Computer Science Department

Technical Report
NWU-CS-05-09
June 14, 2005
Components of a Scalable Distributed Relational Information Service
Dong Lu
Abstract
An information service stores information about the resources and services within a
distributed computing environment and answers queries about it. This dissertation
presents the design of several important components of the Relational Grid Information
System (RGIS).
The query rewriting component handles the challenges originating from the powerful
features of relational algebra - some complex queries may be too expensive for RGIS.
We have developed several query rewriting techniques to trade off the query time with
the number of results returned. These techniques make it feasible to provide the
flexibility and power of a relational data model in a GIS system while controlling the
costs.
The topology generation and annotation component helps to evaluate the performance of
such information servers. GridG is a synthetic grid generator that can generate annotated
Internet topologies including routers, IP links, and end systems. GridG is the first
synthetic grid generator that follows the power laws of Internet topology while
maintaining a clear hierarchical network structure. We also discovered interesting
relationships among the power laws.
The scheduling component helps to enhance system performance by minimizing mean
response time. We studied the performance of size-based scheduling policies as a
function of correlation between job sizes and their estimations, and explored several
estimators. We have learned that it is feasible to deploy size-based scheduling on RGIS
servers.
A centralized relational information RGIS server can not scale with the distributed
computing environment. A distributed RGIS can potentially scale by forming an overlay

network and sharing load among the servers. Weak consistency needs to be maintained
among the RGIS replicas with a content delivery network propagating updates. For
efficiency and scalability, we designed a novel overlay multicast protocol that emulates
the fat-tree architecture on the WAN (This work was done in collaboration with Stefan
Birrer and Fabian Bustamante).
The transfer prediction component is responsible for predicting the update transfer time
accurately in a real time manner on the overlay network. We developed a novel TCP flow
rate monitoring and prediction framework that can predict serial as well as parallel TCP
flow rates accurately with low overhead.
Our next step is to integrate these components into RGIS.

Keywords: Grid Computing, Information Service, Synthetic Grid Generator, Topology,
Query Rewriting, Size-Based Scheduling, TCP Throughput Prediction, Parallel TCP,
End-System Multicast

Effort sponsored by the National Science Foundation under Grants ANI-0093221, ACI-0112891,
ANI-0301108, EIA-0130869, and EIA-0224449. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or
recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect
the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF). 

       

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Nondeterminism Rewrite
Time Bounding
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RDBMS

Update
Manager

Oracle 9i Front End
transactional inserts and updates
using stored procedures,
queries using select statements
(uses database’s access control)

Content Delivery
Network Interface
For loose consistency

Updates encrypted
using asymmetric
cryptography on
network. Only those
with appropriate keys
have access

Oracle 9i Back End
Windows, Linux, Parallel Server, etc
site-to-site

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Schema, type hierarchy, indices,
PL/SQL stored procedures
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id,type

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leases
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id,type,module,datasource

software layer
hosts
id,typeinfo,distip

iplinks
id,src,dest

hostbenchmarks
id,typeinfo,blob

ippaths
id,src,dest

routers
id,typeinfo,distip

ipassocs
distip => {ip}

routerbenchmarks
id,typeinfo,blob

ipmacassoc
ip => macaddr
network layer

macswitches
id,typeinfo,distadx

macassocs
distadx => {adx}

%

virtuals
id => {id}
futures
id => id
resource metadata
archtypes, routertypes,
switchtypes, linktypes,
ostypes, osvendors,
hardwarevendors,
linktypes, pathtypes,
moduletypes,
endpointtypes,
datatypes,
hostbenchmarktypes,
routerbenchmarktypes
id, name, desc

maclinks
id,typeinfo,src,dest

valid types
data link layer

*)

connectorswitches
id,typeinfo,distadx

connectorassocs
distadx => {adx}

connectorlinks
id,typeinfo,src,dest

connectormacassoc
adx => macaddr
physical layer

Users, Groups,
Capabilities, Sessions,
Resource limits…
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user => {capability}
user => {resource limit}
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CREATE table hosts (
distip

varchar2(15)

name

varchar2(256)

not null primary key,
default('UNKNOWN'),

numproc

number

default(1),

mhz

number

default(0),

constraint good_mhz_hosts check (mhz>=0),
arch

varchar2(32)

default('UNKNOWN'),

constraint good_arch_hosts foreign key (arch)
references archtypes(name),
hwvendor

VARCHAR2(32)

DEFAULT('UNKNOWN'),

constraint good_hw_hosts foreign key (hwvendor)
references hardwarevendors(name),
os

varchar2(32)

default('UNKNOWN'),

constraint good_os_hosts foreign key (os)
references ostypes(name),
osvendor

varchar2(32)

default('UNKNOWN'),

constraint good_osv_hosts foreign key (osvendor)
references osvendors(name),
osver

varchar2(256)

default('UNKNOWN'),

kernelver varchar2(256)

default('UNKNOWN'),

mem_mb

default(0),

number

constraint good_mem_hosts check (mem_mb>=0),
vmem_mb

number

default(0),

constraint good_vmem_hosts check (vmem_mb>=0),
disk_gb

number

default(0),

constraint good_disk_hosts check (disk_gb>=0),
location

varchar2(256)

default('UNKNOWN'),

owner

varchar2(256)

default('UNKNOWN'),

description varchar2(256),
insertid

number

not null unique,

constraint good_insert_hosts foreign key
(insertid) references insertids(insertid)
ON DELETE cascade
);
CREATE table insertids (
note

varchar2(256),

time

timestamp

insertid

number

not null primary key,

rand

number

not null

not null,

);
CREATE table ipassocs (
distip

varchar2(15)

not null,

ip

varchar2(15)

not null primary key,

insertid

number

not null,

constraint good_insert_ipassocs foreign key
(insertid) references insertids(insertid)
ON DELETE cascade
);

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sub ARCHandOSandCPUrule {
my ($arch, $OS, $numcpu, $cpuspeed) = @_;
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#rules end here
return 1;
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#example rule: Intel arch can't support more than 4 CPU/host
if(($arch eq "IA32") || ($arch eq "IA64")){
if($numcpu > 4) {
return 0;
}
}
#example rule: Max num of CPU is 1024
if($numcpu > 1024) {
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}
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return 1;
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2. One CPU will have at most 4G memory.
3. More CPUs, more likely to have bigger memory.
4. One CPU will have at least 10G disk.
5. More CPUs, more likely to have bigger disk.
6. More memory, more likely to have bigger disk.
7. More disk, more likely to have more memory.
8. Intel&Windows box will have at most 4 CPUs,
other type may have up to 1024 CPUs.
9. Intel Arch and other Arch have different distributions
of CPU MHZ.
10. Host load is not correlated to any other attributes.
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Start

Is OS concentration on?

Select number of CPUs, CPU
clock rate according to arch for
the host.

Yes
Select OS concentration
percentage P.
Select dominant Arch and proper
dominant OS for the LAN.

Select Architecture for the host
on the LAN.

Is user rule satisfied?

Yes
Select memory and disk size
according to number of CPUs.
Apply promotion probability and
rate functions.

Is user rule satisfied?
Is OS concentration on?

Yes
Yes
change the selected host
Arch to dominant Arch
with the probability P.

Select OS vendor according to its
OS for the host.

Is user rule satisfied?
Select OS according to its arch for
each host.

Yes
Select Load value for the host.

Is OS concentration on?

Yes
Is user rule satisfied?
If the host arch has been changed
to dominant arch, change the
host OS to dominant OS.

Yes
Is overall user rule satisfied?

Yes
Finished annotating all hosts
on the LAN?

Yes
End

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sub promotionProb
{
my($numcpu, $maxcpu, $mincpu) = @_;
my $pp100;
$pp100=100*($numcpu-$mincpu)/($maxcpu-$mincpu);
return $pp100;
}

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sub promotionProb
{
my($numcpu, $maxcpu, $mincpu) = @_;
my $pp100;
$pp100=100*sqrt(($numcpu-$mincpu)/($maxcpu-$mincpu));
return $pp100;
}

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"  
  -

“Find 2 hosts with Linux that
together have 3 GB of RAM” 

select
h1.insertid, h2.insertid
from
hosts h1, hosts h2
where
h1.os=‘LINUX’ and h2.os=‘LINUX’
and
h1.mem_mb+h2.mem_mb>=3072

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SELECT NONDETERMINISTICALLY
h1.distip, h2.distip
FROM
hosts h1, hosts h2
WHERE
h1.os=‘LINUX’ and h2.os=‘LINUX’
and h1.distip<>h2.distip
and h1.mem_mb+h2.mem_mb>=3072
WITHIN
2 seconds  

"  
  -

Query Manager
and Rewriter

Random sample of
input tables
Selection probability
determined by time constraint
and server load

SELECT
H1.DISTIP, H2.DISTIP
FROM
HOSTS H1, HOSTS H2 ,
INSERTIDS TEMP_H1 , INSERTIDS TEMP_H2
WHERE
(H1.OS='LINUX' AND H2.OS='LINUX'
AND H1.DISTIP<>H2.DISTIP
AND H1.MEM_MB+H2.MEM_MB>=3072)
AND
(H1.INSERTID=TEMP_H1.INSERTID
AND TEMP_H1.rand > 982663452.975047
AND TEMP_H1.rand <= 1025613125.93505)
AND
(H2.INSERTID=TEMP_H2.INSERTID
AND TEMP_H2.rand > 1877769069.94039
AND TEMP_H2.rand <= 1920718742.90039) 

s

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"  
  -

SELECT
h1.distip, h2.distip
FROM
hosts h1, hosts h2, iplinks l1, iplinks l2, routers r
WHERE
Query Manager
h1.mem_mb+h2.mem_mb>=1024
and Rewriter
and h1.os=‘LINUX' and h2.os=‘LINUX'
and ((l1.src=r.distip and l2.src=r.distip
and l1.dest=h1.distip and l2.dest=h2.distip)
or (l1.dest=r.distip and l2.dest=r.distip
and l1.src=h1.distip and l2.src=h2.distip))
and h1.distip<>h2.distip
and l1.BW_MBS>=100 and l2.bw_mbs>=100
SCOPED BY r.distip=X
WITHIN
100 seconds; 

SELECT
H1.DISTIP, H2.DISTIP
FROM
HOSTS H1, HOSTS H2, IPLINKS L1, IPLINKS L2, ROUTERS R
WHERE
H1.MEM_MB+H2.MEM_MB>=1024
AND H1.OS='LINUX' AND H2.OS='LINUX'
AND ((L1.SRC=R.DISTIP AND L2.SRC=R.DISTIP
AND L1.DEST=H1.DISTIP AND L2.DEST=H2.DISTIP)
OR (L1.DEST=R.DISTIP AND L2.DEST=R.DISTIP
AND L1.SRC=H1.DISTIP AND L2.SRC=H2.DISTIP))
AND H1.DISTIP<>H2.DISTIP
AND L1.BW_MBS >= 100 AND L2.BW_MBS >= 100
AND R.DISTIP = X;

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"  
  -

SELECT APPROXIMATELY
h1.distip, h2.distip
FROM
Canned Query and
hosts h1, hosts h2, iplinks l1, iplinks l2, routers r
Query Manager
WHERE
and Rewriter
h1.mem_mb+h2.mem_mb>=1024
and h1.os=‘LINUX' and h2.os=‘LINUX'
and ((l1.src=r.distip and l2.src=r.distip
and l1.dest=h1.distip and l2.dest=h2.distip)
or (l1.dest=r.distip and l2.dest=r.distip
and l1.src=h1.distip and l2.src=h2.distip))
and h1.distip<>h2.distip
and l1.bw_mbs>=100 and l2.bw_mbs>=100
WITHIN
100 seconds;

SELECT
R.DISTIP, H1.DISTIP
FROM
HOSTS H1, IPLINKS L1, ROUTERS R
WHERE
H1.MEM_MB>=512 AND H1.OS='LINUX'
AND L1.BW_MBS >= 100
AND ((L1.SRC=R.DISTIP AND L1.DEST=H1.DISTIP)
OR (L1.DEST = R.DISTIP AND L1.SRC=H1.DISTIP))
AND R.DISTIP IN
(SELECT
R.DISTIP FROM HOSTS H1, IPLINKS L1, ROUTERS R
WHERE
H1.MEM_MB>=512 AND H1.OS='LINUX'
AND L1.BW_MBS>=100
AND ((L1.SRC=R.DISTIP AND L1.DEST=H1.DISTIP)
OR (L1.DEST = R.DISTIP AND L1.SRC=H1.DISTIP))
GROUP BY
R.DISTIP
HAVING COUNT(*) >= 2)
ORDER BY
R.DISTIP; 

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SELECT APPROXIMATELY
h1.distip, h2.distip
FROM
hosts h1, hosts h2, iplinks l1, iplinks l2, routers r
WHERE
h1.mem_mb+h2.mem_mb>=1024
and h1.os=‘LINUX' and h2.os=‘LINUX'
and ((l1.src=r.distip and l2.src=r.distip
and l1.dest=h1.distip and l2.dest=h2.distip)
or (l1.dest=r.distip and l2.dest=r.distip
and l1.src=h1.distip and l2.src=h2.distip))
and h1.distip<>h2.distip
and l1.bw_mbs>=100 and l2.bw_mbs>=100
SCOPED BY r.distip=X
WITHIN
100 seconds;  

"  
  -

Canned Query and
Query Manager
and Rewriter 

SELECT
H1.DISTIP
FROM
HOSTS H1, IPLINKS L1, ROUTERS R
WHERE
H1.MEM_MB>=512 AND H1.OS='LINUX'
AND L1.BW_MBS >= 100
AND ((L1.SRC=R.DISTIP AND L1.DEST=H1.DISTIP)
OR (L1.DEST = R.DISTIP AND L1.SRC=H1.DISTIP))
AND R.DISTIP=X
AND ROWNUM <=2

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?I J K
?I A(K
?I M7O
A(K
OI A
J AI L
?I K L
?I > J
IJ
AI A
LI
=L I L
KI K(>
KI K J
KI N
>I K
KI K J
>(A J I K
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?I L K
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A(AI M
A(?I L
A J IL
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?I M7K
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A J IA 
N I >
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?I N
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A(OI L
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KI N
KI K L
KI N
KI N
J
N OI        

   

        

  
#    

  

