UNIT 5
DESIGN OF FLANGED BEAM: TBEAM
GENERAL OBJECTIVE
To be able to design reinforced concrete flanged beam in accordance with BS 8110.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:
At the end of this unit you should be able to:
1. calculate the effective width of the flanged beam.
2. calculate the moment of resistance of the flanged beam.
3. calculate the area of reinforcement required for the flanged beam.
4. provide the size and total number of reinforcement bars required for the
flanged beam.
1
OBJECTIVES
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
5.1 Introduction .
In the construction of reinforced concrete structural element, fresh concrete is
normally poured into the slab and the beams form work simultaneously. When
concrete hardens, a homogeneous concrete is formed. This will enable part of the
slab to act as part of the beam. In practice, the flange is often the floor slab and this
is shown in Figure 5.1 below: 
2
TBeam
L
Figure 5.1: Floor Slab
INPUT 1
Actual width
Slab
LBeam
L
c c
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
5.2 Effective width, b
The question arises of what width of the slab is to be taken as the effective width?
The answer is, the width b in Figure 5.2
Clause 3.4.1.5 BS 8110 gives the following recommendation for a Tbeam, the
effective width b should be taken as: 
b
w
+ 0.2
z
or
The actual flange width or whichever is lesser.
z
is the distance between points of zero moment along the span of the beam. For a
continuous beam (we shall discuss this type of beam in Unit 6),
z
may be
determined from the bending moment diagram, but BS 8110 states that
z
be taken
as 0.7 times the effective span.
NOW ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 
3
b
b
w
Figure 5.2: TBeam
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
Given the floor plan showing the arrangement of Tbeams, calculate the effective
width of the beam.
4
TBeam TBeam TBeam
2.0 m 2.0 m
9.0 m
b
w
= 250mm
Section Plan
Figure 5.3: Arrangement of TBeam
ACTIVITY 5a
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
You should get the answer as shown below.
) 9000 ( 2 . 0 250 2 . 0 + + x b
w
= 2050 mm
Actual flange width = 2000mm
The effective width, b is the lesser of these values i.e.
b = 2000 mm
5
FEEDBACK 5a
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
5.3 Analysis of Tsection
There are three cases to be considered. They are as follows: 
5.3.1 Neutral axis in the flange
5.3.2 Neutral axis under the flange
5.3.3 Neutral axis outside the flange
5.4 Neutral axis in the flanged.
This happens when the depth of the stress block is less than the flange thickness(h
f
).
This is shown in Figure 5.4 below: 
Moment of resistance the section is given by,
6
F
cc
=0.405f
cu
bx
As
b
d
b
w
0.9x
Z=d 0.45x
F
st
=0.87f
y
As
Figure 5.4: Stress Block
INPUT 2
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
M = F
cc
. Z
= 0.405 f
cu
b (0.9x) (d0.45x)
In this case the maximum depth of the stress block which is equal to 0.9x is
equivalent to h
f
. Therefore,
M = M
f
= )
2
( 45 . 0
f
f cu
h
d bh f
(Where M
f
is known as the ultimate moment of resistance of the flange)
It can be shown that when the applied moment, M is lesser or equal to M
f
, the
neutral axis is located in the flange. In this case the design of the section is similar
to that of the rectangular section which has been discussed in Unit 4.
5.4.1 Design Example (N.A in the flange)
A TBeam is to carry a design moment (M = 165 kNm). The beam section is shown
in Figure 5.5. If concrete of grade 30 and steel of grade 460 are used, calculate the
area and the total number of bars required.
7
b =1450
d =320
b
w
=250
Figure 5.5: TBeam
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
Solution:
Resistance moment of flange:
)
2
( 45 . 0
f
f cu f
h
d bh f M
= 0.45 x 30 x 1450 x 100 (320
2
100
)
=528.5 kNm
Since M< M
f
, the neutral axis is located in the flange.
cu
f bd
M
K
2
30 320 1450
10 165
2
6
320 95 . 0 460 87 . 0
10 165
6
= 1356 mm
2
Provided 3T25 (A
s
=1470 mm
2
)
9
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
For the TBeam shown in Figure 5.6, calculate the area and number of bars required
to carry a design moment of 450 kNm. Use f
cu
= 30N/mm
2
and f
y
=460 N / mm
2
10
800 mm
h
f
=150
b
w
=200
d=420mm
Figure 5.6: TBeam
ACTIVITY 5b
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
Check your answers now!
