DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS

Autonomous under Directorate of Technical Education HRD Department, Govt. of Sikkim Approved by AICTE, An ISO 9000:2000 certified Institute

NAME OF PROJECT Automatic Emergency Light PROJECT REPORT (2009-2011) Submitted by Name GANGADHAR YADAV C09DEE12 Reg. No

Under the guidance of (Miss kabita Nepal) Submitted as part of the curriculum of the first year diploma in …Electrical and Electronics…… discipline of CCCT, Chisopani, carried out successfully during the Academic year
2010

DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS

Autonomous under Directorate of Technical Education HRD Department, Govt. of Sikkim Approved by AICTE, An ISO 9000:2000 certified Institute

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project work entitled (automatic emergency light) is a bonafide work carried out by Gangadhar Yadav bearing registration number C09d-EE12 during the academic year <2010>. It is certified that all the project report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements in respect of project work prescribed for the Diploma in …Electrical and Electronic….
Signature of Guide Signature of Course In-charge Signature of Principal

External Examiner

DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS

Signature with Date

Examiner’s Certificate
The project report of 1. Gangadhar Yadav

Titled AUTOMATIC EMERGENCY LIGHT
is approved and is accepted in quality and form.

Internal Guide (Name and Signature)

External Examiner (Name and Signature)

Name :Miss.Kabita Nepal

1. Name: 2. Name:

DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS

STUDENTS DECLARATION We hereby declare that the project report entitled

AUTOMATIC EMERGENCY LIGHT
submitted to Centre for Computers and Communication Technology in partial fulfillment for award of Diploma in electrical & electronics during the academic period January 2010 to June 2010 is our original work and not submitted for the award of any other degree, diploma, fellowship, or any other similar title or prizes.

SL.NO 01

Name Gangadhar Yadav

Reg.NO C09D-EE12

signature

Place: Date:

C.C.C.T

The successful presentation of this project is in itself acknowledgement of the immense blessing of our parents and support and encouragement extended to us by our teachers. Mukesh sharma for providing the inspiration required for taking the project to its completion we are very grateful to him for providing us the required lab facilities. Finally we thank all the staff members. we approach this matter of acknowledgement through these lines trying best giving full credit where it is due. teaching and non-teaching staff and our friends for helping us either directly or indirectly during the conduction period of the project. CONTENTS . Our gratitude towards all those who make valuable contribution throughout the duration of the project. So after the completion of the project. we feel very obliged to express. We also express sincere gratitude to Mr. energy and time for us.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The completion of any inter-disciplinary project depends upon the co-operation. It is difficult task to pretend to know who helped us the most. Coordination and combined effort of several sources of knowledge. We have a great pleasure in submitting the micro project document. We are taken this opportunity to express our deep sense of obligation and gratitude to the help given by our project co-ordinator Miss.Kabita nepal for his guidance. supervision and constructive criticism in the successful completion of the project. The project successful completion would be incomplete without mentioning the name of people who really helped us in accomplishing this project to successful one. Therefore.

1 2.3 2. ESTIMATION AND COSTING 4.3 Resistor Diodes Capacitor Transistor Transformer LEDs Switches Battery Advantages Disadvantage Drawing Appendices Reference 5. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT Block Description Circuit Diagram Circuit Description 3.7 4. CONCLUSION .2 2.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS 1.2 6.1 4. APPLICATION 6.5 4.4 Introduction Block Diagram (SYNOPSIS) 2.2 4.3 4.1 6.6 4.1 5.8 5.1 2.2 6. IMPLEMENTATION 4.4 4. INTRODUCTION 1.

DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS .

This emergency light takes 230V AC and it converts it in 12V DC and charge the battery which is used in this circuit. This light is used mostly in villages because there is the lack of electricity is provided. In this circuit I use BD 140 transistor the advantage of this emergency light is that if we Use this emergency light in a room no other light source is required but in other emergency light we use another light source when the power is available. . The power of the battery is used that time when the power is cut off or we need to use it.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS AIM:To design the circuit of AUTOMATIC EMERGENCY LIGHT INTRODUCTION:This is automatic emergency light used in night at emergency time when the power cut or off by some region.

DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS BLOCK DIAGRAM .

It also charged the battery when the power is given in the circuit. the transformer convert it into 12V 1A but it is not gives dc so rectifier is used in it to convert it into dc. For filter the signals in the circuit a capacitor is used on it which filter the signals and convert it into pure DC.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS BLOCK DISCRIPTION First the power supply is given 230 through the step down transformer. . A transistor is used to maintain the power supply regularly and the control units (Zener diode) it maintain the zener voltage and also used it as a switch in reverse biased condition after that battery is the second power supplier which charged first and give backup power when the main power is cut off.

DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .

. Bridge rectifier is used to convert AC input to DC supply.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION This is the circuit diagram of low cost emergency light based on white LED. Capacitor is used to filter the input AC supply. As soon as the main supply fails or removed the capacitor voltage becomes lesser as compared to battery voltage. The circuit has an automatic charger which stops charging when the battery is fully charged. Here 230v is converted into 12v using step down transformer. The white led provides very bright light which turns on when the mains supply is not there. When the main supply is ON the charged capacitor voltage is much greater than the battery voltage which keeps the transistor T1 & T2 in reversed biased. This puts both transistor T1 and T2 in forward biased and the LEDs will glow with the battery voltage.

IMPLEMENTATION This project is useful to us. 2. Advantages  Saves fuel. .  Pollution free. It is used in emergency .  Easy to use. Use in that places where the power doesn’t supply properly. Delectated circuit  .DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Uses 1.  Very low cost under Rs(200-300)  Easy to install anywhere. Disadvantages  It can be used only for short period. Convert 120V-230V Ac into 12V Dc and charge the battery.

5w Led (white) Transformer 12 v Battery 6v 5 amp.5 005 005 005 080 150 012 025 015 030 015 344.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Equipment cost list Components Diode in4007 Resistor 100Ω Resistor 16Ω.5 only/- Resistors . BC547 Variable Resistor Switch board Capacitor 25v 1000µF Total cost Quantit y 05 11 01 10 01 01 01 01 each 01 01 01 --------cost 002. LM 317 Transistor BD140.

Connecting and soldering Resistors may be connected either way round. . for example a resistor is placed in series with a light-emitting diode (LED) to limit the current passing through the LED. They are not damaged by heat when soldering.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Example: Circuit symbol: Function The Colour Code Colour Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey Resistor Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 White 9 Resistors restrict the flow of electric current.

The second band gives the second digit. red ±2%. If no fourth band is shown the tolerance is ±20%.the resistor colour code Resistance is measured in ohms. • • • • This resistor has red (2). Resistor shorthand Resistor values are often written on circuit diagrams using a code system which avoids using a decimal point because it is easy to miss the small dot. Instead the letters R. this may be ignored for almost all circuits but further details are given below. Resistor values are normally shown using coloured bands.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Resistor values . Each colour represents a number as shown in the table. The third band indicates the number of zeros. yellow (4 zeros) and gold bands. So its value is 270000 = 270 k . violet (7). On circuit diagrams the is usually omitted and the value is written 270K. gold ±5%. The fourth band is used to shows the tolerance (precision) of the resistor. the symbol for ohm is an omega . 1 is quite small so resistor values are often given in k and M . 1 k = 1000 1 M = 1000000 . K and M are used in place of the decimal point. To read the code: replace the letter with a . Tolerance may be ignored for almost all circuits because precise resistor values are rarely required. A special colour code is used for the fourth band tolerance: silver ±10%. Most resistors have 4 bands: The first band gives the first digit. brown ±1%.

For example: 560R means 560 2K7 means 2. then multiply the value by 1000 if the letter was K.25W or 0. or 1000000 if the letter was M.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS decimal point. Usually the effect is negligible. The resistor must be able to withstand the heating effect and resistors have power ratings to show this. P. The letter R means multiply by 1. For the rare cases where a higher power is required it should be clearly specified in the parts list. developed in a resistor is given by: P = I² × R or P = V² / R WhereP I = power developed = current through in the resistor in watts the resistor in amps (W) (A) . The power.7 k = 2700 39K means 39 k 1M0 means 1. Power ratings of resistors are rarely quoted in parts lists because for most circuits the standard power ratings of 0. but if the resistance is low (or the voltage across the resistor high) a large current may pass making the resistor become noticeably warm. Power Ratings of Resistors Electrical energy is converted to heat when current flows through a resistor. these will be circuits using low value resistors (less than about 300 ) or high voltages (more than 15V).0 M = 1000 k Resistors in Series and Parallel For information on resistors connected in series and parallel please see the Resistance page.5W are suitable.

DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS R = resistance of the resistor V = voltage across the resistor in volts (V) in ohms ( ) .