# 

: 
A2TC;U8D3-] [b65P38KdW>8Dz ()-/3R>d )->)-H-39,D38Kz A4)-A25l,A2//<;-398DA435'OBAG,0SH-A =38K3),E5KA 935E>.d TC8DA4HiVM H-AGd 
dW38D39),')<;-zoj=398D5@>dw0U>C5K,D5Mx()-HqH-A 398D3),@5D397239/9,A4>C) X-8D>jV(j-A472A4,DA2395]
O  2 

K 2= 

 

  

  

"  
  -

100 

t

1000000
100000

10

Number of
Results

10000
1000

Query Time
1

100
10

0.1
0.0001

0.001
Selection Probability

1
0.002

A2TC;-8K3-]Ub ,p;-38lF&,A4z 3(.)-HS)<;-zoj=398@>.dw5K37239/9,D3Hr8K>aOB5B`38K5D;-5'5D3743/,A2>)qXU8D>CjV(.j-A274A4,[FC]
C[)&(H-H-AG,A2>)k,D>R,D0-3E)->)-H-39,D38Kz A4)-A25l,A2/ <;-398DA435MO!3E(725K>R3`.(72;V(,3H,0-3'X=398KdW>C8Kz(.)-/3B>d
H-39,D38DzA2)UA25K,DA2/()-HL72A4z AG,3H H-3,398DzA2)-A45K,A4/g`C398D5DA4>C)-5g>.d+,0-35DA4z XU7235l, <;-398KF  y O+( F 2K>CA2)
>C)c,0-3$5Kz(7472395K,&)<;-zoj=3986>do0U>C5K,D5  t  M!HV(.,(u,0V(.,&>"/9/;-X-A4356,0U3 V8D5l,6,[O!>*8D>aOB56>d 
A2TC;U8D3 -] U] 5 >,DA2/93Y,D0V(.,@,0-3RX-;-8D3974F H-3,398DzA2)-A45K,A4/ ;U38KFM=OB0-A4/10rOBA2747 39`3),;V(.7274F 8K39,D;-8D)
(727-XN>C5K5DA2jU723B8D395D;-7G,5M<8K03 <;-A28K35 >a`C38!()0->C;-8v>d8D;-)-)UA2)-T,A4z 3.] p8(./72(3 P 5 <;-398KFX-7h(.)z ( F.35
dW;-727i;U5D3J>dP,0-3Y( `.(A272(j-723'A2)-HUA2/395]
?0U3$72A2zA4,D3H H-3,38Kz A4)-A25l,A4/ <;-398KFCM?OB0-A4/10c8D3,;-8K)-5&,0-3 V8D5l,68D395D;-7G, MB>C8,0-3 -8D5K, sat
8D35K;-74,D5M V)-A45D0-39H*`38KF <;-A4/ F<74F  t ] s  5 M j-;U,(7GO+( F5k8D3,;-8K)-3H*,0-3 5(.z 368K35D;U74,59] ?0-3
)->C)-H-3,398DzA2)-A45K,A4/?`C38K5DA4>C)6>di,D0-3E5D(z 3 <;-38lF3 U39/;U,D35?z>C8D3@5D74>aOB74FCM<,1( FA4)-Tg(.j=>C;",!,[OBA2/93
(5?72>C)UTg39`3) OBA4,0 (o`38lF&72>aO 5D397239/9,A4>C)6X-8K>CjV(j-A472AG,[FC] @>aO!3`C389MVdW>C7274>^OBA4)-TR,D0-3H-A45D/;U5D5DA4>C)
>dPe"39/9,A4>C) -] y ] y M<O:3E)->aO TC3,+(JH-A =38K3),+5K39,:>d 8K35D;U74,5 3 (./10,A4z 3?O:3E8D;U) ,0U3 <;-38lFCMU()-H
,0-73 <;-398KFYOBA2747HU>(  "3H(z>C;-), >dVO:>CG8 FY3 (/10g,DA2z3:AG, A45 8K;-)i] C ,wA25w5K72>aO:38 jN3/(;-5D3:,0-398D3
(8D3,[O!>$(.H-H-A4,DA2>C)-(7 03 <;-A 2K>CA2)U5YOBAG,0L,D0-3A4)-5D398K,DA2H-5J,1(jU723Mw(5o/()ujN3 5K339)bA2)  A2TC;-8K3 -] y ]
?0-A25?>a`C398D0-3(HqA25+,0U3/>C5l,?dW>C8?A2zX-7239z 39),A2)UTo8(.)-H->Cz 5(zX-72A4)-Tg(.j=>a`C3,D0-3HV(.,(jV(5K3]vn
HV(.,1(.jV(5D3J39)-TCA2)U3p,0V(.,@5K;-X-XN>C8K,D5@8D()-H->z 5(zX-74A2)-ToOBA4727i)U>,BXV( F&,0UA25BX=39)V(7G,[FC]
P>rjN39,K,398oA27472;-5l,8D(.,3g>;-8R8K35K;-74,D5YdW>C8Y)->C)UH-39,D38DzA2)UA25K,DA21/ <;-398DA2395MwO:35D0->aO ,[O!>S5D74A2/395  

 

  

  

"  
  -

1 

s

2000
p=0.0001

p=0.00000001

Query Time
p=0.000005

1800
1600
1400
1200

p=0.00001

1000
Number of
Results

800
600
400
200

0.1

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Number of Hosts

2A TC;-8K3-] [b ,p;-38lF&,A4z 3(.)-HS)<;-zoj=398@>.dw5K37239/9,D3Hr8K>aOB5B`38K5D;-5');Uzgj=398B>dw0U>C5K,D5]
,0-8K>C;-TC0 ,D0-3r,1(.j-723.] DQ3\;U5D3\,0U3 tCt M tCtCt 0->C5K,&TC8DA4Hi]  A2T;-8D3 -] Z5D0->aOB56,0-3\(a`38D(TC3
);Uzgj=398v>di8K35D;U74,5 ()UH,D0-3@(a`38D(TC3 ;U38KFI,DA2z3!dW>C8 ,0U3B,[O:>Y0->C5K, `C398D5KA2>C)>dN,0-3 <;-38lF(5
(kdW;-)U/9,A4>C) >dw,D0-3J5D39723/,A4>C)SXU8D>CjV(.j-A274A4,[FC]?0-3R7439d,B0V(.)-HS5K/ (743J/>C8K8D35KX=>)-H-5',D>I,0-33<;-38lF
,A2z3MCOB0UA2723B,0U3'8KA2TC0, 0V()-H5D/ (.723@5D0->aOB5:,D0-3E)<;-zoj=398:>di8D35K;-74,D5] 5 >,3@,0V(,!(.727V5D/(72395+(8K3
72>CT(.8DA4,D0-zA2/] ?0-395D3J8D395D;-7G,5?5K0->aO ,D0V(.,BA4,!A25+XN>C5K5DA2jU723',D>Iz 3()-A4)-TdW;-7474FI,8D(H-3p > \jN39,[O:33) 
;U38KFX-8K>"/935K5DA2)UTR,A4z 3B(.)-H8K35D;U74,:5D39,:5DA 3.] ?0-3'XN>CA4)<, 0-398D3'A25 ,0V(,:AG, A25vX=>5D5DA4j-723?,D>R`.(8KF
,0-3 <;-398KFg,DA2z3?()-HI,0U3?8D35K;-74, 5D39, 5KA 3?>a`38v5D3`C38D(7V>C8KH-38K5 >.d=z (TC)UA4,;UH-3!jFIz>"HU;-7h(.,DA2)-T
,0-3J5D397239/9,A4>C) X-8D>jV(j-A472A4,[F] 
A2TC;-8K3 -] k5D0U>^OB5E( 5K3/>)-H\5D74A2/93J,D0-8D>;-TC0q>C;-8@HV(.,1("] p)-/3R(T(.A2)iM-O:3o0V( `3o;-5K3Hr,D0-3
tCt M tCtCt 0->C5K,JT8DA2Hr()-H$5K0->aO ,D0-3I( `C398(TC13 <;-398KFS,A2z3R()-H$8D395D;-7G,5D3,5DA 3.Mij-;U,0U38D3gO:3
`(.8KF$,0U3 /9>Cz XU723 "AG,[F$>d <;-398KF  ,D0-3 )<;-zoj=398R>d+0->C5K,D5o(.G5 F39HudW>C8 ()UHQ/10->>C5D35D397239/9,A4>C)
X-8D>Cj-(j-A274A4,DA235 ,D>o,8lF ,D;> F393X6,0-3 ;U38KF ,A4z 3E(5!/9>C)-5K,(),@(5+XN>C5D5KA2j-743] ?0U3pX=>A2),+0-398D3pA45
,0V(.,JAG,A25XN>C5K5DA2jU723o,D>q;U5D3I,0-3k5K37239/9,DA2>C) X-8K>CjV(j-A472AG,[Fq,D> />C),8K>C7w,D0-3 ;U38KF$,DA2z3o72(8DTC3974F
A2)-H-39X=39)-H-39)<,'>d <;-38lF />CzX-723 "A4,[FC]    

 



2A TC;U8D3 -] [b 5
39`.(72;-(.,A4>C)i]  

'>5K,5
sat 
t 
s tCt   

 

5 sD 5 y: t 5 s t. e as D t `e as : t e .t 

"  
  -
& 

y

U] s  y ] 
U] s  y ]  s satCt s t sat as t t
U] s  y ]  s satCt y.t sat as t t
(8(.z 3,38K5vXV(5D5K3H,D>RmJ8KA2Hxm D, >JTC3)-398(.,D3'T8DA2HU5vdW>8 )-C> )-H-3,398DzA2)-A45K,A4/ <;-38lF   

15 !-3:$%"2 ; 1 " "015$ )3: &   
(' )#",./") 1 " 2/3415#" " " 152 793:790;
<

!3/(;-5D3 B?mCleq(745D>5K,D>C8D395'A4)UdW>C8Dz (.,DA2>C)6(.j=>C;",@,D0-3Y)-39,[O:>C8GF6,D>CX=>72>CTF>d (kTC8KA2HiMUO:3o/()
A2)-/972;-H-3+,D>CXN>C72>CT.FoA4) >C;U8;U38DA4359]  >8 3U(zX-723.MCO!3@/ () V)-Hk,0U3'5K0->C8K,D35l,!XV(,0-5vjN39,[O:33)
(*XV(.A286>do0->C5K,D5MJ>C8q(747pXV(A48D5 5D0->8K,395K,SXV(.,D0-5M>C8q( TC8D>;-X >dR0->C5l,5q,0V(.,S(8K3$,A2T0<,D74F
/>C)-)U3/9,D3Hi]
R

p;-8 <;-38lFJ0-38K3 ,D8DA435 ,> V)-Ho(727CX-(A28K5P>.d-0->C5l,5 ,0V(,w(.8D3vH-A28K3/,74F(.,D,(/10-3H  (.,P72(aF38  ]
?0-3Rz (/10-A4)-35Bzg;U5K,@0V( `C3Y,0-3Y5(z3>CXN38D(.,A4)-Tk5KF5K,D3z ()-HSzg;-5K,@0V( `3o(I,>,(7 z3z>C8KF
>d?(.,Y743 (5l, s Sm RE] DQ3TC39)-38D(.,39HuH-A =38K3),Y)-39,[O:>C8 F59M 8(.)-TCA2)UTqdW8K>Cz sat M tCtCt ,D> satt M ttCt
0->C5K,D5dW>8k,D0-A25 <;-398KFC] ?0-3S)U39,[O:>CG8 F XV(8D(z39,398D5kTCAG`C3)*,>QmJ8KA2Hxm (8D3 5K;-z z (8KA 39HA4) 
A2TC;U8D3 -] U] 
A2TC;-8K3 U] sat 5D0->aOB5w,D0-3?( `C398(TC93 ;U38KFY,A4z 3v`C398D5K;-5 5D39723/,A4>C)oX-8K>CjV(jUA272AG,[FpdW>C8 H-A =38K3),
5DA 93'T8DA2HU5]  A4TC;-8K3 U] sCs 5D0U>^OB5:,0-3'( `C38D(TC3'8D35K;-74,:5D3,+5KA 3BdW>C8 ,0U3E5(.z 3BXV(8D(z39,398D59]  >8
,0-A45 8()-T3@>.d5K37239/9,DA2>C)kX-8K>CjV(j-A472AG,A2395M ;U38KFI,DA2z3+A2)U/8D3(5D395!(.X-X-8D> "A2z (.,D374FR72A4)-3 (.8D74FJOBAG,0
5D3743/,A2>)rX-8K>CjV(j-A472AG,[FCMUOB0-A4723J,0-3Y8D395D;-7G,E5K39,E5DA 93RA4)-/8K3 (5K35p5K72A4TC0,74F d
(5K,D389] ?0U35D3o8D35K;-74,D5
X-8D>a`A2H-3Sz >8D3r3`A2H-39)-/3r,D0V(.,A4, A25XN>C5K5DA2jU723 ,>u;-5K3\5D397239/9,A4>C)_XU8D>CjV(.j-A274A4,[Fu,D>Q,8D(H-3r>
j=3,[O!393)8D35K;-74, 5D39, 5DA 93?()-1H <;-398KFg,DA2z3 dW>8 <;-38KA235 (j=>;U, TC8KA2H-5POBA4,0g,[FX-A4/ (7,>CXN>C74>CTCA2/(7
()-Hqz 39z >C8lF5KA 93YHUA25K,D8DA4j-;U,A4>C)-59]  

 

   

  

"  
  -

60
10K HOSTS
50

50K HOSTS
100K HOSTS

Time (Seconds)

40

30

20

10

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
0.6
Probability

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

2A TC;U8D3 -] sat b ,p;-398KF 8D;U)-)-A2)UT ,DA2z3`C398D5K;-55K37239/9,DA2>C)*X-8D>jV(j-A472A4,[F dW>C8k)->)-H-39,D38Kz A4)-A25l,A2/
)-39,[O:>C8GF#<;-398KF] 

6000
10K HOSTS
5000

50K HOSTS

Number of rows selected

100K HOSTS
4000

3000
(0.1, 2)
(0.1, 10)
(0.1, 14)

2000

1000

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
0.6
Probability

2A TC;U8D3 -] sCs b 5 ;-zgjN38 >d"5D39723/,39Ho8D>aOB5 `C398D5D;U5 5K37239/9,DA2>C)YX-8D>jV(j-A472A4,[FBdW>C8 )->)-H-39,D38Kz A4)-A25l,A2/
)-39,[O:>C8GF#<;-398KF]  