M
f
= 0.45 x 30 x 800 x 150 x (420 
2
150
)
= 558.9 kNm
M < M
f
Therefore, this shows that neutral axis is located in the flange.
30 ) 420 ( 800
10 450
2
6
K
= 0.106 < K
Only tension reinforcement is needed.
}
9 . 0
1 0 6 . 0
2 5 . 0 5 . 0 { + d Z
= 0.86d < 0.95d
11
FEEDBACK 5b
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
420 86 . 0 460 87 . 0
10 450
6
s
A
= 3113 mm
2
Provided: 4T32 (A
s
= 3218 mm
2
)
Is your answer similar to the one given here? If your answer is Yes:
Congratulations! Go on to the next input. If your answer is No, you should go
through the input once again.
12
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
5.5 N.A Located Under the Flange.
When the applied moment, M is greater than the moment of resistance, M
f
, the
neutral axis will be located under the flange as shown in Figure 5.7.
Referring to Figure 5.7,
The Internal forces are: 
F
cc1
= (0.45f
cu
)(b
w
. 0.9x) = 0.405f
cu
b
w
x
F
cc2
= (0.405f
cu
)( b b
w
)h
f
F
st
= 0.87f
y
A
s
13
2 2
1
A
S
F
st
Z
1
Z
2
F
cc2
F
cc1
Figure 5.7: N.A Located Under the Flange.
INPUT 3
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
Lever Arm:
Z
1
= d 0.45x
Z
2
= d 0.5h
f
Moment of resistance is given as follows: 
M = F
cc1
. Z
1
+ F
cc2
. Z
2
= (0.405f
cu
b
w
x)(d  0.45x) + (0.45f
cu
)(b  b
w
)h
f
(d  0.5h
f
)
The ultimate moment of resistance of the section (when x = 0.5d) is given by,
M
uf
= 0.405f
cu
b
w
0.5d [d  0.45(0.5d)] + (0.45f
cu
)(b  b
w
)h
f
(d  0.5h
f
)
= 0.156f
cu
b
w
d
2
+ (0.45f
cu
)(bb
w
) h
f
(d0.5h
f
)
When the applied moment, M < M
uf
, compression reinforcement is not required.
The area of the tension reinforcement is calculated as shown below: 
Taking the moment of F
cc2
,
M = F
st .
Z
2
 F
cc1
. (Z
2
 Z
1
)
= 0.87f
y
A
s
(d  0.5h
f
)  0.405f
cu
b
w
x [(d  0.5h
f
)(d  0.45x)]
As =
) 5 . 0 ( 87 . 0
) 5 . 0 45 . 0 ( 405 . 0
f y
f w cu
h d f
h x x b f M
+
14
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
Equating x = 0.5d (at ultimate limit)
Therefore,
) 5 . 0 ( 87 . 0
) 45 . 0 ( 1 . 0
f y
f w cu
s
h d f
h d d b f M
A
) 50 320 )( 460 ( 87 . 0
) 100 320 45 . 0 )( 320 )( 250 )( 30 ( 1 . 0 10 550
6
= 5188 mm
2
Use: 3T40 + 3T25 (5240 mm
2
)
16
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
The approximate arrangement of these bars is shown below: `
17
Now do the following exercises
3T25
3T40
Figure 5.9: TBeam
ACTIVITY 5c
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
Calculate the area of reinforcement required for the beam section given below if the
bending moment is 2750 kNm. Use f
cu
= 30 N/mm
2
and f
y
= 460 N/mm
2
.
18
b = 1600 mm
b
w
= 300
d = 700
h
f
= 250 mm
Figure 5.10: TBeam
Please do your calculation here!!!
