOES T NCLUDE MATERALS THAT
HAVE RTUAL OR SYMBOLC VALUE?
CONTEXTUAL QUESTIONS:
FOCUS ON SOCIAL ISSUES
W WHAT WAS THE POLITICAL,
RELIGIOUS OR SOCIAL CONTEXT N
WHCH THS WORK WAS CREATED?
W WHAT S THE SUBJECT?
W WHAT POLTCAL, RELGOUS AND/OR
SOCAL MESSAGES ARE BENG
CONVEYED?
W WAS THS A NEW OR NNOVATVE
ARTSTC STYLE?
BIOGRAPHICAL METHOD
W THE BOGRAPHCAL METHOD OF ART
HSTORY APPROACHES WORKS OF
ART N RELATON TO THE ARTST'S
LFE AND PERSONALTY. T ASSUMES
A DRECT CONNECTON BETWEEN
ARTSTS AND THER ART, AND T
TAKES SEROUSLY THE NOTON OF
AUTHORSHP.
BIOGRAPHICAL METHOD
W THE MEANNG OF A WORK, TS
CONCEPTON AND EXECUTON, S
SEEN AS ULTMATELY DETERMNED
BY THE ARTST, WTH SOCAL AND
ECONOMC FACTORS PLAYNG A
SECONDARY ROLE.
BIOGRAPHICAL METHOD
W THE BOGRAPHCAL METHOD RELES
ON TEXTS CONCERNNG THE
ARTST'S LFE, AND ALSO REQURES
THAT ONE KNOW WHCH ARTST
MADE WHCH WORK.
THE ORIGINS OF ART HISTORY
W RENASSANCE: VASAR'S LIVES OF
THE ARTISTS
Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574)
STYLE
"A SYSTEM OF FORMS WTH A QUALTY
AND A MEANNGFUL EXPRESSON
THROUGH WHCH THE PERSONALTY
OF THE ARTSTS AND THE BROAD
OUTLOOK OF A GROUP ARE VSBLE
(SCHAPRO, 1953)
WORK OF ART
"THE WORK OF ART S NOT ONLY A
SOURCE OF COMPLEX PERSONAL
EXPERENCE, BUT ALSO HAS
ANOTHER KND OF COMPLEXTY. T S
THE OUTCOME OF AT LEAST THREE
DFFERENT TYPES OF CONDTONS:
PSYCHOLOGCAL, SOCOLOGCAL
AND STYLSTC (ARNOLD HAUSER, 1959).
WORK OF ART
W PSYCHOLOGICAL
W SOCIOLOGICAL
W STYLISTIC
THE CRITICAL PROCESS
W ATTENDNG TO VSUAL FACTS
W NAMNG AND DESCRBNG THE FACTS
W ANALYZNG THE FACTS
W NTERPRETNG THE EVDENCE
W JUDGNG WORKS OF ART
(FELDMAN, 1994)
ART CRITICISM
W DESCRIPTION
W ANALYSIS
W INTERPRETATION
W JUDGEMENT
W MALAYSIAN
CONTEMPORARY ART
1930s-2010
FACTORS
FACTORS THAT NFLUENCE THE STYLE
OF MALAYSAN CONTEMPORARY ART
W COLONIZATION
W WESTERNIZATION
W IMIGRATION
W EDUCATION
FACTORS
FACTORS THAT NFLUENCE THE STYLE
OF MALAYSAN CONTEMPORARY ART
W NATIONAL CULTURAL CONGRESS
W REVIVAL OF ISLAM
W POLITICS
W ECONOMY
W GLOBALIZATION
COLONIZATION
W ENGLISH NVOLVEMENT STARTED N
PENANG (1786)
W STRATS SETTLEMENTS (PENANG,
MALACCA AND SNGAPORE) (1826)
W PANGKOR TREATY WTH SULTAN
PERAK (1874): APPONTMENT OF AN
ENGLSH RESDENT TO ADVSE
SULTAN N GOVERNMENT AFFARS
COLONIZATION
W PANGKOR TREATY WTH SULTAN
PERAK (1874): APPONTMENT OF AN
ENGLSH RESDENT TO ADVSE
SULTAN N GOVERNMENT AFFARS,
EXCEPT AS FAR AS RELGON AND
MALAY CUSTOMS WERE CONCERNED
BRITISH COLONIZATION
W THE BRITISH INVOLVEMENT N
ADMNSTRATVE AFFARS
REFLECTED THER EFFORTS TO
SHAPE THE COUNTRY'S SOCO-
CULTURAL DENTTY, AND THS
STUATON CAN BE CONSDERED THE
BASS FOR THE EMERGENCE OF THE
MODERN MALAYSAN NATON
W COLONIZATION
WMODERNIZATION
W WESTERNIZATION
IMIGRATION
W BRITISH CONTROL OF THE ECONOMC
AND SOCO-POLTCAL LANDSCAPE
GANED STRENGTH N THE 19
TH
CENTURY THROUGH THER POLCY
OF BRNGNG N CHNESE AND NDAN
LABOURERS TO WORK N THE FELDS
AND THE TN MNES.
IMIGRATION
W THE MALAYS SAW THE ARRVAL OF THESE
FOREGNERS AS A VOLATON OF THER
RGHTS THAT COULD LEAD TO CULTURAL
CONFLCT. MALAY DSSATSFACTON WAS
REFLECTED N NEWSPAPERS SUCH AS
ARTA MALAYA THAT FREQUENTLY
CRTCZED THE MMGRANTS AND URGED
THE MALAYS TO UNTE AND USE THER
POWER TO UPHOLD THER RGHTS.