 

  

 

'>5K,5 

5 sD 5  : 5  . e  D t [e  : t ye Ct . t 

"  
  -
&  

UM tCt "] s  y ] 
s tUs M ytCt "] s  y ]  s y  yCy  t  t ytCt
t M tCtCt "] s  y ]  s  t  t  t  t ytCt 
A2TC;U8D3 U] s^y b 5 (8(z39,D38K5IXV(5D5K3H ,>Zm8DA4Hxm dW>C8gTC39)-38D(.,A4)-T$TC8DA4H-5R,D>$39`.(74;V(.,35D/>X=39HiM
(X-X-8K> "A4z(.,D3MV(.)-H 5D/>X=39H\(X-XU8D> "A2z (.,3)-3,[O!>8GF#<;-38KA2395]
  
   [>     
   A  
 < >  
DQ3@39`.(74;V(.,39H0->aO ,D0-3@X=398KdW>C8Kz()U/3@>di5K/>CXN3HiMU(X-X-8K> UA4z(,3M<(.)-H5K/>CXN3H6(.X-X-8D> "A2z (.,D3 
;U38DA435:>C) B+m ClekH-3XN3)-HU5!>C),0-3@HV(.,(jV(5K3'5KA 3.MU(.)-H ,D0-3'/9>CzX-723 UAG,[FI>d=,0-3 ;U38KF] ?0-3 
;U38DA435O:3I;-5D3(8K3I)-3 (8K74FSA2H-39),A2/(7 ,D>6,0->C5K3I>dv,0-3kX-8K39`A2>;-55D39/9,A4>C)i] ?0-3 V8D5l,Y72>(> F<5
dW>C8E5K39,5E>dv0->C5l,5E,D0V(.,pz33,( ,D>,1(.7 z3z>C8KF 8K03 <;-A48D3z3),J(.)-Hr,>.,1(7PH-A25 F 8D03 <;-A48D39z 39)<,M
,0-3&72(.,D,D38R8D03 <;-A48D39z 39)<,gj=39A2)-Tr,D0-3&H-A 398D39)-/3&dW8K>Cz ,0-3&XU8D39`A4>C;-5I5D39/9,DA2>C)i] ?0U365D3/9>C)-H
72>(> F<5EdW>C8TC8K>C;-X-5>d 0->5K,5,D0V(.,Y(H-HUA4,A4>C)V(7474Fq(8K3g,A4TC0,74Fq/9>C;-X-743H >C)$,0-3k)-3,[O!>G8 F  A ] 3]GM
/72;U5K,398D59]  @38D3.M ,D0-3 /9>C;-X-74A2)-T A45Y)U>,oHUA28D39/9,R(.,K,1(/10-z3),M j-;",o5K0V(8DA4)-TS(q/9>Cz z>C) V8K5K,
0->CXq8D>C;U,D389]
?0U3o)-3,[O!>C8 F XV(8(.z 3,38K5B>dw,D0-3R5lF)<,D0-39,DA2/YTC8DA4H-5B;-5D39H\A2)6,D0-A25B5D39/9,DA2>C)r(8D3JH-395D/8KA2jN3H
A2)  A2T;-8D3 U] s^y ] ?0-3Rz3z>C8lFH-A45K,D8DA2jU;U,A4>C)-5B(8K3J(5Bj=3dW>C8D3.]     

+  ! . 
< 

'38K3O:339`.(72;-(.,39HZ,D0-3       

#"$%" &   
(' )+ 6" ,./") 1" 2/3415#" "05"0152 793:790;   

15

XN38ldW>C8Dz ()-/93k>d+>C8KA2TCA4)V(7w()-HZ5D/>X=39Hb(X-X-8K> UA4z(,3g`C398D5KA2>C)-5Y>d
( <;-398KF$,0-(.,Y5D3 (.8D/10-5YdW>C8 . 0U>C5K,D5YOBAG,0L( ,D>,1(7 z3z>C8lF say . : R ()UHZ,D>,1(7 HUA25GF 

t .L]  A2TC;U8D3 U] s &5K0->aOB5,0-3k( `C398(T3I8D35KX=>)-5D3I,A4z 3R>d j=>.,0\`C398D5KA2>C)-5J>dv,D0-13 <;-38lF
dW>C8,0U3Z72(8DT35K,&TC8DA4H 5DA 3] C[) (.727',D0-3$H-A 398D3), 5KA 39H TC8DA4H-5MBO!3 5K33$,0V(,6,0-3$5K/>CXN3H
(X-X-8K> "A4z(.,D39<;-398KFo,DA2z3:A45wA4)-H-3XN3)UH-3),v>dV,D0-3+)<;-zgjN38 >.dx0->C5K,D5 A2)R,0-3+T8D>C;-XMOB0-A2743:,D0-3
H-39,D38DzA2)UA25K,DA2/ <;-398KFJ,A4z 3 T8D>aOB5 `C38lFJd
(5K, OBA4,D0Y,D0-3v)<;-zgjN38P>dU0U>C5K,D5] C[)R(727/ (5K35M8D35K;-74,D5 

 

  

  

"  
  -

Query Time (Sec)

100
Original Query Time 

(out of
time)

10

1

Scoped+Approximate
Query Time

0.1
2
4
8
16
32
64
Number of Hosts Searched For

A2TC;U8D3 -] s [b @>C5K,!TC8D>C;UX <;-38lF8K35DXN>C)-5K3E,A4z 3B`5] )<;-zgjN38:>d 0->C5l,5 OBA4,0 t M tCtCt 0->C5l,5
D5 /9>CXN3H\(.X-X-8D> "A2z (.,D3 <;-38lF ]
O!398D3I8D3,;-8K)-3H] N!743 (8K74FM0<;-z ()!<;-38lF\/8K3 (.,DA2>C)  ,0U3k(X-X-8K> "A4z(.,D3YdW>8Dz >d ,0-31<;-398KF 
/>CzgjUA2)-39H&OBA4,0 (.;U,>Cz (.,D3H,D8()-5ldW>C8Dz (.,DA2>C)  5D/9>CX-A4)-T :/()68D395D;-7G,?A2)#<;-398KF&XN38ldW>C8Dz ()-/93
,0V(.,B5K/ (7435?`C398KF6O:3747iOBA4,0 X-8K>Cj-743z 5KA 3.]    

 ! .    

#"$%" &  
(' )#" ,. ") 2   15+,.+")

15 "05"0152 

?0-A25 <;-38lF 5D3 (.8D/10-395EdW>C8@() . 0->5K, . A4)<;  /74;-5K,D38BOBA4,D0S74A2)`F jV()-HUOBA4HU,0U5  satCt :Sj-X-59M
()-Hk,>,(7Vz 39z >8KF  s^y .L] '38K3MO:3'z3 (5K;-8D39H ,D0-3B8D35KX=>)-5D3@,A2z3?>d=>C8DA4TCA2)-(7 M.5D/>X=39HiM
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70

70
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Average
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Time (Sec)

50

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40

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30

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Average time
per LAN
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20
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Average number of LANs Tried

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Number of LANs

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10
0

2

4

8
16
Cluster Size

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A       

     

-
Average Query Time (seconds) 



80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 

With update load

Without update load
1

10
64
Number of Concurrent Users

A2TC;U8D3 -] s [bON!72;U5K,398 V )UH-38EOBAG,0Szg;-74,DA2X-743/>C)U/;-8K8D3),;U5D38K5J()-HS;-X=H-(.,3R72>(H  K5 />CXN3H
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Average Query Time (seconds) 

0.3
0.25

With update load

0.2
0.15

Without update load

0.1
0.05
0
10

100
300
Number of Concurrent Users

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D 

     

- 



Time (Seconds)

2.5
2
1.5
1

Target Deadline

0.5
0

( s ] y 5D3/9>C)-HqH-3 (.H-72A4)-3

Climbing

Climbing+Hard Limiting

Estimation

Estimation+Hard Limiting

Mechanism 



Time (Seconds)

2.5
2
1.5

Target Deadline

1
0.5
0

j s ] g5K3/>)-HrH-3(H-74A2)-3

Climbing

Climbing+Hard Limiting

Estimation

Estimation+Hard Limiting

Mechanism 



Time (Seconds)

250
200
150
100
50
0

Target Deadline

/ t 5D39/>C)UHrH-3(H-72A4)-3
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Mechanism

Estimation+hard Limiting

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100

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

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SRPT
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100

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100

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O N <(@\@ " E "kM <A@ M B " E " G@ @RB  " O M DLE BPGLS9 DLE "  = " E B  " G@RO ]  Gv@R9'@R<'K H"! <a[ 
"   
 EQD GLO
9iG  „=L<A@ ! O ]
# " E B % N <A@\B09iG
e 
" @ H <'O M 9iG " @\9 ; DLE @ !L" E [ " E BP;+Y…@ !#" N 9 EQE " N @RG " O\O`9';9 DLE = E 9i=59iO "k)
M * +
V " G N ! u< E 7  " N ! <'GLB0O :T <AG M @\9 OQ@ E " G#S'@ !L" G<'GL<'KPYUO\BPOqV?<'O ".M 9iG B0O‚@ E BPV D @\B09iG " @<'G M e9 E 
G " @ H BP@ ! Kj< E S " E * +
e  I 9 H OQB  " O ] # " E B % N <A@\B09i"
G " @ H <AO N 9'G M DLN @ ".M 9iG @ H" G@lY
E " K0<A@RBP9i! 
K0<'G " @ | <'VG#9 ML" O.T{9iG " GL9 ML" 9iG 9 E @ !H" OQ@ " E G
GLBP[ " E OQBP@lY N < v= D O <'G M 9'G " GL9 ML" <A@

|7]  " D O ".(
M 3 E B M 46*  <'G M O N =XB0G€@ ! BPO`O " @WV " N < D O " V59'@ ! <'=L=#K0B N <A@RBP9iGLO E " @ D B E " < D 
@ !L" Gf@\B N <A@RBP9iG V " ;9 E " @ E <'GLO‚; " EQE B0G#S " " N @RBP[ "M <A@R< ] D#E O NkE BP=#@@ E <'GLO‚; " E ".M < O " E B " O9'; %?K " O
9 3 dYU@ " OBPG:O " @ D " G N " <'G M E " N 9 E ML".Mt" < N ! @ E <'GLO‚; " E @\2B  " <'O
E <'GLS'B0GLS„; E 9   _ dYU@ " O@R
@ !L"sI 9 H M DLE <A@\B09iG ] 
GLKPB0G " [A<'K D <A@RBP9i
G " @dO " E [ " O@R9 " ['<AK D <A@ " 9 DLE  D <AK <(@RO E " <'KL@RB  B
e %@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @
" * +

F

37

F

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= E "kM B N @RB09'GZ; E < "kH 9 E 7 ]' " E <'G M 9uK,Y N ! 9U9iO " %L;+@lY) K0<'G " @ | <'VZGL9 ML" OkT<'G M€M 9 E <'G M 9
=?<'B E B0GLS„@ H B N " T E " O D KP@\B0GLSuB0G  M BPOQ@\B0G N @RBP[ " =?<(@ ! O ]  " D O "  D <'K2<A@\O@\9v9iGLBP@\9 E @ !L" 
=?<A@ ! O;9 E < M DLE <A@\B09iG 9';<'V†9 D @'  M <gYUO ]  DLE B0GLSv@ !L"W" = " E B " Gf@ H" E <AG M 9vKPY‡O " G M <
%?K " 9';{O\B  " /  9 E /  9 E /  D O\B0G#S>O N =‰<AO <:@ " OQ@ N <'O " @\9 N 9u=?< E "uH B,@ ! @ !L"
= E "kM B N @RB09'G E " O D KP@ ] sG#K0B0G " ['<AK D <A@\B09iG0 " @ N 9iG@R<'B0GLO = E ".M B N @RBP9iGLO ]

# 

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F 

     

 
  



O D#E = E B0O\BPGLS!%LG M B0G#SXB0G E " N " G@ * e+ N 9iGLG " N @\B09iG N ! < E < N @ " E Ba<A@\B09iG‰B0O„@ ! A< @ * e+ I 9 H
O\B " <'G M @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @< E " OQ@ E 9iG#SiKPY N 9 EQE " K0<A@ "kMq]* ! B0O{O " N @\B09iG " =LK0<'B0G#Oƒ@ !L" = L! " GL9 " GL9'GqT
= E 9g[UB ML" OyG "kH < M#M BP@\B09iG?<AK " =LK0<'G?<A@\B09iGLOs;9 E B,@aT " =LK0<'B0G#O H{! Y€BP@ N <'G K " < M @R9…0B GL< N.NkDLE <A@ "
e @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @= E "kM B N @RB09'GLO.T?<AG M 9 D @RKPB0G " O < G "kH = E ".M B N @\B09iG…<'=#= E 9< N !q]
* + 

"!$# 

^! <'GLSLT

%'&)(+*),.-/(+*),.*
" @<'K D -  H <'G?<'K,Y  ".M

@ !L" N 9 E\E " Kj<(@RB09'GLOƒV " @ H"." G:@ !L" * e+ I 9 H N ! < E < N @ " E B0O‚@RB N O 9';
B0G@ " E " O‚@aT7BPG N K D M B0G#S I 9 HM DLE <A@RBP9iGŒ<'G M @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @aT I 9 HM D#E <A@\B09iG%<'G M OQB " T <'G M%I 9 H
O\B " <'G M @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ ] * !L" Yt=59iB0G@ "kM 9 D @@ ! <A@s@ !L" O " N 9 E\E " K0<A@RBP9iGLO< E " ;8<'B E K,Y N 9iGLOQB0OQ@ " G@
< N.E 9iO\Os<AK0K @ !L" B E @ E < N " OkT‹<'G M O ! 9 H < OQK0BPS ! @G " S<A@RB,[ " N 9 E\E " K0<A@RBP9iG:V " @ H"." G M DLE <A@\B09iG><'G M
@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @aT{<€O\K0BPS ! @v=†9iOQBP@\BP[ " N 9 E\E " Kj<A@\B09iGŠV " @ H"." GrOQB " <'G MpM DLE <A@RBP9iGqTƒ<AG M < O‚@ E 9iGLS
N 9 EQE " K0<A@RBP9iGV " @ H"." Gv@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @d<AG MI 9 H OQB  "'] * !L" Y„< E S D " @ ! <A@@ !L" OQ@ E 9iGLS N 9 E\E " Kj<(@RB09'G
V " @ H"k" G I 9 H OQB " <'G M @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @{BPO@ !L" v9iOQ@ BPG@ " E " O‚@RB0G#S9iG " <AG Mm"  =LK0<'B0G "kM BP@B0G1@ !L"
;9iK0KP9 H BPGLS H <aYCO ]
021436587:9<;>=<9  * +e pO\K09 H OQ@2< E @ N 9 D K M N < D O " OQ9  " N 9 E\E " K0<A@RBP9iGmV " @ H"k" G I 9 H O\B  " <'G M
e  I 9 H O\B  " Oy;9iK0KP9 H O< =59 H" E Kj< H T H{! B N ! T7BPG
I 9 H E <A@ " -  ] * !#"1M B0O‚@ E B0V D @\B09iG€9'; * +
=?< E @.TA@ " K0KPO D O
@ ! <A@
@ !L" u< Q9 E BP@lY`9'; I 9 H O7< E " O ! 9 E @ ] ƒ<'K0< 7 E B0O ! G?<'G^T " @7<'K  O ! 9 H".M @ ! <A@ 
@?9'; @ !L"H" V  E " Kj<A@ "..
e ‰=L< N 7'" @RO H" E " @ E <'GLO‚; " E "kM‡M DLE BPGLS O\KP9 H O‚@2< E @ ] * ! BPOƒ2B v=LKPB " O
M * +