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/ 19
FEEDBACK 5c
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
Here are the answers. Please check it out!
)
2
( 45 . 0
f
f cu f
h
d bh f M
)
2
250
700 )( 250 )( 300 )( 30 ( 45 . 0
= 582.2 kNm.
M > M
f
. (N.A. under the flange)
) 5 . 0 ( ) ( ) 45 . 0 ( 156 . 0
2
f f w cu w cu uf
h d h b b f d b f M +
)
2
250
700 )( 250 )( 300 1600 )( 30 )( 45 . 0 ( ) 700 )( 300 )( 30 ( 156 . 0
2
+
= 687.96 + 2522.8
= 3210.8 kNm
M
uf
> M (=2750 kNm). This indicates that only tension reinforcement is required
Check that h
f
< 0.45d
0.45d = 0.45(700)
=315 mm
h
f
< 0.45d and we are going to use equation 1, BS 8110 shown below:
20
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
To calculate the area of reinforcement required.
) 5 . 0 ( 87 . 0
) 45 . 0 [ 1 . 0
f y
f w cu
s
h d f
h d d b f M
A
) 250 5 . 0 700 )( 460 ( 87 . 0
) 250 ) 700 ( 45 . 0 )( 700 )( 300 )( 30 ( 1 . 0 10 2750
6
+
230115
10 95 . 2790
6
= 12128.5 mm
2
Use: 7T40 + 7T32 (A
s
= 12238 mm
2
)
21
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
5.6 Neutral Axis Outside The Flange
When the applied moment M > M
uf
, the compression reinforcement should be
provided so that the depth of neutral axis,
x
does not exceed 0.5d.
The stress distribution for a flanged beam provided with compression reinforcement
is shown in Figure 5.11 below:
Referring to Figure 5.11, the forces in the stress block are as follows: 
F
cc1
= 0.405f
cu
b
w
x
F
cc2
= 0.45f
cu
(b  b
w
)h
f
F
st
= 0.87f
y
A
s
F
sc
= 0.87f
y
A
s
Therefore, A
s
= [0.2f
cu
b
w
d + 0.45f
cu
h
f
(b  b
w
)+ 0.87
y
s y f cu w cu
f
A f d d h f d b f
As
87 . 0
87 . 0 ) ' ( 45 . 0 2 . 0 [ + +
) 50 320 ( 460 87 . 0
10 ) 3 . 552 650 (
6
= 904 mm
2
' ]
87 . 0
) ( 45 . 0 2 . 0
[
s
y
w f cu w cu
s
A
f
b b h f d b f
A +
+
24
f
cu
=30 N/mm
2
f
y
= 460 N/mm
2
Figure 5.12
d = 320
b = 1450
h
f
= 100
b
w
= 250
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
904 ]
) 460 ( 87 . 0
) 250 1450 )( 100 )( 30 )( 45 . 0 ( ) 320 )( 250 )( 30 ( 2 . 0
[ +
+
= 5247 + 904
= 6151 mm
2
Use: 3T20 (As = 943 mm
2
) for compression reinforcement
5T40 (As = 6286 mm
2
) for tension reinforcement.
25
Now you should be able to calculate the tension and
compression reinforcement for flanged beam.
Now do the following exercise and then compare your answers
with the answers given in the feedback section!.....
ACTIVITY 5d
Please do your calculation here!
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
Calculate the reinforcement required for a flanged beam with the following
information:
26
M = 1700 kNm
f
cu
= 30 N/mm
2
f
y
= 460 30 N/mm
2
b
w
= 300 mm
d = 618 mm
d = 60 mm (embedment of compression reinforcement)
b = 1200 mm
h
f
= 150 mm
H=700
FEEDBACK 5d
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
Compare your answers below: 
) 5 . 0 ( 45 . 0
f f cu f
h d bh f M
) 150 5 . 0 618 )( 150 )( 1200 )( 30 ( 45 . 0
=1319.5 kNm
M
f
< M (=1700)
) 5 . 0 ( ) )( 45 . 0 ( 156 . 0
2
f f w cu w cu uf
h d h b b f d b f M +
) 543 )( 150 )( 900 )( 30 45 . 0 ( ) 618 )( 300 )( 30 ( 156 . 0
2
+
=1525.8 kNm
M
uf
< M (=1700 kNm)
Compression reinforcement is required.
