ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

MBA 1.2

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR SYLLABUS UNIT 1 UNIT 2 UNIT UNIT 4 UNIT 5 UNIT 6 3 Introduction to Organisational Behaviour, Meaning; Global scenario. Elements; Need; Approaches; Models;

Individual Behaviour; Personality; Learning; Attitudes; Perception; Motivation; Ability; Their relevant organizational behaviour. Group dynamics; Group norms; Group cohesiveness; Group Behance to organizational behaviour. Leadership Styles; Qualities; Organisational communication; Meaning importance, process, barriers; Methods to reduce barriers; Principle of effective communication. Stress; Meaning; Types; Sources; Consequences; Management of stress. Power and Politics; Definition; Types of Powers; Sources; Characteristics; Effective use of Power. Organisational Dynamics; Organisational design; Organisational effectiveness; Meaning, approaches; Organisational culture; Meaning, significance; Organisational Climate; Implications on organizational behaviour. Organisational Change; Meaning; Nature; Causes of change; Resistance of change; Management of change; Organisational development; Meaning; OD Interventions.

REFERENCE BOOKS 1. Fred Luthans, Organisational Behaviour, McGraw Hill Book Co., 1995. 2. Stephen P. Bobbins, Organisational Behaviour, Prentice Hall, 1997. 3. Keith Davis, Human Behaviour at Wor/c,.-M.cGraw Hill Book Co., 1991. 4. Gregory Moorehead and R.S. Griffin, Organisational Behaviours: Managing People and Organisations, Jaico, 1994. 5. Judith R. Gordon, A Diagnostic Approach to Organisational Behaviour, Allyn & Bacon, 1993.

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CONTENTS

No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

LESSON
INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR FOUNDATION OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR MODELS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR GLOBAL SCENARIO OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR FOUNDATION OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR PERSONALITY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOUR JOB SATISFACTION GROUP DYNAMICS GROUP CONFLICT ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS LEADERSHIP IN ORGANISATIONS STRESS MANAGEMENT POWER AND POLITICS ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE AND CLIMATE. ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE CASE ANALYSIS

Pg.no. 4 7 12 16 18 21 25 28 32 44 47 52 56 66 73 77 81 85 87 90

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the human behaviour in organization is rather unpredictable. and are interested only in money. This is because it arises from deep needs and value systems of people. a framework. his theory was criticized by many employers and workers. a way of thinking. the richest person in the world and the founder of Wal-Mart. Most managers think that their employees are lazy. A NEW PERSPECTIVE FOR MANAGEMENT Management is generally considered to have three major dimensions²technical. But human behaviour at work is much more complicated and diverse. reducing workers to machines #4 . Some of the new paradigm characteristics include coverage of second-generation information technology and total quality management such as empowerment. MODERN APPROACH TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The modern approach to organizational behaviour is the search for the truth of why people behave the way they do. understanding. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND FOR MODERN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Scientific Management Approach Scientific management approach was developed by F. One must know why management needs a new perspective to meet the environmental challenges and to shift to a new paradigm. To increase the output. Organization is the combination of science and people. you should be able to understand: y y y y The major environmental challenges and the paradigm shift that the management faces today The management perspective of organizational behaviour The historical background of modern organizational behaviour The modern approach to organizational behaviour The knowledge and information explosion.LESSON ± 1 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. His assumption was that employees are motivated largely by money. pattern or example". and that if you could make them happy in terms of money. First introduced over thirty years ago. The new paradigm sets the stage for the study. dynamics and macro-variables. If one aims to manage an organization. NEW PARADIGM The organizational behaviour has a goal lo help the managers make a transition to the new paradigm. Yet. and a scheme for understanding reality. They know the requirements of the jobs and have the functional knowledge to get the job done. and learning organization for managing diversity of work. a broad model. conceptual and human. Yet the simple but most profound solution may be found in the words of Sam Walton. Taylor advised managers to pay monetary incentives to efficient workers. the term "paradigm" is now used as. The technical dimension consists of the manager's expertise in particular functional areas. The term paradigm comes from the Greek word 'paradigma'. global competition. There are many solutions being offered to deal with these complex challenges. the human problems that the management is facing are relatively easy to solve. Workers objected to the pressure of work as being harder and faster. The organizational behaviour is a delicate and complex process. Sam was once asked the key to successful organizations and management. by the philosophy and science historian Thomas Khun. If such assumptions are accepted. reengineering and benchmarking. and application of the time-tested micro-variables. it is necessary to understand its operation. Sam quickly replied. "People are the key". Critics worried that the methods took the humanity out of labor. But the practicing managers ignore the conceptual and human dimensions of their jobs. total quality and diversity mentioned earlier has led to a paradigm shift. While science and technology is predictable. they would be productive. The impact of information technology. The new perspective assumes that employees are extremely complex and that there is a need for theoretical understanding given by empirical research before applications can be made for managing people effectively. It provided a scientific rationale for job specialization and mass production.W. total quality and diversity are some of the bitter realities that the managers are facing today. selecting and training the best workers for the job arid making sure that the workers follow the prescribed method of doing the job. This theory supported the use of certain steps in scientifically studying each element of a job. which means ''model. Taylor at the beginning of the 20th century.

Weber's idea! bureaucracy was . Productivity Approach Productivity is a ratio that compares units of output with units of input. creativity and fulfillment. which he thought would work for all organizations. it is generally recognized that the Hawthorne studies mark the historical roots for the field of organizational behaviour. a group of professors began an enquiry into the human aspects of work and working conditions at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. The findings of these studies were given a new name 'human relations' the studies brought out a number of findings relevant to understanding human behaviour at work. This approach is also known as 'supportive approach' because the manager's primary role changes from control of employees to providing an active support for their growth and performance. Hawthorne studies have been criticized for their research methods and conclusions drawn. if the #5 . Therefore. The theory's most prominent advocate. Although there were varied and complex reasons for the emerging importance of behavioral approach to management. Bureaucratic Approach While scientific management was focusing on the interaction between workers and the task. The real beginning of applied research in the area of organizational behaviour started with Hawthorne Experiments. The workers are influenced by social factors and the behaviour of the individual worker is determined by the group. It is often measured in terms of economic inputs and outputs. Thus. They helped usher in a more humanity centered approach to work. logical approaches to more efficient productivity. Taylor's view is now considered inadequate and narrow due to the points given by the critics. Chicago. Systems Approach A system is an interrelated part of an organization or a society that interacts with everyone related to that organization or society and functions as a whole. Within the organization 'people' employ 'technology' in performing the 'task' that they are responsible for. Productivity is considered to be improved. The Human element in the workplace was considerably more important. the early management pioneers. logical. if more outputs can be produced from the same amount of inputs. A Contingency Approach A contingency approach to organizational behaviour implies that different situations require different behavioral practices for effectiveness instead of following a traditional approach for all situations. rational and efficient. they did not emphasize the human dimensions. However. me researchers were studying how to structure the organization more effectively. as Taylor and Weber brought attention with their rational. Henry Ford. while the 'structure' of the organization serves as a basis for co-ordinating all their different activities. Max Weber. Instead of trying to make each worker more efficient. They are: ‡ Human resources approach ' ‡ Contingency approach ‡ Productivity approach ‡ Systems approach Human Resources Approach The human resources approach is concerned with the growth and development of people towards higher levels of competency. classical organization theory sought the most effective overall organizational structure for workers and managers. because people are the central resource in any organization. In 1924. Taylor. their views were criticized on the ground that both approaches ignored worker's humanity. But besides economic inputs and outputs. The strength of this approach is that it encourages analysis of each situation prior to action. Each situation must be analyzed carefully to determine the significant variables that exist in order to establish the more effective practices. The systems view emphasizes the interdependence of each of these elements within the organization. He made the naive assumption that one structure would work best for all organizations. This approach help employees become better in terms of work and responsibility and then it tries to create a climate in which they can contribute to the best of their improved abilities. Hawthorne Studies Even. Henry Fayol and Frederick W.responding to management incentives. it helps to use all the current knowledge about people in the organization in the most appropriate manner. recognized the behavioral side of management. human and social inputs and outputs also arc important. APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR There are mainly four approaches to organizational behaviour. proposed a 'bureaucratic form' of structure. But their impact on the emerging field of organizational behaviour was dramatic.

which may be relevant to the case. The systems view of organization thus emphasizes on the key interdependencies that organizations must manage. Thus. the organization depends on environment such as. predictive and capable of contributing positively to the objectives of the organization. particularly related to the human behavioral aspect. what is acceptable by the society or individuals engaged in an organization is a matter of values of the society and people concerned. ideas and so on. Interdisciplinary Approach Organizational behaviour is basically an interdisciplinary approach. The other key aspect of the systems view of organization is its emphasis on the interaction between the organization and its broader environment. tasks. does the organizational reward system influence worker's behaviour and attitudes? y How do managers build effective teams? y What contributes to effective decision-making? y What are the constituents of effective communication? y What are the characteristics of effective communication? y How can power be secured and used productively? y What factors contribute to effective negotiations? y How can conflict (between groups or between a manager and subordinates) be resolved or managed? y How can jobs and organizations be effectively designed? y How can managers help workers deal effectively with change? An Applied Science The basic objective of organizational behaviour is to make application of various researches to solve the organizational problems. it addresses issues. e. It is yet to become a science. organizational behaviour tries to integrate both individual and organizational objectives so that both are achieved simultaneously. which consists of social. the organization requires 'inputs' from the environment in the form of raw material. group and organizational learning and the development of individual attitudes toward . it also takes relevant things from economics. political science. Secondly. on its inputs in order to create outputs in the form of products or services. The organization itself can be thought of as performing certain 'transformation' processes.. CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR A Separate Field of Study Organizational behaviour can be treated as a distinct field of study. Organizations must also recognize their interdependence with the broader environments within which they exist. concepts and processes in this field of study. Now efforts are being made to synthesize principles. Further. and career development affect individual's behaviours and attitudes? y What motivates people to work. sociology and anthropology. personal development. A normative science prescribes how the various findings of researches can be applied to get organizational results. money. It draws heavily from other disciplines like psychology. there is optimism about the innate potential of man to be independent. It is based on the belief that needs and motivation of people are of high' concern. Besides. In fact. Oriented towards Organizational Objectives Organizational behaviour is oriented towards organizational objectives. and how. law and history. Organizations arc dependent upon their surrounding environment in two main ways: First. public to accept its output. Normative and Value Centered Organizational behaviour is a normative science. technology and structure in order to perform their transformation processes effectively and efficiently.work? y How do individual differences in personality.g. such as the following: y What facilitates accurate perception and attribution? y What influences individual. cultural and political environment within which they operate. which are acceptable to the society. Organizational behaviour integrates the relevant contents of these disciplines to make them applicable for organizational analysis.organization as a whole is to function effectively. people. economic. Within themselves the organizations must trade off the interdependencies among people. creative. Humanistic and Optimistic Organizational behaviour focuses the attention on people from humanistic point of view. A Total System Approach #6 .

own or in collaboration with technology. Accordingly. DEFINITION OF ORGANISATION According to Gary Johns. "Understanding one individual's behaviour is challenging in and of itself. As Nadler and Tushman put it. on their. the management of organisational behaviour is central to the management task²a task that involves the capacity to "understand" the behaviour patterns of individuals. While the primary goal . which require further analysis. The work will not be done unless "people" want to do the work and if the work is not done then there will be no organisation. you should be able to: y y y Define and explain the meaning of organizational behaviour Understand the nature and importance of organizational behaviour Relate the organizational behaviour to manager¶s job DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT Management is commonly defined as "Getting work done through other people". and the organisation itself.An individual's behaviour can be analyzed keeping in view his psychological framework. Ultimately. y Group Effort: People. to ''predict'" what behavioural responses will be elicited by various managerial actions and finally to use this understanding and these predictions to achieve "control". feelings. the cooperation of the workers is crucial to the success or failure of the organisation. schools. Organisational behaviour can then be defined as: "The study of human behaviour in organisational settings. group influence and social and cultural factors. government agencies and so on. individual's nature is quite complex and organizational behaviour by applying systems approach tries to find solutions for this complexity. interpersonal-orientation. the organisation and the (interface between the two. "Organisations are social inventions for accomplishing goals through group efforts". hospitals. groups and organisations. This definition covers wide variety-of groups such as businesses. understanding a group that is made up of different individuals and comprehending the many relationships among those individuals is even more complex. any organisational goal must integrate in itself the personal goals of all individuals associated with the organisation. Individuals in themselves have physical and intellectual limitations and these limitations can only be overcome by group efforts. religious bodies. Hence. values. These reasons are the goals towards which all organisational efforts are directed. Therefore. Understanding an individual behaviour is in itself a challenge. attitudes and other personal characteristics and these characteristics of all individuals must interact with each other in order to create organisational #7 . There are three significant aspects in the above definition. Each individual brings to an organisation a unique set of beliefs.of any commercial organisation is to make money for its owners. It is the people that primarily make up an organisation. MEANING AND DEFINITION OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Organisational behaviour is concerned with people's thoughts. but understanding group behaviour in an organisational environment is a monumental managerial task. LESSON ±2 FOUNDATION OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. the interface between human behaviour and the organisational context. This simple definition explains the significance of the role of people. Thus. emotions and actions in setting up a work. individually or collectively. the organisation's work gets done through people. They are as follows: y Social Inventions: The word "social" as a derivative of society basically means gathering of people." The above definition has three parts²the individual behaviour. both as members of the society at large and as a part of an organisation interact with each other and are inter-dependent. y Accomplishing Goals: All organisations have reasons for their existence. this goal is inter-related with many other goals. fraternal groups.

Thus. People make the decisions. In considering the people working in an organisation. One cannot understand an individual¶s behaviour completely without learning something about that individual's organisation. the individual. too. The organisational behaviour is specifically concerned with work-related behaviour. the study of organisational behaviour must consider the ways in which the individual and the organisation interact. As managers increasingly recognise the value of potential contributions by their employees. there is people as people . They have a right to expect satisfaction and to learn new skills. Points of contact include managers. Similarly. which takes place in organisations. managers must understand the basic human element of their work. Groups are dynamic and they work in the organisation to achieve their objectives. organisational behaviour must look at the unique perspective that each individual brings to the work setting. They consist of individuals and groups. structure. As resources. organisational settings. People create the organisation. An organisation.an argument derived from the simple notion of humanistic management. family and other organisations. characteristically. Organisational behaviour offers three major ways of understanding this context. Finally. experiences from other organisation. Organisational behaviour is concerned with the characteristics and behaviours of employees in isolation. co-workers. y Technology: Technology such as machines and work processes provide the resources with which people work and affects the tasks that they perform. 1 the environment surrounding the organisation and they also posses a personal background. exists before a particular person joins it and continues to exist after he leaves it. In addition to understanding. 'and the characteristics and behaviours directly resulting from people with their individual needs and motivations working within the structure of the organisation. The organisation is also affected by the presence and eventual absence of the individual. Above all. official or unofficial. the characteristics and processes that are part of the organisation itself. y People: People make up the internal and social system of the organisation. guide and direct its course. #8 . formal policies and procedures of the organisation. and various changes implemented by the organisation. organisations are people.settings. technology and the environment in which the organisation operates. The groups may be big or small. changes. as a function of both the personal experiences and the organisation. They have a right to expect something in return beyond wages and benefits. the organisation influences and is influenced by individuals. An understanding of organisational behaviour can help the manager better appreciate the variety of individual needs and' expectations. studying the people who-make it up. Different people in the organisation are performing different type of jobs and they need to be (elated in some structural way so that their work can be effectively co-ordinated. and vitalise and revitalise it. It allows people to do more and work better but it also restricts' people in various ways. NATURE OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Each individual brings to an organisation a unique set of personal characteristics. in 'their own jobs. ELEMENTS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The key elements in the organisational behaviour are people. mostly as employees. The technology used has a significant influence on working relationships. Thus. and without people there would be no organisations. people as organisations. if managers are to understand the organisations in which they work. Over time. he cannot understand how the organisation operates without. It is the part of a larger system that contains many other elements such as government. People spend a large part of their lives in. the on-going behavioural processes involved. All of these mutually influence each other in a complex system that creates a context for a group of people. solve the problems. y Environment: All organisations operate within an external environment. Clearly. They come in contact with other individuals and the organisation in a variety of ways. it will become more and more important for managers and employees to grasp the complexities of organisational behaviour. formal or informal. Thus. people are one of the organisation's most valuable assets. But individuals do not work in isolation. and answer the questions. y Structure: Structure defines the formal relationships of the people in organisations.. they must first understand the people who make up the organisations. the organisation itself represents a crucial third perspective from which to view organisational behaviour. people as resources and people as people.

This suggests that since an organisation is Ihe interaction of persons. Organisational behaviour integrates these factors to provide* simplicity in understanding the human behaviour. rotation of members among groups. The uniqueness of rules and the environment of organisations forces managers to study organisational behaviour in order to learn about normal and abnormal ranges of behaviour. avoidance of win-lose situation and focussing on total group objectives. organisational behaviour helps managers in controlling and directing in #9 . Organisational behaviour does not provide solutions to all complex and different behaviour puzzles of organisations. Human behaviour is a complex phenomenon and is affected by a large number of factors including the psychological. managers are required to control and direct the behaviour at all levels of individual interaction. interpersonal level. Understanding the effect of group relationships is important for managers in today's organisation. judgement that takes into account the important variables underlying the situation. Barnard has observed that an organisation is a conscious interaction of two or more people. which is very important for organisational morale and productivity. procedures. Inter-group Level: The organisation is made up of many groups that develop complex relationships to build their process and substance. It is only the intelligent judgement of the manager in dealing with a specific issue that can try to solve the problem. y Interpersonal Level: Human behaviour can be understood at the level of interpersonal interaction. Organisational behaviour provides ‡ means for understanding the interpersonal relationships in an organisation. organisational behaviour serves three purposes: y What causes behaviour? y Why particular antecedents cause behaviour? y Which antecedents of behaviour can be controlled directly and which are beyond control? A more specific and formal course in organisational behaviour helps an individual to develop more refined and workable sets of assumption that is directly relevant to his work interactions. Inter-group relationship may be in the form of co-operation or competition. IMPORTANCE OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Organisational behaviour offers several ideas to management as to how human factor should be properly emphasised to achieve organisational objectives. Therefore.. These research results are advancing managerial knowledge of understanding group behaviour. role analysis and transactional analysis are some of the common methods. blind spots and weaknesses. Organisational behaviour helps in predicting human behaviour in the organisational setting by drawing a clear distinction between individual behaviour and group behaviour. group level and inter-group level. y Controlling and Directing Behaviour: After understanding the mechanism of human behaviour. cohesion. Group Level: Though people interpret anything at their individual level. hang-ups. Thus. they should be given adequate importance in managing the organisation. which then become a force in shaping human behaviour. Understanding Human Behaviour Organisational behaviour provides understanding the human behaviour in all directions in which the human beings interact. Organisational behaviour helps to analyse 'why' and 'how' an individual behaves in a particular way. they are often modified by group pressures. managers are required to control and direct the behaviour so that it conforms to the standards required for achieving the organisational objectives. which provide such understanding. goals. Thus. communication pattern and leadership. Analysis of reciprocal relationships. Organisational behaviour provides opportunity to management to analyse human behaviour and prescribe means for shaping it to a particular direction. motives. judgement that are assigned due recognition to the complexity of individual or group behaviour. Thus. Research in group dynamics has contributed vitally to organisational behaviour and shows how a group behaves in its norms. More specifically. Organisational behaviour provides means to understand and achieve co-operative group relationships through interaction. y y The co-operative relationships help the organisation in achieving its objectives. Organisational behaviour only assists in making judgements that are derived from tenable assumptions. individuals should be studied in groups also. judgement that explicitly takes into account the managers own goals. organisational behaviour can be understood at the individual level. social and cultural implications.NEED FOR STUDYING ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The rules of work are different from the rules of play.

An important component of organisational behaviour involves the application of knowledge and theories from social psychology to the study of groups in organisations. perceptions and personalities are taken into account and their impact upon individuals¶ behaviour and performance on the job is studied. Use of Power and Sanction: The behaviours can be controlled and directed by the use of power and sanction. as dynamic entities are characterised by pervasive changes. Thus. It identifies various leadership styles available to a manager and analyses which style is more appropriate in a given situation. they have to necessarily work in coordination to meet the organisational goals. Factors such as attitudes. This j macro perspective on organisational behaviour draws heavily on theories and concepts from the discipline of 'sociology'. Organisations have to adapt themselves to the environmental changes by making suitable. Leadership: Organisational behaviour brings new insights and understanding to the practice and theory of leadership. organisational behaviour can be analysed from the perspective of the organisation as a whole. Communication: Communication helps people to come in contact with each other. y Organisation at the Organisational Level: Some organisational behaviour researchers take the organisation as a whole as their object of study. the organisation can be viewed as consisting of individuals working on tasks in the pursuit of the organisational goals. This frequently results in people working together in teams. internal arrangements such as convincing employees who normally have the tendency of resisting any changes. individuals and situations. Instead they are complementary. leadership. the opportunity for the realisation of personal goals. Organisational Adaptation: Organisations. psychologically based theories of learning. Organisational behaviour explains how various means of power and sanction can .be utilised so that both organisational and individual objectives are achieved simultaneously. organisational climate includes creation of an atmosphere of effective supervision. communication and building organisational climate favourable for better interaction. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Organisational behaviour starts with the following six fundamental concepts revolving around the nature of people and organisations: The nature of people: y Individual differences y A whole person y Motivated behaviour #10 . y Organisation at the Individual Level: Organisational behaviour can be studied in the perspective of individual members of the organisation. Organisational climate takes a system perspective that affect human behaviour. beliefs. satisfaction and leadership are brought to bear upon the behaviour and performance of individual members of an organisation. committees and groups. practices and procedures. How do people work together in groups? What factors determine whether group will be cohesive and productive? What types of tasks could be assigned to groups? These are some of the questions that can be asked about the effective functioning of groups in organisations. A second level of analysis focuses upon the interaction among organisational members as they work in' teams. Besides improving the satisfactory working conditions and adequate compensation. the size of the organisation and the organisation's age are also examined and their implications for effective organisational functioning are explored. Other factors such as the technology employed by the organisation. motivation.y y y y y different areas such as use of power and sanction. A full and complete understanding of the nature of organisations and the determinants of their effectiveness requires a blending of knowledge derived from each perspective. This approach to organisational behaviour draws heavily on the discipline of psychology and explains why individuals behave and react the way they do to different organisational policies. Researchers seek to understand the implications of the relationship between the organisation and its environment for the effectiveness of the organisation. managers can adopt styles keeping in view the various dimensions of organisations. Emphasis is placed upon understanding how organisational structure and design influences the effectiveness of an organisation. the communication must be effective. Power is referred to as the capacity of an individual to take certain action and may be utilised in many ways. which are formally defined by the organisation. Finally. y Organisation at the Group Level: People rarely work independently in organisations. The communication process and its work in inter-personal dynamics have been evaluated by organisational behaviour. LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Organisational behaviour can be viewed from different perspectives or levels of analysis. At one level. Organisational Climate: Organisational climate refers to the total organisational situations affecting human behaviour. Within this perspective. To achieve organisational objectives. congenial relations with others at the work place and a sense of accomplishment. These different perspectives on the study of organisational behaviour are not in conflict with one another. groups and departments.

This means that individual does not have only the skill and intelligence but he has a personal life. age. It stresses that people are to be treated with respect and dignity. This helps to build sustainable and harmonious activities that can operate in the mutual direct interests of the organisation. Segregation: This is a social system. It can be further divided into following categories: Feudal system: This is a social system. in fact. height. It is also called social organisation or social structure. in which power vests in the hands of the person with superior intellects. and forfeiture. whole group. Meritocracy: This is a social system. Class Structure: This is a social system of different classes with in a society. power lies in her hands. This can be defined as the interests that are common to both the parties and are related to the accomplishment of their respective goals. It is important for the individuals to think about their issues openly. the blending of nature of people and organisation results in an holistic organisational behaviour. weight. Since organisational behaviour involves people. This belief that each person is different from all others is typically called the 'Law of Individual Differences'. y Motivated behaviour: It is the urge of the individual to satisfy a particular need that motivates him to do an act. y Value of the Person: It is more an ethical philosophy. they provide a holistic concept of the subject. land and relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage. In other words. entitles the people who do it to proper respect and recognition of their unique aspirations and abilities. they employ the 'whole person'. Motivation is essential for the proper functioning of organisations. The nature of an organisation can be understood with the help of tjie description of following two points: y Social System: A system is a group of independent and interrelated elements comprising a unified whole. This space for sharing ideas builds trust. In context with an organisation. Patriarchate: This is social system. it is not only trying to develop a better employee but it also wants to develop a 'better person' in terms of all round growth and development. complexion and so on but also different in their psychological trait such as intelligence. Holistic organisational behaviour interprets people-organisation relationships in terms of the whole person. Every job. Individual differences mean that the management has to treat them differently to get the best out of them. which provides separate facilities for minority groups of a society. in which a female is considered to be the family head and title or surname is traced through her chain. motivation and perception. A political and economic system based on the holding of.y Value of the person The nature of organisation: y Social system y Mutual interest y Individual Differences: Individuals are different in their physical and mental traits. The motivation could be positive or negative. Thus. power lies in his hands. legal and military service of tenants. attitude. however simple. In other words. because even though the views are different they have a shared concern for similar objectives. ethical philosophy is involved in one way or the other. Individuals who have shared mutual interests are likely to make their organisation the strongest. They are different not only in the physical appearance such as sex. Mutual Interest: Organisational relationships are most likely to be strong if different groups can negotiate strategies. The benefit will extend beyond the firm into the larger society in which each employee lives. o o o o o o y Holistic Organisational Behaviour: When the above six concepts of organisational behaviour are considered together. his personal life cannot be separated from his work life since people function as total human beings. needs and desires as well. whole organisation and whole social system. in which a male is considered to be the family head and title or surname is traced through his chain. and to incorporate the perspectives of their colleagues. When management practices organisational behaviour. y A Whole Person: Though the organisation may feel that they are employing only the individual's skill or intelligence. which is developed in Europe in the 8th Century. #11 . Matriarchate: This is social system. In other words. the individuals of a society are considered as a system organised by a characteristic pattern of relationships having a distinctive culture and values. The organisation can show to its employees how certain actions will increase their need fulfilment.