#

D H

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CDF of Correlation Coefficients between Flow Size and Flow Rate
1
0.9

Cumulative Percentages

0.8
0.7

The Simple Program
GridFTP+SCP

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

0.2

0.4
0.6
Correlation Coefficient

0.8

1

e  4 9'; N 9 EQE " Kj<A@\B09iG N 9 " ˆ N B " G@RO 
V " @ H"k" G I 9 H OQB " O`<'G M @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @`BPG
4 B0S D#E "  ]  +
" = " E B " fG @\Oe9 E\E " Kj<(@RB09'G0 " @<'G M # " E B% N <A@RBP9iG0 " @ ]
@ ! A< @'u9iO‚@ H" V  E " K0<A@ "kMXI 9 H O " G ML"kM B0GŒO\KP9 H O‚@2< E @aT V " ;9 E " * e+ ! < M ; D K0KPY€9i= " G ".M BP@\O
N 9iGLS " OQ@\B09iG H BPG M 9 H TqK " < M BPGLSu@\9 @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @  DLN ! K09 H" E @ ! <'G H 9 D K M V " =59iO\OQB0VLK "yH B,@ !
<W; D K0K,Y„9i= " G H B0G M 9 H`] 9 H" [ " E T5<A;+@ " E " KPB2vB0G?<(@RB0G#S`@ !L" % E OQ@ 9'G " O " N 9iG M 9';<AK0K @ !L"I 9 H OkT
@ !L" Yt;9 D G M @ ! <A@`@ !L" O‚@ E 9iGLS N 9 EQE " K0<A@RBP9iGZV " @ H"k" G I 9 H O\B " <AG M @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ E " u<'B0G "kM
OQ@ E 9iGLS ] 
7 =  9  * !L" D O " E O < E "" OQ@\B2u<A@RBPGLS@ !L" D G M#" E K,YUB0GLSVL<'G M#H B M @ ! Tf<AG M @ ! D O@ E <'GLO8
; " E\E B0GLS„VLBP'
S %?K " O{9iGLKPY H{!L" G…@ !L"`" OQ@RB <(@ ".M V?<AG M#H B M @ ! B0O N 9 E\E " O\=59iG M B0GLSiK,Y1K0< E S " -
]
* !#" O " < E " @ H 9:[A<'KPB M E " <'O\9'GLO.T
V D @`@ !L" Y= <aYtV " B0GLO D ˆ N B " G@ ]<%" N K0<'B2 @ ! <(@ v9iO‚@
D O " E O M 9sGL9A@ " O‚@R2B u<A@ " @ !L" <g[A<'BPKj<'V#K " V?<'G M#H B M @ ! V " ;9 E " @ E <'GLO‚; " EQE B0G#S M <A@R< ] 4 DLE @ !L" E v9 E " T
@ ! <A@‹@ !L" N 9 E\E " Kj<A@\B09iG= " E O\BPOQ@\O " [ " G H{!L" GWBPGLBP@\Bj<'K O\KP9 H O‚@2< E @ B0O E " v9 [ ".M O D S'S " O‚@RO‹@ ! <(@‹@ !L" E " 
D OQ@V " O\
9  " 9'@ !#" E  " N ! <'GLBPO vO{<A@ H 9 E 7 ]
|‹" @abcO N 9iGLO\B ML" E @ !L" N 9 EQE " K0<A@RBP9iGŒV " @ H"." G I 9 H O\B  " <'G M @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @vBPGx9 DLE "  = " E B  
" Gf@\O 
e  4 O  9'; @ !L" N 9 E\E " 
] 4 BPS DLE "  ] mS'BP[ " Os@ !L" NkD  D K0<A@RB,[ " M BPOQ@ E B0V D @RB09'G ; D G N @RB09'GLO +
Kj<A@\B09iG N 9 " ˆ N B " G@  " < E OQ9iGqbcO
 T H{!L" E "„" < N ! B0G M BP[UB M D <' K 
[A<'K D " BPO N <'K N.D K0<A@ "kM ; E 9 

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! " $#%& (')*+,&!#%-(.0/(+,!213!54 #%-(.0/(+,!67986:(;<+=!5 +=!1?>@ @A5BC4D+=!D E 

     
 

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9iG " EQD Gm9';
e9 EQE " K0<A@RBP9iG " @ 9 E # " E B% N <A@RBP9iG " @ ] * !L" N 9 E\E " K0<A@RBP9iGuV " @ H"." G I 9 H OQB " <'G M
@ E <AGLOQ; " E @\B2 " B0O K0< E S " ;9 E @ !#" u<Q9 E BP@lY 9';@ E <AGLOQ; " E O D O\BPGLSZ9 DLE O\Bu=#K " @ " OQ@v= E 9iS E <:T
<'G M1" [ " G‡K0< E S " E ;9 E 3 E B M 46* Š<'G M O N =1@ E <'GLO‚; " E O ]4 9 E 9 DLE OQB2v=LK " * e+Œ@ " O‚@ = E 9iS E <?BPG
e9 E\E " Kj<(@RB09'<
G " @.TC9g[ " E  ?9';q<'K0K EQD GLO ML" v9iGLO‚@ E <A@ " OQ@ E 9iGLS9 E  ".M B D  
OdV " @ H"k" G I 9 H
O\B  " O`<'G M>I 9 H E <A@ " O ] 4 D#E @ !#" E T  ? 9';<'K0K E\D G#O ! <a[ " 
  ] 4 9 E @ !L"3 E B M 46* r<'G M
O N = E " O D K,@RO`B0G # " E B % N <A@\B09i>
G " @ 
@? 9';d@ !L" EQD GLO`O ! 9 H OOQ@ E 9iG#S N 9 E\E " K0<A@RBP9iGqT
@?
O ! 9 H 
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H " N 9iGLO\B ML" E < M#M BP@\B09iG?<AK " =LK0<'G?<A@\B09iGLOƒ;9 E @ !L" O DLE = E BPO\BPGLS N 9 E\E " K0<A@RBP9iGmV " @ H"k" G I 9 H 

O\B " <'G M @ E <'GLOQ; " E @RB2 "'] 
# 1&%&#%('1  7:9<;>=<9)* 3,+  =.-  ;0/ 7 E/:9iOQ@ƒ<'=L=LKPB N <A@RBP9iGLO ! <a[ " <'G BPGLBP@\Bj<'K  " O\O\<'S " 
3!"$$
" N ! <'GLS "'+
] 4 9 E 1"  < u=#K " T 3 E B M 46* ‰<'G M O N = E " @ D B E " N " E @RB% N <A@ " 9 E = D VLKPB N 7'" Y:< D @ !#" G@RB 
N <A@\B09iG‡V " ;9 E " OQ@2< E @RBPGLS @R9„O " G M 9 E E " N " B,[ "M <A@2< ]
e z@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @<'O<„; D G N @\B09iG:9'; * e+ I 9 H O\B " T5;9 E @ E <'GLO8
4 B0S DLE "  ] -vO ! 9 H O@ !L" * +
; " E O D OQB0GLS 3 E B M 46* oV " @ H"k" G 9 E @ !H" O‚@ " E G D GLB,[ " E O\B,@lY€<'G "
M
|7]* !L" M 9'@\@ ".M KPB0G " BPO
@ !L" <'O‚Y u=#@\9'@RB N * +
e n@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ ] %" @ E B ".M KPB0G " < E T5K09iSi< E B,@ ! vB N T?9 E ML" E u=59iKPYUGL9vBj<AK T
=†9 H" E T5<'G M…1"  =†9iG " G@RB0<'K N.DLE [ " %L@\@\B0GLS#TLV D @GL9iG " 9A;
@ !L"  %#@ H" KPK ]
e  I 9 H M DLE <A@RBP9i(
G @ E <'G#OQ; " E @RB  "  
" G 1"  @ N 9iGLOQB ML" E "kM @ !L" E " K0<A@RBP9iGLO ! B0= V " @ H"." G * +
<'G M‡I 9 H O\B  " %?K " O\B  "  B
] 4 B0S DLE "  ] O ! 9 H O@ ! <A@{@ ! BPO E " Kj<A@\B09iGLO ! B0= N <'G V "sH" K0K v9 M#" K "kM
H BP@ ! <O\B u=LK " KPB0G " < E u9 ML" K H B,@ !
1 N K09iO " @R9 6] * !L"  < Q9 E BP@lY`9A;?@ !L"ƒM <A@2<  =†9'B0G@RO uBPO\O ".M
VfYv@ !#" K0BPG " < E v9 ML" K^< E " KP9 N <A@ "kM <A@@ !L" [ " E Y1V " SiBPGLGLB0G#SW9';‹@ !L" N.D#E [ " T H{! B N !1H" E " ; " E @R9  

F 

!53' 2 B+)<76 E4554 76 1?>  74E (!  54 /((!07$E8*+= +=!  5 /(!:9 D<;=4E')+=!E4>9?2  E 
@& C  +=!BA&A * +=!,C E (7 ED% A5 0+  DBEFD EFDG@&--4  /:AEH8JIE  +=!@D+)601 +)D +)4 ('32A5 4 
; C AE $ E B (!@  7 K '=+,!5ML  '= +=!5 E+34$CE(:7 & D$A5  1   BEFD 5FD   &!@(D@ ! 4 ;
8* +)N 9E'=  ?'=+,!ECO' 2 /:(')* CP
46 

     
 

F

TCP throughput (KB/Sec)

12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0

20000

40000

60000

80000

100000

TCPFile
flowsize
size (KB)

B0S #D E "  ] -  * e+@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @{[ " E O D O I 9 H O\B " %?K " O\B " H PB @ ! 3
V " @ H"k" G 9 E @ !H" OQ@ " E G GLBP[ " E O\BP@lY1<'G M0
E Si9iGLG " <A@RBP9iG?<'K | <'V ]
e pV D " E O " @ ] %" u< ML" OQB2vB0Kj< E 9iVLO " E ['<(@RB09'GLO 9iG:<'K0K5@ !L" '9 @ !L"
* + 

4  

E B M 46*  ]5* E <'GLO‚; " E O< E "
CBPGLSiK " * e+ I 9 HoH B,@ !
E =?<A@ ! O H" O‚@ D M B ".Mq]

3.5
y = 9E-05x + 0.7246
R2 = 0.9992

3
Time (sec)

2.5
2

γ

Noise area

1.5
1

β

α

0.5
0
0

5000

10000

15000

γ

20000γ

25000

30000

35000

B0S " ] F
<AGLOQ; " @\B " [ " O O e I 9 H O\B " H BP@ !
BM
] 
9 E D#@ E!H" OQ@ " E G E  GLBP[ E " E O\BP@lYx<AG E M D E Si9iG#G " <A@RBP9iG?<'K | <AV ] E CBPGLSiK "
File size (KB)

E O< E " V " @ H"." G
9 H H B,@ ! * +
e 
V D " E O " @ ] % 
< L 
" u
M " OQB2vB0Kj< E 9iVLO " E ['<(@RB09'GLO 9iG:<'K0K5@ L! " 9'@ !L" E =?<A@ ! O H" OQ@ D M B ".Mq]
4  

*

2

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3

46*  * E <'GLOQ; "
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5 

3

'< O@ L! "`3 )g/$ /\$ B0G@ !L" %?S DLE "'] * !L" GL9'B0O " < E " <`B0O M D " @R9`OQ@R< E @ D = N 9iO‚@ROd<'G M
O\K09 H QO @2< E @ " " N @aT ML" O N.E B0V ".M V " K09 H`] * !L" K0BPG " < E u9 ML" K: <aY1G#9'@ ! 9iK M BPGm@ !L"

N K09iO " E K09U9 7 <A@ 4 B0S D#E "  ] O ! 9 H O @ ! <A@7@ !L" @R9'@R<'K * e+ I 9 HpM DLE <A@\B09iG„9 E
@R2B  " N <'GzV "tM BP[UB M#".M B0G@\9%@ H 9Š=?< E @RO  @ !L" OQ@R< E @ D =z9g[ " E !L" < M <'G M @ !L"t"
@ E <AGLOQ; " E @\2B  "'6]  " E " = E " O " G@@ ! BPO{<'O

F

@ #! " E " OQB M D <AK
GL9iBPO " < E " < ]
%LK " @ E <'GLOQ; " E
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C  

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H{!L" E " ‰B0O
@ !L"+* e+ I 9 HM D#E <A@\B09iGqT'B0G N K D M BPGLSV59'@ ! OQ@2< E @ D =v9g[ " E !#" < M
@R2B  " T  BPO@ !#"+* e+ I 9 H O\B " 9 E %LK " OQB " T<'G M BPO@ !L" OQ@2< E @ D =v9g[ " E !#" <
< D @ !#" G@RB N <A@\B09iGt@RB " <AG M @ !L" E " O\B M D <'K7O\KP9 H OQ@R< E @ " " N @W<'O ML" O N.E BPV "kM
OQ@ " < M Y‡O‚@2<A@ " <AOQYu=C@R9'@\B N * e+‰@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @BPG 4 B0S DLE "  ] - ]
G  ] iT H" N <AG " <AO\B0K,Y ML"kM DLN " @ !L"" = E " O\OQB09iGu;9 E @ !L"
3 BP[ " G @ D <(@RB09'
B0G 4 B0S DLE "  ] -v<'O