COLONIZATION: IMMIGRATION
W THE BRTSH ADMNSTRATVE
SYSTEM AND POLCES CAUSED AN
ECONOMC AND POLTCAL CRISIS
AMONG THE MALAYS. ENGLSH
COLONAL POLCES WERE SEEN AS A
THREAT TO THE MALAYS' FUTURE,
BOTH CULTURALLY AND POLTCALLY.
Abd Manan, "Barat Tinggal di
Barat, Timur Tinggal di Timur,
Warta Jenaka, 7 September
1936.
Abdullah Abas, "Moden Barat, Moden Timur, Warta Jenaka, 23
November 1936.
S.B. Ally, Warta Jenaka, 6 Januari 1938.
S.B. Ally, Warta Jenaka, 10 Februari 1938.
IMMIGRATION
W THE ARRVAL OF ARTSTS FROM
CHNA N THE 1930s PLAYED A
SGNFCANT ROLE N THE
DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN
MALAYSAN ART: THE FORMATON OF
THE NANYANG ACADEMY OF FNE ART
N SNGAPORE N 1938
NANYANG ACADEMY OF FINE
ARTS
W CONTRBUTED GREATLY TO THE
LOCAL PANTNG STYLE BY
COMBNNG EASTERN AND WESTERN
CHARACTERSTCS
Gec(ceIIe Chen. 10. McIhe( cnc Chi|c".
ci| pcinI. 4 x 80 cm
EDUCATION
W THE BRTSH EDUCATON SYSTEM
ALSO PLAYED AN MPORTANT ROLE
N THE WESTERNZATON PROCESS.
W NTRODUCTON OF ENGLSH
HSTORY, LAW AND CULTURAL
VALUES N ORDER TO FOSTER
OBEDENCE TO THE RULNG
ADMNSTRATON.
EDUCATION
W ENCOURAGED STUDENTS TO HANDLE
KNOWLEDGE FROM A MORE
PRAGMATC, ANALYTCAL AND
NDVDUALSTC PERSPECTVE,
WHCH WAS AT ODDS WTH THE
TRADTONAL VEWPONT OF
SOCETY.
EDUCATION
W CONSEQUENTLY, THE EMERGENCE
OF AN ARTSTC APPROACH BASED
ON NDVDUALSTC EXPRESSON,
ARTCULATED N AN EXPRESSVE AND
NATURALSTC MANNER WAS SEEN
AS DERVED FROM THAT EDUCATON
SYSTEM.
EDUCATION
W THS PHENOMENON PAVED THE WAY
FOR THE BRTH OF A MODERN AND
WESTERN ARTSTC APPROACH FROM
THE BEGNNNG OF THE 20
TH
CENTURY, PARTCULARLY N URBAN
AREAS.
Abdullah Ariff, 1948. "Coconut Plantation-Dawn, water color, 38x56cm.
Yong Mun Sen, 1940. "Drying Nets, watercolor, 56x38 cm.
Modern MaIaysian Art
Unlike Western modern art that developed
through a long and eminent tradition of
sculptures, frescoes and oil paintings,
modern MaIaysian art arose from a quest
to find new approaches to depict nature.
Modern MaIaysian Art
Syed Ahmad Jamal writes that the lack of
a great visual tradition caused Malaysian
art to be free from any constraints.
Freedom was the underlying factor that
enabled artists to fully concentrate on their
efforts to free themselves from old
boundaries (1987: 49).
WESTERN EDUCATION
1950s-1960s
W LOCAL ARTSTS WHO WENT ABROAD
TO STUDY WERE EXPOSED TO THE
WORKS OF EUROPEAN ARTSTS AND
BROUGHT THER NFLUENCE BACK BY
NCORPORATNG T NTO THER
WORKS.
Syec /hmcc Jcmc|. 11. Iu|i:cn". ci|. 33 x 74 cm
/Lcu| LcIif Mchicin. 14. Ke:epicn". ci|. 1 x 0cm
EDUCATION: LOCAL ART
GROUPS
W THE WEDNESDAY ART GROUP
W ANGKATAN PELUKS SEMENANJUNG
THE WEDNESDAY
ART GROUP
!eIe( Hc((i:. 15. Fumch FckiI -Kuc|c Lipi:". ccucche. 38.2 x 48.2 cm
W ANGKATAN PELUKIS
SEMENANJUNG
Mchc. Hce::ein Enc:. 158. !cI(eI Di(i".
pc:Ie|. 44 x 33.5 cm
NATIONAL CULTURAL POLICY
MALAYSIAN IDENTITY
W NATONAL CULTURAL CONGRESS
(1971)
W NATONAL CULTURAL POLCY
NATIONAL CULTURAL POLICY
W THE NATONAL CULTURE OF
MALAYSA SHOULD BE BASED ON THE
ORGNAL CULTURE OF THE REGON
W ELEMENTS OF OTHER CULTURES
THAT ARE SUTABLE CAN BE
NCORPORATED NTO THE NATONAL
CULTURE
W SLAM S THE MAN ELEMENT OF THE
NATONAL CULTURE
Mc:Iu(c /Lcu| Fchmcn. 10. Icnpc Icjuk: Si(i Dc|cmcn".
c(k(i|ik. 88 x 88 cm
/hmcc Shuk(i Mchcmec. 12. CcLineI Se(ie:".
Mixec mecic. 183 x 183 cm
Sulaiman Esa, "Garden of Certainty , 1995.
OTHER FACTORS
W REVVAL OF SLAM
W POLTCS
W ECONOMY
W GLOBALZATON
W Thank you.