However. The arrow of the circuit symbol shows the direction in which the current can flow. Forward Voltage Drop Electricity uses up a little energy pushing its way through the diode. This can be ignored in most circuits because it will be very much smaller than the current flowing in the forward direction. In addition there are LEDs (which have their own page) and Zener diodes (at the bottom of this page).DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Diodes Example: Circuit symbol: Function Diodes allow electricity to flow in only one direction. this is called breakdown. This means that there is a small voltage across a conducting diode. Connecting and soldering . Diodes are the electrical version of a valve and early diodes were actually called valves. The forward voltage drop of a diode is almost constant whatever the current passing through the diode so they have a very steep characteristic (current-voltage graph). rather like a person pushing through a door with a spring. it is called the forward voltage drop and is about 0. all diodes have a maximum reverse voltage (usually 50V or more) and if this is exceeded the diode will fail and pass a large current in the reverse direction.7V for all normal diodes which are made from silicon. Reverse Voltage When a reverse voltage is applied a perfect diode does not conduct. Ordinary diodes can be split into two types: Signal diodes which pass small currents of 100mA or less and Rectifier diodes which can pass large currents. but all real diodes leak a very tiny current of a few µA or less.

silicon diodes are better because they are less easily damaged by heat when soldering. Germanium diodes such as the OA90 have a lower forward voltage drop of 0. Rectifier diodes are quite robust and no special precautions are needed for soldering them.2V and this makes them suitable to use in radio circuits as detectors which extract the audio signal from the weak radio signal. For general use. A lamp may be used to test a rectifier diode. for cathode!).) in which case you should use a heat sink clipped to the lead between the joint and the diode body. they have a lower resistance when conducting.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Diodes must be connected the correct way round. and they have very low leakage currents when a reverse voltage is applied. not c. Testing diodes You can use a multimeter or a simple tester (battery. but the risk is small unless you are using a germanium diode (codes beginning OA. but do NOT use a lamp to test a signal diode because the large current passed by the lamp will destroy the diode! Signal diodes (small current) Signal diodes are used to process information (electrical signals) in circuits. it really is k. General purpose signal diodes such as the 1N4148 are made from silicon and have a forward voltage drop of 0. resistor and LED) to check that a diode conducts in one direction but not the other. A standard crocodile clip can be used as a heat sink.for cathode (yes. so they are only required to pass small currents of up to 100mA. Diodes are labelled with their code in small print.. .7V. where the size of the forward voltage drop is less important. you may need a magnifying glass to read this on small signal diodes! Small signal diodes can be damaged by heat when soldering. The cathode is marked by a line painted on the body. the diagram may be labelled a or + for anode and k or ..

The 1N4001 is suitable for most low voltage circuits with a current of less than 1A.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Protection diodes for relays Signal diodes are also used to protect transistors and ICs from the brief high voltage produced when a relay coil is switched off. Maximum Current Rectifier diodes (large current) Rectifier diodes are used in power supplies to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). The protection diode allows the induced voltage to drive a brief current through the coil (and diode) so the magnetic field dies away quickly Diode 1N4001 1N4002 1N4007 1N5401 1N5408 Maximum Reverse Voltage 1A 50V 1A 100V 1A 1000V 3A 100V 3A 1000V rather than instantly. . This prevents the induced voltage becoming high enough to cause damage to transistors and ICs. Current flowing through a relay coil creates a magnetic field which collapses suddenly when the current is switched off. The table shows maximum current and maximum reverse voltage for some popular rectifier diodes.7V. The sudden collapse of the magnetic field induces a brief high voltage across the relay coil which is very likely to damage transistors and ICs. The diagram shows how a protection diode is connected 'backwards' across the relay coil. They are also used elsewhere in circuits where a large current must pass through the diode. a process called rectification. All rectifier diodes are made from silicon and therefore have a forward voltage drop of 0.

k = cathode . The diagram shows the operation of a bridge rectifier as it converts AC to DC. Bridge rectifiers are rated by their maximum current and maximum reverse voltage. Various types of Bridge Rectifiers Zener diodes Example: Circuit symbol: a = anode. the two AC inputs are labelled .DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Bridge rectifiers There are several ways of connecting diodes to make a rectifier to convert AC to DC. They have four leads or terminals: the two DC outputs are labelled + and -. Notice how alternate pairs of diodes conduct. The bridge rectifier is one of them and it is available in special packages containing the four diodes required.