C 

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M M <A@R<@ E <'GLOQ; " E
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! E9 D S ! = D @ 

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! E 9 D S ! = D @.T <'G M  TWT < E " @ !L" OR< " <'O{B0G @ D <A@\B09iG0 ] ]
7 9<;>=<9   9  / <(@ ! BPO.T " @<'K 9  =59iBPGf@ ".M 9 D @@ ! <A@BP@@2< 7'" O * e+ 
67 % / )+;>1 7 1 3 5
O\9 " @\B2 " V " ;9 E " BP@\O@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ E " < N !L" O "@ D BPK0B0V E B D  ]<
OQO D vB0GLS:O " K " N @RB,[ " < N 7 G#9 H K 
e  H BPK0KCO " G M E 9 D S ! K,Y   1  =L< N 7'" @ROdB0G@ !#" D GLOQ@R<'VLK " = ! <'O " T
".M S " G@\O
e _  T * +  

H{!L" E " BPOd@ !L" KP9iO\O E <A@ " <'G !
M B0O< N 9'GLOQ@R<'G@#"%$ -'& ] * ! B0OdG D V " EN <'G1V " OQB0SiG#B% N <'G@
SiBP[ " G:<vKP9 H K09'O\O E <A@ (
" ‹
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e _ T?OQK09 H O‚@2< E @ H B0K0K^9 [ " E O ! 9U9'@
<'G M>M E BP[ " D =…@ !L" K09iOQO E <(@ " 9 EEQD G>9 D @9'; E " N " BP[ " E H B0G M 9 H`] ^! <'GLS#T " @s<'K - O ! 9 H".M
@ ! <A@`@ !L"  " <'GZK09iOQO E <A@ " BPGt@ !L" B E @ E < N " OBPOsV " @ H"k" &
G  ] …<AG M  ]  ];
OQO D vB0G#S…@ !L"
K09iOQO E <A@ " B0'
O  ] #T <'G MŠ" < N ! =?< N 7'" @vB0O ]  _ T E 9 D S ! KPY  _  M <(@2< ! <'O@\9tV " O " G@
V " ;9 E " * +
e ‰@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ E " < N !L" O " @ D B0K0BPV E B D  ]
< vB0G "kM! D G M E "kM O9'; | B0G D  u< N ! BPG " O 9iG`@ !L" 9 E @ !fH" O‚@ " E G GLBP[ " E OQBP@lY N < u= D O 
"d"  
H{!L" E " 

BPO @ !L" 

e ‰@
* +

D H 

#

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CDF of Overhead for the Simple TCP Program and (GridFTP+SCP)
1
0.9

Cumulative Percentages

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
The Simple Program
GridFTP+SCP

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

0B S
@ !L"
9["
4

0.5

1
Overhead (second)

1.5

2 

D#E "  ]  ‰e+ 4 9A; T@ !L" QO @R< E @ D =o9g[ " E !#" < Mq] [ " G~;9 E @ !L" O\Bu=LK " N KPB " Gf@ AO " E [ " E
E " B0OƒO‚@2< E @ D =‡9g[ " E !L" < M K0B 7A" K,Y N < D O "kM VY1@ !L" E " O\B M D '< KqOQK09 H OQ2@ < E @ " " N @ ]* L! " OQ@R< E @ D =
E !L" < M O9';
O N = <'G M 3 E B M 46* < E "  DLN ! Kj< E S " E ]

<'G M 9iG7Kj<'G " @ | <'Vv<'G M ;9 D G M @ ! <A@ <'KPK#9'; @ !#"  H" E " D O\BPGLS
e _ ]* !L" E " ;9 E " TfBP@B0OKPB 7'" KPY
@ ! <A@ v9iOQ@ * e+ N 9iGLG " N @RBP9iGLO " = " E B " G N " @ ! B0O{O\KP9 H OQ@R< E @9g[ " E O ! 9C9'@ " " N @aT5<'G M V " N < D O "
e nBPG OQK09 H OQ@R< E @ M 9 " OQGqbc@ D O " V?<'G MCH B M @ !:H" K0K}T?@ ! BPO E " OQB M D <AKOQK09 H O‚@2< E @ " " N @ N <'G>V "
* +
@ E " <A@ "kM <'O`<'GL9'@ !L" E 7 BPG M 9';dOQ@R< E @ D =t9g[ " E !L" < M T B0G N 9 E =59 E <(@ ".M BPG <'O`<'V59g[ "'] * ! B0O N <'G
<'K0OQ9 1"  =#Kj<'BPG H{! Y‰B0G 4 B0S D#E "  ] Z@ !#" 
Ov;9 E @ !L" O N =p<'G M 3 E B M 46* @ E < N " O < E "  DLN !
OQ@ E 9iGLS " E @ ! <'G‡@ ! <A@{9';@ !L" O\Bu=#K " = E 9iS E < ]
* 9y[ " E BP;+Y„@ ! <(@d@ ! B0OdB0O7@ !L" N <'O " B0GvS " G " E <AK5;9 E @ !L" OQB2v=LK " <'=#=LK0B N <A@\B09iGLO H BP@ ! 9 D @9'@ !L" E
OQ@2< E @ D =u9g[ " E !L" < M OkT H" D O "kM @ !#" M <A@2< N 9iK0K " N @ ".M B0Gve9 E\E " Kj<A@\B09iG< " @ ]$%" M B M K " <AOQ@ O @ D < E "
K0B0G " < EN.DLE [ " %L@\@\B0GLS<'G M N <'K N.D K0<A@ "kM ;9 E " < N ! O " @{9A; M <A@2< ] 4 B0S D#E "  ] WO ! 9 H O @ !L" e+ 4
;9 E @ !L" O " yO 6] * !#"" " N @9A; E " O\B M D <'KfO\KP9 H OQ@R< E @B0O 9iV[UB09 D O
BPG@ !L" e+ 4 T H{!L" E "dH" O "." 9g[ " E 
? OQ2B v=LK " * +e o@ E <'GLOQ; " E O ! <'O< [A<'K D " " @ D <'K79 E K0< E S " E @ ! <'>
G  ] 
] 4 9 EN 9v=?< E B0OQ9iG
= DLE =59iO " T H" <'KPO\9m=LKP9'@@ !L" +
e  4 9'
; ;9 E <'=L=LKPB N <A@RBP9iGLO@ ! <A@ E " @ D B E " < D @ !L" G@RB N <A@\B09iGtBPG
@ !L" OR<  " 4 B0S D#E " T?GL<  " KPY 3 E B M 46* p<AG M Le+ ]
O@ !L" +
e  4 B0G M B N <A@ " O.T5<v@lYU=LB N <'K ;9 E
O DLN ! <'=L=LKPB N <(@RB09'GLOƒB0
O  DLN ! K0< E S " E @ ! <'G‡@ ! <A@{9A;
@ !L" O\2B v=LK " <'=L=LKPB N <A@RBP9iG ] 

     
 

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O O #D N ! <'O
" Gf@ ".M BPG  †T ! <g[ "M B,ˆ N.D ,K @lYu= E ".M B N \@ B0GLS`@ !#" = " E ;9 E u<'G N " 9';‹K0< E S " @ E <'GLO‚; " E 
E B M 46* Š@ " OQ@RO   

D H 

!L"`ML" ;8< D PK @ = E 9iV " D O "kM V Y
< E " <„<'O{O ! 9 H G PB G 4 0B S #D E "  ] ]
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1B0Oƒ@R9U9 O u<'KPK ]6 @ H BPK0K5K0B 7'" K,Y " G M D =…B0G1@ !#" GL9iB0O " 

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@ @ ! <A@@ !#" =
L! ";* +
O\BuBPKj< E \O B " V " N < D O " 9'5; @ !L" OQ@ E 9iG#S
*

E 9'V "  " <AO DLE " OBPO9iGLK,Y
N 9 E\E " 0K <A@RBP9iG V " @ H"k" Gv@ !

D O " ; D K
@R9 * e+ I 9 H O9';
E 9 D S ! = D @<'G M„I 9 H \O B "A]

,B [ " G @ D <A@RBP9iGC ] CTBP@BPO N K " < E @ ! <A@     B0Os@ !#"* e+ @ ! E 9 D S ! = D
@ !L"uI 9 H OQB "  _ T      BPOy@ !#" * e+ @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @W;9 E @ !L" I 9 H
- _ <'G M     !  BPOs@ !L" OQ@ " < M Y OQ@R<A@ "<* e+ @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ ]
O %LK "
B0G NkE " <'O " O  ML" N.E " <'O " O.T<AG MH{!#" GW@ !L" %?K " O\B " B0O<'=#= E 9< N ! B0GLSB0G %?GLBP@lY'Tg@ !L" @ ! E 9
= D @ H B0KPKq<'=#= E 9< N !     ! ]
3

e xV D
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*

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I 9 H O BPG
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3

E BM

46* %@

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O\B "
O\B "
D S! 

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N.E " <'O " O B,@RO <'S'S E " S<A@ "kM @ ! E 9 D S ! 

9[ " E B,;+Y @ ! <A@ƒ@ !#" K0BPG " < E u9 ML" K†BPO[A<'K0B M ;9 E v9iO‚@  G@ " E G " @=L<A@ ! OkT 4 BPS DLE "  ] WO ! 9 H O
@ !L"
1ƒ9';q@ !L" KPB0G " < E N.DLE [ " %L@Q@RB0G#S;9 E @ !#"M <A@R<WB0G e9 EQE " K0<A@RBP9iG " @ƒ<'G M # " E B% N <A@\B09iG " @ ] 
@ B0O N K " < E @ !L" v9 M#" K ! 9iK M Oy;9 E V†9'@ ! 9 DLE O\Bu=LK " N K0B " G@<'G M O " E [ " E Td<'G M <'=#=LK0B N <A@\B09iGLO
O DLN ! <'O{O N =:<'G
M 3 E B M546* x@ ! <A@ E " @ D B E " < D @ !L" G@RB N <A@RBP9iG ]
*

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2

CDF of R for a Simple Program and (SCP+GridFTP)

0

Cumulative Percentages (in log scale)

10

The Simple Program
SCP+GridFTP

−1

10

−2

10

−3

10

−4

10

−5

10

0

0.2

0.4

0.6
2

R

B0S D#E "  ]  7e+ 4 9';
1;9 E K0BPG
@ " O‚@ ] 9A@ ! O\Bu=#K " N K0B " G@ (O " E [
OQ@ E 9iGLS KPB0G " < E = E 9i= " E @lY ] 9'@ "
9';
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1  ,
 ]
4  

"!  

0.8

1

F

" < E u9 ML" K?9'; 4 BPS DLE "  ] ] < N !
1B0O7; E 9 <BPG ML" =
" E <'G M <'=#=LK0B N <A@\B09iGLO{@ ! <A@ E "@ D B E " < D @ !L" G@\B N <(@RB09'G
@ ! <A@ƒ@ !#" <  B0OB0OBPG1K09'SO N <'K " @R9 O ! 9 HoML" @2<'BPK ] [

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9iGv@ !L" <'V59 [ " 9iV#O " E [A<A@RBP9iGLO.T H"ML" [ " K09i= ".M <G "kH OQB2v=LK " * e+ŒV " G N !  < E 7  " N ! 
<'GLB0O  ] GLO‚@ " < M 9'; D O\BPGLSv= E 9iV " O H B,@ ! @ !L" OR< " O\B " T H" D O " @ H 9u= E 9'V " O H B,@ !…M B " E " G@
O\B " OkT N ! 9iO " G@R9V " V " Yi9iG M @ !L" GL9iBPO " < E " < ] " @ !L" G %#@7<KPB0G " V " @ H"." G„@ !L" @ H 9A " <'O DLE "  
" Gf@\O.T‹<AOO ! 9 H GZB0G 4 B0S DLE "  ] ]
O\BPGLS @ D <A@RBP9iGLO  ] <'G M  ] UT H" N <'Gt@ !#" G N <AK N.D Kj<A@ "
@ !L" * +
e @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @{;9 E 9'@ !L" E I 9 H O\B " O %LK " O\B " O ]
* 9>[ " E B,;+Y€@ ! <A@y@ !L" G "kH @ " N ! GLB @ D "1H 9 E 7 OkT H" D O ".M @ !L" @ E < N " M <A@R< B0GŒe9 E\E " Kj<(@RB09'G
" @ ] %" N ! 9iO " <uO u<'K0K = E 9iV "H BP@ ! O\B "  _  <'G M < VLB0S'S " E = E 9iV "yH B,@ ! OQB "  _ T
<'G M = E ".M B N @ ".M @ !#" @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ 9A;ƒ@ !L" 9'@ !L" E * e+ @ E <'GLOQ; " E OBPG%@ !#" @ E < N "A] 4 BPS DLE "  ]
O ! 9 H O @ !L" +
e  4 9'; E " K0<A@RB,[ " = E "kM B N @RB09'G " E\E 9 E ;9 E 9 DLEƒE " O D KP@\O VfY I 9 H OQB "']  @? 9'; @ !L"
= E "kM B N @RB09'G " E\E 9 E O< E " V " K09 H @? ]
e  4 O O D SiS " OQ@ @ ! <(@d@ !L" E " Kj<A@\BP[ " = E ".M B N @\B09iG " E\E 9 E  <aYW;9'K0K09 H @ !#" G#9 E u<'K M BPOQ@ E B 
* !#" +
V D @RBP9iGqT?OQ9 H" D O ".
M @ D <'G@RB0K "  @ D <'G@RB0K " =LKP9'@RO @R9„@ " OQ@@ ! BPO ] 4 B0S DLE " E " ˆv5S  @@ GL9 E u<'K‹O ! 9 H O

F )

#

F

#

! 

     
 

CDF of Prediction Error of Wide−area TCP Experiment S2
1
1M
2M
3M
4M
10M

0.9

Cumulative Percentages

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

B0S #D E "
O\B " O ]
4 

!