LESSON ±3 Models of organizational behaviour Learning Objectives After reading this lesson, you should be able to understand: y y y y The concept of organizational behaviour system The different models of organizational behaviour The importance of organizational behaviour to managers The future of organizational behaviour

Organizations have undergone tremendous change in the behaviour of their employee's. Earlier employers had no systematic program for managing their employees instead their simple rules served as a powerful influence on employees. However, today increasing many organizations are experimenting with new ways to attract and motivate their employees. CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR SYSTEM Organizations achieve their goals by creating, communicating and operating an organizational behaviour system. Organizational behaviour system defines organizational structure and culture and explains their impact on employees. The figure 3.1 shows the major elements of a good organizational behaviour system:

These systems exist in every organization, but sometimes in varying forms. They have a greater chance of being successful, though, if they have been consciously created, regularly examined and updated to meet new and emerging conditions. The primary advantage of organizational behaviour system is to identify the major human and organizational variables that affect organizational outcomes. For some variables managers can only be aware of them and acknowledge their impact whereas for other variables, managers can exert some control over them. The outcomes are measured in terms of quantity and quality of products and services, level of customer service, employee satisfaction and personal growth and development. These systems exist in every organization, but sometimes in varying forms. They have a greater chance of being successful, though, if they have been consciously created, regularly examined and updated to meet new and emerging conditions. The primary advantage of organizational behaviour system is to identify the major human and organizational variables that affect organizational outcomes. For some variables managers can only be aware of them and acknowledge their impact whereas for other variables, managers can exert some control over them. The outcomes arc measured in terms of quantity and quality of products and services, level of customer service, employee satisfaction and personal growth and development.

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ELEMENTS OF THE SYSTEM The system's base rests in the fundamental beliefs and intentions of those who join together to create it such as owners and managers who currently administer it. The philosophy of organizational behaviour held by management consists of an integrated set of assumptions and beliefs about the way things are, the purpose for these activities, and the way they should be. These philosophies are sometimes explicit and occasionally implicit, in the minds managers. Organizations differ in the quality of organizational behaviour that they develop. These differences are substantially caused by different models of organizational behaviour that dominant management's thought in each organization. The model that a manager holds usually begins with certain assumptions about people and thereby leads to certain interpretations of organizational events. The following four models of organizational behaviour are as follows: A. Autocratic model B. Custodial model C. Supportive model D. Collegial model Autocratic Model In an autocratic model', the manager has the power to command his subordinates to do a specific job. Management believes that it knows what is best for an organization and therefore, employees are required to follow their orders. The psychological result of this model on employees is their increasing dependence on their boss. Its main weakness is its high human cost. Custodial Model This model focuses better employee satisfaction and security. Under this model organizations satisfy the security and welfare needs of employees. Hence, it is known as custodian model. This model leads to employee dependence on an organization rather than on boss. As a result of economic rewards and benefits, employees are happy and contented but they are not strongly motivated. Supportive Model The supportive model depends on 'leadership' instead of power or money. Through leadership, management provides a climate to help employees grow and accomplish in the interest of an organization. This model assumes that employees will take responsibility, develop a drive to contribute and improve them if management will give them a chance. Therefore, management's direction is to 'Support' the employee's job performance rather than to 'support' employee benefit payments, as in the custodial approach. Since management supports employees in their work, the psychological result is a feeling of participation and task involvement in an, organization. Collegial Model The term 'collegial' relates to a body of persons having a common purpose. It is a team concept. Management is the coach that builds a better team. The management is seen as joint contributor rather than as a boss. The employee response to this situation is responsibility. The psychological result of the collegial approach for the employee is 'selfdiscipline'. In this kind of environment employees normally feel some degree of fulfillment and worthwhile contribution towards their work. This results in enthusiasm in employees' performance. FOUR MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Autocratic Power Authority Dependence on boss Subsistence Minimum Custodial Economic resources Money Dependence on organization Security Passive cooperation Supportive Leadership Support Participation Collegial Partnership Teamwork Self-discipline

Basis of Model Managerialorientation Employee psychological result Employee needs met Performance result

Status and recognition Awakened drives

Self-actualization Moderate enthusiasm

It is wrong to assume that a particular model is the best model. This is because a model depends on the knowledge about human behaviour in a particular environment, which is unpredictable. The primary challenge for management is to identify the model it is actually using and then assess its current effectiveness.

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The selection of model by a manager is determined by a number of factors such as, the existing philosophy, vision and goals of manager. In addition, environmental conditions help in determining which model will be the most effective model. IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR TO MANAGERS Managers perform four major functions such as planning, organizing, directing and controlling. In addition to these functions there are ten managerial roles, which can be defined as organized set of behaviors identified with the position. These roles are developed by Henry Mintzberg in 1960s after a careful study of executives at work. All these roles, in one form or other deal with people and their behaviour. These ten managerial roles are divided into three categories. The first category called the interpersonal roles arises directly from the manager's position and the formal authority given to him. The second category, the informational role arises as a direct result of the interpersonal roles and these two categories give rise to the third category called decisional roles. Figure 3.2 shows the categories of managerial roles.

The roles, in the context of organizational behaviour, are as follows: Interpersonal Roles In every organization managers spend a considerable amount of time in interacting with other people both within their own organizations as well as outside. These people include peers, subordinates, superiors, suppliers, customers, government officials and community leaders. All these interactions require an understanding of interpersonal behaviour. Studies show that interacting with people takes up nearly 80% of a manager's time. These interactions involve the following three major interpersonal roles: y Figure/lead Role: Managers act as symbolic figureheads performing social or legal obligations. These duties include greeting visitors, signing legal documents, taking important customers to lunch, attending a subordinate's wedding and speaking at functions in schools and churches. All these, primarily, are duties of a ceremonial nature but are important for the smooth functioning of an organization. y Leadership Role: The influence of the manager is most clearly seen in the leadership role as a leader of a unit or an organization. Since he is responsible for the activities of his subordinates therefore he must lead and coordinate their activities in meeting task-related goals and motivate them to perform better. He must be an ideal leader so that his subordinates follow his directions and guidelines with respect and dedication. y Liaison Role: The managers must maintain a network of outside contacts. In addition, they need to have a constant contact with their own subordinates, peers and superiors in order to assess the external environment of competition, social changes or changes in governmental rules and regulations. In this role, the managers build up their own external information system. This can be achieved by attending meetings and professional conferences, personal phone calls, trade journals and informal personal contacts with outside agencies.

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interrogating their liaison contacts and through gossip. Improved organizational behaviour is not easy to apply but opportunities are there. y It is only one of the many systems operating within a large social system. This relationship shows that organizational effectiveness is achieved not by maximizing one human variable but by working all system variables together in a balanced way.. In this capacity of information processing. The concept implies that for any situation there is an optimum amount of a desirable practice. negative returns. By building a better climate for people. Although organizational behaviour has certain limitations. phone calls. For example. y Spokesman Role: A manager has to be a spokesman for his unit and represent his unit in either sending relevant information to people outside his unit or making some demands on behalf of his unit. as entrepreneurs are constantly involved in improving their units and facing the dynamic technological challenges. even though some roles may be more influential than others depending upon the managerial position.Information Roles A manager. Sales managers may negotiate prices with prime customers. As a result of these forces. y The law of diminishing returns also operates in the case of organizational behaviour. y Information Disseminator Role: The managers must transmit the information regarding changes in policies or other matters to their subordinates. a manager executes the following three roles. y A significant concern about organizational behaviour is that its knowledge and techniques could be used to manipulate people without regard for human welfare.e. holding strategy meetings with project managers and R&D personnel. Purchasing managers may negotiate prices with vendors. It should produce a higher quality of life in which there is improved harmony within each individual. Mangers must anticipate such problems and take preventive action and take corrective action once the problem arises. emerges as a source of information about a variety of issues concerning an organization. hearsay and speculation. which gives them a narrow view point. while the production manager may give more importance to decisional roles. y Entrepreneur Role: Managers. These problems may involve labor disputes. People who lack ethical values could use people in unethical ways. LIMITATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR y Organizational behaviour cannot abolish conflict and frustration but can only reduce them. there is a decline in returns. y Monitor Role: The managers are constantly monitoring and scanning their internal and external environment. organizational behaviour is now a part of the curriculum of almost all courses including engineering and medical. FUTURE OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The growing interest in organizational behaviour stems from both a philosophical desire by many people to create more humanistic work places and a practical need to design more productive work environments. a tunnel vision that emphasizes on satisfying employee experiences while overlooking the broader system of an organization in relation to all its public. by virtue of his interpersonal contacts. research and managerial practice. arrange capital for new products and ask for suggestions from the employees to improve organization. their peers and to other members of an organization. it has a tremendous potential to contribute to the advancement of civilisation. i. #15 . This can be done through memos. machine breakdowns. They negotiate contracts with the unions. y Resource Allocation Role: The managers establish priorities among various projects or programs and make budgetary allocations to different activities of an organization based on these priorities. employee grievances. For example. In that respect. This can be achieved through suggestion boxes. too much security may lead to less employee initiative and growth. among people and among the organizations of future. collecting and studying information regarding their organization. individual meetings and group meetings. It is a way to improve but not an absolute answer to problems. When that point is exceeded. They initiate feasibility studies. This can be done by reading reports and periodicals. a manager plays four important roles. that at some point increase of a desirable practice produce declining returns and sometimes. It has provided and will provide much improvement in the human environment. customer complaints. The field of organizational behaviour has grown in depth and breadth. sales manager gives more importance to interpersonal roles. In this way organizational behaviour will contribute to social improvements. Decision Roles A manager must make decisions and solve organizational problems on the basis of the environmental information received. y People who lack system understanding may develop a 'behavioral basis'. All these ten roles are important in a manager's job and are interrelated. The keys to its past and future success revolve around the related processes of theory development. cash flow shortages and interpersonal conflicts. They are constantly on the lookout for new ideas for product improvement or product addition. y Conflict Handling Role: The managers are constantly involved as judge in solving conflicts among the employees and between employees and management. y Negotiator Role: The managers in their negotiator role represent their organization in negotiating deals and agreements within and outside of an organization. It states. organizational behaviour will release their creative potential to solve major social problems.

State tends to be involved in collective bargaining and other practices that affect workers. In some nations. POLITICAL CONDITIONS Political conditions that have a significant effect on organizational behaviour include instability of the government. They are more concerned about themselves than the host country. Their role is to provide fusion of cultures in which employees from both countries adjust to the new situation seeking a greater productivity for the benefit of both the organization and the people of the country in which it operates. organizations become cautious about further investments. Inflation makes the economic life of workers insecure when compared to developed countries. when-people are predisposed to believe that their homeland conditions are the-best. They may fail to recognize the key differences between their own and other cultures. Barriers to Cultural Adaptation y Managers and other employees who come into a host country tend to exhibit different behaviors and somewhat. it tends to become multicultural and will then face the challenge of blending various cultures together. The managerial personnel entering another nation need to adjust their leadership styles. restricting industries to a particular area and nationalistic drives such as self-sufficiency in latest technologies. In spite of instability. the nature of their culture and work life will be different. y Another category of managers called 'individualistic' place greatest emphasis on their personal needs and welfare. y Another potential barrier to easy adaptation of another culture occurs. scientists and technicians. For example. you should be able to understand: y y The global scenario of organizational behaviour The barriers to cultural adaptation and measures to overcome those barriers Due to globalization of economy. In some nations. and training programs need to be developed to train the local workers. Therefore. communication and control becomes difficult.LESSON ± 4 GLOBAL SCENARIO OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. political and economic environments. It is a step into different social. Hence the required skills must be temporarily imported from other countries. The different socio-economic and political conditions existing in countries influence the introduction of advanced technology and sophisticated organizational systems. When the government is unstable. This predisposition is known as the 'self-reference criterion' or #16 . a nationalistic drive is strong for locals to run their country and their organizations by themselves without any interference by foreign nationals. workers' participation in management are restricted by law while in other countries they are permitted. The social. political and economic differences among countries" influence international organizational behaviour. there is shortage of managerial personnel. These people are called. many organizations now operate in more than one country. see situation around them from their own perspectives. Naturally. Another significant social condition in many countries is that the local culture is not familiar with advanced technology. 'parochial'. organized labor is mostly an arm of the authoritarian state and in some other nations labor is somewhat independent. These multinational operations add new dimensions to organizational behaviour. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS The most significant economic conditions in less developed nations are low per capita income and rapid inflation. A developed country can easily adopt advanced technology when compared to a less developed country. communication patterns and other practices to fit their host country. This organizational instability leaves workers insecure and causes them to be passive and low in taking any initiatives. thereby spreading the training through masses. These limiting conditions cannot be changed rapidly because they arc too well established and woven into the whole social fabric of a nation. MANAGING AN INTERNATIONAL WORKFORCE Whenever an organization expands its operations to other countries. Trained locals become the nucleus for developing others. A few countries arc agriculture dominated and a few other manufacturing industries dominated. SOCIAL CONDITIONS In many countries due to poorly developed resources.

the expatriate managers must learn to operate effectively in a new environment with certain amount of flexibility. For a firm to be truly multi-national in character. Trans-cultural employees are especially needed in large. If local culture is ignored. friends and colleagues y Unique currency system Many expatriates report difficulty in adjusting to different human resource management philosophies. the different currency and work attitudes in another culture. y Employees who return to their home country after working in another nation for sometime tend to suffer cultural shock in their own homeland. These employees are 'trans-cultural¶ employees because they operate effectively in several cultures. it does affect the responses of all individuals to business. customs. Hence. social system. Hence.'ethnocentrism'. Similarly. but they recognize each local culture. multinational firms that operate in a-variety of national cultures. Whatever may be the amount of cultural distance. Eventually. who can withstand/adjust cultural shocks for international assignments* is important. their attention needs to be directed toward integrating the technological approaches with the local cultures involved. After adjusting to the culture of another nation and enjoying its uniqueness. communication problems may also arise between the expatriate manager and the employees of the host country. #17 . a cadre of employees with cross-cultural adaptability can be developed in organizations with large international operations. Hence. MANAGEMENT'S INTEGRATING ROLE Once managers are in a host country. Its leaders look to the world as an economic and social unit. dress. They may not know how to act. acknowledge its benefits and use its differences effectively in their organization. This reflects the idea of cultural contingency that the most productive practices for a particular nation will depend heavily on the culture. y Pre-departure training in geography. respect its integrity. the language. which is the insecurity and disorientation caused by encountering a different culture. Cultural shock is virtually universal. organizations need repatriation policies and programs to help returning employees obtain suitable assignments and adjust to the 'new' environments. Cultural Contingencies Productive business practices from one country cannot be transferred directly to another country. economic development and employee's values in the host country. Some of the more frequent reasons for cultural shock are as follows: y Different management philosophies y New language y Alternative food. Overcoming Barriers to Cultural Adaptation y Careful selection. They are low in ethnocentrism and adapt readily to different cultures without major cultural shock. Cultural Distance To decide the amount of adaptation that may be required when personnel moves to another country. appropriate motivational techniques need to be implemented depending on the requirement of employees of that particular nation. Cultural Shock When employees enter another nation they tend to suffer cultural shock. Labor policy. it is helpful to understand the cultural distance between the two countries. Motivating and Leading Local Employees Same motivational tools may not suit the employees of all the nations. They usually can communicate fluently in more than one language. This feeling interferes with understanding human: behaviour in other cultures and obtaining productivity from local employees. Cultural distance is the amount of distance between any two social systems. culture and political environment in which the employee will be living will help for cultural adaptation. The manager's job is to make the employees adapt to the other culture and integrate the interests of the various cultures involved. it is difficult for expatriates to re-adjust to the surroundings of their home country. markets and managers truly diversified. the resulting imbalance in the social system interferes with the productivity. of employees. Hence. Organization structures and communication patterns need to be suitable for local operations. personnel practices and production methods need to be adapted to a different labor force. managers need to make adjustments in their communication suited to< local cultures. it should have ownership. operations. may fear losing face and self-confidence or may become emotionally upset. availability of goods y Attitude towards work and productivity y Separation from family. y Incentives and guarantees for better position will motivate employees for cultural adaptation in the new country.

most people. respond to them in an appropriate manner and learn from the result of these responses. which is. each employee has a specific set of needs to fulfill and a set of job related behaviors and abilities to contribute. such a precise. organization and the organization's response to those contributions. He believes that people are influenced by a number of diversified factors.1 identifies five sets of factors that have an impact upon individual behavior in organizations. both the buyer and the seller sign a contract that specifies the terms of the sales agreement. you should be able to: y y Understand the nature of individual differences in organizations Identify the individual factors affecting organizational behavior INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR Human behavior. which interpret them. which can be both genetic and environmental. promotion. The figure 5. and job security to the employee. These contributions presumably satisfy various needs and requirements of the organization. Similarly. it may initiate a change. the behavior of individuals in organization is the primary concern of management and it is essential that the managers should have an understanding of the factors influencing the behavior of the employees they manage. for example. Just as the contributions available from the individual must satisfy the organization's needs. If either party perceives an imbalance or iniquity in the contract. considerable research into the human behavior and its causes. Thus. In return for contributions. Psychologist Kurt Levin has conducted. A psychological contract is the overall set of expectations that an individual holds with respect to his or her contributions to the. A psychological contract is not written down like a legal contract. NATURE OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Individual differences are personal attributes that vary from one person to another. thus. The 'person-job fit' is the extent to which the contributions made by the individual match the incentives offered by the organization. The influence of these factors determines the pattern of human behavior. If the organization can take complete advantage of those behaviors and abilities and exactly fulfill the employee's needs. Of course. Whenever people buy something. If both the individual and the organization consider the psychological contract fair and equitable. differences in individual skills. is very difficult to define in absolute terms. time. constant change in the needs and requirements of people and organization.LESSON ± 5 FOUNDATION OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. An individual makes a variety of contributions to an organization in the form of²efforts. #18 . when they begin a working relationship with an organization formulate a psychological contract with their employer. One specific aspect of managing psychological contracts is managing the person-job fit.2 shows the attributes of physical and psychological differences. ability. a car. the organization provides incentives such as pay. In theory. loyalty and so forth. considered a complex phenomenon. the incentives must serve the employees' needs in return. they will be satisfied with the relationship and are likely to continue it. Individual differences may be physical and psychological. It is primarily a combination of responses to external and internal stimuli. skills. it will achieve a perfect person-job fit. The figure 5. These responses would reflect psychological structure of the person and may be results' of the combination of biological and psychological processes. level of person-job fit is seldom achieved due to various reasons such as imperfect selection procedures. is to manage the psychological contracts. A major challenge faced by an organization.

anxiety reduction. autonomy and challenges that suit the individual's values. Self-concept Self is the core of one's conscious existence. Cognitions represent. Assessing both individual differences and contributions in relation to incentives and contexts. interests. 1. skills and abilities. In other words. addiction control. Due to these reasons. according to a recent research. and/or physical skills through experience". Specifically. those with low self-efficacy expectations tend to have low success rates. is a major challenge for organizations as they attempt to establish effective psychological contracts with their employees and achieve optimal fits between people and jobs. social and spiritual or moral being". then. Have faith in each employee's self-management ability. pain tolerance and illness recovery. 4. in contrast. Sociologists Viktor Gecas defines self-concept as "the concept the individual has of himself as a physical. those involving expectation. growing work force diversity compel managers to view individual differences in a fresh way. Offer work involving variety. High self-esteem individuals. Although. Leaders now talk frequently about "valuing differences" and learn to "manage diversity". Individuals who are satisfied in one context may prove to be dissatisfied in another context. capable and acceptable. recent research uncovered flaws among those having high self-esteem. and y Personal values and ethics. every individual recognizes himself as a distinct individual. today's managers need to better understand and accommodate employee diversity and individual differences. social. In fact. A self-concept would be impossible without the capacity to think. reward successes. high self-esteem is generally considered a positive trait because it is associated with better performance and greater satisfaction. Among many different types of cognitions. Self-esteem Self-esteem is a belief over one's own worth based on an overall self-evaluation. or belief about the environment about oneself. Self-efficacy Self-efficacy is a person's belief about his' or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task. evaluating and setting personal standards are particularly relevant to organizational. "variability among workers is substantial at all levels but increases dramatically with job complexity. 3. Those with low self-esteem tend to view themselves in negative terms. 2. linguistic. goal setting. and are hampered by self-doubts. So rather than limiting diversity. cognitive. it must consider the situation in which that particular behavior occurs. Oppositely. There is strong linkage between high self-efficacy expectations and success in terms of physical and mental tasks. IMPORTANT DIMENSIONS OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES y Self-concept y Personality dimensions y Abilities. as in the past. "Self-efficacy arises from the gradual acquisition of complex. Individual differences make the manager's job extremely challenging. status and contribution. or about one's behavior". "any knowledge. high self-esteem subjects tended to become self-centered and boastful when faced with situations under pressure Hence moderate self-esteem is desirable. tend to have trouble in dealing effectively with others. see themselves as worthwhile. planning. behavior. #19 .y y y y y Physical Differences Height Weight Body Shape Appearance Complexion figure 5. According to one organizational behavior writer.2 Psychological Differences y Personality y Attitudes y Perception y Motivation y Learning Whenever an organization attempts to assess the individual differences among its employees. Managers can build employee self-esteem in four ways: Be supportive by showing concern for personal problems. Strive for management-employee cohesiveness and trust building. opinion. Awareness of self is referred to as one's self-concept. This brings us to the role of cognitions. They do not feel good about themselves.

y To evolve suitable leadership. Abilities develop from an individual's natural aptitudes and subsequent learning opportunities. Improving Organization's Ethical Climate y Managers are powerful role models whose habits and actual behavior send clear signals about the importance of ethical conduct. y For goal-setting and quality improvement. emotional stability and openness to experience. Personality Dimensions The big. many individuals manage their own careers in such a way as to continually upgrade their abilities.Self-efficacy Implications for Managers Managers need to nurture self-efficacy in them and in their employees. Relative to the workplace. y Competencies are skills associated with specialization. y Basic human rights should be respected. y Screen potential employees by checking references. it becomes a skill. Ethical behavior is a 1 top to bottom proposition. traits associated with a strong sense of responsibility and determination generally perform better than those who do not. five personality dimensions are: extroversion. skills and competencies in order to remain valuable to their organizations. y For systematic self-management training. these personality dimensions that correlate positively and strongly with job performance would be helpful in the selection. training and appraisal of employees. and other information for ascertaining their ethical behavior. he develops more competency as a tax expert. y Skills are generally thought of as being more task-specific capabilities than abilities. PERSONAL VALUES AND ETHICS According to Milton Rokeach. Physical abilities such as strength. Intellectual differences are somewhat more difficult to discern. This can 6e accomplished either by careful selection of people or by a combination of selection and training. Ideally. Ethics involve the study of moral issues and choices. For example. Learning opportunities translate aptitude into abilities through practice. Aptitudes are relatively stable capacities for performing some activity effectively. The individuals who exhibit. for example. a value is "an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-stated of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct are end-state of existence". PHYSICAL AND INTELLECTUAL QUALITIES Physical differences among individuals are the most visible of all differences. memory visualization. the terms business ethics and management ethics are often heard. #20 . y For designing job. Even in the absence of such formal programs. For example. experience and formal training. Moral Principles for Managers y Judge actions by their consequences. y To design suitable regards. can be trained to apply their ability in the field of engineering. They are also relatively easy to assess. an individual with numerical ability who goes to school to learn accounting develops a numerical skill specific to that field'. flexibility. Organizations have to ensure that people possess the necessary abilities to engage in the behaviors required for effective performance. the-individual to specialize in some field. when a particular ability is applied to a specialized area. comprehension and inter-personal abilities can also be developed through practice and education. y Rules and rewards should be administered impartially. credentials. Thus. agreeableness. It is concerned with right versus wrong and good versus bad. Individuals with numerical ability. Self-efficacy requires constructive action in each of the following managerial areas: y To design recruitment selection procedure. achieve the greatest good for the greatest number of people. fairly and equitably. accounting and computer science. (for example accounting). endurance and stamina can be developed with exercise and training. Mental abilities such as reasoning. but they too can be assessed by fairly objective means. mental or interpersonal work. such as physical. y Ability refers to an individual's skill to perform effectively in one or more areas of activity. y To design interview questions to probe applicant's general self-efficacy for determining orientation and training needs. an accountant with numerical "ability and accounting skill takes a position in the Taxation Department and as time passes. thoroughness. The abilities/skills and competencies of employees are both physical and intellectual qualities. Competencies are skills that have been refined by practice and experience and that enable.