Their breakdown voltage is printed with V in place of a decimal point.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Zener diodes are used to maintain a fixed voltage. with a resistor in series to limit the current. They are also used in filter circuits because capacitors easily pass AC (changing) signals but they block DC (constant) signals. The diagram shows how they are connected..7V for example. Zener diodes are rated by their breakdown voltage and maximum power: • • The minimum voltage available is 2. They are used with resistors in timing circuits because it takes time for a capacitor to fill with charge. Capacitors Function Capacitors store electric charge. Zener diode codes begin BZX... Power ratings of 400mW and 1.3W are common. They are used to smooth varying DC supplies by acting as a reservoir of charge. so 4V7 means 4. They are designed to 'breakdown' in a reliable and non-destructive way so that they can be used in reverse to maintain a fixed voltage across their terminals. .. or BZY. Zener diodes can be distinguished from ordinary diodes by their code and breakdown voltage which are printed on them.4V.

Capacitance is measured in farads.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Capacitance This is a measure of a capacitor's ability to store charge. It is easy to find the value of electrolytic capacitors because they are clearly printed with their capacitance and voltage rating. Radial capacitors tend to be a little smaller and they stand upright on the circuit board. Each group has its own circuit symbol. so 1000000µF = 1F n means 10-9 (thousand-millionth). Three prefixes (multipliers) are used. at least one of their leads will be marked + or -. polarised and unpolarised. They are not damaged by heat when soldering. µ (micro). axial where the leads are attached to each end (220µF in picture) and radial where both leads are at the same end (10µF in picture). so 1000pF = 1nF Capacitor values can be very difficult to find because there are many types of capacitor with different labelling systems! There are many types of capacitor but they can be split into two groups. so 1000nF = 1µF p means 10-12 (million-millionth). A large capacitance means that more charge can be stored. so prefixes are used to show the smaller values. n (nano) and p (pico): • • • µ means 10-6 (millionth). symbol F. There are two designs of electrolytic capacitors. However 1F is very large. Polarised capacitors (large values. The voltage rating can be quite low (6V for example) and it should . 1µF +) Examples: Circuit symbol: Electrolytic Capacitors Electrolytic capacitors are polarised and they must be connected the correct way round.

It can be difficult to find the values of these small capacitors because there are many types of them and several different labelling systems! . usually 250V or so. If the project parts list does not specify a voltage. The standard colour code is used. For example: For example: For example: blue. A third colour stripe near the leads shows the voltage (yellow 6. grey is used to mean × 0.8µF means 0.68µF Unpolarised capacitors (small values. voltage and polarity in full. up to 1µF) Examples: Circuit symbol: Small value capacitors are unpolarised and may be connected either way round. blue 20V. They are not damaged by heat when soldering. grey spot means 68µF means 6. grey.1 so that values of less than 10µF can be shown. black spot blue. grey 25V. so they are used where a large capacitance is needed in a small size. white spot blue. the positive is to the right'. Modern tantalum bead capacitors are printed with their capacitance.3V. black 10V.01 and white means × 0. but for the spot. grey. Tantalum Bead Capacitors Tantalum bead capacitors are polarised and have low voltage ratings like electrolytic capacitors. They have high voltage ratings of at least 50V.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS always be checked when selecting an electrolytic capacitor. 25V is a sensible minimum for most battery circuits. The positive (+) lead is to the right when the spot is facing you: 'when the spot is in sight. grey. However older ones use a colour-code system which has two stripes (for the two digits) and a spot of colour for the number of zeros to give the value in µF. white 30V. They are expensive but very small. except for one unusual type (polystyrene). pink 35V). choose a capacitor with a rating which is greater than the project's power supply voltage. green 16V.

they just indicate tolerance and voltage rating. Capacitor Number Code A number code is often used on small capacitors where printing is difficult: • • • the 1st number is the 1st digit.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Many small value capacitors have their value printed but without a multiplier.1µF = 100nF.7nF (J means 5% tolerance). • Colour Code Colour Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 White 9 For example: 102 means 1000pF = 1nF (not 102pF!) For example: 472J means 4700pF = 4. the 3rd number is the number of zeros to give the capacitance in pF. the 2nd number is the 2nd digit. Sometimes the multiplier is used in place of the decimal point: For example: 4n7 means 4. Ignore any letters . . so you need to use experience to work out what the multiplier should be! For example 0.7nF.1 means 0.