) ' ( 87 . 0
'
d d f
M M
A
y
uf
s
) 60 618 )( 460 ( 87 . 0
10 ) 8 . 1525 1700 (
6
=780 mm
2
' ]
87 . 0
) ( 45 . 0 2 . 0
[
s
y
w cu w cu
s
A
f
b b f d b f
A +
+
780
) 460 ( 87 . 0
) 300 1200 )( 30 )( 45 . 0 ( ) 618 )( 300 )( 30 ( 2 . 0
+
+
= 3590 mm
2
Use: 7T12 (A
s
= 792 mm
2
) as compression reinforcement
27
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
5T25 + 4T20 (A
s
= 3712 mm
2
) as the tension reinforcement
To design flanged beam, the following procedure can be used: 
Calculate M
f
= 0.45f
cu
bh
f
(d  0.5h
f
)
Compare M
f
with M (applied moment)
28
Go through the summary of Unit 5 now
SUMMARY
Flip through Unit 5 once again and when you are ready, do
the following SelfAssessment. Read the instructions before
you start! Good Luck!
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
If M<Mf, neutral axis is located in the flange. Calculate: 
cu
f bd
M
K
2
d butZ
K
d Z 95 . 0 , )]
9 . 0
25 . 0 ( 5 . 0 [ < +
Z f
M
A
y
s
87 . 0
If M > M
f
, neutral axis is located at outside of flange. Calculate:
f
from Table 3.7 or equation 2 BS8110
M
u f
=
f
f
cu
bd
2
Compare M with M
uf
Check that h
f
< 0.45d
If M < M
uf
, compression reinforcement is not required. Calculate:
) 5 . 0 ( 87 . 0
) 45 . 0 ( 1 . 0
f y
f w cu
s
h d f
h d d b f M
A
If M > M
uf
, compression reinforcement is required. Calculate:
) ' ( 87 . 0
) (
'
d d f
M M
A
y
uf
s
'
87 . 0
) ( 45 . 0 2 . 0
s
y
w f cu w cu
s
A
f
b b h f d b f
A +
+
29
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
There are five questions within this test. Marks are allocated for each question. You
have to answer all the questions. You should use your own writing paper and be
ready with your calculator.
Questions:
30
SELFASSESSMENT
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
1. The figure given below shows section of a beam and floor slab of a building.
Calculate the effective width of beam A, B and C assuming they are simply
supported. The beam span is 8.0 m.
2. For the given beam section below, calculate the area of reinforcement
required to carry a design moment of 600 kNm. Use f
cu
= 30 N/mm
2
and f
y
=
460 N/mm
2
.
31
A
250 250 250
3500 3500 500
500
B
C
(3 marks)
1450
d = 330
250
125
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
3. For the given beam section below, calculate the area of reinforcement
required to carry an ultimate design moment of 600 kNm. Use f
cu
=30N/mm
2
,
f
y
= 460 N/mm
2
and d = 40 mm.
4. Calculate moment of resistance of the given beam section. The characteristic
material strengths are 25 N/mm
2
for concrete and 460 N/mm
2
for steel
reinforcement.
32
(5 marks)
500
100
300
200
(9 marks)
(2 marks)
2T25
2T32
1000
d = 500
100
250
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
5. Using the same characteristic material strength in question 4, calculate the
moment of resistance of the beam section given below. Note that this is an
edge beam or known as L Beam.
1. For beam A , the section is shown below;
33
500
b
250
Beam A
2T16
4T32
d=40
600
100
d =400
(2 marks)
250
FEEDBACK ON SELFASSESSMENT
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
mm
l
b b
z
w
1050
10
8000
250
10
+
+
.