0
−100 −80 

e+
] d
4

−60

−40 −20
0
20
40
Relative Prediction Error (%)

9'; E " K0<A@RB,[ " = E ".M B N @\B09iG " E\E 9 E ; 9 E

60

e @
* +

80

100

! E 9 D S ! = D @ H BP@ !:M B " E " Gf@ I 9 H

9iG 
" "1 <u=#K " ;9 E @ !L"B@ @ =LKP9'@ ] G <'Ku9iO‚@
<'K0K N <'O " O.T H" N <AG %L@7<OQ@ E <'BPS ! @KPB0G " @R9@ !L" O " =#K09'@\O
H BP@ !
1 " 'T H{! B N ! @ " K0K0O D O@ ! <(@9 D#E
E " Kj<(@RBP[ " " E\E 9 E B0O
<'K2v9iOQ@
<'K H <aYUOGL9 E u<'K ] 9 E u<'KPBP@lY
9';= E ".M B N @\B09iG " E\E 9 E O !L" E " BPO`V†9'@ ! O DLE = E BPO\B0G#S <'G M "1 @ E "  " KPY D O " ; D K ] G =?< E @RB N.D K0< E T H"
N <'G>OQ2B v=LKPY " OQ@\B2u<A@ " @ !L" [A< E Bj<'G N " 9A;@ !L" E " Kj<A@\BP[ " = E ".M B N @RBP9iG " E\E 9 E <AO H"  " <'O DLE " <'G M
= E "kM B N @aT<'G M @ !#" G D O " @ ! BPO
BPG#;9 E  <A@\B09iG`O‚@ E <AB0S ! @\;9 E H < E M K,Ys@R9 N.E " <A@ " N 9iG % ML" G N " B0G@ " E [A<'KPO
;9 E 9 DLE = E ".M B N @\B09iGLO ]  " B0GLS‡<'V#K " @R9 N 9u= D @ " < NkN.DLE <A@ " N 9iG % ML" G N " B0G@ " E [A<'KPOB0O[UB,@2<'K@R9
D O\BPGLSW= E ".M B N @\B09iGLOdB0G <'=L=LKPB N <A@RBP9iGLO ? ] * B2 " O " E B " OV?<'O "kM = E ".M B N @R9 E O N <'G1V " <'=#=LK0B ".M @R9
G " N @RBP9iG  ]  ]
" G ! <AG N " @ !L" = E ".M B N @\B09iG…< NkN.DLE < N Y'T <'O N 9g[ " E ".M B00 
G = E < N @RB N " T H"vM 9iGqb @ ! <a[ " @\9‡O " G M @ H 9…= E 9iV " O ]  GLOQ@ " < M T H" N <'G%O " G M @ !L" Kj< E S " E
9iG " 9';7@ !L" @ H 9‡= E 9iV " OkT E " N 9 E M BP@\OOQ@R< E @\B0GLSu@R2B  " T @ !#" @RB  "`H{!L" G€<'O  DLN !tM <A@R<m<'O@ !L"
O\B  " 9';^@ !L" O  <AK0K?= E 9iV "H <AOƒO " Gf@ <'G M ; D KPK = E 9iV " bcO %LGLB0O ! B0GLS@RB  "A6] %" N <'KPK O DLN ! <W= E 9iV "
< 4 $'* $ / ]
4 9 E u9'OQ@1=L<A@ ! OkT @ !L" K0< E S " E @ !L":I 9 H O\B  " B0O.T @ !L" VLBPSiS " E @ !#" OQ@R<'G M < E MzML" [UB0<A@RBP9iG 

D! H

7 .

0 

+=4   +O95', A5  ;    ! (D E4 59 7C56 @.6*  
EC  
EC   

! 4  

EC!540 E! N44E'32
'=+=!E  7@B+=!$6 

     
 

Q−Q Plot of Relative Prediction Error
1
0.8
0.6

Y Quantiles

0.4
0.2
0
−0.2
−0.4
−0.6
−0.8
−1
−4

#

−3

−2

−1

0
1
X Quantiles

2

3

4

B0S D#E "  ]  D <AGf@\B0K "  @ D <AGf@\B0K " =LK09A@„9'; E " Kj<A@\BP[ " = E "kM B N @RB09'G " E\E 9 E H B,@ !ŠI 9 H \O B " / 
<'S<'BPGLOQ@„O‚@2<'G M < E M GL9 E  <AK M B0O‚@ E B0V D @\B09iG ]"@ @ =LK09'@v9'; E " Kj<A@\BP[ " = E "kM B N @RB09'G " E\E 9 E ; 9 E I 9 H O
H BP@ !‡M B " E " Gf@OQB " O{K09U9 7 O{<'K2v9iOQ@ƒB ML" Gf@\B N <'K^@R9 @ ! B0O+%?S DLE "A]
4

CDF of Standard Deviation of File Transfer Time
1
0.9

Cumulative Percentages

0.8

1M
2M
3M
4M
10M

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0 −4
10

−2

0

2

10
10
10
Standard Deviation (in log scale)

4

10

9 ; O‚@2<'G M < E M%ML" [UBj<(@RB09'G%9';ƒ@ E <'G#OQ; " E @RB " <A@<'K0K  G @ " E G " @ =?<A@ ! Oy;9 E
4 B0S D#E "  ]
„e+ 4 '
M B " E " G@ I 9 H \O B " O ]  

     
 

CDF of COV (Coefficient of Variation) of File Transfer Time
1
0.9

Cumulative Percentages

0.8
1M
2M
3M
4M
10M

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0 −4
10

4

−3

−2

−1

0

1

10
10
10
10
COV of File Transfer Time (in log scale)

0B S #D E "  ]   e+ 4 '9 ; e # N 9 " ˆ N B " G@ 9';‹[A< E Bj<A@\B09iG 
<'K0K  fG @ " E G " @=?<A@ ! O ;9 E  M B " E " G@ I 9 H O\B " O ] 

10

  
  A9 ;q@ E <'GLOQ; " E * 2B  " <A@

9';@ !L" @ E <AGLOQ; " E @\B2 "'] 9 H" [ " E T N 9iGLOQB ML" E 4 BPS DLE "  ] #T H{! B N ! O ! 9 H Oy@ !L" e+ 4 O9';@ !L"
N 9 " ˆ N B " G@9';['< E Bj<(@RB09'G e #  9';@ E <AGLOQ; " E @\B2 "'] " E " @ !L" N 9iG N K D O\B09'G BPO@ !L" E " [ " E O " 
;9 E v9iOQ@=?<A@ ! O.T#@ !L" VLB0S'S " E @ !L" %LK " BPO.TC@ !L" O  <'KPK " E @ !L" e # 9';‹@ !L" @ E <'GLO‚; " E @\B2 "'] * ! BPO
" O\O " G@RB0<'K0K,Y  " <'G#O`@ ! <A@`BPG /*,$ )+&'/ @ " E uOkT @ !L" [A< E B0<'G N " 9A;@ E <'GLO‚; " E @\B2 " 9'; I 9 H O H B,@ !
Kj< E S " E OQB  " O< E " < N @ D <AK0KPYuO u<'KPK " E ]
G " N @\B09i<
G  ] - ] <AG M  ] - ] T H" G "."kM @ H 9y= E 9iV " O H BP@ !„M B " E " Gf@dOQB " O7@R9

O 1"  =LKj<'BPG ".M BP
e X@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ ]6 G " [UBP@R<'VLK,YiT I DLN @ D <A@\B09iGLO 9'; I 9 H @ E <'GLOQ; " E
ML" @ " E vB0G " @ !L" OQ@ " < M YvOQ@R<A@ " * +
@R2B  "! <A=L= " G%9iGt@ !L"„M YUG?< vB N  G@ " E G " @aT<AG MZ! <a[ " O ! 9 H G @ !L" vO " KP[ " O`B0Gt@ !L" OQ@R<'G M < E M
ML" [UBj<(@RB09'G H"s! <a[ " D O‚@ O "k" G 
] * !L" O "I D#N @ D <A@RBP9iGLOƒ< E " @ !L" u<'B0G N < D O " 9';‹@ !L"" OQ@RB <(@RB09'G
e %@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ ] CB0G N "ƒI 9 H O H BP@ ! K0< E S " E OQB " O < N @ D <'KPKPY ! <a[ " K " OQO
" E\E 9 E 9';†OQ@ " < M YOQ@2<(@
" * +
['< E Bj<AG N " BPG /*,$ )+&'/ @ " E vO.T " O‚@R2B u<A@\B0GLSyOQ@ " < M Y OQ@2<(@ " @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ D O\B0G#S Kj< E S " E I 9 H O H B0K0K
N " E @2<'BPGLKPY>V " v9 E " < NkN.DLE <A@ "A] G @ !#" 9'@ !L" E ! <AG M T= E 9iV " O H BP@ ! K0< E S " E I 9 H O< E " v9 E " 
"  = " GLO\B,[ "A] * ! BPOsK " < M O D O@\9 @ !L" O " K " N @\B09iGt9A;d@ H 9‡= E 9'V " OQB  " Os9';  _ dYU@ " O`<'G M 
_ dYU@ " O{<'O ML" ;8< D KP@= E 9iV " OkT H{! B N !1H" ; "k" K^BPOƒ< E " <'OQ9iG?<'V#K " @ E < ML" l9 V " @ H"." G " OQ@RB  <(@RB09'G
< N.NkDLE < N Y…<'G M = E 9iVLB0G#S N 9iOQ@ ]

3 0

F

3 0

F

# 

     
 

 
+ 
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E <A@\B09„V " @ H"k" G>@ !L" u<  2B  D  <'G M vB0GLB  D 9iVLO " E [ ".)
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F

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CDF of Statistical Stable Region Length at Different Factors
1
1.2
1.5
2
3
5
10

0.9

Cumulative Percentages

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0 1
10

2

10

3

10
Time (seconds)

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@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ƒ; E 9 Je9 E\E " Kj<A@\B09iG " @ ] < N ! N.DLE [ " B0Gu@ !L" =#K09'@ N 9 EQE " OQ=†9'G M Oƒ@R9<=?< E @\B NkD Kj< E
['<AK D " 9';L@ !L" N 9'GLOQ@R<'G@;8< N @R9 E ] G ML" E <'K0K M B " E " G@
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9 v=?< E B0OQ9iGX= DLE =†9'O " OkT H" <'KPO\9 N <'K NkD Kj<(@ ".M @ !L" e+ 4 9';  e H BP@ !ŒM <A@R<:; E 9
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@ ! <A@ @ !L" @ " u=59 E <AKK09 N <AK0BP@lY€BPGx9 DLE @ " OQ@ " G[UB E 9iG5 " G@vB0O; DLN !ŠH" < 7A" E ] 4 9 E B0G#OQ@2<AG N " T 
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9  ? <AG M  ? E " O\= " N @RB,[ " K,Y ] * +
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<'G M TV " Y'9iG M @ ! <A@.T H{!L" @ !L" E <'G„<AG?<'KPYf@\B N <AK M BPOQ@ E B0V D @RBP9iG'v9 ML" K N <'G„V " <'=#=LK0B ".M @\9 N ! < E < N 
@ " E B  " BP@RO M B0OQ@ E BPV D @RBP9iG ] ƒ<'Kj< 7 E B0O ! G?<'GqT " @<'K  O‚@ D M B ".M <'SiS E " Si<A@ "kM * e+@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @
M B0O‚@ E BPV D @\B09iG…< NkE 9iOQO<'KPK M B " E " G@ I 9 H O\B " OV " @ H"." G " < N ! =?<'B E 9A;  G@ " E G " @ ! 9iO‚@RO ]+* !L" B E
OQ@2<(@RB0O‚@RB N <'K?<AG?<'KPYUOQB0O7O D SiS " O‚@ROd@ ! <A@ " G M  @\9? " G M<* e+%@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ N <'GvV " H" K0K v9 M#" K "kM <'O
<„KP9i?S  GL9 E u<'K M B0O‚@ E B0V D @\B09iG ] ^! <'GLS#T " @<'K^[ " E B% "kM @ ! B0O %?G M B0GLS„B0G -
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* +
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" @K " @RO D O M 9 @ ! B0O{<'G?<AKPYUO\BPO ] 
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; " E 9'; " < N ! %LK " -#T X@RB  " O ]  " ! BPOQ@\9iS E ?<  "kM @ !L" @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ M <A@R<Š;9 E " < N !oI 9 H
O\B  " A=L<A@ ! @ D =LK "']
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D KP@\2B v9 M <'K M BPOQ@ E B0V D @RBP9iG 6
] * ! B0OO D SiS " OQ@\O@ ! <(@B,@BPO= E 9iV?<'V#KPY„GL9'@d; " <AO\B0V#K " @R9 v9 ML" K K09'GLS
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" N < D O " @ !L" N 9iK0K " N @\B09iG9'; M <A@2<%;9 E " < N ! N K0B " G@ (O " E [ " E =L<'B E K0<'OQ@ ".M O " [ " E <'K ! 9 D#E O
9 E " [ " G~KP9iGLS " E T H" O D O\= " N @…@ ! <A@m@ !L"  D KP@RB u9 M <'K ; " <A@ DLE "  <aYpV " =?< E @RB0<'K0K,Y M D " @R9
@ !L" N ! <'GLS " B0G‰G " @ H 9 E 7 N 9'G M BP@\B09iG#O M D#E B0G#S @ !#"  " <'O DLE "  " Gf@ = " E BP9 Mq] * 9 [ " E BP;+YŠ@ ! BPO
! YU=59'@ !#" O\BPO.T H" @ E Yt@R9:OQ@ D M Y€@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ M B0OQ@ E BPV D @RBP9iG D O\BPGLS O D VLO " @RO9A; " < N !%M <A@2<AO " @ ]

O D V#O " @ N 9iG@2<'BPGLO  D#N ! K " OQO M <A@R<m<'G M N 9g[ " E O`O ! 9 E @ " E  " <AO DLE "  " G@sK " GLS'@ !q]  Gt9'@ !L" E
H 9 E M O.T H" ! 9i= ".M @\9 %?G M ‚O D V E " SiBP9iGLO sB0G " < N !„M <A@R<'O " @7B0G H{! B N ! @ !#" G " @ H 9 E 7 N 9'G M BP@\B09iG#O
< E " E " Kj<A@\BP[ " KPYuOQ@R<'VLK " <'G M @ !L" @ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ M <A@R< N <'G…V " V " @Q@ " E v9 M#" K "kM D GLB u9 M <'KPKPY ] 
@B0O{[ " E Y ! < E M @R9u= E "kML" %?G " <'G 9'=#@RB  <'K^K " G#S'@ ! 9 E M <A@2<vO\B  " ;9 E O DLN ! QO D V E " SiB09iG#O