6 PERSONALITY Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. like social. According to some trait theories. These three parts interact with ‡ each other to shape personality. Three major types of factors play important roles in personality formation. religious and aesthetic preferences but each individual's nature differentiates that person from all others. feelings. multi-dimensional construct and there is no simple definition of what personality is. In simple terms. Changes in individual's personality can. weight. you should be able to: y y y y Understand perceptual clarity about personality Discuss main determinants of personality Explain nature and dimensions of personality Describe personality attributes that are relevant to organizational behavior Personality is a complex. their personalities become very clearly defined and generally stable.LESSON . This concept of stages of growth provides a valuable perspective to organizational behavior. all people share common traits. color and other physical aspects and traits. y Traits: Traits to personality are also based on psychology. Emotional Stability: Viewed from a negative standpoint such as tense. facial features. personality means the way people affect others. Their thoughts. Openness to Experience: Imaginative. Some personality theorists stress the need 6f identifying person-situation as interaction. This helps them 19 deal with these stages effectively and promote maximum growth for the individual and for the organization. which are as follows: y Determinants: The most widely studied determinants of personality are biological. values and actions remain relatively stable over time. therefore. dependable. The definition. Extroversion: Sociable. Such a social learning analysis is one of the most comprehensive and meaningful ways included in the overall study of organizational behavior. People affect others depending primarily upon their external appearance such as height. persistent and achievement-oriented. People grow up in the presence of certain hereditary characteristics (body shape and height). as well as their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits. This makes it difficult for the managers to assume that they can apply same reward types or motivation techniques to modify different individual behaviors. it asserts that individuals do not change all at once. The managers should. attempt to understand certain dimensions of personality. however. Characteristics of these traits can be summarized as follows: 1. and the person and situation interaction. does not mean that people never change. 5. From the above definition we can infer that all individuals have some universally common characteristics. cooperative and trusting. artistically sensitive and intellectual. From this perspective. Agreeableness: Good-natured. the social context (family and friends) and the cultural context (religion and values). the aspects of personality concerned with the self-concept such as self-esteem and self-efficacy and the person-situation interaction also play important roles. social and cultural. Personality traits are very important in organizational behavior. 2. however. Besides physical appearance and personality traits. occur gradually over a period of time. 4. five personality traits especially related to job performance have recently emerged from research. (political. insecure and nervous. Yet they differ in some other specific attributes. oedipal and mature. talkative and assertive. This can enable them to predict the behavior of their employees on a daily basis. As people grow into adulthood. 3. Maddi ³ defines personality as. It also involves people's understanding themselves. #21 . In particular. y Stages: According to Sigmund Freud human personality progresses through four stages: dependent. compulsive. Identifying the above "big five" traits related to performance reveals that personality plays an important role in organizational behavior. PERSONALITY FORMATION The personality formation of an individual starts at birth and continues throughout his life. Experienced managers become aware of the stages that their employees often go through. This is equivalent to recognizing thd social learning aspects related to personality. A stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behavior and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment". Conscientiousness: Responsible.

on the other Hand. important and worthy individuals. lively and gregarious and seek outward stimuli or external exchanges. rather than the lack of skills or poor performance on their part. For example. where they can interact face to face with others. Thus. As a personality attribute. refers to the tendency in individuals to look outside themselves. The need for affiliation: Those in greater need for affiliation like to work cooperatively with others. searching for external stimuli with which they can interact. Managers have to work well under conditions of extreme uncertainty and insufficient information. introspective. are likely to prefer a more centralized organization where they need not take any decisions. Introverts are more likely to be successful when they can work on highly abstract ideas such as R&D work. Self-esteem is important to self-concept. Some people. for example. chance. The need for dominance: Those high in need for dominance are very effective while operating in environments where they can actively enforce their legitimate authority. they may prefer a decentralized organization where they have a right of decision-making and work with a leader who provides them freedom and autonomy. luck or the behavior of other people. successful. High self-esteem provides a high sense of self- #22 . Because. The need for autonomy: Those in need for autonomy function in the best way when not closely supervised.PERSONALITY FACTORS IN ORGANISATIQN5 Some of the important personality factors that determine what kind of behaviors are exhibited at work include the following: Need Pattern Steers and Braunstein in 1976 ^developed a scale for the four needs of personality that became apparent in the 'work environment. it is believed that extroverts are likely to be more successful as managers. Managers. Managers who have a high tolerance for ambiguity can cope up well under these conditions. Locus of Control Locus of control is the degree to which an individual believes that his or her behavior has direct impact on the consequences of that behavior. on the contrary. They may like a reward system that recognizes individual performance and contributions. believe that if they work hard they will certainly succeed. some people think that what happens to them is a result of fate. especially when things are rapidly changing in the organization's external environment. Such individuals are likely to be most successful while working in the sales department.these individuals think that forces beyond their control dictate the happenings around them. Extroverts are sociable. Extroversion. They are said to have an internal locus of control. preferring to interact with a small intimate circle of friends. which directs them to be inward and process feelings. Self-esteem is an important personality factor that determines how managers perceive themselves and their role in the organization. people tend to be dominant as either extroverts or introverts. Since managers have to constantly interact with individuals both in and out of the organization and influence people to achieve the organization's goals. They. They are as follows: y y y y The need for achievement: Those with a high achievement need engage themselves proactively in work behaviors in order to feel proud of their achievements and successes.. people with an external locus of control. Tolerance for Ambiguity This personality characteristic indicates the level of uncertainty that people can tolerate to work efficiently without experiencing undue stress. reflective. Self-Esteem and Self-Concept Self-esteem denotes the extent to which individuals consistently regard themselves as capable. By contrast. Thus. Introverts. strongly believe that each individual is in control of his or her life. tolerance for ambiguity is a personality dimension necessary for managerial success. They may prefer a leader who makes most of the decisions and a reward system that considers seniority rather than merit. define themselves as to who they are and derive their sense of identity. personal relations unit. publicity office. in a relatively quiet atmosphere. who have a low tolerance for ambiguity may be effective in structured work settings but find it almost impossible to operate effectively when things are rapidly changing and much information about the future events is not available. While there is some element of introversion as well as extroversion in all of us. and intellectual people. and so on. Conversely. are quiet. thoughts and ideas within themselves. locus of control has clear implications for organizations. i. the way individuals. which means they have a relatively strong desire to participate in the management of their organizations and have a' freedom to do their jobs. Introversion and Extroversion Introversion is the tendency of individuals. They may incline to structured jobs where standard procedures are defined for them. they are said to have an external locus of control. certain individuals have an internal locus of control.e.

handle situations as they come. express disagreement and even refuse to carry out requests if they arc for some reason objectionable. For example. Type A individuals are significantly more prone to heart attacks than Type B individuals.. The higher the self-concept and self-esteem. affiliations and power will be successful in most situations. are highly achievement-oriented. the two are mutually reinforcing. Apart from possessing the necessary skills and abilities. While Type A persons help the organization to move ahead in a relatively short period of time they may also suffer health problems. they will be enhancing their selfconcept i. Extreme work ethic values could lead to traits of "workahollism" where work is considered as the only primary motive for living with very little outside interests. willing to twist and turn facts to influence others. which might be detrimental to both themselves and the organization in the long run. an employee who is highly authoritarian may accept directives or orders from his superior without much questioning. and are impatient when their work is slowed down for any reason. Similarly. Managers with a good mix of achievements. Dogmatism can be either beneficial or detrimental to organizations. There are many changes taking place in the internal and the external environment of an organization. they should be able to. Type A and B Personalities Type A persons feel a chronic sense of time urgency. DESIRED PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGERS Obviously. Risk Propensity Risk-propensity is the decree to which an individual is willing to take chances and make risky decisions. But he may also raise questions. several unpredictable factors are involved in any complex situation. however. and who do not experience the competitive drive. but given the degree of change in the nature of organizations and their environments. A manager with a high-risk propensity might be expected to experiment with new ideas and to lead the organization in new directions. A high level of work ethic orientation of members is good for the organization to achieve its goals. Thus. a manager may be unwilling to listen to a new idea related to doing something more efficiently. This is because they will have the drive to achieve the goals and the interpersonal orientation to get the job done through others.concept. without experiencing undue stress. A manager who is very receptive to hearing about and trying out new ideas in the same circumstances might be seen as more open-minded or less dogmatic. events and situations by manipulating the system to his advantage. Individuals with a high selfesteem will try to take on more challenging assignments and be successful..e.dogmatic in their beliefs respectively. For a workaholic turning to work can sometimes become a viable alternative to facing non-work related problems. a manager with low risk propensity might lead to a stagnant and overly conservative organization. Too much "workahollism". An individual tends to be Machiavellian. For example. Type B persons are easy-going individuals who do not feel the time urgency. Naturally. Authoritarianism and Dogmatism Authoritarianism is the extent to which an individual believes that power and status differences are important within' hierarchical social systems like organizations. which are favourable "to managerial effectiveness and to the success of managers. extrovert managers will fit better in their jobs. A person who is not highly authoritarian might agree to carry out appropriate and reasonable directives from his boss. which. Work-Ethic Orientation Some individuals are highly work-oriented while others try to do the minimum Work that is necessary to get by without being fired on-the-job. reinforces high self-esteem. if he tends to be logical in assessing the system around. In contrast. managers need to develop a high tolerance for ambiguity. might lead to premature physical and mental exhaustion and health problems. The extremely work oriented person gets greatly involved in the job. individuals who are. they would tend to define themselves as highly valued individuals in the organizational system. Thus. The popular terms 'close-minded' and 'open-minded' describe people who are more and less . Dogmatism is the rigidity of a person's beliefs and his or her openness to other viewpoints. The above ten different personality predispositions are important for individual. Machiavellianism Machiavellianism is manipulating or influencing other people as a primary way of achieving one's goal. will get more involved in their jobs and make #23 . the greater will be their contributions to the goals of the organization. in turn. Thus. and try to gain control of people. exhibit a competitive drive. Managers with good work ethic values. especially when the system rewards them for their contributions. managerial and organizational effectiveness. In sales and other people-oriented roles. which is dysfunctional for both organization and the workaholic members. not dogmatic are most likely to be useful and productive organizational members. He is said to be a person who is close-minded or highly dogmatic. which are beyond the managers¶ control. managers with internal locus of control will be more efficient as intellectual and skilled performers. there arc some personality ^predispositions. a high tolerance for ambiguity is a desired managerial trait. Therefore.

competent. while self-efficacy tends to be situation specific. self and situational interactions. It incorporates almost everything. but they need to know how to relax through exercises and self-monitor their stress levels. Most recently done studies indicate that self-esteem plays an important moderating role in the areas of emotional and behavioral responses and stress of organizational members. Considerable research has been done on the role played by self-esteem outcomes in the organizational behavior. to the people around them" Self-efficacy is concerned with self-perceptions of how well a person can cope with situations as they arise. This self is particularly relevant to the concepts of self-esteem and self-efficacy in the field of organizational behavior. In the field of organizational behavior. our tolerance for ambiguity and ability to handle stress can be considerably enhanced. which have inbuilt performance pressures and deadlines. secure. Also. Recognizing the essential ingredients for managerial success is the first step towards making the changes. a person's personality is like all other people's. our latent needs can be activated and our skills in decision-making can be increased through training programs and by deliberately making the necessary changes. Miner points out the differences by noting that self-esteem tends to be a generalized trait (it will be present in any situation). Selfefficacy. personality means the whole person. self-efficacy is conceptually close to self-esteem. the attributions we make for success such as internal versus external-locus of control can be changed. For instance. As defined above. but our predispositions can be changed through conscious choice. and like no other people's. Personality is a relatively stable factor. The human self is made of many interacting parts and may be thought of as the personality viewed from within. personality is a very diverse and complex cognitive process. It was recently noted that. empowered and connected. like some other people's. Those with high self-efficacy feel capable and confident of performing well in a situation.things happen. "both research and everyday experience confirm that employees with high self-esteem feel unique. "to some extent. In summary. Probably the best statement on personality was made many years ago by Kluckhohn and Murray. It is concerned with external appearance and traits. They are likely to be more successful in their jobs. Managers with Type A personalities may suit very well for some jobs." #24 . People's self-esteem has to do with their self-perceived competence and self-image. THE SELF-CONCEPT: SELF-ESTEEM AND SELF-EFFICACY People's attempt to understand themselves is called the self-concept in personality theory. has been shown to have an empirical relationship with organizational performance and other dynamics of organizational behavior.

prejudices. Responses The stimulus results in responses. 4. Discrimination has wide applications in 'organizational behavior. #25 . The. There may be two types i of stimuli with respect to their results in terms of response concerned: generalization and discrimination. cue stimuli. The individual can borrow from past learning experiences to adjust more smoothly to new learning situations. The practice or experience must be reinforced in order so as to facilitate learning to occur. COMPONENTS OF THE LEARNING PROCESS The components of learning process are: drive. Some of the learning is retained over a period of time while others may be forgotten. reinforcement and retention. a supervisor can discriminate between two equally high producing workers. and secondary (or psychological). Drives are basically of two types -primary (or physiological). The idea is to discover the conditions under which stimulus will increase the probability of eliciting a specific response. a person does not have to 'completely relearn each of the new tasks. Reinforcement may be defined as the environmental event's affecting the probability of occurrence of responses with which they are associated. no measurable modification of behavior takes place. Drive Learning frequently occurs in the presence of drive . Retention The stability of learned behavior over time is defined as retention and its contrary is known as forgetting.LESSON ± 7 LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. Learning generally has the connotation of improved behavior. Cue Stimuli Cue stimuli are those factors that exist in the environment as perceived by the individual. Because of generalization. 2. response. Reinforcement Reinforcement is a fundamental condition of learning. the supervisor discriminates between the worker producing low quality products and the worker producing high quality products. It allows the members to adapt to overall changing conditions and specific new assignments. Learning can be defined as ³relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience or reinforced practice". To predict a behavior. and work restrictions are also learned. they will have the same probability of evoking a specified response. If two stimuli are exactly alike. 3. Without reinforcement. The principle of generalization has important implications for human learning.any strong stimulus that impels action. stereotypes. and positively responds only to the quality conscious worker. it is necessary to establish which drives are stimulating the most. For example. The behavioral change must be based oh some form of practice or experience. you should be able to: y y y Understand various factors affecting human behavior Explain implications of behavior modification Describe reinforcement for inducing positive behavior Learning is an important psychological process that-determines human behavior. In the above example. Discrimination is a procedure in which an organization learns to emit a response to a stimulus but avoids making the same response to a similar but somewhat different stimulus. Learning involves a change in behavior. Any temporary change in behavior is not a part of learning. perception or other complex phenomena. familiarity. These two categories of drives often interact with each other. but bad habits. There are four important points in the definition of learning: 1. though this change is not necessarily an improvement over previous behavior. Generalization occurs when a response is elicited by a similar but new stimulus. Individuals operate under many drives at the same time. behavioral change must be relatively permanent. Responses may be in the physical form or may be in terms of attitudes. one with low quality and other with high quality.

When Mr. When Pavlov presented a piece of meat to the dog in the experiment. Extinction Extinction is an effective method of controlling undesirable behavior. In other words.. operant behaviors. which arc independent of past experiences. classical conditioning represents an insignificant part of total human learning. Most behaviors in organizations are learned. identifiable event. Extinction is a behavioral strategy that does not promote desirable behaviors but can help to reduce undesirable behaviors.e. when Pavlov merely rang a bell. As pointed out by Skinner. Classical conditioning has a limited value in the study of organizational behavior. Reinforcement is anything that both increases the strength of response and tends to induce repetitions of the behavior. Something happens and we react in a specific or particular fashion. Four types of reinforcement strategies can be employed by managers to influence the behavior of the employees. Pavlov subsequently introduced the sound of a bell each time the meat was given to the dog. It does not require an overt response. But behavior of people in organizations is emitted rather than elicited. It refers to non-reinforcement. suggests that individuals emit responses that are either not rewarded or are punished. a primary reinforcer like food satisfies hunger need and reinforced food-producing behavior. On the other hand. X observes that Y is rewarded for superior performance. Negative Reinforcement The threat of punishment is known as negative reinforcement. The dog eventually learned to salivate in response to the ringing of the-bell-even when there was no meat. As such it explains simple and reflexive behaviors. positive reinforcement. X learns the positive relationship between performance and rewards without actually obtaining the reward himself. Thorndike called this the "law of exercise" which states that behavior can be learned by repetitive association between a stimulus and a response. Cognitive Learning Here the primary emphasis is on knowing how events and objects are related to each other. Primary reinforcers must be learned. In order to apply reinforcement procedures successfully. negative reinforcement. OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Observational learning results from watching the behavior of another person and appraising the consequences of that behavior. water and sex are of biological importance and have effects.LEARNING THEORIES Classical Conditioning The work of the famous Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov demonstrated the classical conditioning process. He termed the food an unconditioned stimulus and the salivation an unconditioned response. It is based on the principle that if a response is not reinforced. a positive reinforce is a reward that follows behavior and is capable of increasing the frequency of that behavior. basically a product of Skinnerian psychology. without going through a lengthy operant conditioning process. it will eventually disappear. maintained and controlled by its consequences. It is elicited in response to a specific. Operant conditioning. Operant Conditioning An operant is defined as a behavior that produces effects. Pavlov had conditioned the dog to respond to a learned stimulus. Operant conditioning is a powerful tool for managing people in organizations. viz. #26 . extinction and punishment. controlled and altered by the consequences. Operant conditioning is a voluntary behavior and it is determined. Negative reinforcers also serve to strengthen desired behavior responses leading to their removal or termination. There are two typos of positive: reinforces: primary and secondary. Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of a desirable consequence (reward). For instance. management must select reinforcers that are sufficiently powerful and durable. the dog did not salivate. and it is voluntary rather than reflexive. The learning of these complex behaviors can be explained or better understood by looking at operant conditioning. Most of the learning that takes place in the classroom is cognitive learning. Secondary reinforcers like job advancement. praise and esteem result from previous association with a primary reinforcer. Punishment Punishment is a control device employed in organizations to discourage and reduce annoying behaviors of employees. recognition. Management can use the operant conditioning process successfully to control and influence the behavior of employees by manipulating its reward system. Observational learning plays a crucial role in altering behaviors in organizations. Cognitive learning is important because it increases the change that the learner will do the right thing first. Classical conditioning is passive. Pavlov noticed a great deal of salivation. it salivated. When the dog saw the meat. i. Primary reinforcers such as food.

Learning theory can also provide certain guidelines for conditioning organizational behavior. Learning concepts provide a basis for changing behaviors that are unacceptable and maintaining those behavior that are acceptable. poor performance. When individuals engage in various types of dysfunctional behavior such as late for work. #27 . Managers know that individuals capable of giving superior performance must be given more reinforces than those with average or low performance. disobeying orders. Managers can successfully use the operant conditioning process to control and influence the behavior of employees. the manager will attempt to educate more functional behaviors. This does not mean that learning theories are totally irrelevant.LEARNING THEORY AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The relevance of the learning theories for explaining and predicting of organizational behavior is marginal. by manipulating its reward system.

LESSON ± 8 LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION

Learning Objectives After reading this lesson, you should be able to: y y y y y Explain the concept of attitude in organizations Understand the method of formation of attitude Discuss individual attitude in organizations and indicate their effect on behaviour Explain the concept of perception and perceptual process Describe perception attribution in organizations

In simple words, an "attitude" is an individual's point of view or an individual's way of looking at something. To be more explicit, an "attitude" may be explained as the mental state of an individual, which prepares him to react or make him behave in a particular pre-determined way. An attitude is defined as, "a learned pre-disposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object". Attitude is the combination of beliefs and feelings that people have about specific ideas, situations or other people. Attitude is important because it is the mechanism through which most people express their feelings. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE Attitude has three components, which are as follows: y Affective component y Cognitive component y Intentional component The figure 8.1 shows the components of attitude.

The affective component of an attitude reflects 'feelings and emotions' that an individual has towards a situation. The cognitive component of an attitude is derived from 'knowledge' that an individual has about a situation. Finally, the intentional component of an attitude reflects how an individual 'expects to behave' towards or in the situation. For example, the different components of an attitude held towards a firm, which supplies inferior products and that too irregularly could be described as follows: y y y "I don't like that company"²Affective component. "They are the worst supply firm I have ever dealt with"²Cognitive component. "I will never do business with them again"'²Intentional component.

People try to maintain consistency among the three components of their attitudes. However, conflicting circumstances often arise. The conflict that individuals may experience among their own attitudes is called 'cognitive dissonance.

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ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE Individual attitude are formed over time as a result of repeated personal experiences with ideas, situations or people. One of the very important ways to understand individual behaviour in an organization is that of studying attitude, which is situationally specific and learned. An attitude may change as a result of new information. A manager may have a negative attitude about a new employee because of his lack of job-related experience. After working with a new person, a manager may come to realise that he is actually very talented and subsequently may develop a more positive attitude toward him. Work-Related Attitudes People in an organization form attitude about many things such as about their salary, promotion possibilities, superiors, fringe benefits, food in the canteen, uniform etc. Especially some important attitudes are job satisfaction or dissatisfaction, organizational commitment and job involvement. Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is an attitude reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified or fulfilled .by his or her work. Extensive research conducted on job satisfaction has indicated that personal .factors such as an individual's needs and aspirations determine this attitude, along with group and organizational factors such as relationships with co-workers and supervisors, working conditions, work policies and compensation. A satisfied employee also tends to be absent less often, makes positive contributions, and stays with the organization. In contrast, a dissatisfied employee may be absent more often may experience stress that disrupts coworkers, and may keep continually looking for another job. Organizational factors that influence employee satisfaction include pay, promotion, policies and procedures of the organizations and working conditions. Group factors such as relationship with co-workers and supervisors also influence job- satisfaction. Similarly, satisfaction depends on individual factors like individual's needs and aspirations. If employees are satisfied with their job, it may lead to low employee turnover and less absenteeism and vice-versa. Organizational Commitment and Involvement Two other important work-related attitudes arc organizational commitment and involvement. Organizational commitment is the individual's feeling of identification with and attachment to an organization. Involvement refers to a person's willingness to be a team member and work beyond the usual standards of the job. An employee with little involvement is motivated by extrinsic motivational factor and an employee with strong involvement is motivated by intrinsic motivational factors. There are a number of factors that lead to commitment and involvement. Both may increase with an employee's age and years with the organization, with his sense of job security and participation in decision-making. If the organization treats its employees fairly and provides reasonable rewards and job security, employees are more likely to be satisfied and committed. Involving employees in decision-making can also help to increase commitment. In particular, designing jobs, which are interesting and stimulating, can enhance job involvement. ATTITUDE: IT¶S IMPORTANCE IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Attitudes of both workers and management react to each other and determine mutual relationships. Attitude is an understanding or learning of why employees feel and act the way; they do and help supervisors in winning cooperation from them. So, it is very essential for the efficient working of an organization. From a personal perspective, attitudes provide knowledge base or prepare, our mental state, for our interaction with others, and with the world around us. This directly affects organizational behaviour, and in turn organizational working. Perception Perception is an important mediating cognitive process. Through this complex process, people make interpretations of the stimulus or situation they are faced with. Both selectivity and organization go 'into perceptual, interpretations. Externally, selectivity is affected by intensity, size, contrast, repetition, motion and novelty and familiarity. Internally, perceptual selectivity is influenced by the individual's motivation, learning and personality. After the selective process filters the stimulus situation, the incoming information is organized into a meaningful whole. Individual differences and uniqueness are largely the result of the cognitive processes. Although there arc a number of cognitive processes, it is generally recognized that the perceptual process is a very important one. It is a process that takes place between the situation and the behaviour and is most relevant to the study of organizational behaviour. For example, the observation that a department head and a subordinate may react quite differently to the same top management directive can be better understood and explained by the perceptual process. In the process of perception, people receive many different kinds of information through all five senses, assimilate them and then interpret them. Different people perceive the same information differently.

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Perception plays a key role in determining individual behaviour in organizations. Organizations send messages in a variety of forms to their members regarding what they are expected to do and not to do. In spite of organizations sending clear messages, those messages are subject to distortion in the process of being perceived by organizational members. Hence, managers need to have a general understanding of the basic perceptual process. Basic Perceptual Process Perception is influenced by characteristics of the object being perceived, by the characteristics of the person and by the situational processes. y Characteristics of the object include contrast, intensity, movement, repetition and novelty. y Characteristics of the person include attitude, self-concept and personality. The details of a particular situation affect the way a person perceives an object; the same person may perceive the same object very differently in different situations. The processes through which a person's perceptions are altered by the situation include selection, organization, attribution, projection, stereotyping process, and the halo effect process. Among these, selective perception and stereotyping are particularly relevant to organizations. Selective Perception Selective perception is the process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts our beliefs. For example, a manager has a very positive attitude about a particular worker and one day he notices that the worker seems to be goofing up. Selective perception may make the manager to quickly disregard what he observed. For example, a manager who has formed a very negative attitude about a particular worker and he happens to observe a high performance from the same worker. In this case influenced by the selective perception process he too will disregard it. In one sense, selective perception is beneficial because it allows us to disregard minor bits of information. But if selective perception causes managers to ignore important information, it can become quite detrimental. Stereotyping Stereotyping is the process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute. Perceptions based on stereotypes about people's sex exist more or less in all work places. Typically, these perceptions lead to the belief that an individual's sex determines which tasks he or she will be able to perform. For example, if a woman is sitting behind the table in the office, she will be very often, perceived as a clerk and not an executive at first. But it would induce holding an exactly opposite assumption about a man. Stereotyping consists of three steps: identifying categories of people (like women, politician), associating certain characteristics with those categories (like passivity, dishonesty respectively) and then assuming that any one who fits a certain category must have those characteristics. For example, if dishonesty is associated with politicians, we are likely to assume that all politicians are dishonest. PERCEPTION AND ATTRIBUTION Perception is also closely linked with another process called attribution. Attribution is a mechanism through which we observe behaviour and then attribute certain causes to it. According to Attribution theory, once we observe behaviour we evaluate it in terms of its consensus, consistency and distinctiveness. Consensus is the extent to which other people in the same situation behave in the same way. Consistency is the degree to which the same person behaves in the same way at different times. Distinctiveness is the extent to which the same person behaves in the same way in other situations. The forces within the person (internal) or outside the person (external) lead to the behaviour. For instance, if you observe that an employee is much more motivated than the people around (low consensus), is consistently motivated (high consistency), and seems to work hard no matter what the task (low distinctiveness) you might conclude that internal factors are causing that particular behaviour. Another example is of a manager who observes that an employee is late for a meeting. He might realize that this employee is the only one whois laic (low consensus), recall that he is often late for other meetings (high consistency), and subsequently recall that the same employee is sometimes late for work (low distinctiveness). This pattern of attributions might cause the manager to decide that the individual's behaviour requires a change. At this point, the manager might meet the subordinate to establish some disciplinary consequences to avoid future delays. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT Social perception is concerned with how one individual perceives other individuals. Conversely, impression management is the process by which the general people attempt to manage or control the perceptions that others form about them. People often tend to present themselves in such a way so as to impress others in a socially desirable manner. Thus, impression management has considerable' implications for activities like determining the validity of performance appraisals. It serves as a pragmatic, political tool for someone to climb the ladder of success in organizations.

