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Tushti H. Desai (7th E1) 18/07/2011
• • • • • • • • • Age of Discovery! Arrival of the British Early Revolts The FIRST WAR!! Causes Course of the Revolt Reasons for Failure Consequences of Revolt In conclusion
The Great Revolt Of 1857
Age of Discovery! (15th – 17th Century) Portugal Spain (Castille) .
Travel Routes • Vasco da Gama • Christopher Columbus .
Arrival of the British The East India Company arrives in India (1619) The Great Revolt Of 1857 .
Early Revolts • Sepoy Mutiny. Vellore (1806) • Barrackpore Mutiny (1824) The Great Revolt Of 1857 .
The FIRST WAR!! Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. “Discovery of India”.” It was the inner feeling of the entire country. The Great Revolt Of 1857 . “The very fact that a country with such a great illustrious past should be ruled over by a handful of people from a distant Island is something that makes me wild. has written. in his famous book.
6. The British did not obey the treaties sometimes and they were broken according to the need of the British and the nawabs at that time could not trust any treaty at all. artisans etc working under these rulers lost their jobs. 2. They were often tortured or jailed when the peasants failed to pay the taxes. The annexation of Indian states was followed by large scale unemployment and economic distress as a large number of court officials and other lost their means of earning. All the poets.Main Causes of Revolt • Political – The Doctrine of Lapse 1. The interests of India were not the first priority of the government. Bahadur Shah's successor was denied the right to live at the red fort . The Great Revolt Of 1857 . 3. 4. The traditional industries collapsed under the pressure of industrialized fields. 3. Lord Dalhousie caused widespread resentment among the Indian rulers and their subjects by aggressively expanding his state and annexing native Indian states. 2. He annexed states of satara nagpur and jhansi by applying the doctrine of lapse. accusing the government of maladministration and shocking the nawab who was a faithful ally and the people of India. He annexed Awadh. No measures were taken to improve the conditions of the peasants and the artisans. 4. NANA SAHEB was denied a pension after his father's death. which was the main priority. He was the son of Bajirao-II. The zamindari (land lord) system was introduced by the British and the peasants were exploited by them. 5. They came in India for economic profit. The landlords also were insecure and jagirs (lands) were confiscated when the taxes did not match the assigned goals. • Economic & Administrative 1.
5. 5. they were treated with contempt. the army was disbanded and a lot of soldiers lost their livelihood which led to general anger against the British. Social reforms by the Britishers were hated by the Indians who took it as a mark of British interference in the political affairs of India. 2. • Military 1. The Great Revolt Of 1857 . 2. gave birth to doubts and fear among the poorer and illiterate section of the society. Lord Wellesley described Indians as vulgar. The senior British officers did not pay any respect to the Indian soldiers at all. On the contrary. familiar and stupid. An Indian soldier got much less salary as compared to a Western soldier. telegraphs and posts. 6. There was a discrimination between the Indian and the British soldiers. This also encouraged the Sepoys to rise against the British. 4. The Indian soldiers were much more in numbers about 5 times as compared to the British soldiers. 7. The introduction of railways. The act passed in 1856 that made it compulsory for all troops to serve overseas hurted the feelings of the soldiers as hindus believed that overseas travel would lead to a loss of caste. rude. though good for the society. The British judicial system introduced the principal of equality which undermined the presence of caste system in India. The Sepoys had helped the British to establish their empire in India but were not awarded or promoted at all. The British looked down upon Indians and followed a policy of racial discrimination and separated themselves as 'superiors' from the Indian society. ignorant.Main Causes of Revolt • Social & Religious 1. After Awadh's annexation. 4. The introduction of western education undermined the position of the traditional teachers and teaching methods in India. 6. 3. The efforts of missionaries to convert people to Christianity also angered the Indians. 3.
Immediate Cause Can you guess? The Great Revolt Of 1857 .
Mangal pandey The Great Revolt Of 1857 .
The Great Revolt Of 1857 .
The Great Revolt Of 1857 .
Course of the Revolt • Meerut (April 1857) – No ‘Greased’ catridges – Prison • Cawnpore (Kanpur) – Nana Saheb • ‘Jhansi Rani’ Lakshmi Bai The Great Revolt Of 1857 .
The Great Revolt Of 1857 .
The Great Revolt Of 1857 .