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@R2B  " <AO H" < N @ D B E "M <A@R<. 89 E H <'K 7 @ !L"sM <A@R<'O " @ 9vB0G "] * !L" = DLE =59iO " BPO@R9 O " S " G@ @ !L"
H{! 9iK "M <A@R<'O " @BPG@R9< D KP@\B0=LK " O D V E " SiB09iG#O' 9 E B ML" G@\BP;+YmO " S " G@V†9 D G M < E B " O9iGLKPB0G "]B4 9 E
" < N ! O " S  " Gf@.T H" %L@{@ !L"`M <(@2< H BP@ ! O " [ " E <'K<'G?<AKPYf@RB N <'K M B0OQ@ E BPV D @RBP9iGLOkT?<'G M…" [A<'K D <A@ " @ !L"
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I 9 H OQB " 9iG…<„=?< E R@ B kN D Kj< E  G@ " E G " @?= <(@ !  ]
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] e9v=?< E " @ !#" G "H  1 H BP@ ! @ !L" = E " [CBP9 D O
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2

CDF of R for Different Distributions
1
0.9

Cumulative Percentages

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3

normal
uniform
pareto
lognormal
exponential

0.2
0.1
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

R2

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[A<'K D <A@\B09i0G " @ ] 
DLE ML" @R<'B0K ".M E " O D KP@\Oy;9 E " < N ! =?<A@ ! < E " <a['<AB0Kj<AVLK " " K0O "H{!L" E " 9
] * 9 O D < < E B "
@ !L"  ;9 E @ ! B0O N ! <'=C@ " E T H" D O " @ !L" ;9iK0KP9 H B0GLS= " @ E B N O ] / " <'G " E\E 9 E BPO N <'K NkD Kj<A@ ".M VY
<g[ " E <'SiB0G#SŠ<'K0K9';s@ !#" E " K0<A@RB,[ ":" E\E 9 E O ] 4 9 E <'G D GfVLB0<'O "kM = E "kM B N @R9 E T{@ ! B0Ou['<AK D " O ! 9 D K M 

#

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V " N KP9iO " @R9  " E 9€SiBP[ " G " GL9 D S ! @ " O‚@ N <'O " O ]  " N <'G‰O "." @ ! <A@vB0Gx9 DLE " [A<'K D <A@RBP9iGŒBP@„BPO
@ D BP@ " O u<'K0K7BPG"v9iOQ@ N <AO " OkT <'G M%H" O "." <'G E 9 D S ! KPY " @ D <'K= E 9i=59 E @\B09iG€9';{=59iO\B,@RB,[ " <'G M
G " S<(@RBP[ "  " <'G " E\E 9 E O ] * !L"  " <'G 

 B0Oƒ@ !#" <a[ " E <AS " 9';
@ !L" <'VLOQ9iK D @ " [A<'K D " 9A;
@ !L"
E " K0<A@RB,[ " " EQE 9 E ]  " N 9iGLOQB ML" E B,@ @ !L" u9'OQ@B2v=†9 E @2<AGf@  " @ E B N B0G " [A<'K D <A@RBPGLSƒ@ !L" = E ".M B N @RBP9iGLO ]
/ " <'GmO‚@ ML" E\E BPO@ !L" OQ@R<'G M < E M1ML" [UBj<A@\B09iG19A; E " Kj<A@\BP[ "" EQE 9 E H{! B0K "  " <'G    

 BPO@ !L"
OQ@2<AG M < E M:ML" [UBj<A@\B09iGm9';
@ !L" <'V#O\9iK D @ " [A<'K D " 9'; E " K0<A@RB,[ "s" E\E 9 E ] 
4 B0S DLE "  ] `O ! 9 H O@ !L" e+ 4 9A;^@ !#"  " <'G " EQE 9 E <'G M  " <'G 
) ; 1); 9 7 % 7; P ) = ; 9 



 9';9 DLE E " O D KP@RO "] 4 B0S DLE "  ] O ! 9 H O @ !L" +e  4 9';{@ !#" OQ@2<AG M < E MxM#" [UBj<A@\B09iG ;9 E
E " K0<A@RB,[ "y" E\E 9 E O ]  [ " E @? 9'; @ !L" = E ".M B N @RBP9iGLO ! <a[ "  " <'G " E\E 9 E H BP@ ! B0G 8 ] iT: ] Tq<'G M
<'K0K‹9';@ !L"  < E "`H BP@ ! B0G 8 ]  'T  ] 
]
V†9 D @ 
@?J9';@ !#" = E ".M B N @RBP9iGLO ! <a[ "  " <'G O‚@ ML" E\E
O u<'K0K " E @ ! <'G  ]  $]
V59 D B
@ - ?9A;^@ !#" = E ".M B N @\B09iGLO ! <a[ "  " <'G  

H BP@ ! B0<
G  ] iT H{! B0K "
9 [ " E 
 ?9A;†@ !L" = E ".M B N @\B09iG#O ! <'
O  " <'G  

 V " KP9 H  ] CTU<'G M <'V59 D @
@?9A;†@ !L"  < E "
V " K09 H  ]   ]  [ " E 
 ? 9';
@ !L" = E "kM B N @RBP9iGLO ! <a[ "  " <'
G     

 O  <AK0K " E @ ! <'G  ] -  ]
< u9'GLS @ !#" = E "kM B N @RBP9iG " EQE 9 E Os<'G M O " [ " E <AK 7 G#9 H GZ=?<(@ ! 
" OQ@ D M B ".M @ !#" N 9 EQE " Kj<A@\B09iG 
= E 9i= " E @RB " O )
] * !#" E " O D K,@RO < E " O ! 9 H GŠBPG 4 B0S DLE "  ]
]  "1ML" %LG "    F-  <'OV " BPGLS
T F-      V " BPGL&
S  "kM B D  N 9 E\E " Kj<(@ ".M T<'G M     
H" < 7 KPY N 9 E\E " Kj<(@ ".M '
V " B0GLSOQ@ E 9iGLS'KPY N 9 E\E " Kj<A@ ".Mq] eK " < E KPY'T@ !L"  " <'G " E\E 9 E BPO GL9'@ E " K0<A@ "kM @\9W<'GYv9'@ !L" E O.T H{! B N !
; DLE @ !L" E O D SiS " OQ@\OW@ ! <A@W@ !L" = E ".M B N @\B09iGLOySiBP[ " GXV"
Y  D <'2K <A@\OW< E " D GfVLB0<'O "kMq] 9 H" [ " E T BP;
@ !L" =?<A@ ! B0O`[ " E Y M YUG?< vB N BP@B0O ! < E M @\9 = E ".M B N @ 0
] 4 BPS DLE "  ]
…O ! 9 H OW@ ! <A@ JV " @ H"." G
@ !L"  " <'G:<'VLO\9'K D @ "y" E\E 9 E <AG M @ !L" O\< v=LK0BPGLS„B0G@ " E [A<'K‹K " GLS'@ ! 8<'G M T B0G M B E " N @\KPY'TL@ !L" 5  
B0OG " S<A@\BP[ " KPY <'G M [ " E Y H" < 7 KPY N 9 EQE " K0<A@ "kMq] * ! BPO2B v=LK0B " O{@ ! <(@9 DLE <'K0Si9 E BP@ !  N <A=#@ DLE ".M
@ !L" =?<A@ ! M YUG?< vB N OW<'G M%" " N @RB,[ " K,Y < M D O‚@ ".M @R9 B,@RO N ! <'G#S " O ] * !L"  " <'G%BPG@ " E [A<'Kd<'G M 
" <'G O‚@2<'G M < E MmML" [UBj<A@\B09iGv9'; " EQE 9 E O ! 9 H @ !L" O‚@ E 9'GLS " O‚@ N 9 E\E " Kj<A@\B09iGvB0G 4 B0S DLE "  ]
] * ! BPO
B0OV " N < D O " V59'@ ! KP9iGLS " E  " <'GZB0G@ " E [A<'K<'G M O u<'K0K " E  " <'GZOQ@2<AG M < E M€M#" [UBj<A@\B09iGt9A; " E\E 9 E
2B v=LKPYv<O‚@2<'VLK " =?<A@ !q]
KPO\9LT H" N <'GmO "k" @ ! <A@ƒG D V " E 9'; ! 9i=LO BPO H" < 7 K,Y N 9 E\E " Kj<A@ ".M1H B,@ ! 
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8
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--    

 !  " # !$   %&'   ()   %&* #  ()  +,-  .  /
452 6 2 2-78
2 6 0 0
2 6 2 9 :
2 6 08
9 ; 0 6 :-7
2 6 02
2 6 07
2 6 07
2 6 0<
1: 6 ; ;
4,2 6 1=0
2 6 18
2 6 1 3
2 6 3=0
08-1=6 1
4,2 6 2 8
2 6 0:
2 6 08
2 6 1 3
7=0 6 39
4,2 6 2 ;
2 6 12
2 6 09
2 6 1<
; < 6 79
452 6 2-7:
2 6 0:
2 6 0;
2 6 1:
3< 6 0<
2 6 2 ; <
2 6 8-3 3
2 6 1<
2 6 ;-1
1=0 6 <-7
2 6 2-1=0
2 6 01
2 6 2 :-3
2 6 09 <
3=01=6 9 ;
4,2 6 0;
2 6 07
2 6 0<
2 6 8 9
3=0 6 32
4,2 6 0 0
2 6 0:
2 6 0;
2 6 8 0
0< 2 6 07
452 6 2 8 9
2 6 0<
2 6 0 0
2 6 1;
1< 6 3 7
452 6 2 8 <
2 6 0;
2 6 2-7<
2 6 0<
1 3< 6 09
2 6 2 8-3
2 6 12 <
2 6 09
2 6 1;
8-1=6 18
452 6 2 01
2 6 2 9 2
2 6 2 ;-1
2 6 2 <-1
8-12 6 :-7
452 6 2 :-3
2 6 0< 9
2 6 0;
2 6 8 0
3=0 0 6 8 8
452 6 2-1<
2 6 09
2 6 0 0
2 6 1=0
3; 8 6 7 3
452 6 2 < 8
2 6 2 8 2
2 6 2 < 8
2 6 07
3; 8 6 9 8
452 6 2-79
2 6 2-1 3
2 6 2-79
2 6 03;
3 1 1=6 12
2 6 1=0
2 6 8 <
2 6 1:
2 6 8 :
; < 6 8 :
2 6 0 0
2 6 01
2 6 0;
2 6 01
:-7=6 1 3
452 6 2 9 <
2 6 2 <-1
2 6 2 <-1
2 6 07
1; 9 6 38
2 6 2-1 1
2 6 0<
2 6 0;
2 6 1=0
18 6 : 8
4,2 6 01
2 6 09
2 6 08
2 6 1:
0: ; 6 2 ;
4,2 6 03
2 6 0;
2 6 03
2 6 8 8
3;-1=6 8 ;
4,2 6 02
2 6 02
2 6 01
2 6 1;
3: 6 ; 0
2 6 2 2-18
2 6 0<
2 6 08
2 6 1 1
19 6 7;
452 6 2 9 <
2 6 0 0
2 6 2 :-1
2 6 0:
09-3=6 < 9
452 6 2-12
2 6 02
2 6 2 < :
2 6 03
3 3=6 <-3
452 6 2-79
2 6 2 9 2
2 6 2-7:
2 6 07
9-3 1=6 38
452 6 2 9-1
2 6 2 :-3
2 6 2 < <
2 6 0<
; 2 6 32
452 6 2 0<
2 6 01
2 6 2 : ;
2 6 07
1: 6 2 :
452 6 2 9 0
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3 1=0 6 09
2 6 1 1
2 6 1 3
2 6 1 3
2 6 1 3
;-18 6 7 3
452 6 2 ; 0
2 6 01
2 6 0 0
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19 6 2 2
4,2 6 0;
2 6 07
2 6 03
2 6 8 ;
9 2 2 6 9-3
452 6 2 ; :
2 6 0;
2 6 02
2 6 12
; < 0 6 3 7
2 6 2-1 3
2 6 01
2 6 2 < :
2 6 0;
;-3=6 <-3
452 6 2-3:
2 6 2 ;-1
2 6 2 9 0
2 6 08
7 7=6 2 <
452 6 2-3 7
2 6 2 ;-3
2 6 2-3<
2 6 01
9 ; 8 6 < ;
4,2 6 08
2 6 2 03
2 6 01
2 6 1 7
78 6 8 8
452 6 2-7 3
2 6 0 0
2 6 2 : :
2 6 1=0
1 7=6 :-7
452 6 2 9 8
2 6 2 8 ;
2 6 2 9 ;
2 6 08
< 02 6 38
452 6 2-3 1
2 6 2 <-1
2 6 2-78
2 6 03
1 3=6 7=0
452 6 2 :-3
2 6 2-7<
2 6 2 :-3
2 6 1=0
3 7 3=6 < 0
2 6 0;
2 6 12
2 6 0<
2 6 1=0
1 7=6 9 ;
452 6 2-7 3
2 6 2 8 <
2 6 2-7 3
2 6 09
< ; < 6 8 :
2 6 08
2 6 07
2 6 02
2 6 1<
0; < 6 < 9
452 6 2 : :
2 6 1;
2 6 0:
2 6 8 <
1; 6 :-1
452 6 2 <-7
2 6 03
2 6 0 0
2 6 1 3
8 2 6 1<
452 6 2 ;-1
2 6 07
2 6 01
2 6 18
1; 6 < 2

B0S D#E "  ]  E ".M B N @RBP9iG " EQE 9 E O‚@2<A@\B0OQ@\B N Oƒ;9 E  GLK0BPG " [A<'K D <(@RB09'G. " @ ] 6* * BPOƒ@ !L" E 9 D G M
@ E BP=Œ@RB2 " V " @ H"." G‰@ !L" @ H 9%O\B,@ " OvBPG(uBPK0K0BPO " N 9iG M O.Td<'G M / " <AG  G@ " E [A<'K{B0O @ !L" <g[ " E <'S "
B0G@ " E [A<'K @RB " V " @ H"." G M D <'K 
< N 7'" @RO1BPG‰O " N 9iG M O ] / " <'G " E\E 9 E BPOv@ !L" <a[ " E <'S " E " Kj<A@\BP[ "
" E\E 9 E H{! B0K "  " <AGp<'VLO " E\E 9 E  B0O„@ !L" <a[ " E <'S " 9';@ !#" <'VLOQ9iK D @ " [A<'K D " 9'; E " K0<A@RB,[ "‡" EQE 9 E ]
/ " <'G‡O‚@ ML" E\E B0O@ !L" OQ@R<'G M < E M‡ML" [UB0<A@RBP9iGm9'; E " Kj<A@\BP[ "" E\E 9 E H{! BPK "  " <AG:<AVLO OQ@ M#" E\E  B0Oƒ@ !L"
OQ@2<AG M < E M:ML" [UBj<A@\B09iGm9';
@ !L" <'V#O\9iK D @ " [A<'K D " 9'; E " K0<A@RB,[ "s" E\E 9 E ]
4 

     
 

-

1
mean error

0.9

P[mean err < X]

mean abs(error) 0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.4

-0.3

BPS DLE "
4 

-0.2

-0.1

] de+

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Relative error

9A; E " Kj<(@RBP[ s
" " QE E 9 E O ]
4
1
0.9

P[mean err < X]

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

mean error

0.1

mean stderr

0
-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

BPS DLE "  ]  d 
e+

9';6 " <AG:<AG M O‚@2<'G M < E M…ML" [CB0<A@RBP9iGm9'; E " K0<A@RB,[ 
" " \E E 9 E ]
4

1
0.9
0.8

P[mean abs error < X]

4

Mean error

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3

mean stderr

0.2

mean abs(stderr)

0.1
0

4

0

!