22µF.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Capacitor Colour Code A colour code was used on polyester capacitors for many years. Ignore the 4th band (tolerance) and 5th band (voltage rating). For example: brown. so 2 identical bands actually appear as a wide band. Clip the heat sink to the lead between the capacitor and the joint.01µF. but of course there are many still around. It is now obsolete. Polystyrene capacitors can be damaged by heat when soldering (it melts the polystyrene!) so you should use a heat sink (such as a crocodile clip). orange means 10000pF = 10nF = 0. yellow means 220nF = 0. Real capacitor values (the E3 and E6 series) . Their value (in pF) is normally printed without units. the top three colour bands giving the value in pF. For example: wide red. The colours should be read like the resistor code. Polystyrene Capacitors This type is rarely used now. Note that there are no gaps between the colour bands. black.

2200. The E6 series (6 values for each multiple of ten) 10. 470.. 150.. 20. but what happens when you reach 1000? It would be pointless to make 1000. 1010. 470. The standard capacitor values are based on this idea and they form a series which follows the same pattern for every multiple of ten. 47. . 40.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS You may have noticed that capacitors are not available with every possible value. 30. 33. 1000 etc.. for example 22µF and 47µF are readily available. 1030 and so on because for these values 10 is a very small difference. 680. 4700. then it continues 100. 22.. 330. 220. 68. 47. 1020. . Notice how this is the E3 series with an extra value in the gaps. 15. 1000. 22. The E3 series is the one most frequently used for capacitors because many types cannot be made with very accurate values. 220. The E3 series (3 values for each multiple of ten) 10. To produce a sensible range of capacitor values you need to increase the size of the 'step' as the value increases. . too small to be noticeable in most circuits and capacitors cannot be made with that accuracy. then it continues 100. 50 and so on. but 25µF and 50µF are not! Why is this? Imagine that you decided to make capacitors every 10µF giving 10. That seems fine. 10000 etc. Notice how the step size increases as the value increases (values roughly double each time).

The leads are labelled base (B). so just treat them as labels! . or fully off with no current) and as an amplifier (always partly on). symbol hFE. for example they can be used to amplify the small output current from a logic IC so that it can operate a lamp.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Transistors This page covers practical matters such as precautions when soldering and identifying leads. In many circuits a resistor is used to convert the changing current to a changing voltage. Most transistors used today are NPN because this is the easiest type to make from silicon. These terms refer to the internal operation of a transistor but they are not much help in understanding how a transistor is used. relay or other high current device. NPN and PNP. Function Transistors amplify current. collector (C) and emitter (E). A transistor may be used as a switch (either fully on with maximum current. If you are new to electronics it is best to start by learning how to use NPN transistors. The amount of current amplification is called the current gain. with different circuit symbols. For further information please see the Transistor Circuits page. The letters refer to the layers of Transistor circuit symbols semiconductor material used to make the transistor. Types of transistor There are two types of standard transistors. so the transistor is being used to amplify voltage. The operation and use of transistors is covered by the Transistor Circuits page.

there are fieldeffect transistors which are usually referred to as FETs.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS A Darlington pair is two transistors connected together to give a very high current gain. If you are lucky the orientation of the transistor will be clear from the PCB or stripboard layout diagram. The drawings on the right show the leads for some of the most common case styles. Please take care with this because a wrongly connected transistor may be damaged instantly when you switch on. Connecting TransistoTransistors have three leads which must be connected the correct way round. A standard crocodile clip can be used as a heat sink. Soldering Transistors can be damaged by heat when soldering so if you are not an expert it is wise to use a heat sink clipped to the lead between the joint and the transistor body. They have different circuit symbols and properties and they are not (yet) covered by this page. otherwise you will need to refer to a supplier's catalogue to identify the leads. . In addition to standard (bipolar junction) transistors. Do not confuse this temporary heat sink with the permanent heat sink (described below) which may be required for a power transistor to prevent it overheating during operation.

DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Heat sinks Waste heat is produced in transistors due to the current flowing through them. Testing a transistor Transistors can be damaged by heat when soldering or by misuse in a circuit. If you suspect that a transistor may be damaged there are two easy ways to test it: Testing an NPN transistor 1. Heat sinks are needed for power transistors because they pass large currents. Testing with a multimeter Use a multimeter or a simple tester (battery. • The base-collector (BC) junction should behave like a diode and conduct one way only. Test each pair of leads both ways (six tests in total): The base-emitter (BE) junction should behave like a diode and conduct one way only. resistor and LED) to check each pair of leads for conduction. • . If you find that a transistor is becoming too hot to touch it certainly needs a heat sink! The heat sink helps to dissipate (remove) the heat by transferring it to the surrounding air. • The collector-emitter (CE) should not conduct either way. Set a digital multimeter to diode test and an analogue multimeter to a low resistance range.