. Delhi and West Bengal. the Scindias. (3) No common aim & ideals • The Hindus and the Muslims wanted to establish their separate empires. It did not assume a national character. Nawab of Bhopal. Revolt Of 1857 The Great . discipline and organization. May) alerted the British rulers. Rajput and Gorkha Battalions remained loyal to the British to suppress the Revolt.P. (2) The rising was not widespread • The Revolt was limited to U. big Zamindars and traders actively supported the British. The Sikh. (5) Lack of Modern Weapons and Techniques • The revolutionaries lacked resources (men and money). There was no unified programme.Reasons for Failure (1) Lack of Unity & Cohesion • Many state rulers e. Jind Jodhpur etc. Holkars.g. Nabha. (4) Lack of Leadership • They were brave and patriotic but lacked leadership qualities. Nizam of Hyderabad.e. Rajas of Patiala. (6) An unplanned early start • An unplanned early start (Much before the scheduled date i. The revolt was crushed and failed miserably..
While he remained Governor-General for the provinces under his rule. He was advised by a board of fifteen members. Further. A secretary of State for India was to take the place of the President of the Board of Control. Doctrine of Lapse was abandoned and the right to adoption recognized. The designation of the Governor-General was changed. With this. The Indian princes were assured that their territories would never be annexed. To appease native princes. there were clearly defined restrictions and limitations to them. However.Consequences of Revolt (1) Bye-bye to East India Company & Hi to British Crown and Viceroy (Queen Victoria and Lord Canning) • The British Parliament passed an "Act for the Better Government of India" in 1858. Henceforth. (2) Change in the British policy towards Indian States • The Great Revolt Of 1857 . The Board of Control was abolished and the Board of Directors had no power left. Rajas and native princes. he came to be known as Viceroy while dealing with Nawabs. the British declared that they would honour all treaties and the agreement entered into by the East India Company with the native rulers. The military prowess was greatly reduced. the continual existence of Native States was guaranteed. the rule of the Company came to an end. whereby the administration responsibility was passed into the hands of the British Queen and her Parliament.
Thus came the end of the glorious Mughal dynasty founded by Babur in 1526 in the first battle of Panipat. the expenditure also increased. and coffee plantations etc". tea. Bahadur Shah Zafar died in 1862 and he also took part in the Revolt. "the extinction of the East India Company's Rule brought in grave economic perils to India. India now became a dumping ground of British manufacturers and an almost inexhaustible field for investment of capital for it offered unlimited scope for commercial and industrial enterprises like railways. The British soldiers were increased in number which means. The title of Mughal emperor was also abolished as the last Mughal emperor. they were divided and separated. With his escape the Peshwaship came to an end. The British henceforth started abusing political power for the enhancement of their commercial and economic interest. steamers. He could not be traced after that. Artillery and other advanced means of warfare were in the care of British hands. In words of Majumdar. In order to break down the unity of the Indian soldiers.Consequences of Revolt (3) END OF PESHWASHIP AND THE MUGHAL RULE • Nana Sahib escaped after the Revolt as he had actively taken part in it. The Great Revolt Of 1857 . (4) REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY • The British soldiers realized that the numerical inferiority of the British Indian army was one of the causes of the Revolt. (5) ECONOMIC EXPLOITATION OF INDIA • Economic exploitation of the country was an inevitable situation after the Revolt.
Consequences of Revolt (6) RISE OF NATIONALISM • The sacrifices of some great Indian rulers during the Revolt of 1857 aroused feelings of Nationalism among men. business and services and Hindus were given preferential treatment. So much so that the unrest between the two communities has still not been resolved. It was on this ground that India had to be partitioned on the event of her independence in 1947. (7) POLICY OF DIVIDE AND RULE • During the Revolt of 1857 the Hindus and Muslims had unity and fought together for the welfare of the country. "the memory of 1857 substantiated the later movement. At a later stage the Policy was reversed. Rani of Jhansi and Bahadur Shah became National heroes. As the Muslims had taken a prominent role in the Revolt. People celebrated their heroism and their attempts to fight for freedom. Nana Sahib. The British government realized that the unity of the Hindus and Muslims was posing a serious threat and therefore the best thing would be to create a wall between the two communities. The British used this disharmony to their advantage and widened the gulf between the two major communities. perhaps did more damage to the cause of the British rule in India than the revolt itself". According to Tara Chand. infused courage into the hearts of the fighters furnished a historical basis for the grim struggle and gave it a moral stimulus . they were deprived of patronage in education. Thus. The revolt became a symbol of challenge to the mighty British power in India. they adopted the "Divide and Rule" that completely destroyed the relationship.(its) memory distorted but hallowed with the sanctity. The Great Revolt Of 1857 .
which brought India its independence.In Conclusion • Q) Why knowing about this war is important for us? • A) It was the mother of the freedom movement. The Great Revolt Of 1857 .
Desai (7th .E1) 18/07/2011 The Great Revolt Of 1857 .THANKS Tushti H.