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The degree of this motivation to manage impression will depend on factors like the relevance that these impressions have on the individual's goals. The promotion enhancing strategies involve the following activities: y Employees harbor a feeling that they have not been given credit for a positive outcome. Most recently. they may employ a demotion-preventative strategy. If employees are trying to minimize responsibility for some negative event or to stay out of trouble. target values and current social image. the discrepancy between the image one would like others to hold and the image one believes others already hold. there is still little known of how they select the way to manage others' perceptions of them. Although some theorists limit the type of impression only to personal characteristics others include such things as attitudes. y Employees point out that they did more. attitude change. or values. y Employees secretly tell their boss that they fought for the right thing. the value of these goals. The demotion-preventative strategy is characterized by the following activities: y Employees attempt to excuse or justify their actions. role constraints. if they are seeking to maximize responsibility for a positive outcome or to look better than what they really are. then they lean use a promotion-enhancing strategy. the differences between individuals. but received a lesser credit. Although there has been a considerable research done on how these five factors influence the type of impression that people try to make. but were overruled. five factors have been identified as being especially relevant to the] kinds of impression people try to construct: the self-concept. Especially in an employment situation. the other major process. y Employees apologies to the boss for some negative event. attributions and social facilitation. motivated to control how their boss perceives them.The Process of Impression Management As with other cognitive processes. subordinates may be. among other things. trying to treat each individual as a unique person #31 . Employee Impression Management Strategies There are two basic strategies of impression management that employees can use. y Employees identify cither personal or organizational obstacles they had to overcome to accomplish an outcome and expect a higher credit. however. perceptions and attributions. is concerned with the specific type of impression people want to make and how they create it. interests. On the other hand. Coping with Individual Differences Individual differences and people's perception of them affect every aspect of behaviour in organizations. y Employees ascertain that they are seen with the right people at the right times. physical status. Impression construction. Using this broader approach. Managers must never underestimate.impression motivation and impression construction. Employees using this approach try to disassociate themselves from the group and from the problem. desired and undesired identity images. Successful managers constantly monitor their own assumptions. impression management has many possible conceptual dimensions arid has been researched in relation to aggression. two separate components of impression management have been identified .

It is a tension of lacking something in his mind. y Motivation is also a process of stimulating and channelising the energy of an individual for achieving set goals. which means an active form of a desire. IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION Motivation is an important part of managing process. y Motivating force an^ its degree." In the words of Robert Dubin. "Motivation is the desire within an individual that stimulates him or her to action. competence and other factors. DEFINITION According to George R. Positive motivation includes incentives. the following observations can be made regarding motivation: y Motivation is an inner psychological force. y The motivation procedure contributes to and boosts up the morale of the employees. y Motivation originates from the-needs and wants of an individual. which forces him to work more efficiently. y It is a continuous activity. These 'others' are human resources who need to be motivated to attain organizational objectives. y A highly motivated employee works more efficiently and his level of production tends to be higher than others. may differ from individual to individual depending on his personality. The manager in general has to get the work done through others. which may lead to higher efficiency." On the basis of above definitions. y The process of Motivation helps the manager in analysing and understanding human behavior and finding but how an individual can be inspired to produce desirable working behavior. A high degree of motivation may lead to high morale.LESSON ± 9 MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOR Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. rewards and other benefits while negative motivation implies some punishment. y It varies from person to person and from time to time. it is "the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization". A team of highly qualified and motivated employees is necessary for achieving objectives of an organization because of the following reasons: y Motivated employees make optimum use of available resources for achieving objectives. y Motivation is directly related to the level of efficiency of employees. Viteles defines motivation as "an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium. learning abilities. Highly motivated employees get higher satisfaction. y The motivation process is influenced by personality traits. which activates and compels the person to behave in a particular manner. you should be able to: y y y y Understand the meaning. causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium. Terry." According to Encyclopaedia of Management. FEATURES OF MOTIVATION The following are the features of motivation: y It is an internal feeling and forces a person to action. y Motivation may be positive as well as negative. #32 . fear. by satisfying the need. Motivation is the key to organizational effectiveness. nature and importance of motivation Explain need-based theories of motivation Discuss expectancy theory of motivation Explain ways of enhancing employee motivation The word motivation is derived from µmotive'. perception and competence of an individual. use of force etc. "Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goals and implies the determination of the nature and locus of force inducing a degree of readiness. y Motivation also plays a crucial role in determining the level of performance. needs. y It may be positive or negative. y Motivated employees make full use of their energy and other abilities to raise the existing level of efficiency. craving or need that must be satisfied. They are more committed and cooperative for achieving organizational objectives. y Motivated employees make goal-directed efforts.

even though there is no universally acceptable motivation theory. This 'moving up process continues until the individual reaches the self-actualization level. social aspect of human life. social scientists. starting from the bottom of the hierarchy. Security needs are satisfied for people in the work place by job continuity. working harder while simultaneously looking for a job. the cycle of motivation is constantly repeated. But if no raise has been provided he is likely to try another option.1 shows Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow suggested that the five levels of needs are arranged in accordance with their importance. he is motivated and 'moves up' the hierarchy to satisfy security needs. sex. the need to be free from worry about money and job security and the desire for safe working conditions.y y y y Motivated employees are more loyal and sincere to an organization. Thus. popularly known as the Hierarchy of Needs assumes that people are motivated to satisfy five levels of needs: physiological. Esteem needs actually comprise of two different sets of needs: #33 . The figure 9. water and air. Understanding human motivation is crucial for managing people. NEED-BASED THEORIES TO MOTIVATION Need-based theories try to answer the question. belongingness. esteem and selfactualization needs. behaviorists and psychologists. Motivation also helps in improving the image of an organization. comfortable temperatures and ventilation. Belonging or social needs are related to the. Effectively motivated employees get more job satisfaction and possess high morale. This theory. Understanding these theories facilitates the managers to get a better insight into the human behavior. Managers can help ensure the 'satisfaction of these important needs by allowing social interaction and by making employees feel like part of a team or work group. In organizational settings. "what factor(s) motivate people to choose certain behaviors?" Some of the widely known need-based theories are as follows: (a) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Maslow Abraham proposed his theory in the 1940s. most physiological needs are satisfied by adequate wages and by the work environment itself. A number of theories have been developed. then he tries to fulfill his needs by asking for a raise or by working harder to earn a raise or by seeking a new job. adequate lighting. An individual is motivated first and foremost to satisfy physiological needs. Extensive research has been performed to find out what makes people work and how to motivate them. a grievance resolving system and an adequate insurance and retirement benefit package. For most people these needs are satisfied by a combination of family and community relationships and friendships on the job. when an employee feels underpaid then what. security. These factors help reduce absenteeism and labor turnover. When these needs are satisfied. For example. The motivation process begins with identification of individual needs. If his hard work resulted in a pay rise. They include the need for love and affection and the need to be accepted by one's peers. Examples include the desire for adequate housing and clothing. the satisfaction of one need or set of needs is likely to give rise to the identification of other needs. Since people have many different needs. Security or safety needs refer to the requirements for a secure physical and emotional environment. he probably feels satisfied and will continue to work hard. Motivation is considered as a backbone of good industrial relations. He then chooses to pursue one or more of these options for instance. which provides employees with rest rooms. Physiological needs represent the basic issues of survival such as food. This includes managers.

2 shows ERG theory: ERG Theory the need hierarchy developed by Maslow into three 9.called the ERG Theory of Motivation. Therefore. The figure 9. Relatedness and Growth. for example. from security needs to belongingness. This process of contributing to actual organizational performance helps employees experience personal growth and development associated with self-actualizing. The need for recognition and respect from others. friendship (relatedness). which Maslow defines the self-actualization needs. it allows for the possibility that people can be motivated by a desire for money (existence). self-actualization needs are perhaps the most difficult for managers to address. R and G stand for Existence. At the top of the hierarchy are those needs. it is difficult for organizations to use the need hierarchy to enhance employee motivation. These needs involve realizing one's potential for continued: growth and individual development. organizations can also help satisfy esteem needs by providing employees with challenging job assignments that can induce a sense of accomplishment. Maslow maintained that one heed must be satisfied before an individual can progress to needs at a higher level. Relatedness needs refers to belongingness and esteem needs. (b) ERG Theory of Motivation Clayton Alderfer has proposed an alternative hierarchy of needs . an organization can help in fulfillment of these needs by encouraging employee¶s participation in decision-making process and by providing them with an opportunity to learn new things about their jobs and organization.y y The need for a positive self-image and self-respect. #34 . Organizations can help address esteem needs by providing a variety of external symbols of accomplishment such as job titles and spacious offices. and an opportunity to learn new skills (growth) all at the same time. But research has revealed several shortcomings of the theory such as some research has found that five levels of needs are not always present and that the order of the levels is not always the same as assumed by Maslow. For example. y Firstly. For instance. Maslow's concept of the need hierarchy possesses a certain intuitive logic and has been accepted universally by managers. This is termed as satisfaction²progression process. an organization can help his employee by creating a climate for fulfillment of self-actualization needs. an employee should try to meet these needs on his own end. Although ERG Theory assumes that motivated behavior follows a hierarchy in somewhat the same fashion as suggested by Maslow. Moreover. Since these needs are highly individualized and personal. The existence needs in this theory refers to the physiological and security needs of Maslow.2. ERG theory has an element of frustrations-regression that is missing from Maslow's need hierarchy. y Secondly. ERG theory suggests that more than one kind of need might motivate a person at the same time. However. At a more fundamental level. The letters E. there are two important differences. Growth needs refers to both self-esteem and self-actualization needs.

which are related specifically to the job itself and the factors causing dissatisfaction are called hygiene factors. recognition. One structure involves a set of factors that result in feelings ranging from satisfaction to no satisfaction. (c) The Dual-Structure Approach to Motivation Another popular need-based approach to motivation is the dual-structure approach developed by Frederick Herzberg. which are related to the work environment in which the job is performed. Although widely accepted by managers. Herzberg recommended that managers seeking to motivate employees should first make sure that hygiene factors are taken care of and that employees are not dissatisfied with pay. They have also criticized Herzberg's theory for its inability to define the relationship between satisfaction and motivation and to pay enough attention to differences between individuals. Specifically. it also suggests that if needs remain unsatisfied at some higher level. dissatisfied or somewhere in between. The other structure involves a set of factors that result in feelings ranging from dissatisfaction to no satisfaction. a worker previously motivated by money (existence needs) is awarded a pay rise to satisfy this needs. For" example. Other researchers who measured satisfaction and dissatisfaction based on different aspects reached very different conclusions. he recommends job enrichment as a means of enhancing the availability of motivation factors. the individual will become frustrated. an individual who identified 'low pay' as causing dissatisfaction did not necessarily mention 'high pay' as a cause of satisfaction. He found that entirely different sets of factors were associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Hence. at present #35 . be satisfied. therefore. He asked them to recall such occasions when they had been dissatisfied and less motivated. Instead. regress to a lower level and will begin to pursue low level needs again. were cited as causing satisfaction. Hertzberg recommends focusing on a different set of factors to increase motivation. If for some reason an employee finds that it is impossible to become better friends with others in the work place. Then he attempts to establish more friendship to satisfy relatedness needs. The factors influencing satisfaction are called motivation factors or motivators. o People may change their behavior after any particular set of needs has been satisfied. Once a manager has eliminated employee dissatisfaction. such as recognition or accomplishment. Herzberg argued that attitudes and motivation consists of a dual structure. he may eventually become frustrated and regress to being motivated to earn even more money. This is also known as Two-factor Theory. The ERG theory emphasis on the following key points regarding needs: o Some needs may be more important than others. For instance. several other factors. advancement and growth. security and working conditions. This finding suggests that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are at opposite ends of a single scale. This is termed as µfrustration-regression' process. Herzberg developed this approach after interviewing 200 accountants and engineers in Pittsburg.Although the ERG theory includes this process. by improving opportunities for advancement. Motivators y Achievement y Recognition y Advancement y The work itself y The possibility of personal growth y Responsibility Hygiene or Maintenance Factors y Company policies y Technical supervision y Interpersonal relations with supervisor y Interpersonal relations with peers y Interpersonal relations with subordinates y Salary y Job security y Personal life y Work conditions y Status Based on these findings. Herzberg identified two sets of factors responsible for causing either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Hertzberg¶s dual structure approach however suffers from certain drawbacks. Employees would.

on the other hand. the use of authority. Employees exercise self-direction and self-control. The concepts of 'Job' Enlargement'. Research suggests that people with a strong need for power. in an effort to maintain friendship. The theory.Herzberg's theory is not held in high esteem by researchers in the field of motivation. design equipment to control worker's pace of work. y Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction. They prefer a µ #36 . y Employees love work as play or rest. Theory 'Y¶. all of a sudden. Need for Affiliation The need for affiliation means the desire for human companionship and acceptance. y Employees dislike work. it is difficult for the management to shift to theory ' Y'. some employees also possess it. with systematic. Need for Power 2. places exclusive reliance upon external control of human behavior. Literally. Applicability of Theories 'X' and 'Y' Theory 'X' in its applicability. shifting in the practical applicability of theory 'X' to theory ' Y' usually can be achieved. Some examples of such organizations are organizations that break down jobs into specialized elements. y Most employees consider security of job. Theory 'X' points to the traditional approach of management. 'Participation' and 'Management by Objectives' are quite consistent with theory ' Y'. I Theory of X Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the "Theory of X" regarding their employees. relies heavily on self-control -and self-direction. McClelland and his associate Atkinson have contributed to an understanding of motivation by identifying three types of basic motivating needs. Need for Affiliation 3. Those with a high need for affiliation often behave the way they think other people want them to. These needs have been classified as: 1. as an instrument of command and control is minimal. Such types of individuals generally look for positions of leadership. most important of all other factors in the job and have very little ambition. y Employees must be coerced. controlled or threatened to do the work. instead of theory X'. 'X' AND µY' THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Douglas McGregor observed two diametrically opposing viewpoints of managers 'about their employees. MC-CLELLAND's NEED THEORY OF MOTIVATION David C. one is negative called "Theory of X" and another is positive called "Theory of Y". Theory of Y Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the "Theory of Y" regarding their employees. While applying this theory. y Employees accept and seek responsibilities. Need for Achievement : : Need for Power According to this theory the need for power. have rigid rules and regulations. However. this theory of behavior is related to organizations that lay hard and rigid standards of work-behavior. y Employees are self-directed and self-controlled and committed to the organizational objectives. while theory 'Y'. are likely to be superior performers and occupy supervisory positions. however. they act effectively. Organization should keep in mind that once theory 'X' is employed for organizational working. which might be defined as the desire to be influential in a group and to control one's environment is an important motivation factor. that are sometimes very vigorously enforced. had a major impact on managers and has played a key role in increasing their awareness of motivation and its importance in type work place. This motivational theory places emphasis on satisfaction of employees. are outspoken. have a stubborn character and exert authority. McGregor supports the applicability of motivational theory 'Y'. establish 'norms of production. judicious and slow steps. y Innovative spirit is not confined to managers alone. secures the commitment of employees to organizational objectives.

For instance. he probably does not apply because he is aware that there is little chance of getting it. and possess a high sense of personal responsibility in getting jobs done. y Leadership qualities. and feel inclined to put in longer hours of work" Failures never dishearten them and they are always ready to put in their best efforts for excellent performance. y Star attraction in gathering. The theory suggests that motivation depends on two things: how much an individual desires a particular goal and how likely he thinks he can get it. The expectancy theory tries to explain how and why people choose a particular behavior over an alternative. These people are concerned with their progress.can probably get the job.. #37 . goals and feelings of satisfaction. always feel ambitious to be successful. They focus on why people choose to enact certain behavioral options to fulfill their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained these goals. This need is closely associated with the "social-type´ of personality. They are prone to take calculated risks.for themselves. Even though he might want the job. Then he comes across another advertisement for a Management Trainee in a big organization with a starting salary of Rs. Need for Achievement People with a high need for achievement. they explain what are the causes leading to motivated behaviors. He chooses to apply for this job because he wants it and also thinks that he has a reasonable chance of getting it. cooperative and understanding. y Excel in group task. but still doesn't apply simply because he doesn't want it. Figure 9. They do not explain why or how motivated behavior occurs. Needs theories are content-oriented . y Enjoy company and friendship. y Prefer cooperative situation. 2 lakh per year. Basically. (a) Expectancy Theory of Motivation Expectancy theory of motivation was developed by. friendly. 1 lakh per year. These concepts are addressed by various process-based theories to motivation. Persons with high motivation for power and affiliation have better chances of becoming good managers. a person is looking for a job and reads an advertisement for a position of Marketing Executive with a starting salary of Rs.3 shows the expectancy theory of motivation. 3 lakh per year. Vroom's expectancy theory views motivation as a. Process-based theories to motivation are concerned with how motivation occurs. who are sociable. The principal characteristics of such peoples' traits are as follows: y Desire to like and be liked.Victor Vroom. These questions relate to behaviors or actions. Next he sees an advertisement is for Field Supervisor for a salary of Re.that is.process of governing choices. In this case he realizes that he . are ever prepared to face challenging situations and set arduous goals . PROCESS-BASED THEORIES TO MOTIVATION The field of organizational behavior has generally moved a way from the needs theories of motivation. Two of the most useful process-based approaches to motivation arc expectancy theory and equity theory.job that entails a good deal of social interaction and offers opportunities to make friends.

that is close to 1. y It assumes that different people have different types of needs..00. Outcomes and Valences Expectancy theory recognizes that an individual may experience a variety of outcomes as a consequence. Performance.00. when combined with individual ability and environmental factors. the effort-to-performance expectancy is very weak.The expectancy theory rests on four assumptions: y The theory assumes that behavior is determined by a combination of forces in the individual and in the environment. y It assumes that people make choices from among alternative plans of behavior based on their perceptions of the extent to which a given behavior will lead to desired outcomes. an individual who believes that high performance will lead to a pay raise has a high performance-to-outcome expectancy. for example.0 with a moderate expectancy. Effort-to-Performance Expectancy The effort-to-performance expectancy refers to an individual's perception of the probability that effort will result in high performance.0 and 1. #38 . that is close to 1. If an individual wants an outcome. Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy The performance-to-outcome expectancy means an individual's perception of the probability that performance will result in a specific outcome. that is close to 0. Each of these outcomes has an associated value or valence that is.0. expectancy is quite strong. may get big pay raises. It is this advantage of expectancy theory that goes beyond the need-based approaches to motivation. Usually we are not sure about our expectations. For instance.00 and 0. . its valence is positive. result in performance. When an individual believes that effort and performance are unrelated. leads to various outcomes²each of which has an associated value called its 'valence'. its valence is zero. y It assumes that people make decisions about their own behavior in organizations. individuals develop some sense of these expectations before they exhibit motivated or non-motivated behavior. its valence is negative. he may also be subject to a lot of stress and incur resentment from co-workers. According to this model. fast promotions and praise from the boss.0. However. of behavior in an organizational environment. For example. if one feels sure that studying hard for an examination (effort) will result in scoring high marks (performance). in turn. And an individual who believes that performance has no relationship to rewards has a low performance-to-outcome expectancy that is close to 0. then his effort-to-performance expectancy is high. so they fall somewhere between 0. An individual who believes that high performance may possibly lead to a pay raise has a moderate expectancy between 1. When an individual believes that effort will lead directly to high performance. If an individual does not want an outcome. A high performer. The above model suggests that motivation leads to efforts and that effort. an index of how much an individual desires a particular outcome. If an individual is indifferent to an outcome. desires and goals. approaching to 1.

They should make sure that the rewards are large enough. y Second. Finally. The managers can perform the following activities in relation to this y Determine what outcomes employees prefer. three conditions must be met. However. the Porter-Lawler model borrows from equity theory the idea that the employee's satisfaction depends on the perceived equity of the rewards relative to the 'effort expended and the level of performance attained. Practical Applicability of Expectancy Theory If a manager wishes to motivate his employees for increased and better performance. the individual is motivated to expand effort. They should make sure that the overall system is equitable for everyone. application of this theory in the work place would require to identify all the potential outcomes for each employee. Nadler and Lawler suggest a series of steps for managers in applying the basic ideas of the theory. They should ensure that desired outcomes and performance are linked. to determine all relevant expectancies and then to balance everything somehow to maximize employee motivation. They should ascertain that the desired levels of performance are attainable. The manager will particularly see that the specific system. y Establish attainable performance goals. Porter and Lawler suggest that there may indeed be a relationship between satisfaction and performance but that it goes in the opposite direction. Porter-Lawler Model First. Expectancy theory also assumes that people are rational . before it can be accepted for use as an effective instrument of explanation of 'motivation' with all its implications. 7. The Porter-Lawer Extension Porter and Lawler have proposed an interesting extension to the expectancy theory. y Define. They should determine the primary outcomes that each employee likely desires. 4. y Third. superior performance can lead to satisfaction. no doubt 'expectancy' theory has gained much popularity with theorists. then he has to make sure whether the reward system is highly supportive to hard work or high quality. an individual's initial effort is influenced by his perception regarding the value of reward and the likelihood that the effort will yield a reward. #39 . 2. The human relationists assumed that employee satisfaction causes good performance but research has not supported such relationship. In conclusion. Another important point. They should decide what kind and levels of performance are needed to meet organizational goals. It is quite difficult to apply. 1. is communicated to them. for motivated behavior to occur on the part of any individual. is that rewards must correspond to the varying preferences of an individual employee. the performance-to-outcome expectancy must also be greater than zero. They should also analyze the complete work situation for conflicting expectancies. Expectancy theory maintains that when all of these conditions are met. 6. The model also distinguishes between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. few people actually make decisions in such a precise and rational manner. the sum of the valences for all relevant outcomes must be greater than zero. so as to make them feel confident that their energized efforts will be rewarded.therefore. 3. they will systematically consider all the potential outcomes and their associated expectancies before selecting a particular behavior. which should not be ignored by the manger. communicate and clarify the level of performance that is desired. which managers should keep in mind. y Link desired outcomes to performance goal achievement. Implications for Managers Expectancy theory can be useful for organizations attempting to improve the motivation of their employees. The expectancy theory has also its limitations. the effort-to-performance expectancy must be greater than zero. for example. which are as follows: y First. The probability that increased effort will lead to improved performance is affected by an individual's traits. as applicable in their case. The expectancy theory also has several other important practical implications.Thus. but much more work still needs to be put in. 5. abilities and perception of his role in an organization. that is.

The equity theory argues that motivations arise out of simple desire to be treated fairly. the expectancy theory focuses more on behavior choices and the latter is more concerned with the consequences of those choices. Hence. education. Extinction can also be used to weaken behavior. First an individual evaluates the way he is being treated by an organization. When an employee tells a vulgar joke and the boss laughs. Punishment is used by some managers to weaken undesired behaviors. Reinforcement Based Approaches to Motivation A final approach to the motivation process focuses on why some behavior are maintained and changed overtime. an employee may come to work on time to avoid criticism. However. The single most important idea for managers to remember about equity theory is that if rewards are to motivate employees. An individual will experience a feeling of equity when the two ratios are equal. the best way to avoid such problems is to make all employees aware of the basis for rewards. The figure 9. The comparison may result in three types of attitudes: y The individual may feel equitably rewarded.(b) Equity Theory J. avoidance. The theory suggests that people view their outcomes and inputs as ratio and then. Equity can be defined as an individual's belief that he is being treated fairly relative to the treatment of others. If he has a feeling of inequity then he is likely to change the input. There arc similarities between expectancy theory and reinforcement theory. Specifically. The next step is for an individual to choose a co-worker who seems to be in a roughly similar situation and to observe how an organization treats him. Reinforcement-based approaches explain the role of those rewards as they cause behavior to change or remain the same over time. managers must remember that different employees have different sense towards basis for a reward and this may result in problems. consequence will reduce an undesirable behavior again. When a manager' observes an employee is doing a good job and offers praise then this praise helps in positive reinforcement of behavior. The logic is that the unpleasant. The four types of reinforcement contingencies that can affect individuals in an organizational setting are positive reinforcement. whereas behavior that results in punishing consequences are less likely to be repeated. they must be perceived as being equitable and^ fair. Other positive reinforces include pay. reinforcement theory is based on the fairly simple assumption that behaviors that result in rewarding consequences are likely to be repeated. 3. 2. the laughter reinforces the behavior and the employee may continue #40 . Positive Reinforcement is a method of strengthening behavior. If an individual has the feeling of equity then he should maintain the status quo.compare their ratio to the ratio of someone else. For instance. recognition and social relationships. pay. specially that has previously been rewarded. punishment and extinction. y Under-rewarded. The other reinforcement. Both consider the processes by which an individual chooses behaviors in a particular situation. contingency that can strengthen desired behavior is avoidance. Adam suggests that employees make these comparisons by focusing on input and outcome ratios. effort. This occurs when an individual chooses certain behavior in order to avoid unpleasant consequences. A person's perception of equity develops through a four-step process as shown below: 1. This other 'person' may be someone in the work group. Outcomes are what an individual receives from an organization such as.4 shows the equity process. In the fourth step he evaluate a sense of equity to see if the two treatments seem similar or if the are different. An employee's contributions or input to an organization include time. for example. experience and loyalty. 4. In the crucial step of equity theory an individual 'compares' the two treatments. punishing with fine for coming late. Reinforcement Contingencies Reinforcement contingencies are the possible outcomes that an individual may experience as a result of his or her behaviors. y Over-rewarded. promotions and awards. It is a reward or a positive outcome after a desired behavior is performed. However. Stacy Adams developed equity theory of motivation.