for example BC108. To test a PNP transistor use the same circuit but reverse the LED and the supply voltage. anything between 5 and 12V is suitable. A is for germanium (rarely used now). for example a higher current gain or a different case style. The second letter indicates the type. Take care to include the 10k resistor in the base connection or you will destroy the transistor as you test it! If the transistor is OK the LED should light when the switch is pressed and not light when the switch is released. The diodes are reversed in a PNP transistor but the same test procedure can be used. Sometimes a letter is added to the end (eg BC108C) to identify a special version of the main type. The supply voltage is not critical. Testing in a simple switching circuit Connect the transistor into the circuit shown on the right which uses the transistor as a switch. Some multimeters have a 'transistor test' function which provides a known base current and measures the collector current so as to display the transistor's DC current gain hFE. The rest of the code identifies the particular transistor. for example C means low power audio frequency. If a project specifies a higher gain version (BC108C) it must be used. This circuit can be quickly built on breadboard for example. 2. but if the general code is given (BC108) any transistor with that code is suitable. There is no obvious logic to the numbering system. . D means high power audio frequency. BC478 The first letter B is for silicon. F means low power high frequency. Transistor codes There are three main series of transistor codes used in the UK: • Codes beginning with B (or A).DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS The diagram shows how the junctions behave in an NPN transistor.

transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage. . Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission. and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (NS) to the number of turns in the primary (NP) as follows: By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns. that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and secondly that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). or "stepped down" by making NS less than NP. Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed. although the range of designs is wide. In an ideal transformer. an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. which makes long distance transmission economically practical. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil. Basic principles The transformer is based on two principles: firstly. This effect is called mutual induction. a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making NS greater than NP. and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the secondary winding. All operate with the same basic principles.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Transformer A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. the induced voltage in the secondary winding (VS) is in proportion to the primary voltage (VP). If a load is connected to the secondary. Transformers range in size from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of power grids. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core.

whereas the magnetic field varies with time according to the excitation of the primary. The area is constant. NS is the number of turns in the secondary coil and Φ equals the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil. which states that: where VS is the instantaneous voltage. the flux is the product of the magnetic flux density B and the area A through which it cuts. Since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal transformer. so that most of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils. being equal to the cross-sectional area of the transformer core. such as iron. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability. Current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS An ideal transformer An ideal transformer is shown in the adjacent figure. If the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. Induction law The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from Faraday's law of induction.[26] the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals .

electrical power is transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. At higher frequencies.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Taking the ratio of the two equations for VS and VP gives the basic equation[27] for stepping up or stepping down the voltage [edit] Ideal power equation The ideal transformer as a circuit element If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow. the incoming electric power must equal the outgoing power. If this condition is met. all the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the magnetic field and into the secondary circuit. Hysteresis losses . Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors. Ideally. so this formula is a reasonable approximation. the transformer is perfectly efficient. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. Pincoming = IPVP = Poutgoing = ISVS giving the ideal transformer equation Transformers normally have high efficiency.

[39] Mechanical losses In addition to magnetostriction. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork. . since energy supplied to its magnetic fields is returned to the supply with the next half-cycle. Eddy currents therefore circulate within the core in a plane normal to the flux.[39] Eddy currents Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors. and consuming a small amount of power. and is a function of the peak flux density to which it is subjected. the loss is proportional to the frequency.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Each time the magnetic field is reversed. For a given core material.[40] Stray losses Leakage inductance is by itself largely lossless. adding to the buzzing noise. The eddy current loss is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and inverse square of the material thickness. a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. and a solid core made from such a material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn throughout its entire length. and are responsible for resistive heating of the core material. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings.

The cathode is the short lead and there may be a slight flat on the body of round LEDs. Connecting and soldering LEDs must be connected the correct way round. LEDs can be damaged by heat when soldering.for cathode (yes. If you can see inside the LED the cathode is the larger electrode (but this is not an official identification method). the diagram may be labelled a or + for anode and k or . orange. . green. blue and white. No special precautions are needed for soldering most LEDs. yellow. for cathode!).DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) Example: Circuit symbol: Function LEDs emit light when an electric current passes through them. amber. LEDs must have a resistor in series to limit the current to a safe value. it really is k. not c. but the risk is small unless you are very slow. Testing an LED Never connect an LED directly to a battery or power supply! It will be destroyed almost instantly because too much current will pass through and burn it out. for quick testing purposes a 1k resistor is suitable for most LEDs if your supply voltage is 12V or less. Remember to connect the LED the correct way round! Colours of LEDs LEDs are available in red.

DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Blue and white LEDs are much more expensive than the other colours. Note the different lengths of the three leads. the outer leads (a1 and a2) are the anodes to the LEDs allowing each one to be lit separately. Bi-colour LEDs A bi-colour LED has two LEDs wired in 'inverse parallel' (one forwards. LEDs of all colours are available in uncoloured packages which may be diffused (milky) or clear (often described as 'water clear'). or both together to give the third colour. The diagram shows the construction of a tri-colour LED. They are called tri-colour because mixed red and green light appears to be yellow and this is produced when both the red and green LEDs are on.VL) / I . The centre lead (k) is the common cathode for both LEDs. Shapes and Viewing angles of LEDs Calculating an LED resistor value An LED must have a resistor connected in series to limit the current through the LED. not by the colouring of the 'package' (the plastic body). The resistor value. otherwise it will burn out almost instantly. R is given by: R = (VS . The coloured packages are also available as diffused (the standard type) or transparent. Only one of the LEDs can be lit at one time and they are less useful than the tri-colour LEDs described above. The colour of an LED is determined by the semiconductor material. Sizes. one backwards) combined in one package with two leads. Tri-colour LEDs The most popular type of tri-colour LED has a red and a green LED combined in one package with three leads.

but 4V for blue and white LEDs) I = LED current (e. . This prolongs battery life by lighting several LEDs with the same current as just one LED. The power supply must have sufficient voltage to provide about 2V for each LED (4V for blue and white) plus at least another 2V for the resistor.001A. or 20mA = 0.01A.02A) Make sure the LED current you choose is less than the maximum permitted and convert the current to amps (A) so the calculation will give the resistor value in ohms ( ). If the calculated value is not available choose the nearest standard resistor value which is greater. All the LEDs connected in series pass the same current so it is best if they are all the same type. Connecting LEDs in series If you wish to have several LEDs on at the same time it may be possible to connect them in series.g. To convert mA to A divide the current in mA by 1000 because 1mA = 0. 10mA = 0.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS VS = supply voltage VL = LED voltage (usually 2V. In fact you may wish to choose a greater resistor value to reduce the current (to increase battery life for example) but this will make the LED less bright. To work out a value for the resistor you must add up all the LED voltages and use this for VL. so that the current will be a little less than you chose.

but it is called 'single throw' because only one position conducts. contacts not conducting. The AC values are higher because the current falls to zero many times each second and an arc is less likely to form across the switch contacts. Way . contacts conducting.number of switch contact sets. . Closed .switch returns to its normal position when released. single or double. • • • • • • For example: the simplest on-off switch has one set of contacts (single pole) and one switching position which conducts (single throw). there may be several on positions. but you may need to check the current rating.on position. and there may be different ratings for AC and DC. Throw . three or more. Open . Momentary . For low voltage electronics projects the voltage rating will not matter.off position.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Switches Switch Contacts Several terms are used to describe switch contacts: Pole . The switch mechanism has two positions: open (off) and closed (on). The maximum current is less for inductive loads (coils and motors) because they cause more sparking at the contacts when switched off. Switch Contact Ratings Switch contacts are rated with a maximum voltage and current.number of conducting positions.number of conducting positions.

Circuit Symbol Example SPST toggle switch Push-to-make switch Push-to-break switch SPDT toggle switch . When used with mains electricity this type of switch must be in the live wire. Photograph © Rapid Electronics ON-ON Single Pole.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Standard Switches Type of Switch ON-OFF Single Pole. For example. Double Throw = SPDT This switch can be on in both positions. Photograph © Rapid Electronics ON-(OFF) Push-to-break = SPST Momentary A push-to-break switch returns to its normally closed (on) position when you release the button. but it is better to use a DPST switch to isolate both live and neutral. It is often called a changeover switch. This type can be used to switch the power supply to a circuit. this is shown by the brackets around ON. a SPDT switch can be used to switch on a red lamp in one position and a green lamp in the other position. Photograph © Rapid Electronics (ON)-OFF Push-to-make = SPST Momentary A push-to-make switch returns to its normally open (off) position when you release the button. switching on a separate device in each case. Single Throw = SPST A simple on-off switch. A SPDT toggle switch may be used as a simple on-off switch by connecting to COM and one of the A or B terminals shown in the diagram. This is the standard doorbell switch. A and B are interchangeable so switches are usually not labelled.