BPS DLE "  ] d 
e+

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

4

Standard deviation of relative error

9';
OQ@2<AG M < E M:ML" [UBj<A@\B09iG‡9'; E " Kj<A@\BP[ s
" " \E E 9 E O ]

F 

     
 

- 

1

P[mean abs error < X]

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4

mean abs(err)

0.3
0.2

mean
abs(stderr)

0.1
0
0

4

B0S D#E "

&# 

e+
] d 

/
/
/ 

/
/

B0S D#E " 

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Mean absolute error

9';6 " <'G…<'G M OQ@R<'G M < E M…ML" U[ Bj<(@RB09'G…9A;<'V#O\9iK D @ " E " Kj<(@RBP[ "s" EQE 9 E ] 
9 D @ " E 9i=LO / " <'G 6* * / " <'G  Gf@ " E ['<AK 
] 
8 ]  
 ] -
" <AG <'V#O " E\E 
<" AG <'V#O 8O‚@ ML" E\E  
] 

8 ]  
 ] 
]  
8 ]  
 ] ?
" <AG " E\E 
] - 
8 ]  ]
" <AG:O‚@ ML" E\E
9 D @ " E 9i=LO 
]  ]
]  
]  ] 
" <AG 6* *
] 
<" AG  G@ " E [A<'K 
 ] 
8 ]  
] 
4

F

/

4

0.1

:#

F
:!

F
&#
F

I#
FGF
G! 

<v9iGLS = E ".M B N @RBP9iG " EQE 9 E <'G M =?<(@ ! = E 9'= " E @RB " O ]
]
de9 \E E " Kj<A@\B09iG N 9 " ˆ N B " G@  

{" N <'K0K‹; E 9

D

H 

@ D M#! < E O ! <'GqT " @<'K UT: O ! 9 H".M @ ! <A@  H <'O
" N @RBP9iG  ] @ ! <AA
= E "kM B N @RB0G#SuK " O\O{@ ! <'G! „9';@ !L" < N @ D <'K * e+z@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @< N ! B " [ ".M VY 3 E B M 46*  H B,@ !
Kj< E S " %?K " @ E <'GLO‚; " E O ] DLE " [A<'K D <A@\B09iGLOuO ! 9 H @ ! <(@. D <'K2<A@\O M 9 " Om<AG " " N @\BP[ " Q9iVp9';
= E "kM B N @RB0G#S * e+‰@ ! E 9 D S ! = D @ ;9 E K0< E S " @ E <'GLOQ; " E O ]E
K0OQ9 E " N <'K0K5@ ! <A@{KP9iS? V?<'O "kM = E "kM B N @RBP9iG
@ " N ! GLB @ D " O 
U
T  H 9 E 7 9iGLK,Y ;9 E @ !L"1! 9iOQ@„=?<AB E O@ ! <(@ ! <a[ " E " N " Gf@ M <A@2< "1 N ! <'GLS "
! B0O‚@R9 E YiTf<'G M @ !L" M <A@R<@R9sV " O " G@dB0O79A;†OQ2B vB0K0< E O\B  " Od<'O7BPG@ !L" KP9iS ] sD#E7N 9iG N K D OQB09iG BPO@ ! <A@ 
D <'K 
<A@ROƒ< N ! B " [ " O N 
9 u=L< E <'V#K " 9 E " [ " G V " @Q@ " E = " E ;9 E u<'G N "H BP@ ! 9 D @ O DLN ! N 9iGLO‚@ E <'B0G@RO ]
)+= P 
+ ; 1 ) ; 9%43 % 7 @ 3 7 ==+>;69%(+ 
w'BPGqT " @<'K^O ! 9 H".M @ ! <A@ " G M lO‚YUOQ@ "  N <'=?<AVLB0KPBP@lY
N <'G ! <g[ " OQB0SiGLB % N <AGf@ " " N @RO9'G @ !#" G " @ H 9 E 7 VL<'G M#H B M @ ! " OQ@\2B u<A@RBP9iG <'K0Si9 E BP@ ! vO  ]
* !L" YŠO ! 9 H"kM @ ! <A@ E " O\9iK D @RBP9iGŒ9';@ !L" @RB  " E T@ !L" @R2B  " @\9€= " E ;9 E  <tOQYUOQ@ "  N <AK0K T7@ !L"

$D

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B0G@ " E\E\D =#@ ML" K0<aY„<'G M @ !#" O‚YUOQ@ "    VL<'G M#H B M @ ! <'KPK N <AG < " N @ G " @ H 9 E 7 V?<'G M#H B M @ !v" O‚@RB  
<A@\B09iG ]6* !L" Y N 9v=?< E ".M =?< N 7'" @{=L<'B E M B0OQ= " E O\BP9iG‡<'S<AB0GLO‚@ƒ=?< N 7A" @{@ E <'B0G V?<'O "kM <'K0Si9 E BP@ ! 
<'G M N 9iG N K D ML".M @ ! <A@ =?< N 7A" @{@ E <'B0GmVL<'O "kM <AK0Si9 E BP@ ! uO< E " K " OQO O " GLO\B,@RBP[ " @R9@ !L" E " O\9iK D @RBP9iG
9';‹@ !L" OQYUOQ@ " @RB2 " E <'G M K " OQOƒ< " N @ "kM VfY   B0G@ " E\EQD =#@ ML" K0<gYUO ] * ! B0OB2v=LK0B " O7@ ! <(@ ! BPS !
OQYUOQ@ "  K09< Mm! <'O{G " Si<A@RB,[ "`" " N @RO9iG‡V?<'G M#H B M @ !…" O‚@RB <A@\B09iG1<'K0Si9 E BP@ ! vO ] 
" E <'GW@ !#"ƒ"  = " E B  " G@RO9';  GLKPB0G " ['<AK D <A@\B09iG " @79iG7Kj<'G " @ | <'V^T H{! B N ! B0O
@lYU=LB N <'KPKPY
!L" <a[fY…K09< M#".Mq] O\BPGLS M <A@2<v<a['<AB0Kj<AVLK " ; E 9J@ !L" e9 "." = E 9 " N @ H" V>OQBP@ " - T H" ;9 D G M
@ ! <A@+
e  K09< M <a[ " E <'S " O H" E " [ " E Y ! B0S ! 9iG`@ !L" u< N ! B0G " O H" D O "kMq] @?o9';U@ !L"  < N ! B0G " O
G " N @RB09'!
G  ] H" N 9v=?< E ".M
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struct ParallelTCPChar {
int num_flows ;
double max_nondisruptive_thru ;
double cross_traffic_impact ;
};
ParallelTCPChar *
TameParallelTCP(Address dest,
double maximpact );

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200000
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2000000

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Parallel TCP
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12000000
Throughput (Bytes/seconds)

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50000000
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Throughput (Bytes/second)

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45000000

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Cross traffic

50000000

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40000000
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0

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18000000

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Throughput (Bytes/second)

16000000
Throughput (Bytes/second)

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14000000
12000000
10000000
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20000000

Overall throughput
15000000

10000000

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12000000

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Throughput (Bytes/second)

Throughput (Bytes/second)

14000000

Parallel TCP
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Overall throughput

10000000
12000000
10000000
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planetlab7.nbgisp.com to planet2.cs.ucsb.edu
65
Measurement
Linear
Partial Order−2 Polynomial
Full Order−2 Polynomial

60

Throughput (Mbps)

55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
0

5

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15
20
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30

planetlab4.cs.berkekey.edu to planet02.csc.ncsu.edu
350
Measurement
Linear
Partial Order−2 Polynomial
Full Order−2 Polynomial

Throughput (Mbps)

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

5

10
15
20
Number of Parallel TCP Flows

25

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0.4
0.2
0
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0

10

20

30

40

-0.4
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probe1-10

0.6
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ID of the End-to-End pathes

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5

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25

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 ,  : 9  3   $U!   >!    1  &     &<&M< , . @      $  2    &   1     
  + 1 Z   & &   !M  g 1   -C. Q .    &   1  Z   & *)') &     2 &N   !      &<&
(GU 

     !

50000000

Throughput (Bytes/second)

45000000
40000000
35000000
30000000
25000000

parallel TCP

20000000

cross traffic

15000000

estimated cross traffic

10000000
5000000
0
0

20

30

40

50 

 T   !   &    &<&@<,

$  &;

number of parallel TCP flow s

45000000

parallel TCP

40000000
throughput (Bytes/sec)

10

cross traffic
estimated cross traffic

35000000
30000000
25000000
20000000
15000000
10000000
5000000
0
0

10

20

30

40

50 

   9  !   &    &<&@<, 
g 1   -C. *NM 4N  &<&M<,  &5    9  :9  U   & .
$ # &;

number of parallel TCP flows

-- 

     !

-

Q

1
0.9
probability (error < x)

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

relative prediction error

1   C- . +- M 4 1  1   9U2 &( # 1    1  6 9      %,  ;2 6    5   J     &<& 
U  &5   Z    J M 90   &  1  9  &d!    <&   T  &X& *2  <& ; # ;2'   1   -C. "*. 
g 

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 3 # ' 
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     !

N1

L4

L1
N2

N3

L2

L3
Bottleneck Link

N4

-#5

N5
L5

N6

L6
L7
N7 

g

N8

1   -C. Q M VV     , 
  :9   3   $ J   1 (     ;    1  9       &<& <,  &5   9  .

12000000
throughput (Bytes/second)

parallel TCP
10000000

cross traffic g1
estimation of g1

8000000

cross traffic g2
estimation of g2

6000000
4000000
2000000
0
0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

number of parallel TCP flow s

1   -C. -5NM  &5     9 H  & 1 9<&X!     4 `cT !M& V   &<&X<,   1 
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     4  

1 1  
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Cap. 30 Kbps

G

Bottleneck node

Cap. 10 Kbps

E

A

F

B

C

$  &*3Y

Cap. 5 Kbps

Cap. 5 Kbps

Cap. 20 Kbps

D 

    ;
Cap. 25 Kbps

Cap. 5 Kbps

Cap. 30 Kbps

G

Cap. 25 Kbps

A

C

F

B

E

Cap. 20 Kbps

D 

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Cap. 5 Kbps

Cap. 10 Kbps

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y = 0.0723e
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-0.0001x

R2 = 0.9855

P(disk read IO>x)

0.01
0.001
0.0001
0.00001
0.000001
0.0000001
0

20000

40000

60000

80000

100000

Hard disk read IO in KB/sec

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P[R>x]

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
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0.1

0.2

0.3

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0.5

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Correlation Coefficient betw een file size and service tim e

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h 1 X  / 6 / #2%0"% / 6& &]89/  X 8  /   5762 . X 1 / 1G5<1 >gR &  . V/ 1 D  X !$1 X ( %0 X =  X %: > <5 /0 1 8 !$1 X h <C
5 >  89/ %  82A> 1   C  > 8 5 824@ ( 1 8&4;/ 6&5  5762%: X = X %  WW   WW  < 5 >  89/ %:<<% / 6 */v†/
/ F D& 5 *>> F X <5"  = <%  X  D&> FH! X 1 ( / 62 8   X "% / 5  5762P%: X =  X h 6 > ,! X 1 ( / 62 +  #  5  5762
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<5  #2%0  % E824>  +  #  5  5762%0 X ="%q5 >  89/ % > X 4  > F! X 1 ( 1 8  X  4  1 8 1*! / 62 &]89/  X 8  / 
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/ 62 8  / h 1 X   %d%:< 8 ! X 1 ( / 62 h "C;%: X = X 89/ 1  1 (; 8 % / 6 */ h   "%05 X  C3 8 + "5 /0 1 +
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0

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Interarrival CDF
Exponential Fit

−1

Probability[X>x]

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Exponential Fit: 0.991*exp(−0.00047*x)
−2

10

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2000

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Request Interarrival Time (Millisec)

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 0 (   ?G  o $  h  O +        ,/"   /   , (!        ,  

    
       

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Serial Correlation of Job Interarrivals (3.91143 % sig at p=0.05)
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Serial Correlation

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0
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CCDFs of Served Chunk Size, Requested Chunk Size, and Object Size

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Probability[X>x]

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−2

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Served Chunk
Requested Chunk
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−4

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0

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   6
 

    

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   6
 

    

8j

Mean Response Time under Different Loads

Mean Response Time (Second)

2500
FCFS
PS
SRPT−CS
SRPT−SS
SRPT

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0 

0 (  . 
?H j oZaP +

/

1

2

3

4

5
Load

6

7

8

9

10 

!<= + F   
I  %  ?x   +  F * !%S("# +0 <b"##$#$'( + %S  ,/  -  +0 "#)% 

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{("R    & (#" L N$,/"#(   ?* <=  I  
+ !Xc% ?b   + 
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! +  !<= + F   
D ?*  m ,)J * $%("# +0 <=)"#!! *  + %"# +0 

   6
 

    

8W

Rejection Rate under Different Loads
1
0.9
0.8

Rejection Rate

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3

FCFS
PS
SRPT−CS
SRPT−SS
SRPT

0.2
0.