Goal Setting in Practice The most obvious implication of goal-setting theory is that managers should be helping subordinates to set goals that are specific and reasonably difficult so that subordinates accept and internalize them as their own goals. Goal Difficulty/Challenge There exists a relationship between goal difficulty and work motivation. Salient features of this theory are as follows: y Specific goal fixes the needs of resources and efforts. rewards and personal satisfaction. and must specify a lime period within which the goal is to be attained. However. as suggested by MBO. y Better feedback of results leads to better performances than lack of feedback. y Difficult goals result higher performance than easy job. it is essential that goals are set at realistic levels. Positive reinforcement and punishment are the most common reinforcement contingencies practiced by organizations. Rewards should be tied directly to accomplished goals. o By assigning various rewards to the achievement of goals. y Participation of setting goal. Two of the most promising are Goal-Setting Theory and the Japanese Approach. Avoidance and extinction are generally used only in specialized circumstances. By simply ignoring this behavior and not reinforcing it. In other words. y It increases performance. Most managers prefer a judicious use of positive reinforcement and punishment. the person has to feel some personal ownership of the goal and must have commitment to achieve it. It also gives a sense of personal satisfaction and accomplishment to workers if he is able to meet the specific goal. y The manager can stimulate goal acceptance in at least three ways: o By involving subordinates in goal-setting process. the higher the level of motivation and performance.and challenging the goal is. new sales etc. the boss can cause the behavior to subside which eventually becomes 'extinct'. These goals should be moderately difficult and very specific and of type that an employee will accept and make a commitment to accomplishing them. Besides this. there seem to be three important criteria that goals must meet if they are to influence the behavior of organization members. In fact. #41 . These are given below: o Goal commitment o Self-efficiency. Goals that are very difficult to achieve are unable to motivate since it is beyond the capacity of the concerned individual. (a) Goal-Setting Theory This approach to motivation has been pioneered in the USA by Edwin Locke and his associates in 1960s and refined in 1980s. y Goal setting theory has defined two factors. The mere act of goal setting does not ensure higher levels of motivation among employees. Goals must be set in terms of measurable criteria of work performance. a goal must be internalized by an individual. number of units produced. The more difficult. o By demonstrating a supportive attitude and approach toward his subordinates. it should not affect in identifying meaningful and valid objective of goal attainment. y Participation of employees in goal has mixed result.e.. They are goal specificity. NEW APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION IN ORGANIZATIONS New approaches are emerging to supplement the established models and theories of motivation. increases acceptance of goal and involvements. When involved in goal-settings. goal difficulty and goal acceptance.' which influences the performance. employees see how their effort will lead to performance. Goal Specificity Goals must be stated in specific terms if they are to motivate effective performance. however. Goal-setting theory suggests that managers and subordinates should set goals for an individual on a regular basis. y Though specificity of goal is essential and measurability is desirable. there are a number of issues that arise in implementing goal setting in practice. i.to tell similar jokes. Goal Acceptance In order to influence motivation and performance.

Managerial Approaches for Improving Motivation A number of approaches can help managers motivate workers. instead everyone is a team member. of course. Some of these theories are compatible and some are not. This approach is rather a philosophy of management than a theory or model. y Minimize the negative consequences of good performance. Integration of Motivation Theories Thus several theories complicate our understanding. have been especially effective: linking pay to jot performance and quality of work-life programs. The organization can enhance motivation in following ways: y Humanize the work environment: Respect the need to treat each employee as an individual. the Japanese approach is likely to become more common in businesses throughout the world. to perform more effectively. y Show a personal interest in the people who work for you: Relations are always smoother between people who know each other on a personal basis than relations between people who merely want something from each other. which has an intrinsicmotivation content. team leader or coach and everyone owns the 'share' of an organization. y Use incentive programs: Inducing the feeling that 'if you're creative enough. This will also improve the understanding of motivation. and y Create conditions in which rewards other than pay are evaluated as related to good performance. Pay and Job Performance Pay often can be used to motivate employee performance. It tends to decrease overall level of motivation.' y Establish appropriate deadlines: Every project should have a deadline. They may in practice adopt specific interventions derived from one or more theories or they may influence motivation through the organization's reward system. Like goal-setting meow. #42 . Certain attempts are made in USA and elsewhere. however. ail members are committed and motivated to work in the best interests of an organization. Enhancing Motivation in Organizations Managers trying to enhance the motivation of their employees can. This proposal is called cognitive Evaluation Theory" which has been supported by a large number of research studies conducted subsequently. which is prior to such rewards. draw on any of the theories described above. y Admit mistakes: People will respect you for it and will be less likely to hide their own mistakes. Since both of them see themselves as one group. y Be consistent in your own work and in your relations with others. No one is called an employee. The following steps promote intrinsic motivation: y Workers Participation in Management (WPM) y Management by Objectives (MBO) y Organization Behavior Modification y Job-Redesign y Alternative Work Schedules. you won't have to rely on expensive financial bonuses. The basic tenet of the Japanese approach is that managers and workers should perform together as partners. y Be liberal with praise: It's almost impossible to over praise and easy to under praise. Cognitive Evaluation Theory A researcher 'Charms' reported in 1960 that extrinsic motivation like pay or rewards for a job. y Promote from within: It's great for morale and simplifies hiring procedures. (b) Japanese Approach to Motivation The Japanese approach to motivation has gained increasing popularity around the world during the past few years. But a pay plan also must be able to do the following tasks: y Create the belief that good performance leads to high levels of pay.Management by Objectives (MBO) is a managerial technique for improving motivation and performance using goal-setting principles. Two approaches. The real challenge that a researcher has to face is integration of all or at least some of these together so that their inter and intra-relationships are established. y Publicize both short and long-term organizational goals: Encourage personal and departmental goal setting. y Don't whitewash unpleasant assignments: Prepare subordinates for unpleasant assignments well in advance and offer what support you can.

job enrichment as part of motivational programme. A modified 'work-week' can be any work schedule that does not conform to a traditional 8 hours a day or 5 days a week format. They are. vehicles for providing employees with opportunities to satisfy lower and upper-level needs as stated by Maslow. Alternative Work Schedule Organizations also frequently use the modified 'work-week' as a way to increase employee motivation. Expectancy theory helps explain the role of work design in motivation. in essence. through the motivators described in 'Herzberg's theory. Programs for QWL improvements range from those requiring minor changes in an organization to those requiring extensive modifications in structure. participation in work improvement and challenge and opportunity for growth.Quality of Work Life Programs Quality of Work Life (QWL) is defined as an attempt through a formal program to integrate employee needs and well being with the intention of improved productivity. job enlargement. The modified 'work-week' helps individual satisfy higher-level needs by providing more personal control over one's work schedule. QCs give an employee an opportunity for involvement. personnel and the utilization of resources. greater worker involvement and higher levels of job satisfaction. Job-Redesign Job-Redesign or changing the nature of people's job is also being used more as a motivational technique. #43 . The idea pursued here is that mangers can use any of the alternatives job rotation. social-need satisfaction. It also provides an opportunity to fulfil several needs simultaneously. which are as follows: Quality Circles Quality Circles (QC) are small groups of workers who meet regularly with their supervisor as their 'circle leader' to solve work-related problems. There are three types of QWL programs.

The first approach is that work attitudes such as job satisfaction are dispositional in nature. this is the most obvious approach. it has been found that this factor is most important to skilled personnel and least important to unskilled personnel. job satisfaction is determined by the discrepancy between what individuals expect to get out of their jobs and what the job actually offers. then both the quantity and quality of his output will be low. wages and salaries. As regards the relation of opportunity for advancement to job satisfaction. Organizational Factors These factors include security. it usually depends upon the level and range of intelligence and the challenge of the job. research evidences indicate that employees are relatively more dissatisfied in those jobs. the wages and salaries and fringe benefits are definitely the main factors that affect job satisfaction of employees. If they are not satisfied. towards related factors and towards life in general. as it argues that a person's job satisfaction is influenced directly by the characteristics of their job. The importance of job Satisfaction is that if the people are satisfied with their work. The second approach is the 'social information processing model'. i. Most of the evidence on the relation between age and satisfaction seems to indicate that there is generally a positive relationship between the two variables up to the pre-retirement years and then there is a sharp decrease in satisfaction. As regards the relation of occupational status to job satisfaction. which suggests that job satisfaction and other work place attitudes are developed or constructed out of experiences and information provided by others at the work place. working conditions etc. you should be able to understand: y y y The concept of job satisfaction The various factors relating to job satisfaction The methods of enhancing job satisfaction The term 'job satisfaction' refers to an employee's general happiness with his or her job. There is no clear research evidence between educational level and job satisfaction. The third approach is the if information processing model'.e. There is as yet no consistent evidence as to whether women are more satisfied with their jobs than men. which have less social status or prestige. there will be high absenteeism and employee turnover and increased unionism. Job satisfaction is the result of various attitudes the employee holds towards his job.LESSON ± 10 JOB SATISFACTION Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. occupational status involved in the job etc. then there is an improvement in both the quality and quantity of production. skill required for work performance. opportunities for advancement. Desirable working conditions are also important to job satisfaction. FACTORS RELATING TO JOB SATISFACTION Some of the most important factors relating to job satisfaction are briefly stated below: Personal Factors These factors include the individual employee's personality. Job Factors These factors include the type of work to be performed. In a sense. sex. Where skill exists to a considerable degree it tends to become the main source of satisfaction to the employee. Besides. educational level. age. they are stable. Social and economic security to employees increases job satisfaction. positive or negative disposition learned through experiences. as a number of research studies have shown that varied work generally brings about more satisfaction than routine work. an effective downward flow of communications in an organization is also important to job satisfaction as employees are keen to know more about the company and its plans. As regards the relationship between the intelligence level and job satisfaction. which is based on the accumulation of cognitive information about the -work place and one's job. intelligence etc. Caldur and Schurr in 1981 suggested that there are three different approaches to evaluating job satisfaction. Basically. A person will be satisfied if there is no discrepancy between desired and actual conditions Importance of Job Satisfaction #44 . For our purposes job satisfaction will be defined as the amount of overall positive affect or feelings that individuals have towards their job. policies etc. fringe benefits.. Locke defines job satisfaction as a "pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job experiences". The type of work is very important.

12. TABLE 10. 3. Further. 5. #45 . it should appreciate the role-of such factors and must take care to place the employees where the personal factors of the individual help him in achieving job satisfaction. 8. Your level of salary relative to your experience The design or shape of your organization¶s structure The amount of work you are given to do whether too much or too little The degree to which you feel extended in your job 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MEASURES TO INCREASE JOB SATISFACTION Although management cannot change the personal factors in job satisfaction. 13. 11. which contains all of the elements that usually make up a job satisfaction measure. Communication and the way information flows around your organization. The feeling you have about the way you and your efforts are valued. 2. 22. 21. 4.Obviously. job satisfaction significantly contributes to employee productivity and morale. An example of a measure of job satisfaction from the OSI. The actual job itself The degree to which you feel ³motivated´ by your job Current career opportunities The level of job security in your present job The extent to which you may identify with the public image or goals of your organization The style of supervision that your superiors use The way changes an innovations are implemented The kind of work or tasks that you are required to perform The degree to which you feel that you can personally develop or grow in your job. career prospects. 10.1: An Example of a Measure of Job Satisfaction from the OSI How You Feel About Your Job? Very much satisfaction 6 Much satisfaction 5 Some satisfaction 4 Some dissatisfaction 3 Much dissatisfaction 2 Very much dissatisfaction 1 1. 20. They all tend to involve scales. and relationship with superiors and relationship with colleagues. working conditions. The way in which conflicts are resolved in your company. 6. 18. satisfaction of individual expectations results in group integration and cohesiveness. Measuring Job Satisfaction There have been many measures of job satisfaction in the work place from the Job Description index to Job Satisfaction Scales to the more recent job satisfaction scale of the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). work activities. An organization can be substantially benefited if it develops general attitudes of its employees that can effectively contribute to job satisfaction. If employees are satisfied. 14. 15. 16. The scope your job provides to help you achieve your aspirations and ambitions The amount of participation which you are given in important decision making The degree to which your job taps the range of skills which you feel you possess The amount of flexibility and freedom you feel you have in your job. which explore pay. 17. 9. The relationships you have with other people at work.1. 7. The psychological ³feel´ or climate that dominates your organization. turnover and absenteeism will be less and productivity will be more. 19. is given in the Table 10.

fringe benefits. the management can use the factors inherent in the job to plan and administer jobs more advantageously for its personnel. while keeping in view the factors related to job satisfaction. the management must recognize the importance of the stability of employee attitudes that may lead to high morale and production. job enrichment. Proper delegation of authority. Management should also able to recognize and appreciate the good work done by the employees and give respect for their creative suggestion. freedom to do work will also help increase job satisfaction. It is evident from the above description that there are many factors that influence job satisfaction and the managements must be able to work out a broad strategies that may help increase job satisfaction and must also able to identify the specific factors that causes the individual differences and must evolve appropriate strategies that could raise the job satisfaction of those particular segment. grievance handling. satisfactory hours of work and adequate rest pausing. The management should carefully develop appropriate policies and practices for promotions and transfers. the policy of job rotation.Similarly. wages. #46 . For example. Management should also take necessary steps to raise the occupational status of the workers. Above all. and job enlargement may help increase job satisfaction. working conditions.

y A group can judge in a better way as compared to an individual. Need for a Group The reasons for the need. Managers need groups to co-ordinate individual behavior in order to reach the organizational goals. discuss their work performances and take suggestions from each other to make it better. which are as follows: #47 . work groups and teams are formed to monitor the work. They use project teams and work committees where workers get due recognition. building a ship. all members of a group together use their creative and innovative ideas than a single individual. They are useful for the organization as they form foundation of human resources. Types of Groups In an organization. Elton Mayo and his associates conducted the Hawthorne experiments and came to know that the group behavior has great impact on productivity. which also limit the size of the group. you should be able to: y y y Define the term group and describe types of groups Understand group formation and development Discuss group norms and group cohesiveness A group consists of a number of individuals working together for a common objective. he need not explain the task to each and every individual. y Group efforts affect an individual. Work committees. of two or more persons who interact with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person'. The knowledge of group behavior as well as individual behavior is necessary for a manager. tedious arid of repetitive nature. y An individual cannot perform each and every task. The study of group behavior is essential for an organization to achieve its goals. y The tasks in modern industries are becoming more complex. etc. The key parts of this definition are the concepts of interaction and influence. job satisfaction and effective performance. construction of a fly-over. Groups or work teams are the primary tools used by managers. Human behavior consists of individuals. He must understand group psychology and should also understand individual behavior in the context of group behavior. A manager can easily coordinate with the work of an individual by giving the group a task and allow them to co-ordinate with each other. y While accomplishing tasks. his attitude and behavior.11 GROUP DYNAMICS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. But for a group to work effectively. The importance of group behavior has been realized from time to time. of groups are as follows: y Management of modern organizations make mutual efforts to introduce industrial democracy at workplace. there are three types of groups. the interactions between its members should be productive.LESSON . making of a movie. DEFINITION OF A GROUP A group is a two or more individual who interact regularly with each other to accomplish a common purpose or goal. "a group comprises. Groups can make a manager's job easier because by forming a group. In 1920. It is difficult for members to interact sufficiently in a large group. Therefore. Individual and group behavior vary from each other. They willingly participate in decision-making. managers must pay attention to the needs of individuals. Group efforts are required for its completion. The group in which he moves influences individual work. y Groups of all kinds and types help by cooperating in all the matters related to production and human relations to work effectively in the organization. y Groups help in making participative management more effective. Groups have significant influence on an organization and are inseparable from an organization. They also make the environment at workplace more lively. individuals communicate with each oilier. According to Marvin Shaw. working in a group. y Group has the ability to satisfy the needs of its members. who move in groups. y In a group. For example. All these require coordinated and unified efforts of many individuals.

The organization does not take any active interest in their formation. They suspect their integrity and consider as a virtual threat. According to Keith David. medical benefit and other facilities are the examples of interest groups o Membership group: Membership groups are the groups of individuals' belonging to the same profession and knowing each other. "a formal group is said to be any social arrangement in which the activities of some persons are planned by others to achieve a common purpose". According to A L Stencombe. GROUP FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT Groups can form when individuals with similar goals and motives come. These groups are temporary in nature. evaluating a proposed grievance procedure. They want support from the group. the individuals join a group. understanding how groups form and develop is important for managers. Hence. Some managers do not consider them as threat and seek the help of group members in getting the organizational task accomplished. These groups can also be formed outside the plant or office and can be in the form of clubs and associations. by mutual interests or both. etc. regulations and policy of the organization. Groups are formed voluntarily. These groups are permanent in nature. Some managers consider them to be harmful to the interest of an organization. The individuals of a group can join and leave the group any time and they can also change their tasks. y Informal groups are very effective and powerful. For example. They have to follow rules. Employees coming together for payment of bonus. which are as follows: #48 . Informal committees.Functional or formal groups Functional groups are the groups formed by the organization to accomplish different organizational purposes. teachers of the same faculty in a university. tastes and opinions. the advertising department. task forces and work teams are included in task groups. There are certain motives because of which. o Friendship group: Friendship groups are the groups of individuals belonging to same age group. together. values etc. which an organization cannot avoid. having similar views. Informal groups are of following types: o Interest group: Interest groups are the groups formed to attain a common purpose. increase in salary. They also develop a solution to a problem or complete its purpose. the quality control department and the public relations department. beliefs. y Informal group Informal groups are the groups formed for the purposes other than the organizational goals. They are also like a powerful force. assigns a narrow set of purposes such as developing a new product. These are the groups formed by the employees themselves at the workplace while working together. These groups work as an informal communication network forming a part of the grapevine to the organizations. Informal groups form when individuals are drawn together by friendship. y Task group Tasks groups are the groups formed by an organization to accomplish a narrow range of purposes within a specified time. The organization after specifying a group membership. o Reference group: Reference groups are the group where individuals shape their ideas. "the network of persons and social relations which is not established or required form an informal organization". A formal organizational group includes departments such as the personnel department. These groups are spontaneous.

Organizational motives to join groups: Organizations form functional and task groups because such groups help the organization in structuring and grouping the organizational activities logically and efficiently.2. Since joining these groups is voluntary. the members of the group get familiar with one another and check. a club. The factors that contribute to interpersonal attraction are sex. #49 . such as these in order to donate their money and time to attain the goals they believe in and to meet other individuals with similar values. discussing current events or contemporary literature. similar attitudes. This helps all the members of a group to know each other better and helps the group to move to the next stage easily. y Support for group goals: The individuals may also be motivated goals by the other group members to join. which are depicted in the figure 11. may motivate individuals to join. For example. various personal motives affect membership. which inter-personal behavior is acceptable and which is unacceptable by the other members of the group.2 These different stages of group development are explained as follows: y Mutual Acceptance The very first stage of a group development is called "Mutual Acceptance". y Mutual Acceptance y Making Acceptance y Sharing Acquaintances y Discussing Subjects y Testing Each Other y Being Defensive Slow Evolution to Next Stage Communication and Decision-Making y Expressing Attitudes y Establishing Norms y Establishing Goals y Openly Discussing Tasks y Being Defensive Burst of Activities to Next Stage Motivation and Productivity y Cooperating y Working Actively on Tasks y Being Creative Slow Evolution to Next Stage Control and Organization y Working Independently y Assigning Tasks Based on Ability y Being Flexible Figure 11. Retired/old aged individuals join groups to enjoy the companionship of other individuals in similar situation. y Need for affiliation: Another reason for individuals to join groups is to satisfy their need for attachment. personality and economic standing. The closeness of group members may also be an important factor. Individuals join groups. y Personal motives to join groups: Individuals also choose to join informal or interest groups for unimportant reasons. Playing tennis. The new group must pass s of development. all these are group activities that individuals enjoy. a manager might join a Rotary/ Lions club if he feels that being a member of this club will lead to important and useful business contacts. During this stage. as they arc also attracted to each other. y Interest in-group activities: Individuals may also be motivated to join an informal or interest group because the activities of the group appeal to them. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Members of new group are unfamiliar with one another's personalities and : hesitant in their interactions. which is dedicated to environmental conservation. Some of these are shown in the figure 11. For example.1: y Interpersonal attraction: Individuals conic together to form informal or interest group. y Instrumental benefits: Group membership sometimes also helpful in providing other benefits to an individual.

y Role Structures A role is the part that an individual plays in a group to reach its goals.y y y Communication and Decision-making The second stage of group development is "Communication and Decision-making''. o Feeling of security on the part of the members. The failure in role development result in role ambiguity. o Power of the group to influence its members. etc. GROUP NORMS Norms refer to group behavior standard. The goals can be achieved effectively depending on the following factors: o The extent of cooperation with management. attitudes. o Degree of participation and loyalty of members. The primary leader has more influence on the group members than the secondary leaders. It. y Behavioral norms Although informal groups do not have any specific goals to accomplish. Role structure is the set of defined roles and interrelationships among those roles that the group members define and accept. Control and Organization The fourth stage is "Control and Organization". cohesiveness and informal leadership. Some individuals are leaders. traditions and expectations shared by group members. the structure becomes clear and the group moves to the third stage. they begin show signs of the following four characteristics: a role structure. o Satisfaction of the needs of group members. which is characterized by a shared acceptance among members of what the group is trying to do. Through communication and decision-making. Norms play a significant role in disciplining the members of a group to make them to work regularly and properly. some interact with other groups and so on. beliefs. The members of the group are expected follow the norms strictly. They make the members to identify themselves with the group. which are as follows: o Ability of a group to retain its members. helps the group members to work more consistently and make greater contribution to the achievement of the organizational goals. #50 . In reality. Every informal group has one primary leader apart from the secondary: leaders. According to Michael Argyle. These leaders come forward on the basis of acceptance of all the group members. role conflict and role overload. These norms tend to reflect motivation. They are framed to achieve objectives of the group. o Maintenance of an efficient communication system. Managers have to take steps to avoid role ambiguity. "Group norms are rules or guidelines of accepted behavior which are established by a group and used to monitor the behavior of its members". They can be social and fair in nature. Motivation and Productivity The third stage is "Motivation and Productivity". which arc as follows: y Behavior norms: Behavior norms are rules that standardise how individuals act while working on a day-to-day basis. this developmental sequence varies from group to group. It also emphasizes on the group's ability to satisfy its members needs. ‡ Informal leadership Each informal group has one or more leaders. These goals are temporary and can be changed in accordance with the needs of the group members. ‡ Cohesiveness Cohesiveness is defined as the attractiveness of group members towards the group. "do not come to committee meetings unless you have read the reports to be '"discussed"'. personal characteristics of group members and frequency of interaction. CHARACTERISTICS OF MATURE GROUPS As groups pass through the stages of development to maturity. Norms define boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable behavior. This will make the group more organized Types of Group Norms There are two types of group norms. Examples are. It is also psychologically more satisfying to all of its members. "greet every customer with a smile''. behavioral norms. in which the members perform the roles they have accepted and direct their group efforts toward goal attainment. group members share their opinions and formulate the group's goals. depending on the time. therefore. but they must have some goals over a period of time. According to Cartwright there are four principal consequences of cohesiveness. some focus on the group's task. Members also become more comfortable with each other and develop a sense of group identity and unity. This reduces absenteeism and employee turnover. Each person recognizes and accepts his role as well as to accept and to understand the roles to others. commitment to the organization and therefore result in high level of performance. role conflict and role overload. During this stage.