DPST rocker switch Photograph © Rapid Electronics . Single Throw = DPST ON-OFF SPDT slide (PCB mounting) switch SPDT rocker switch A pair of on-off switches which operate together (shown by the dotted line in the circuit symbol). It has a third switching position in the centre which is off. A DPST switch is often used to switch mains electricity because it can isolate both the live and neutral connections. Momentary (ON)-OFF-(ON) versions are also available where the switch returns to the central off position when released. Photographs © Rapid Electronics Dual Double Pole.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ON-OFF-ON SPDT Centre Off A special version of the standard SPDT switch.

which are designed to be used once and discarded when they are exhausted. larger batteries provide standby power for telephone exchanges or computer data centers. two 9-volt PP3. . Since the invention of the first Voltaic pile in 1800 by Alessandro Volta. one cordless phone battery. one D. Miniature cells are used to power devices such as hearing aids and wristwatches. the worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales each year.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Battery (electricity) Various batteries (top-left to bottom-right): two AA. two AAA. used to convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times.[1] with 6% annual growth. and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries). An electrical battery is a combination of one or more electrochemical cells.[2] There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries). According to a 2005 estimate. the battery has become a common power source for many household and industrial applications. one handheld ham radio battery. one camcorder battery. one C.

i. Many cells use two halfcells with different electrolytes. In that case each half-cell is enclosed in a container.. reduction (addition of electrons) occurs to cations at the cathode. the other half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which cations (positively-charged ions) migrate.[22] The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. In the redox reaction that powers the battery. . and a separator that is porous to ions but not the bulk of the electrolytes prevents mixing. i. the anode or negative electrode. each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations.e. A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy.e.. the cathode or positive electrode. but not water molecules. while oxidation (removal of electrons) occurs to anions at the anode.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS How batteries work Main article: Electrochemical cell A voltaic cell for demonstration purposes. One half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which anions (negativelycharged ions) migrate.[21] It consists of a number of voltaic cells. Dry cell Line art drawing of a dry cell. In this example the two half-cells are linked by a salt bridge separator that permits the transfer of ions.

the ammonium chloride has been replaced by zinc chloride. until the development of the gel battery. with only enough moisture in the paste to allow current to flow. making it highly suitable for small portable electric devices. 5. using a cell sometimes called the dry Leclanché cell.5 volts. By comparison. The electrolyte is ammonium chloride in the form of a paste next to the zinc anode. the same nominal voltage as the alkaline battery (since both use the same zinc-manganese dioxide combination). Carbon rod. Brass cap. the first wet cells were typically fragile glass containers with lead rods hanging from the open top. and needed careful handling to avoid spillage. A common dry cell battery is the zinc-carbon battery. 2. 7. while a dry cell would not. As opposed to a wet cell. Porous cardboard. it has the advantage of containing no sloshing liquid that might leak or drip out when inverted or handled roughly. the battery can be operated in any random position. 3. the latter acting as a depolariser. 6. usually in the form of a cylindrical pot. with a nominal voltage of 1. In some more modern types of so called 'high power' batteries. The remaining space between the electrolyte and carbon cathode is taken up by a second paste consisting of ammonium chloride and manganese dioxide. Expansion space. While a dry cell's electrolyte is not truly completely free of moisture and must contain some moisture to function. 4. with a carbon cathode (positive pole) in the form of a central rod. Plastic seal. The makeup of a standard dry cell is a zinc anode (negative pole). Zinc can.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS 1. and will not spill its electrolyte if inverted. Lead-acid batteries would not achieve the safety and portability of the dry cell. An inverted wet cell would leak. . Chemical mixture A dry cell has the electrolyte immobilized as a paste.

.  Pollution free.  Easy to use. Simple design. Delectated circuit   .  Construction is easy.  Very low cost under Rs(200-300)   Easy to handle anywhere. This circuit required a constant dc voltage. Disadvantages  It can be used only for short period.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS Advantages  Saves fuel.

com http://www. Principle of Electronics.efymag.electronicslab. DRAWING I got this circuit from efymag.com BOOKS Basic Electrical Engineering. REFERENCE WEBSITE http://www.org http://www. This is one of simple projects.wikipedia. And my project coordinator helps me to design this circuit. . This can be used in emergency when the power is cut off or when the voltage is low.DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS CONCLUSION Hence we conclude that this is a electrical based project.

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