For beam B:
mm
l
b b
z
w
850 1
5
8000
250
5
+
+
For beam C:
34
250
250
b
b
Beam B
Beam C
1
1
1
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
mm
b
1000
500 2
.
2. Resistance moment of flange,
) 5 . 0 ( 45 . 0
f f cu f
h d bh f M
[ ] ) 125 5 . 0 ( 330 125 1450 30 45 . 0
kNm 5 . 654
..
M = 600 kNm < M
f..
The neutral axis is in the flange.
cu
f bd
M
K
2
30 330 1450
10 600
2
6
= 0.127..
]
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0 [
K
d Z +
]
9 . 0
127 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0 [ + d
= 0.83d > 0.95d
Z f
M
A
y
s
87 . 0
35
1
1
1
1
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
330 95 . 0 460 87 . 0
10 600
6
= 4782 mm
2
.
Use 6T32 (A
s
= 4827 mm
2
)
3.
)
2
100
350 ( 100 500 30 45 . 0
f
M
= 202.5 kNm.
M = 600 kNm > M
f
Neutral axis is outside the flange.
,
`
.

+
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
500
200
15 . 0
350 2
100
1 .
500
200
1
350
100
45 . 0
f
= 0.0661 + 0.06
= 0.13..
M
uf
= 0.13 (30) (500) (350)
2
= 238.9 kNm..
M = 600 kNm > M
uf
..
Compression reinforcement is required.
h
f
= 100 mm
0.45 d = 0.45 (350)
= 157.5 mm.
h
f
< 0.45 d
36
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
) 40 350 ( 460 87 . 0
10 ) 9 . 238 600 (
6
'
s
A
= 2911 mm
2
.
Use: 6T25 (A
s
= 2946 mm
2
) as the compression reinforcement.
2911
) 460 ( 87 . 0
) 300 500 )( 100 )( 30 ( 45 . 0 ) 350 )( 200 )( 30 ( 2 . 0
+
+
s
A
= 1555 + 2911
= 4466 mm
2
Use: 6T32 (A
s
= 4827 mm
2
) as the tension reinforcement.
The approximate arrangement of the reinforcement is shown below: 
4. f
cu
= 25 N/mm
2
f
y
= 460 N/mm
2
2T25 A
s
= 982 mm
2
2T32 A
s
= 1609 mm
2
37
6T25
6T32
1
1
1
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
Total A
s
= 2591 mm
2
) 5 . 0 ( ) )( 45 . 0 ( )) 5 . 0 ( 45 . 0 )( 5 . 0 ( 405 . 0
f f w cu w cu uf
h d h b b f d d d b f M +
) 5 . 0 ( ) )( 45 . 0 ( 156 . 0
2
f f w cu w cu
h d h b b f d b f +
= 243.75 + 379.96
= 623.44 kNm.
Therefore, the resistance moment is 623.44 kNm.
5. M
uf
) 5 . 0 ( ) )( 45 . 0 ( 156 . 0
2
f f w cu w cu
h d h b b f d b f +
) 100 5 . 0 400 )( 100 )( 250 600 )( 25 45 . 0 ( ) 400 )( 250 )( 25 ( 156 . 0
2
+
= 156 + 137.8
38
4T32
2T16
600
d = 400
100
250
2
1
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
= 293.8 kNm..
uf s y
M d d A f M + ) ( 87 . 0
' '
8 . 293 ) 40 400 )( 402 )( 460 ( 87 . 0 +
= 351.72 kNm..
Therefore, the moment of resistance of the section is 351.7 kNm.
Now calculate your score as shown below: 
Score = Total marks obtained x 100 %
21
You should score 80% or more to pass this unit.
39
1
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
If your score is less than 80%, you should go through all or part of
this unit once again.
Now you have completed unit 5.
You may proceed to unit 6.
END OF UNIT 5
GLOSSARY
ENGLISH MALAY
flanged beam rasuk berbibir
web web
effective width lebar berkesan
neutral axis paksi nutral
stress block bungkah tegasan
resistance moment momen rintangan
40
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT5/
stress distribution taburan tegasan
41