new group members are also asked to follow the same. Only those behaviors that sound to-be important by group members should be brought under control. Groups want to facilitate their performance and overcome barriers to reach their goals. a new group member may have greater freedom to exhibit other behaviors. y If the norms simplify or predict regarding the behavior which is expected from group members. According lo K. like individuals. the members work well together. to regulate each and every action of the group members. There are several factors consist of norm conformity. y Organizations gain from the members of cohesive group because they communicate better they share ideologies and respect opinions of fellow employees. try to operate in such a way that they maximize their chances of task success and minimize (heir chances of task failure. For example. y The members don't have conflicting views. y Unpleasant experiences. #51 . Some differences are primarily due to the difference in structure of the groups. y Inter-personal attraction. The following factors can increase group cohesiveness: y Competitiveness with other groups. groups want to increase morale and prevent any interpersonal discomfort to their members. Aswalhappa. Attractiveness is the key to cohesiveness. Uniqueness of Group Norms The norms of one group cannot be easily mixed with another group. y Agreement on goals. if the group has always been successful by following certain behaviors. A group that lacks cohesiveness will not be very much coordinated. "cohesiveness is understood as the extent of liking each member has towards others and how far everyone wants to remain as the member of the group". y Cohesiveness increases productivity. Moreover. However. Advantages of Group Cohesiveness The advantages of group cohesiveness are as follows: y The members of cohesive groups have high morale. y The history of the group and its members also plays a part in conformity. which decreases the chances of in clash among the views of group members at the workplace or elsewhere. Group Cohesiveness According to Rcnsis Likert. The members of one group may be friendly with their supervisor whereas those of another group may not Norm Conformity Norms have the power to force a certain degree of conformity. Managers should develop an understanding of the factors that increase and reduce group cohesiveness. y Frequent interaction. It refers to the attachment of members with the group. Groups. y Favourable evaluation from outsiders. If the group was not successful in the past. The following factors decrease cohesiveness: y Large group size.Performance norms: Performance number of hours worked. "cohesiveness is the attractiveness of the members towards the group or resistance of the members leaving it". y If the norms emphasize the roles of specific members within a group and y If the norms help the group to solve the inter-personal problems themselves. y Domination by one or more members. In a highly cohesive group. Conditions where group norms will be strongly enforced are as follows: y If the norms facilitate group success or ensure group survival. support and trust one another and are generally effective at achieving their chosen goals. y Members of cohesive groups are regular at their work. y Competitiveness within group. y Disagreement on goals. y Individuals of cohesive groups have no anxiety at the workplace. Its members will not support one another and they may face difficulty in reaching their goals. Reasons for Strong Enforcement of Norms y norms are rules that standardize employee output and Groups don't have the time or energy. Norms that will help groups meet these aims of performing successfully and keeping morale high are likely to be strongly enforced. even very similar work groups may develop different norms-. Cohesiveness is the extent to which group members are loyal and committed lo the group and to each other. which are as follows: y Some groups may exert more pressure for conformity than others because of the personalities of the group members.

you should be able to understand: y y Conceptual clarity about nature and levels of conflicts The sources and effects of conflicts to manage conflicts Conflict arises from difference of opinion between the group members while attaining the organizational goals. According to one survey. Conflict outcome: Is a situation or consequence arising after the conflict is eliminated. it refers to the dependence of one group on another for resources or information. Misinformed receivers often become irritated and then hostile. union and management are few examples of inter-group conflicts that arise because of incompatibility of goals. In simple words. In other words. Following is the sequence in which a conflict can arise: Latent conflict: Is a situation when the conditions for conflict arise. Managers may either directly resolve the conflicts or they may act as mediators between two or more employees. Thompson. The conflict between production and marketing departments. communication problems. For example. the potential for conflict increases. This may be due to horizontal differentiation and task specialization. attitudes and lack of clarity about responsibilities. Vertical conflict arises between higher and lower level of management. REASONS FOR CONFLICT There are many reasons for conflicts among groups and its members. goal attainment by one group may reduce the level of goal attainment by other groups. For example. It can be said in genera] that as interdependence increases. departments. y Infra-organizational conflict: Are the conflict arising between levels of an organization. y Group conflict: Are the conflicts arising within two or more groups due to difference in their attitudes and behavior. which are of two types. y Incompatible goals: Inter-group conflict arises because of goal incompatibility. Horizontal conflict arises among the employees at same level. there are three types of interdependence among groups. differences in interests and goals. different perceptions. two groups competing for scarce resources. Manifest conflict: Is a situation when both the group try to frustrate each other. Paying attention to an area of responsibility is a worthy Endeavour.12 LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. Perceived conflict: Is a situation when both the groups realize that there exists conflict between them. The receiver of information should be considered when a group communicates an idea. which are as follows: o Pooled interdependence: It arises when groups have little interaction with each other but are affected by each other's activities. a branch in Delhi does not need to interact with a branch in #52 . The reasons for group conflicts are as follows: y Communication problems: Groups often become very involved with their own areas of responsibility. knowledge and understanding of conflict and the methods of resolving it are important. but it can result in communication problems. or a decision. conflict among groups of different interests is unavoidable. group relies on other organizational groups to complete its tasks. line and staff departments. Some of them are related to limited resources. sections or work teams. In organizations everywhere. An organization is an interlocking network of groups. Felt conflict: Is a situation when members involved in the conflict feel tense or anxious. The success of an organization depends upon the harmonious relations among all independent groups. TYPES OF CONFLICT The levels of group conflict are as follows: y Personal conflict: Are the conflicts that arise among employees.LESSON . y Task interdependence: Task interdependence means to what extent a work. a proposal. According to J. In either case. individuals because of their competitive roles. They tend to develop their own unique vocabulary. Inter-group conflicts result from the ways in which organizations co-ordinate the work of different groups and distribute rewards among those groups. managers spend an estimated 20 percent of their time dealing with group conflicts.

it is important for a group to respond quickly and in a unified manner to the activities of other groups. In such situations. values and perceptions of members of various groups towards each other can be a cause and a consequence of the nature of their relationship. Thus. In sequential task interdependence. finance. the more likely it is that conflict will arise between them while co-ordinating their work efforts. The range of work of manufacturing group is evaluated on how quickly it can manufacture high-quality products while the range of R&D scientists can be evaluated on the basis of product development and testing after a long period of time. Conflicting reward systems: Sometimes the ways in which reward systems in organizations arc designed create a situation in which one group can only. Resource sharing: The relation between two groups can be affected by the degree to which they make use of a common pool of resources and the degree to which this common pool of resources is adequate to meet the demands of both the groups. amenities. Difference in work orientation: The ways in which employees do their work and deal with others vary widely with the functional areas of an organization. They are as follows: o The group demands more loyalty from individual members while facing an external threat. To increase the amount of products sold. It may be the responsibility of either the personnel department or any of the functional departments such as marketing. For example. functional groups differ in their time perspectives. Task ambiguity often arises where the organization is growing quickly or the organization's environment is changing rapidly. Conflicting reward systems inevitably result in poor inter-group relations. secrecy and closed communications. the line group may have to depend even more heavily on staff groups such as advertising. This can affect the success of a group to accomplish their work in an effective manner. R&D scientists have a longer-range of goals than manufacturing groups. o In an inter-group conflict. Sequential task interdependence: It arises when one group is unable to commence its work until the work of other group gets completed. accomplish its goal at the expense of other groups.o o o o o o o Chennai. First. systematic changes take place in the perceptions. Life and staff groups often have conflicts resulting from this type of interdependence. Different perceptions and attitudes: The attitudes. In an inter-group conflict. staff departments may be rewarded for cutting costs and personnel while line departments are rewarded for increasing the amount of products sold or services provided. A good example of task ambiguity is inter-group conflict arising in the recruitment of new employees. It leads to more coordination of activities. The confusion may also arise regarding who has the final authority to execute the final decisions. Such conflicts take place in the quantum of wages. Each party of the conflict competes with each other to get a larger share. there is a possibility of conflicts. Reciprocal interdependence: It arises between the groups. past differences and difficulties between group members are forgotten and group cohesiveness increases. which depend on each other for their respective task such as production department and quality department. working conditions and other related matters. Inter-group conflict arises from reciprocal task interdependence over difference in performance expectations. the organization and structure of the work group becomes more rigid. arises because of the differences between aggregate demand of a group and available resources to meet them. the output of one group becomes the input of another group. allocution of responsibilities to different group members. Task ambiguity: The lack of clarity over job responsibilities is called task ambiguity and it frequently leads to aggression between groups. Second. The goals of manufacturing groups are more specific and clear-cut than the goals of R&D groups. DYNAMICS OF INTER-GROUP CONFLICT The following points are covered in the dynamics of an inter-group conflict: y Changes within each group: When there is inter-group conflict in an organization. The greater the differences in goal and time between two groups. If the group relations begin with the attitudes of distrust. disagreements in their views and among themselves. Inter-group conflict also arises when it is not clear which group is responsible for certain activities. competitiveness. However the staff groups are being rewarded for cutting costs and personnel provided the types of services asked for by line groups can prevent them from meeting their own goals. For example. attitudes and behaviors of the participants. Each group is dissatisfied will the quality or quantity of work received. These differences between groups result in frustration. misinterpretation of the behaviors and activities of other groups. from the other group. The only linkage between the two is that they share financial resources from a common pool and the success of each branch contributes to the success of the organization. the potential for conflict is greater. the goals of different functional groups vary to a large extent. #53 . The production department provides the goods to the marketing department to sell and the marketing department prepares the orders and estimates on the basis of the volume produced by the production department. The conflict between management and the labor union-is the best example. In the face of an external threat. conflict of this nature.

This makes the accomplishment of the assigned task much easier. a quick turn around time on the repairs of needed equipment only if the Second group agrees to bring complaints about the quality of repairs to it before going to management. one group may agree to give the other. But avoidance does not always minimize the problem. GROUP STRATEGIES TO GAIN POWER There are several strategies that various groups use to gain power in an inter-group conflict situation. Some of these strategies allow co-operation and sharing between groups while other strategies are more competitive and increase the power of one group at the expense of others. y Encouragement: This is another indirect method to solve the group conflicts. By doing so. POT example. It becomes difficult for each group to see the positive behavior and attitude of the other group. y Forming association: In forming an association. the conflict situation frequently continues or gets worse over time. y Pressure tactics: These are applied to force other to use the most competitive strategy a group can use to gain power. two or more groups cooperate or combine their resources in order to increase their power over other groups. But management usually tries to minimize the conflict indirectly and if this fails. Matters can get worse if nothing is done and the groups can become more aggressive and unfriendly. For instance. Management reaction to disruptive inter-group conflict can take many different forms. y Contracting: It refers to the negotiation or an agreement between two groups. But the disadvantage of this method is that it ignores the causes of conflicts and as a result. But persuasion is possible only if there are no clashes between the groups and its members Methods to Solve Inter-Group Conflict The various methods to solve inter-group conflicts directly are as follows: y Ignoring the conflict: This is a direct method used by (he managers to solve inter-group conflicts. For example. The groups try to find out those interests levels where they have the same say. Afterwards'. Union-Management relationships during contract negotiations are one of the examples of the group dynamics. Methods to Solve Inter-group Conflict Indirectly The various methods to solve inter-group conflicts indirectly are as follows: y Avoidance: It is an indirect method often used by the managers. become directly involved. #54 . they can find out a solution without the involvement of management. Bargaining between two groups is successful if both groups are comfortable with the agreement between them. in which the groups find the areas of common interests among themselves. y Bargaining: This is the indirect method. To improve the inter-group relations. a. Management can use domination to minimize the conflicts by exercising its authority and power over the groups and their members. Each party undervalues the interests of the other group. y Domination by the management: This method of solving inter-group conflicts emphasizes on improving the inter-group relations. in which the groups agree as to what each of them will get and give others regarding their work. the groups try to show how important it is to each of them in attaining organizational goals. group simply refuses to attack the other group. There is increased ill feeling towards the rival group. Members of groups co-operate with each other in order to compete more effectively with members of other groups. Each group makes some compromises so that there can be some predictability and stability in their relationships. The changes that occur arc as follows: There are distortions of perception about one's own group and about the other group. Ignoring the conflict is characterized by the absence of behavior wherein the members of the groups avoids dealing with the dysfunctional aspects of the conflict. It includes encouragement on the part of managers to the groups so that they will be able to meet and discuss their differences. contracting occurs between labor and management at the time collective bargaining. greater integration or collaboration among groups is needed. y Controlling Information: Gaining access to sensitive information and then limiting other group's access lo it increases the power of" the information-' rich group and other subunits. representatives from financial institutions are included in the Board of Directors of a Company to participate in decision-making activities. The interaction and communication between groups' decreases. It includes avoidance of direct approaches on the part of managers to solve among groups. In this. y Co-opting: It occurs when a group gives some of its leadership positions to members of other groups or includes them in its policy-making committees. y Influencing decision criteria: Groups can also sometimes exert power lo change criteria for decision-making that are selected as the basic for resource distribution.o o o o o Changes in relation between groups: The nature of the relationships between groups also changes markedly during inter-group conflicts. For example. There is a shift among the groups from a problem-solving motive to a win-lose motive. y Persuasion: This is the indirect method. a union might threaten to strike to pressurize management.

o Managers can establish rules and standard procedures to regulate conflict in more constructive and effective ways. o Appealing to super-ordinate goals. For example. #55 . The super ordinate goals are as follows: The assignment and coordination of work among groups should be clarified so that the daily disputes over minor issues can be avoided. These are goals desired by two or more groups that can only be accomplished through the cooperation of the groups. The task force develops the ideas 'and procedures for improving group interaction and thereby attempt to solve the conflicts arising between the groups. When conflicting groups have to cooperate to accomplish a goal. It is also difficult to pinpoint accurately the individuals who are the root-cause of conflicts. the conflicts among groups can reduce. a wide profit-sharing plan of a company may encourage groups to work together. o The use of co-operative approaches among groups in organizations often leads to more positive results than does the use of competitive approaches. The final method to minimize the conflicts is to find super-ordinate goals. It includes the removal of the key figures in the conflict. Problem solving: Management can also establish a task force with representatives from groups in conflict to work on problems.y y Removing the key figures in the conflict: This is another direct method to solve the inter-group conflicts. The key figures that are to be removed may be leaders of the groups and removing them could lead to greater conflict. conflict can be minimized. removing them is a possible solution. o Managers should monitor reward systems to eliminate any win-lose conflicts among groups. If the profits of a company are distributed among employees at the end of the year. If a conflict arises because of personality differences between two individuals.

LESSON-13 ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. the behaviors that occur in an organization are vital to the communication process. effective communication is a basic prerequisite for the attainment of organizational goals. cooperation and job satisfaction. The figure 13.1 can be used to identify the major categories of communication that arc especially relevant to the study of organizational behavior. you should be able to understand: y y y y The meaning and importance of communication Communication process Various types of organizational communication The barriers and the methods of overcoming barriers to effective communication Communication is one of the most frequently discussed dynamics in the entire field of organizational behavior. #56 . They also need directions for their specific tasks. and management practitioners. communication is necessary. rules. sub-ordinates. Interpersonal communication is fundamental to all managerial activities. Communication experts emphasize the behavioral implications of communication by pointing out that "the only means by which one person can influence another is by the behaviors he shows that is. Communication transforms a group of unrelated individuals into a team that knows what its goals are and how it will try to reach them. facts. peers and others outside the organization. orders and procedures must pass through some kind of communication channel. Thus. the term communication is frequently and freely used by everyone. for co-ordinated action. Accordingly. it means who says what. organizational behavior scholars. which can cause conflict and tension. Communication allows people to co-ordinate with each other by providing them with a way to share information. Importance of Communication Interpersonal roles require managers to interact with supervisors. In practice. Therefore. ambiguity and rumors. to whom. some of the purposes of communication are: y y y y y y y To discourage the spread of misinformation. In other words. effective management is a function of effective communication. Broadly. To improve social relations among workers by encouraging intercommunication. This would satisfy the basic human need for a sense of belonging and friendship. DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION In modern society. Communication is the process of transmitting information from one person to another. To develop information and understanding among all workers. This is necessary for group effort. policies. To encourage subordinates to supply ideas and suggestions for improving the product or work environment and taking these suggestions seriously. the communicative exchanges between people provide the sole method by which influence or effects can be achieved". It is a way of reacting to the other person with ideas. All other management functions involve communication in some form of directions and feedback. communication is considered to be the most important and most effective ingredient of the management process. Communication Technology Interpersonal Technology Verbal Technology Figure 13. Also there must be channel of communication for feedback. This personal and behavioral exchange view of communication takes many forms. including members of the general public. feelings and values. To foster any attitude. Thus.1: Chain of Communication in Organizational Behavior Objectives of Communication Managements depend upon communication to achieve organizational objectives. The first type of information that needs to be shared is what the goals of the organizations are. Since managers work with and through other people. that is necessary for motivation. all their acts. People need to knowwhere they are heading and why. To prepare workers for a change in methods of environment by giving them necessary information in advance. thoughts. through which channel and with what effect. To improve labor management relations by keeping the communications channels open and accessible.

most communication involves a combination of these. graphs etc. The encoding might take the form of words. In the simplest kind of communication. for instance. Decision-makers must share their views on what the problem is and what the alternatives are. Source or Sender The communication cycle begins when one person called the sender wants to transmit a fact. Market researchers. Changes in market or in customer preferences can lead to uncertainty about whether a product Or a marketing strategy needs to be updated or overhauled. a group. Even when you are just reading a letter. Receiver The receiver can be an individual. #57 . a manager may communicate for all the purposes described above. both the sender and the receiver perform the encoding and decoding functions automatically. down and across the levels of the hierarchy of an organization. as a loop between the source and the receiver.2 presents a general view of the communication process.Communication is especially important for the task of decision-making. letters and reports. The encoding process is influenced by the content of the message. Decoding The person to whom the message is sent. your experience with the letter-writer and so on. might call the research department to send the latest information on a particular market. Encoding The second step is to encode the message into a form appropriate to the situation. light. COMMUNICATION PROCESS The figure 13. This process may be simple and automatic. pictures. The receiver may ignore it. Communication also allows people to express their emotions. Transmission After the message has been encoded. Indeed. The sender has generally little control over how the receiver will deal with the message. decide not to try to decode. but it can also be quite complex. Communication goes up. opinion or other information to someone else. gestures. communication is necessary to implement the decision and to evaluate its results. you may need to use all your knowledge of the language. the familiarity of the sender and receiver and other situational factors. Common channels or media in organizations include face-to-face communication using the media of sound waves. for example. If the intended message and the received message differ a great deal. On any given day. there is a communication gap and misunderstanding is likely to follow. it is transmitted through the appropriate channel or medium. facial expressions. understand it or respond immediately. can be reduced by communicating that information. Employees who feel that they cannot vent their anger or express their joy on the job may feel frustrated and repressed. The communication cycle continues when the receiver responds by the same steps back to the original sender. called the receiver interprets the meaning of the message through the process of decoding. which is called the feedback. physical actions and symbols such as numbers. the more important the communication of information becomes. idea. can communicate with other groups about changes in the market place. The uncertainty resulted from the lack of information. Once a decision has been made. A manager. or an individual acting on behalf of a group. The greater the uncertainty about a task. Communication of feelings can be very important to employee morale and productivity.

Considerations that affect the choice of method include the audience whether it is physically present. but also observes the physical gestures associated with it as well as the changes in tone. generally someone outside the organization. ORAL COMMUNICATION Oral communication. Probably the most common form of written communication in organizations is the office memorandum. Noise refers to any type of disturbance that reduces the clearness of the message being transmitted. Reports generally summarize the progress or results of a project and often provide information to be used in decision-making. and the lost of transmission. Other common forms of written communication include reports. which may affect the message. operations manual describe how to perform tasks and respond to work-related problems. These methods of communication are often combined. but less formal than letters.3 given below shows various forms each method can take. Informal rumour mill or grapevine is also a popular form of oral communication. policy and procedure manuals inform them of organizational rules. Typically organizations produce a great deal of written communication of many kinds. It can be a disruption such as disturbance in a telephone line. A letter is a formal means of communication with an individual. noise takes on a meaning slightly different from its usual one. Thus. a car driving by etc. which are written. The human voice can impart the message much more forcefully and effectively than #58 . they represent attempts to make communication more efficient and information more accessible. oral. It may be in the form of direct talk and conversation between the speakers and listeners when they are physically present at one place or through telephone or intercom system conversation. Memos usually are addressed to a person or group inside the organization. speed and volume of the spoken word. It is most effective for leaders to address the followers via public address system or audio-visual media. also known as face-to-face communication is the most prevalent form of organizational communication. pitch. The figure 13. the nature of the message. As such. weak signal due to bad weather etc. then oral communication may include public address system. Instruction manuals tell employees how to operate machines. It can also be internal to the receiver such as tiredness or hunger or minor ailments. A performance appraisal form is an example. METHODS OF COMMUNICATION There are mainly three primary methods of communication in an organization. Manuals have various functions in organizations. Where one-way communication is required. it might be something that keeps the receiver from paying close attention such as someone coughing.Noise In the communication process. manuals and forms. Oral communication is particularly powerful because the receiver not only hears the content of the message. or a memo. They tend to deal with a single topic and are more impersonal. other people talking dosely. and non-verbal.

red tape and other formalities. so that if the receiver js unsure of the message. simple.the long hierarchical chain of command. trust and sincerity can be much better judged in a face-to-face conversation rather than in written words. memos. y The spirit of authority cannot be transmitted effectively in verbal transactions. According to Tipkins and Mc-Carter. beliefs and feelings. The message can be checked for accuracy before it is transmitted. y It can save time when many persons must be contacted at the same time. y Organizational Communications y More or less or a different meaning might be conveyed by manner of speaking. y Spontaneous responses may not be carefully thought about. logical and clear. y If the verbal message is passed on. Advantages Some of the advantages of oral communication are: y It is direct. y It is more reliable for transmitting lengthy statistical data. the greater is the potential distortion. y Lengthy and distant communication cannot be conveyed verbally in an efficient way. rules and regulations. facial expressions can be categorized as: y Interest-excitement y Enjoyment-joy y Surprise-startle y Distress-anguish y Fear-terror #59 . The message can be stored for an indefinite period of time. y It allows for feedback and spontaneous thinking. y It conveys personal warmth and friendliness and it develops a sense of belonging because of these personalized contacts. Disadvantages y It can be very time-consuming. y It leads to excessive formality in personal relations. then some distortions can occur during the process. policy manuals. some of the environmental elements such as building and office space can convey a message about the authority of the person. In addition. y Confidential written material may leak out before time. causing disruption in its effectiveness. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Some of the meaningful communication is conveyed through non-verbal ways. if necessary. y It provides a permanency of record for future references. tone of voice and facial expressions. Disadvantages y There is no formal record of communication so that any misunderstood message cannot be referred back to what was actually said. y It reduces the likelihood of misunderstanding and misinterpretation. formal reports. Even some of the verbal messages are strengthened or diluted by non-verbal expressions. information bulletins and so on. y The receiver may receive the message in his own perception and thus misunderstand the intent of the message. The written communications are more likely to be well considered. y There is no immediate feedback opportunity to be sure that the receiver has understood the message. y Because the message is conveyed instantaneously. It also ensures that everyone has the same information. Advantages y It serves as an evidence of events and proceedings. rapid feedback allows for early detection by the sender so that corrections can be immediately made. time saving and least expensive form of communication. It is most effective when it is required to communicate information that requires action in the future arid also in situations where communication is that of general informational nature. since faith.the written words and is an effective way of changing attitudes. specially for lengthy reports. These non-verbal expressions include facial expressions and physical movement. y It appears formal and authoritative for action. The more people the message is to pass through. it helps in avoiding delays. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION A written communication is put in writing and is generally in the form of instructions. These areas have to be covered in writing for efficient functioning of the organization. letters.

Members of a task force or committee often develop a circle network of communication with each person communicating directly to the other members of the task. a small metal desk on a corner communicates the status of a low ranking officer in the organizational setting. a wheel network develops. Figure 13.y Shame-humiliation y Contempt-disgust y Anger-rage Physical movements or body language is known as "kinesics".7 shows All Channel Communication Network. Figure 13.force. folding of arms or sitting position in a chair. Our facial expressions can show anger.4 shows Wheel Communication Network. arrogance. frustration. wink an eye for mischief or intimacy.6 shows Circle Communication Network. power and prestige such as that of a chief operating officer. Communication Networks A communication network is the pattern of information exchange used by the members of a group. fear and other characteristics that can never be adequately communicated through written word or through oral communication itself. tap our fingers on the table for impatience and we slap our forehead for forgetfulness. a large office with luxurious carpeting and expensive furniture conveys a message of status. a chain network is developed. Other examples of body language are tilting of head.5 shows Chain Communication Network. Accordingly non-verbal actions have considerable impact on the quality of communication. On the other hand. Some of the other body language symptoms are shrugging our shoulders for indifference. shyness. Figure 13. #60 . A handshake is probably the most common form of body language and tells a lot about a person's disposition. When the members of a group are on different levels/of the organization's hierarchy. As far as environmental elements are concerned. When the members of a group communicate mostly with the group leader. Informal groups that lack a formal leader often form an all-channel network that everyone uses to communicate with everyone else. Figure 13.

it is much easier to have an all-channel network in a group of eight than in a group of eighty. If the manager relies on a group to help make decisions. then circle network arises. The following factors influence the formation of communication patterns within small groups: Organizational Communications ‡ 123 1. as messages travel a long distance to get to the receivers. a chain or wheel network is used. Non-verbal communication is also important and can be a part of interpersonal. Managers must make use of all these characteristics and tendencies to help groups communicate and work most efficiently. if members always sit around a table. they do not sufficiently describe the paths of all messages transmitted in organizations. The distance between members describes how far a message must travel to reach the receiver. Individuals can send and receive messages across whole organizational levels and departments by means of vertical communication or the informal communication network. For instance. trusted employee might not interfere with the process. a group with high density and distance can expect a lot of noise distortion in its communication. 3.The density of communication refers to the total quantity of communication among members. Group Performance Factors: The group performance factors like group's size. For instance. the manager may need to take action. who sees that a wheel network is forming around an experienced. the manager may encourage silent group members to speak in order to get the desired decisions. composition. all channel networks arises. FORMS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION Although interpersonal and group forms of communication pertain even at the broadest organizational levels. Members' commitment to the group's work is defined by the centrality of the position of the members. norms and cohesiveness also affect the' formation of communication networks. 2. #61 . If an assertive but irresponsible employee becomes the hub of such a wheel. A manager. For instance. The ease with which members can communicate with others is measured by members' relative freedom to use different paths to communicate. group and organizational communication. For hard tasks. Type of Task: If the task of the group is simple. All these provide insight into possible communication problems. Environment: Environment including the group's seating arrangement and meeting place also affects communication patterns.

There are certain external roadblocks to effective communication. Informal networks are found in all organizations. customers. Some of the sources contributing towards noise factor are: Poor Timing A message sent on poor timing acts as a barrier. Each person is constantly sharing in the sending and receiving process and each person is affecting the other". the communication is not simply the flow of information. It is in the form of gossip in which a person spreads a message to as many other people as possible who may either keep the information to themselves or pass it on to others. performance feedback and information that the superior thinks are of value to the sub-ordinate. In the transactional process. This communication typically takes place between managers and their superiors or subordinates. suggestions or complaints and information the sub-ordinate thinks is of importance to the superior. Managers should have some control over the informal network. Upward Communication Upward Communication consists of messages moving up the hierarchy from subordinates to superiors. The content of gossip is likely to be personal information or the information about the organization itself. When these kinds of rumors are being spread. Other Form's of Communication One that has become especially popular is informally labelled as "management by wandering around". The content of upward communication usually includes requests. Some of the organizational barriers and some of the interpersonal barriers to effective communication are discussed below: Noise Barriers Noise is any external factor. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION The communication must be interpreted and understood in the same manner as it was-meant to be sent by the sender. The content of downward communication often includes directives. #62 . new ideas and a better feel for the entire company. They can hold open meetings and objectively discuss the issues that are being informally discussed already. otherwise it will not achieve the desired result and a communication breakdown will occur. It may cause interference in the process of communication by distraction or by blocking a part of the message or by diluting the strength of the communication. For instance. The basic idea is that some managers keep in touch with what is going on by wandering around and talking with people such as subordinates. In addition. it should be "transactional" communication. Downward Communication Downward Communication consists of messages moving down the hierarchy from superiors to sub-ordinates. which interferes with the effectiveness of communication. Managers can also obtain valuable information from the grapevine and use it for decision-making. a last minute communication with a deadline may put too much pressure on the receiver and may result in resentment. "all persons are engaged in sending and receiving messages simultaneously. For example. which is mutual and reciprocal because. the grapevine in an organization may be carrying harmful information. dealers and any one else involved with the company in any way. but it develops a personal linkage between the superior and the subordinate. managers may need to intervene. Transactional Communication Wenburg and Wilmont suggest that instead of communication being "upward" or "downward" which is intercommunication.Vertical Communication Vertical communication is the communication that flows both up and down the organizational hierarchy. A message must be sent at an appropriate time to avoid these problems. This will give managers. Inappropriate Channel Poor choice of channel of communication can also be contributory to the misunderstanding of the message. The manager must decide whether the communication would be most effective if it is in writing or by a telephone call or a face-to-face conversation or a combination of these modes. They may also issue a clearly worded memo or report stating the facts and thereby help minimize the damage that the informal network can do. The term is derived from noise or static effects in telephone conversation or radio wave transmission. which affect communication. Hence the manager must know when to communicate. false information or politically motivated information. Informal Communication Another term for informal communication network is the grapevine. there are personal factors. assignments.

either because the sender believes that the receiver does not need all the information or that the receiver is better off not knowing all aspects of a given situation. y A manager may make total assessment of a person based on a single trait. First. Cultural Barriers The cultural differences can adversely affect the communication effectiveness. could lead to two interpretations. The words and paragraphs must be interpreted with the same meaning as was intended. y A manager may assume that his subordinate's perception about things and situations are similar to his own. a nightclub advertisement sign. Semantic Barriers These barriers occur due to differences in individual interpretations of words and symbols. #63 . but it not clean and decent. specially for multi-national companies and enterprises. Perception Perception relates to the process through which we receive and interpret information from our environment and create a meaningful word out of it. A pleasant smile may make a positive first impression. chaotic or distorted if the channels are not clear or if there are bottlenecks. he may perceive women to be less efficient managers. Different people may perceive the same situation differently. Some factors contributing to such disruptions are: y The managers may withhold important negative information. Ambiguity in use of words will lead to different interpretations. y There may be professional jealousy resulting in closed channels. Organizational Structure Communication may be blocked. The choice of a wrong word or a comma at a wrong place in a sentence can sometimes alter the meaning of the intended message. Hearing what we want to hear and ignoring information that conflicts with what we know can totally distort the intent or the content of the message. Network Breakdown Network breakdown may be intentional or due to information overload and time pressures under which a communication has to be acted upon.Improper or Inadequate Information Information must be meaningful to the employee and should be precise or to the point. The result could be confusion or some important information may be laid aside for the purpose of convenience. This perception limits the manager's ability to effectively respond to and deal with individual differences and differing views of work situations. Some of these are: Filtering Filtering refers to intentionally withholding or deliberate manipulation of information by the sender. "clean and decent dancing every night except Sunday". Physical Distractions Any physical distractions such as telephone interruptions or walk-in visitors can interfere with the effective face-to-face communication process. It could also be that the receiver is simply told what he wants to hear. rather than unique and distinct individuals. y The secretary may forget to forward a memo. that there is dancing on Sundays. Hence the organization structure should be such that the chain of command and channels of communication are clearly established and ithe responsibility and authority are clearly assigned and are traceable. For example. Too little or too much information endangers effective communication. that there is no dancing on Sundays and second. Interpersonal Barriers There are many interpersonal barriers that disrupt the effectiveness of the communication process and generally involve such characteristics that either the sender or the receiver can cause communication problems. Some of the perceptual situations that may distort a manager's assessment of people resulting in reduced effectiveness of the communication are: y A manager may perceive people to belong to one category or another as stereotypes. For example. Information Overhead Overload occurs when individuals receive more information than they are capable of processing.

frustrated or depressed may be interpreted differently than when he is happy. then the decoding and the interpretation of the message will lead to a meaning of the sender. y Make sure that there are no outside interruptions and interference during the course of conversation. y Summarize and restate the message after it is over to make sure about the content and the intent of the message. Some guidelines for effective listening are: y Listening requires full attention to the speaker. Multi-meaning Words Many words in English language have different meanings when used in different situations. Extreme emotions are most likely to hinder effective communication because rational judgments are replaced by emotional judgments. otherwise you will not be able to grasp the meaning of the message in its entirety. avoids distrust and leads to trust and openness. Listen for feelings in (he message content and respond positively to these feelings. Two-way communication.Sender Credibility When the sender of the communication has high credibility in the eyes of the receiver. assisting receivers of messages in correct decoding and interpretation and providing an efficient and effective feedback system. then the receiver will scrutinize the message heavily and deliberately look for hidden meanings or tricks and may end up distorting the entire message. When writing message it is necessary to be precise thus making the meaning as clear as possible so that it accomplishes the desired purpose. y The language used tone of the voice and emotions should receive proper attention. positive or negative. otherwise it will create a barrier to proper understanding of the message. If the receiver has confidence. Hence. trust and respect for the sender. Do not let your mind wander or be preoccupied with something else. a manager must not assume that a particular word means the same thing to all people who use it. Conversely. and believe it specially if the message is related to the field of expertise. The message will be lost if the words are complex and do not lend to a clear single meaning. 3 #64 . Some helpful hints in written communication are suggested by Robert Degise as follows: y Keep words simple: This will reduce your thoughts to essentials and the message will be easier to understand for the receiver. if the source is believed to be an expert in a particular field then the listener may pay close attention to the message. your understanding of what has been said. Similarly. Accordingly. Develop Writing Skills: Clearly written messages can help avoid semantic and perception barriers. y Do not jump to conclusions before the message is over and is clearly understood. The same message received when the receiver is angry. 2 Improve Listening Skills: Good listening habits lead to better understanding and good relationships with each other. y Ask questions to clarify any points that you do not understand clearly and reflect back to the speaker. the message is taken much more seriously and accepted at face value. Feedback Barriers The final source of communication barrier is the feedback or lack of it. The information is transferred more accurately when the receiver is given the opportunity to ask for clarifications and answer to any questions about the message. even though more time-consuming. selecting appropriate channels for communicating these messages. the managers must make sure that they use the word in the same manner as the receiver is expected to understand it. Emotions The interpretation of a communication also depends upon the state of the receiver at the time when message is received. Feedback is the only way to ascertain as to how the message was interpreted. which helps in building a healthy relationship contributing to communication effectiveness. if the sender is not trusted. y Do not prejudice or value the importance of the message due to your previous dealings and experiences with the sender or your perceptions about him. A wellwritten communication eliminates the possibility of misunderstanding and misinterpretation. Some of the steps that can be taken in this respect are as follows: 1 Feedback: Feedback helps to reduce misunderstandings. designing proper messages. Overcoming Communication Barriers It is very important for the management to recognize and overcome barriers to effective communication for operational optimization and this would involve diagnosing and analyzing situations.

Accordingly. Recently. questions. they would be highly motivated to give active support to such communication. The management must clarify any part of the communication that may be necessary and must encourage comments. and then the receiver will be more responsive to the communication. opinions and ideas in the fewest number of words possible. appropriate and accurate. Consider the Receiver's Interest Take the receivers interests into account. Communication should be Comprehensive Communication should be complete so as not only to meet the present demands. At the same time. The management must always be helpful in carrying out the intended message of the communication. Sense of Timing The message should not only be timely so that the decisions and actions can be taken in tie and when necessary. Use proper Follow-up All communications need a follow-up to ensure that these were properly understood and carried out. It should also be brief so that only necessary and sufficients meanings are provided. y GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION These guidelines are designed to help management improve their skills in communicating so as not only avoid any barriers to effective communication. The communication flow and its spread must avoid bypassing levels or people. y Be specific: Vagueness destroys accuracy. Now cellular phones. the nature of managerial and organizational communication has changed dramatically. The message must be clear. but also the timing of the message and the environmental setting in which the message is delivered and received is equally important. avoid negative statements like. Do not be brief at the cost of completeness. y Write concisely: Use as few words as possible. be specific and to the point. the management must be sincere and should earn the trust of the subordinates. According to the studies conducted by J. Accordingly. The people who are concerned must know exactly what they need and when they need the communication. Integrity The communication must pass through the proper channels to reach the intended receiver.4 Do not be boggart down by rules of composition: While the rules of grammar and composition must be respected. and feedback. #65 . distrust. This will eliminate ambiguity so that the message will not be subject to more than one interpretation. but express your thoughts. The success of the communication also depends upon the tone of the voice if the communication is verbal. Brief and Precise The ideas to be communicated must be well planned and clearly identified. The written communication should be polite and unambiguous. Mode of Delivery While delivering the communication. When these concerned levels are omitted or bypassed. expressions and emotions exhibited. but be confident and definitive. The Ideas and Messages should be Clear. It is now even possible for managers from different cities to meet by teleconferencing method without leaving their offices. The response and feedback to the communication should determine whether the action to the communication has been prompt. confusion and conflict. Avoid Credibility Gaps: Communication is a continuing process and the goal of the communication is complete understanding of the message as well as the creation of trust among all members of. which leads to misunderstanding of the meaning or intent of the message. openness and an atmosphere of trust builds healthy relationship and closes credibility gaps. mainly because of break through of the electronic technology and advent of computers. thus contributing to communication effectiveness. Management should not only be sensitive to the needs and feelings of workers but also its promises should be supported by actions. the established channels must be used as required. Consult with others who are involved in Planning the Communication If people have participated in the planning process. attentiveness to the receiver and so on. precise and to the point and free from distortions and noise. Luft. it creates bickering. they should not take priority over the ultimate purpose of the communication. the organization. Accordingly. but also to strengthen the basis for optimum results which depend upon the clear understanding of the desired communication. "I am not sure it will work". It should also fee based on future needs of the organization as well as individuals. E-Mail and Internet have made the communication quick and convenient. psychologists are beginning to discover some problems associates with these new advances in communication.

"Leadership is the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly towards the achievement of group goals". y Leadership is a group activity. According to Koontz and O'Donnell. Thus. leadership is the set multi characteristics attributed to those who are perceived to be leaders". the building of man's personality beyond its normal limitations". It has an ability to attract others and potential to make them follow the instructions. it is used for noncoercive influence lo shape up the goals of a group or organization. to motivate behavior toward the achievement of those goals and to help define group or organizational culture. managers play the role of leader and acquire leadership of subordinates. a vision for future. According to Wendell French. y Leadership is continuous process of influencing behavior. As a property. FEATURES OF LEADERSHIP The features of leadership are as follows: y Leadership is the process of influencing behavior of individuals of an organization. "Leadership is both a process and a property. Leadership influences behavior of the individuals. y A leader possesses qualities to influence others. y Leadership gives the individuals. "Leadership is the process of influencing the behavior of others in the direction of a goal or set of goals or. y Leadership directs the individuals to attain the tasks assigned to them by following the instructions of their leaders. their efforts towards the achievement of organizational goals and activate the individuals of an organization to make them work. "Leadership means the lifting of man's visions to higher sights. leaders are people who are able to influence the behavior of others without recourse to threats or other forms of force towards the individuals. the raising of man's performance to higher standard. y A leader must have the capacity to recognize the potentials of the individuals and transform them into realities. y A leader should have the confidence of the individuals of the organization. guidance. As a process. According to Keith Davis. y A leader should be able to maintain discipline among his group and develop a sense of responsibility. According to Grey and Starke. y Leadership uses non-coercive methods to direct and coordinate the activities of the individuals of an organization. you should be able to understand: y y y The meaning of leadership The various types and theories of leadership The importance of leadership in organizations Leadership is an integral part of management and plays a vital role in managerial operations. DEFINITION Leadership is the art of influencing and inspiring subordinates to perform their duties willingly. Leadership acquires dominance and the followers accept the directives and control of a leader. ³Leadership is the process of encouraging and helping others to work enthusiastically towards objectives´. and confidence to the employees and helps in the attainment of goals in much easier way. Leadership provides direction and vision for future to an organization. In business and industrial organizations. competently and enthusiastically for achievement of groups objectives. Leader influences his followers and followers also exercise influence over his leader.LESSON -14 LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. According to Peter Drucker. y A leader must be able to unite the people as a team and build up team spirit. It encourages liveliness in the group. given group for a pre-determined period of lime. toward a vision of the future´. #66 . Individuals can be induced to contribute their optimum towards the attainment of organizational goals through effective leadership. more broadly. y Leadership is meant for a given situation. as a superior person to them. Importance of Leadership The following points can judge the importance of leadership: y A leader should act as a friend of the people whom he is leading. Leaders are the people who are accepted by the other individuals. It provides direction.

authority is centered in the leader himself.y y y y y A leader must be able to build up a high morale among the individuals of the organization. A leader thinks that he is the only competent person in the organization. A leader should try to raise the morale of the individuals and should maintain ethical standards among the individuals. 3. Any negligence on the part of subordinates results in punishment. Hard Boiled or Strict Autocrat: Leader. Leadership on the other hand. There is complete delegation of authority to subordinates so that they can make decisions by themselves. Benevolent Autocrat: Benevolent autocrat leader uses positive influences and develops effective human relations. y Management is a process of planning. In this type of leadership. But he makes all decisions by himself. organizing. i. 2. Free rein leadership may be effective if members of the group are highly committed to their work. It is. The demerit of this type of leadership is that it takes more time to arrive at a decision. negative method of motivation. He is known as paternalistic leader. Non-compliance of his orders also results jn punishment. Non-compliance of his orders results in punishment. very time consuming.e. He has all the powers to make decisions. He wants immediate obedience of his orders and instructions. Leadership has an emotional appeal while management acts on rationality. Filippo. therefore. leaders consult their groups and consider their opinion in the decision-making process. The negative aspect shows that the leader is not competent enough to lead his group effectively. The following are the differences between the leadership and the management: y Management takes rational and logical decisions while leadership takes decision on expectations of the followers. Exchange of ideas among subordinates and with the leader is given encouragement. their opinions arc honored and they are given importance. Laissez-faire or Free Rein In this type of leadership. y Managers have formal authority but the leaders have no such authority. He makes all decisions and does not disclose anything to anyone. y All leaders are not managers and all managers are leaders. TYPES OF LEADERSHIP Following are the main types of leadership: Autocratic or Authoritarian In this type of leadership. Participation or involvement of the employees in the decision-making process is also rewarded. He is quite rigid on performance.. there are following three types of leaders in autocratic: 1. as a lot of time is wasted while taking the views from the employee. There is no participation from the subordinates in decision-making. Democratic or Participative Democratic or Participative leadership is also known as group centered or consultative leadership. Leaders encourage discussion among the group members on the problem under consideration and arrive at a decision depending on their consent. Manipulative Autocrat: Leader. It develops a sense of confidence among subordinates and they derive job satisfaction. He praises his employees if they follow his orders and invites them to get the solutions of the problems from him. known as "no leadership at all". who feel that. He uses coercive measures and adopts. According to Edwin B. Difference between Leadership and Management Leading and managing go together but some differences exist between the two. under such type uses negative influence and expects that the employees should obey his orders immediately. He feels happy in controlling all the actions of his subordinates. A leader should motivate his people to achieve goals. is a process of influencing the behavior of the people to attain their assigned tasks. Leaders give more freedom to their group members. y The management establishes relationship through a lawful authority while leadership establishes relationship through power. Members may feel insecure and develop frustration for lack of decision-making authority. A leader should act as a link between the work groups and the forces outside the organization. It improves quality of decision as it is taken after due consideration of valued opinions of the talented group members. directing and controlling the activities of others to attain the organizational objectives. there is virtual absence of direct leadership. therefore. #67 . A successful manager must possess both the managerial and leadership qualities. It is. He creates a feeling in the minds of his subordinates and workers that they are participating in decision-making processes. under such type is manipulative in nature. there is a complete centralization of authority in the leader. Absence of leadership may have both positive and negative effects.

assertiveness. A manipulative leader is quite selfish and exploits the aspirations of the employees for his gains. which suits that situation. themselves cannot do anything in this regard. the trait theory has been criticized for lack of conclusiveness and predictability. psychological and physical traits of strong leaders. Due to such attitude. y Trait Theory y Behavior Theory y Contingency Theory (a) Trait Theory This theory of studying leadership is taken into consideration to analyze the personal. knowledge and competence of the leaders. It is the rules that determine their performance. A successful leader is the one who assesses the situation. The leader must understand their behavior and accordingly can make use of the various types LEADERSHIPS. Manipulative This type of leadership manipulates the employees to attain their assigned tasks. For example. The leader and the subordinates both follow these rules and regulations. y It has been found that many traits exhibited by leaders are also found among followers without explaining as to why followers could not become leaders. the leadership traits might include intelligence. y It is difficult to define traits in absolute terms. determination and their attitude towards the organization. The assumption made in this theory was that some basic traits or set of traits differentiates leaders from non-leaders. there is no difference between the management and the administration in this type of leadership. (b) Behavior Theory The behavioral theory assumed that effective leaders behaved differently from ineffective leaders. He knows very well the needs and desires of the employees but he does very little to fulfill them. This type of leadership is based on the ability. he has to face the hatred of the employees at times. knowledge and competences. The employees. in spite of the required traits. studies the psychology of the subordinates and adopts the most useful type of leadership to lead the people at work to accomplish the organizational goals. Expert Leadership The expert leadership emerged as a result of complex structure of modern organizations. The behavior of a leader is determined by the rules. Since all individuals do not have these qualities. The existence of these traits determines the importance of leadership. The manager should assess the situation and adopt that type of leadership. They differ in quality. They exhibit different behaviors as they differ in attitude and outlook also. He should remember that leadership is situational. Possession of these traits helps the individuals to gain possession of leadership. y Thus. but can only be acquired by training. initiative and understanding of interpersonal human relations. The employees feel relieved as they are working under a person who is expert and can handle the situation without any problem. He handles the situation skillfully with his talent. It also identified the need of consistency of behavior of good leaders. Therefore. the use of leadership among its various types also changes. Paternalistic The paternalistic leadership believes in the concept that the happy employees work better and harder. human resources vary in terms of skill. Everyone within the organization should work together like a family. If situation changes. regulations and procedure to be followed under his leadership. y Some traits may not be inherited.Bureaucratic This type of leadership emphasizes the rules and regulations of an organization. Some of the weakness of this theory is: y All the traits are not identical with regard to essential characteristics of a leader. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP A number of theories and approaches to study leadership have been developed. There are broadly three theories of leadership. y It does not identify the traits that are most important and that are least important for a successful leader. only those who have them would be considered potential leaders. y It does not explain the leadership failures. self-confidence. It maintains that the fatherly altitude is the right one for better relationship between the manager and the employees. above average height. In modern organizations. #68 . This theory can be more clearly understood with the help of following case studies.

a particular leader could have higher ratings on both measures. their studies at International Harvester found that leaders rated highly on initiating structure behavior have higher performing but dissatisfied sub-ordinates. the leader's primary concern is the welfare of the ordinates. Michigan. The leader also establishes formal lines of communication and determines how tasks will be performed. the leader shows concern for subordinates feelings' and ideas. y (c) Contingency Theory The main assumption of contingency theory is that the behavior of an appropriate leader varies from one situation to another. Thus. the leader clearly defines the leadersubordinate roles so that everyone knows what is expected. The Ohio State leadership studies also identified two major kinds of leadership behaviors or styles. which focuses on performances and efficient completion of the assigned tasks. but not both. This is because some of the LPC measures show whether the score is an index of behavior. Fielder used the Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) scale to measure the type of leadership. They are discussed as below:  Job-centered leadership behavior : The first was called job-centered leadership behavior. contingency theory is to be studied. three of the scales Fielder uses in the LPC are: Helpful -------------------. began studying leadership in the late 1940s. respect.Relaxed 12345678 Boring ------------------. y The Ohio State Studies: At about the same time. a task orientation by the leader. which are as follows:  Initiating-structure behavior: In initiating-structure behavior. high performance standards to be accomplished. the Michigan studies identified two forms of leadership behavior. Fielder believes that a leader's tendency to be task-oriented or relationship oriented remains constant. which means that a leader could exhibit varying degrees of initiating structure and consideration at the same time i. they assumed the behaviors to be independent variables. which are discussed as below: y Leader-member relations: A Leader-member relation refers to the nature of relationship between the leader and his work group. Most experts now agree that no single set of traits or behaviors appears to be common to all good leaders. A job-centered leader interacts with group members to explain task procedures and oversee their work.  Consideration behavior: In consideration behavior. In.other words. The universal approaches to leadership can help managers examine their own leadership characteristics and match them against the traits most commonly identified with good leaders. by a positive or negative adjective. This can be done by developing a cohesive work group and ensuring that employees are satisfied with their jobs. The most obvious difference between Michigan and Ohio State studies is that the Ohio State researchers did not position their two forms of leader behavior at opposite ends of a single continuum. led by Rensis Likert.Frustrating 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tense ------------------. Fielder identified two types of leadership: task-oriented and relationship-oriented. whereas leaders rated highly on consideration structure had lower-performing sub-ordinates who showed signs of higher satisfaction. the contingency factor favours the situation from the leader's point of view.The Michigan Studies: Researchers at the University of. The motive of a contingency theory is to identify key situational factors and to specify how they interact to determine appropriate behavior of a leader The three most important and widely accepted contingency theories of leadership are as follows: y The LPC theory: The first contingency theory of leadership is Fred Fielder's Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Model. Depending on broad discussions with both the managers and sub-ordinates. confidence and they like one #69 .e. If the leader and the group enjoy mutual trust. A leader is asked to describe characteristics of the person with whom he or she is least comfortable while working. A high total score is assumed to reflect a relationship orientation and a low score. In order to understand the full complexity of leadership. friendly and supportive. if the situation also remains same. The Michagan researchers thought a leader could show signs of one kind of behavior. For example. Rather. According to Fielder. a group of researchers at Ohio State also began studying leadership. which focuses on.  Employee centered leadership behavior: The second behavior was identified as employee centered leader behavior. However. The LPC measure is controversial because researchers disagree about its validity. The researchers used to believe that the leaders in possession of both types of behavior are most effective. The Ohio State researchers found that a leader¶s behavior remains consistent over a period of time. personality or some other unknown factor. But the researchers could not come up with one best combination of behavior suitable to all the situations. a leader is either task-oriented or relationship-oriented while leading his group members. This factor is determined by leader-member relations. He attempts to establish a warm.Interesting 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The leader's LPC score is (hen calculated by adding up the numbers below the line checked on each scale. They can do this by marking in a set of sixteen scales at each end. low ratings on both or high ratings on one and low on the other. task-structure and position-power.

structure is assumed to be low. administer rewards and punishment. A leader who helps employees reduce such uncertainty can motivate them. directive leadership is less effective than when structure is low. When the situation includes good relations.1 shows the path goal model of leadership. these environmental factors can create uncertainty for employees. Leaders can motivate sub-ordinates by making clear what they have to do to get the reward they desire. which is measured by the LPC is inflexible and cannot be changed. relations will remain good. If the task structure is low. the leader may be directive in giving guidance and instructions to them. the positionpower is weak. From the leader's point of view. Fielder and his associates conducted various studies highlighting if a situation favors the leadership and group effectiveness or not. the leader may use participative behavior by which he can participate with employees in making decisions and take their suggestions as well. relations will remain bad. the structure is assumed to be high. with no standard procedures and precedents. As the group becomes more familiar with the task and as new problems are taken into consideration. If the task structure is high. the leader will not have to pay much attention. Finally. Fielder's contingency theory has been criticized on the ground that LPC measure lacks validity and that the assumption about the inflexibility of the leader's behavior is unrealistic. When the task is routine. easily understood. He may also adopt supportive behavior to encourage group cohesiveness. which are beyond the control of subordinates. For instance. high structure and strong power. when relations are good but task structure is low and position-power is weak. y Position-power: Position-power is the power vested in the position of a leader in an organization. and unambiguous and when the group has standard procedures. The path-goal model assumes that leaders can change their style or behavior to meet the demands of a particular situation. When the task is non-routine. participative and achievement-oriented. The figure 14. while leading a new group of sub-ordinates. position-power is assumed lo be strong. y Task-structure: Task-structure is the degree to which the group's task is clearly defined. Good relations are assumed to be favourable and bad relations unfavorable. #70 . Fielder argues that any particular-type of leadership. strong position power is favourable and weak position power is unfavorable. This model identifies four kinds of leader behavior: directive. If there is little trust. High structure is more favourable for the leader and low structure is unfavorable. supportive. LI relationshiporiented leader is considered to be most effective.another. recommend employees for promotion or demotion. In other words a leader cannot change his behavior to fit a particular situation. if they do not like one another. (d) The Path-Goal theory The path-goal model of leadership was introduced by Martin Evans and Robert House. Sub-ordinates do not usually need their boss to repeatedly tell them how to do a routine job. If the leader does not have required powers. Environmental characteristics are factors. the leader will have to play a major role in guiding and directing the group's activities. According to the path-goal theory. y A final point about LPC theory is that. ambiguous. the primary work group and the formal authority system. a risk-oriented leader to lie most effective. respect or confidence and. If the leader has the power to assign work. the leader may use achievement-oriented behavior to encourage continued high performance of sub-ordinates. when structure is high. to look after their needs and ensuring that they get the rewards and benefits. It includes task structure. According to this model managers can adjust their behavior to include any four kinds of leadership behavior mentioned above. For instance. However. Path-goal theory says that a leader can motivate subordinates by influencing their expectations. complex.

two consultative types of leadership.g. AII Manager asks for information from subordinates but makes (he decision alone. Decision-Making Styles in the VYJ model Decision Style Description AI Manager makes the decision alone. G = Group The situation is defined by a series of questions about the characteristics or attributes of the problem under consideration. To maximize decision effectiveness. It helps a leader to determine the extent. C II Manager and subordinates meet as a group to discuss the situation but the manager makes the decision. a new office for that individual only. This model has a much less focus than the path-goal theory. For example. The VYJ theory argues that decision-effectiveness is best judged by the quality of decision and by the acceptance of that decision on the part of employees. which are CI and CII and the other one is group GII. As summarized in the following table. The appropriate leadership depends on the situation. but the theory emphasizes that leaders can use the control they want. Two of them are used when the problem affects the entire group.ordinates may or may mil be informed about what the situation is. the leader uses one of the four decisions. Decision acceptance is the extent to which employees accept and are loyal to their decisions. CI Manager shares the situation with individual subordinates and asks for information and evaluation. C= Consultative. to which employees should participate in the decision-making processes. To address the questions. e. Sub. the VYJ theory suggests that leaders adopt one of five decision-making leaderships.Leaders do not always have control over environmental factors. G II Manager and subordinates meet as a group to discuss the situation and the group makes the decision. #71 . there are two autocratic types of leadership. to adjust the environment and to motivate sub-ordinates. which are AI and All. a decision about the facilities to be given to employees in a new office affects the entire group and the other two are appropriate when the decision affects a single individual only. (e) The Vroom-Yetton-Jago Theory (VYJ) The Vroom-Yetton-Jago model was first introduced by Vroom and Yetton in 1973 and was revised by Vroom and Jago in 1988. Subordinates do not meet as a group and the manager alone makes the decision. A = Autocratic.

doctors and attendants act immediately without waiting for directive or supportive behaviors of leaders in an emergency ward. OTHER CONTINGENCY APPROACHES In addition to these three major theories. Those in the 'ingroup' receive more of the manager's time and attention and are better performers. the task and the organization replace leaders' behaviors. Charismatic people attract followers and this type of leader has great power over his or her followers. The model suggests that as followers become more mature. The followers of a charismatic leader identify with the leader's beliefs. the subordinate may not need direction. Other subordinates remain in the µout-group¶s. trust and liking. For example. Several characteristics of the sub-ordinate may serve to replace or change . the interpersonal skills model. The VYJ model was criticized because of its complexity. HRD. Similarly. who receive less of leader's time and attention. answering the questions about the problem attributes and developing a strategy for decisionmaking participation.techniques such as. accept.the behavior of the leaders. They do not take into consideration. such as cultural flexibility. inspirational leadership. Leadership Skills There is now recognition in both leadership theory and practice of the importance of skills. when a patient is admitted to an emergency room in a hospital. inflexibility and a rigid reward structure. EMERGING PERSPECTIVES ON LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS The new perspectives that have attracted attention are the concepts of substitutes for leadership and transformational leadership. the subordinate may not need or want support. are especially comprehensive and useful. The substitute concept identifies the situations where the characteristics of the subordinates. When the task is challenging. Characteristics of the task that may substitute the leadership include. For example. increase at a moderate rate and then decline again. competence and experience. y Life Cycle Model: The life cycle model suggests-that appropriate leader behavior depends on the maturity of the followers.Moreover. Finally. communication. the leader's employee-oriented behavior should start low. Simultaneously. maturity includes motivation. the availability of feedback and intrinsic satisfaction. involving developing self-awareness. the widely recognized organizational behavior . However. gaining power and influence. training. and self-management of learning. For example. it has received little scientific support from researchers. symbolic leadership and transformational leadership. managing stress and solving problems creatively. Research shows that people in the µin-group¶ are more productive and more satisfied with their work than µout group¶ members. Although there are many skills. increases teaming experiences and inspires new ways of thinking. Although the VYJ model is too new to have been thoroughly tested. involving communicating supportively. when the job is routine and simple. Charisma is a form of interpersonal attraction. leadership may not be needed. Organizational characteristics that may substitute for leadership include formalization group cohesion. trust and obey the leader without questioning him and thereby contribute toward the success of the organizational goals. motivating others and managing conflict. This is a leadership that transmits a sense of mission. employees with much ability and experience may not need to be told what to do. one of each is to be used when the decision has to be made quickly because of some urgency and the others arc to be used when the decision can be made more slowly and the leaders wants to use the opportunity to develop subordinates' decision-making abilities. Their personal skills model. Transformational Leadership Another new concept of leadership goes by a number of labels: charismatic leadership. a strong need for independence by the sub-ordinate may result in ineffectiveness of leaders¶ behavior. The other models are as follows: y Vertical Dyad Linkage Model: This model stresses the . For example. job design and leaders can also effectively use behavioral management.fact that leaders actually have different kinds of working relationship with different subordinates. The Vertical Dyad Linkage model suggests that leaders establish special working relationships with some subordinates based on some combination of respect. Many leaders are familiar with the life cycle theory because it is both simple and logical. there are other contingency models or theories developed in recent years. In this context. the situations where the leadership is not needed. when policies are formal and rigid. These people constitute the µin-group¶. creativity. Computer software has been developed to aid leaders in defining the situation. Substitutes for Leadership The existing leadership theories and models try to specify what kind of leader¶s behavior is appropriate for different situations. nurses. evidence so far indicates that this model can help leaders to choose the most effective way to include the sub-ordinates in decision-making. #72 . Each manager-subordinate relationship represents one vertical dyad. how leaders should behave and perform effectively. the leader needs to move gradually from high to low task orientation. the research-based skills identified by Whetten and Cameron seem to be most valuable. Charismatic leaders are self-confident and can influence others.

#73 .

it is possible to raise one¶s capacity to handle in different situations. depression in the economy can create negative stress for sales personnel. the work and non-work domains of one's life are closely interrelated. Stress is defined as "the reactions of individuals to new or threatening factors in their work environments´. Physicians. How much contact an individual has with coworkers and managers. the person is likely to psychologically or physically withdraw from work. which may ultimately lead to turnover. The more successfully one handles a stressful situation without panicking or getting overwhelmed by it. Thus.LESSON -15 STRESS MANAGEMENT Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. In these cases. People with an internal locus of control also handle stress well since they feel they are in control of the situation. rather than feeling controlled by the situation they are facing. the more confidently will the individual face further stressful situations. The stresses and strains experienced in one domain are carried over to the other. rewards. For example. and have defined the term in a variety of different ways. Third source is problems in personal lives. The positive stress is also called the eustress. and how pleasant those interactions are all influences of how much stress an individual experiences at work. Physical withdrawal will manifest itself in increased rates of tardiness and absenteeism. which can spill over into the work environment. psychiatrists. the amount of time pressure an individual faces and the amount of expectations others have of a person at work can all lead to job stress. SOURCES OF JOB STRESS y Job Characteristics o Role ambiguity o Role conflict o Role overload o Ethical dilemmas y Interpersonal Relationships o Amount of contact with others o Dealing with people in other departments #74 . forgetting to do things. among others. Rice. For every individual there is an optimum level of stress under which he or she may perform to full capacity. However. you should be able to understand: y The meaning of stress y Various sources of stress y Various effects or consequences of stress y Various methods of managing stress The nature of stress has been studied by scholars in a wide range of academic disciplines. the motivational level to work reaches a low. If one operates in a very low stress environment and constantly experiences boredom. Stress can be either positive or negative. This makes it possible for them to manage their environmental stress without experiencing its harmful effects. SOURCES OF STRESS Stress is a reality of our everyday life. there are certain other types of work that are very threatening and anxietyarousing. and researchers in management have all studied its causes and its symptoms. One major source of job stress is the job itself. and apathy sets in. Thus. and excitement. internal locus of control and selfesteem seem to effectively handle a high level of stress. If the stress experienced is below this optimum level. Psychological withdrawal will result in careless mistakes being frequently made. point. An individual possessing high degree of tolerance for ambiguity allows him to experience very little anguish while operating under conditions of insufficient information or in an uncertain environment. they also anticipate them eagerly and look forward to the additional challenges. The way the job is designed. For example. the new and uncertain job situations create positive stress. if one experiences stress at work. There are both positive and negative stresses that come from our work and nonwork lives. As pointed out by Near. Interpersonal relationships are a second source of job stress. that stress will be carried over to the home. adding further tension to an already stressful work situation. and Hunt (1980) and Sckaran (1986). Employees may feel anxious about their new work assignments. how much time he or she deals with clients or consumers. and thinking of things other than work during work hours. each individual can sense and determine how much stress is functional for an individual to operate in a productive manner. Those with high self-esteem also handle stress with ease since a high self-esteem increases the confidence and enables them to deal with stressful situations with calmness and clear thinking. promotions to new jobs present employees with positive stress. Though the optimum stress level is different Form different individuals. then the individual gets bored. because they will be much more anxious about making sales commissions and sales quotas. Some new work situations can bring us positive challenges and excitement. Research indicates that those who possess high tolerance of ambiguity.

increased frequency of nervous symptoms and increased health problems. subordinates. budget. Too much prolonged contact with other people can cause stress. if employees are having some personal problems. On the other hand. For example. y Lack of career promotion in organizations may be sometime cause stress. People in other departments do not always have an adequate understanding of jobs outside their own areas. and he or she experiences stress. With the recent increase in mergers and acquisitions among major organizations. salespeople in a store with no customer. Ironically. coworkers. a diffuse feeling of dread about upcoming meetings and interactions. y Role Conflict: Often employees discover that different groups of people in an organization have widely varying expectations of them. y Role Underload: Role Underload is the condition in which employees have too little work to do or too little variety -in their work. or clients. #75 . For example. Personal Factors Employees¶ personal lives have a marked effect on their lives at work. Role ambiguity is anxiety arousing among employees that leads to job stress. and may fear of reprisal and other undesirable consequences. which results in stress. are as follows: y Amount of contact with others: Jobs vary in terms of how much interpersonal contact is built into them. Organizational Factors Following are the organizational factors that cause stress in individuals: y Work environment factors such as noise. When day-today life in an organization is marked by unfriendly. technology. Three aspects of interpersonal relationships at work. A role is simply the set of expectations that other people in the organization have for an individual. poor lighting. radiation and smoke are stress-inducing agents. employees are continually tense and this causes stress. space or manpower also induce stress in the work environment. y Role Ambiguity: When there is a lot of uncertainty surrounding job definitions or job expectations. heal. This inconsistency of expectations associated with a role is called role conflict. distant. could be said to experience role underload. The expectations others have of an employee arc sometimes unclear. or hostile exchanges.y y o Organizational climate Organizational Factors Personal Factors o Career concerns o Geographical mobility o Rate of life change Job Characteristics A major source of job stress is a person's role in the organization. coworkers. Interpersonal Relationships Another major source of stress in organization is poor interpersonal relationships with supervisors. standing around all day with nothing to do. If things are going well personally. more and more employees arc experiencing job stress as a result of role ambiguity. they might be more tense or distracted when they go to work. or too high for the employee to meet within the time allotted. y Insufficient resources such as time. y Ethical Dilemmas: Ethical dilemmas such as whether or not one should report the observed unethical behaviors of another person can cause extreme levels of stress in individuals. y Structural factors in the organizational setting such as staff rules and' regulations and reward systems. raw materials. They have more energy and patience for dealing with problems at work. Working under time pressure is especially stressful. may cause stress. and that they cannot meet all those expectations. employees develop a generalized anxiety. When interpersonal relationships at work are unpleasant. y Amount of contact with people in other departments: Having contacts with people outside one's own department creates a special sort of stress. Tensions arise because one might have to contend against one's own colleagues who might be close friends. people experience role ambiguity. customers and suppliers expect an employee to behave in certain predictable ways. y Environmental factors of stress include sudden and unanticipated changes in the marketplace. which have a negative impact on job stress. supervisors. in conflict. they are more likely to be upbeat and optimistic. this naturally imposes stresses and strains on the individuals who are responsible for getting the job done. When one has to produce and perform with inadequate resources on a long-term basis. role underload leads to low self-esteem. which can cause stress. y Role Overload: Role overload is a situation in which employees feel they are being asked to do more than time or ability permits. This will be especially true for those who have strong moral values of right and wrong and a deep sense of personal and corporate social responsibility. y Organizational climate: The overall psychological climate of the organization can create stress. the financial market and so on.

These arrangements help to reduce the anxiety and stress for the moving family. apathy. which is handled by individuals in dysfunctional ways. The stresses experienced by employees who take on critical roles and are responsible for safety can sometimes be detrimental to the public. When geographical moves arc undertaken as part of a job transfer. Recreational Program #76 . Breaking-down the job into various components clarifies the role of the job for the entire system. their families and for the organizations they serve. poor image and loss of future business are enormous. Effects on the Individual The impacts of distress on individuals are of following types: y The subjective or intrapersonal effects of stress are feelings of anxiety. excessive eating. y The manifest health effects could be stomach disorders. Consequences for the Family Negative stress. METHODS OF MANAGING STRESS Stress is a factor that everybody has to contend with on a daily basis both in the work and non-work spheres of life. and other psychosomatic disorders. Sometimes experiencing the stress may cause aggressive behaviors on the part of the individual. alienation from family members. the ability lo function effectively in one's daily life. high blood pressure. For instance. such as drinking or withdrawal behaviors. will have an adverse effect on their home life. y The behavioral effects arc manifest in such things as accident proneness. and experience their new work environments as unpredictable. the moves can be even more stressful.e. nervousness. dryness of throat. and excessive sweating. There are several ways in which stress can be handled so that the dysfunctional consequences of stress can be reduced. and even divorce could result from dysfunctional coping mechanisms. and withdrawal behaviors. increased alienation of the worker from the job. y The physiological effects can be seen in increased heart and pulse rate. too. asthma. Since the body has only a limited capacity to respond to stress. impulsive behaviors. and anger. This also helps to eliminate reduction of work and thus lowering down the stress level. and even destructive and aggressive behaviors resulting in strikes and sabotage. drinking. i. depression. having jobs with less status. Needless to say that the costs of employee stress to the organization in terms of lost profits. navigator. In addition. boredom. The transferred employees are likely to feel out of control at work. It also leads to lost of customers because of poor worker attitudes. depression. smoking. Spouse abuse.e. power and prestige than they think they deserve. short attention span. or that of an airline pilot. child abuse. Some of them are: Role Analysis Technique (RAT) The Role Analysis Technique helps both the manager and the employee to analyze the requirements and expectations from the job. Consequences to Organizations The adverse consequences on an organization include low performance and productivity. by finding alternative employment for the spouses of the transferred employees and getting admissions in schools for their children in the new place. y The cognitive effects include poor concentration.. EFFECTS OR CONSEQUENCES OF JOB STRESS Negative stress has unpleasant consequences for them. or air traffic controller may result in serious accidents. the stresses experienced by a train driver or railway guard. it is important for individuals to optimally manage their stress level to operate as fully functioning human beings.y y Factors that influence how much stress people bring from their persona! lives to the work setting are as follows: Career Concerns: One major career concern that can cause stress is lack of job security. high rates of absenteeism and poor decision-making. eczema. i. mental blocks and inability to make decisions. fatigue. the mental health. will also decline as excessive stress is experienced. Geographical Mobility: Geographical moves create stress because they disrupt the routines of daily life. A second career concern that can cause employees stress is status incongruity. Job Relocation Job relocation assistance is offered to employees who are transferred.

These programs include biofeedback. effective work. participants are given materials to help them identify the major sources of stress in their own lives. It would also reduce anxiety and stress among the employees. By becoming knowledgeable about the possible avenues for advancement. Career Counseling Career Counseling helps the employee to obtain professional advice regarding career that would help the individual to achieve personal goals.Providing recreational facilities. Managers are trained to give better performance appraisals. Delegation Another way of coping with job stress is to delegate some responsibilities to others. to listen to employees¶ problems more effectively. meditation to career counseling. the employees who consider their careers to be important can reduce their stress levels by becoming more realistic about their options and can start preparing themselves for it. participants are given a basic understanding of the causes of stress and its consequences. if any. These include counseling employees who seek assistance on how to deal with alcohol and drug abuse. time management and interpersonal skills workshops. #77 . Health Maintenance Probably the most frequently used organizational stress management program is health maintenance. help to reduce the stress levels of the employees. and some strategies for dealing with that stress more effectively. Supervisor Training Another type of stress management Program that organizations are experimenting with is supervisor training. Delegation can directly decrease workload upon the manager and helps to reduce the stress. arranging group meditation programs. Many companies invest large sum of money in gym and sport facilities for maintaining the health of the employees. Individual Stress Reduction Workshops Some organizations have also sponsored individual stress reduction workshops for their employees. Employee Assistance Program Another widely used strategy is the employee assistance Programs. and to communicate job assignments and instructions more clearly. It also makes the employees aware of what additional educational qualifications or specialized technical training. (hat they should acquire. People can learn to get better organized so that they can do their work more efficiently. The emphasis on supervisory training Program is how to prevent job stress. dealing with marital and other family problems. which offer a variety of assistance to employees. ! More Information and Help Some new employees have to spend more time on a job than necessary because they are not sure what they are doing. Time Management Another way of coping with stress is to manage time more effectively. So it is necessary that some help should be provided before doing the work that would lead to much efficient. In lectures and seminars. Then. handling conflicts at the work place.

there is difference between the two. Organizations vary in how much legitimate power they grant to individuals. To the extent. and knowledgeable. Organizational rewards include pay. In such organizations. naturally they will obey and respect the superior. POWER AND AUTHORITY Sometimes power and authority is used synonymously because of their objective of influencing the behavior of others. However. on the other hand. expert and referent power. Power. promotions and valued office assignments. is personal and does not have any legitimacy. It can be a factor in almost any organizational decision. The structure of the organization also identifies the strength of the legitimate authority by position location. everyone knows who has the most power and few people challenge the power structure. A manager who has complete control over such rewards has a good deal of power. demotion or other method of embarrassment for the people. It is the potential ability of a person or group to influence another person or group. Sources of Power John R. Referent Power A person who is respected by certain others for whatever reason has referent power over those people. suspension. that a low-ranking worker has important knowledge not available to a superior. Reward Power This type of power is the extent to which one person has control over rewards that are valued by another. Power is a factor at all levels of most organizations. Expert Power It is more of personal power than organizational power. Perhaps. Manager who uses praise and recognition has also a good deal of power. Both formal and informal groups and individuals may have power. It is the ability to get things done the way one wants them to be done. accept and be willing to follow him or her. Legitimate power is similar to formal authority and hence it can be created. reward. For instance.LESSON-16 POWER AND POLITICS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. higher-level positions exercise more power than lower-level positions in a classical hierarchical organizational structure. behavior or perspectives have changed as a result of their interaction. The greater the perceived values of such rewards. Since any person who is not easily replaceable has more power as compared to those who are easily replaceable. P. power is a crucial factor in influencing the behavior in organizational situation. Power does not have any legal sanctity while authority has such sanctity. This power occurs when the expert threatens to withhold his knowledge or skill. Expert power is that influence which one wields as a result of one's experience. special skill or knowledge. coercive. Although the use of coercive power is often successful in the short run. Legitimate Power A person's position within organization provides him with legitimate power. it tends to create resentment and hostility and therefore is usually detrimental to the organization in the long run. French and Bertram Raven identified five bases or sources of power: legitimate. Influence can take many forms. Coercive Power People have. it does not need an official position or the backing of an institution to have power. you should be able to: y Know the meaning and sources of power. he is likely to have more power. Authority is institutional and is legitimate. If the sub-ordinates view their superior as competent. y Understand how people use power y Discuss how people use political behavior in organizations y Understand the techniques of political behavior Power is easy to feel but difficult to define. changed or withdrawn by the formal organization. A person with referent power may have charisma and people who respect that person are likely to get emotionally involved with the respected person and identify with. coercive power if they have control over some form of punishment such as threat of dismissal. granted. A manager¶s coercive power increases with the number and severity of the sanctions over which the manager has control. But stilt. People with referent power are often #78 . One person has influenced another if the second person's opinions. the greater the power. a manager can cause psychological harm also lo an employee. The organization gives managers the power to direct the activities of their subordinates.

of power. a number of people are seeking to gain and use power to achieve their own ends. Tushman defined politics. Decisions are not made in rational or formal way but rather through compromise accommodation and bargaining. managers must make people aware of how much they know. directions and the other major parameters of the organization. enhance and use power and other resources to obtain their preferred outcomes in a situation where there is uncertainly or disagreement. If a particular sales person faces any difficulty in selling a particular product and turns to manager for his help. For instance.i leader's power and some of the variables that are likely to lead to three general types of employee responses or outcomes-commitment. Public punishment makes everyone uneasy and humiliating and hence should be done private. This pursuit of power is political behavior. the manager must be able to identify the defect and must be able to help and educate him. Using Referent Power Leaders have traditionally strengthened their referent power by hiring employees with backgrounds similar to their own. The boss must follow normal procedures and make sure the request is appropriate. Using Expert Power To gain power from their expertise. For instance. when a superior asks a sub-ordinate to do something. using coercive power is a natural response when something goes wrong. One great organizational scholar. coercion is now generally recognized to be the most difficult form of punishment to use successfully in an organization. A good manager will be such that the punishment fit the crime. The following table list^ the five sources of . In any organization. This imitation reflects the rising star's power over the imitations. Such by passing of the normal chain of command can cause hard feelings among all the people involved. Though the secretary does what the boss asks. For instance. the table shows that a leader's use of referent power will lead employees to be committed lo the leader¶s project if they see that the project is important to the leader. good managers must try to analyse the sources of their power and be careful how they use that power. a vicepresident whose secretary is busy should not assume that he or she can just ask a supervisor's secretary to drop all other work and type a letter. Therefore. warning an individual who uses copying machine to make -personal copies but firing someone who steals equipment from the organization. the sub-ordinate usually complies without resistance. But often employees resist coercive power. #79 . Most of these suggestions imply that managers must be sensitive to employees concerns. Employees must know that they get rewarded for good work. before giving a reward. However. One of the most positive and subtle uses of referent power is the process of rote modeling. Managers who are insensitive to their employees may find that their legitimate power dwindles and that they must resort to coercive power. Using Legitimate Power The use of legitimate power is seldom challenged in an organization. Using Reward Power The manager. A respected manager who wants her employees to be punctual. The work of Gary Yukl provides both a way to predict the consequences of certain uses of power and guidelines for using power. resent it and losing respect for people using that type. Manager can use his expert power most effectively to address employee concerns. However a leader who relics on coercive power is very unlikely to have committed employees. compliance and resistancewhen the leader uses the power. the way the superior makes the request and follows it up are very important for ensuring the sub-ordinate¶s future compliance and the growth of the superior's referent power.imitated by others with the star's actions. at any given moment. attitudes and dress. must be sure that the employee has actually done the job and done it well. considerate and creative can simply demonstrate those behaviors herself and her employees will likely imitate her actions. µas the structure and process of the use of authority and power to affect definition of goals. Managers who wish to maintain their credibility should make threats only when they intend to carry through on them and should never threaten a punishment that they cannot bring about. HOW PEOPLE USE POWER An individual manager may have power derived from any or all of the five bases of power and the manager may use 1 that power in different ways. Hence. The secretary who understands the importance of a task will be more likely to work enthusiastically on it. Using Coercive Power For some people. POLITICAL BEHAVIOR AND ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS Power and politics are inextricably interwoven with the fabric of an organization's life. Organizational politics refers to the activities carried out by people to acquire. still the boss could be cordial and polite when making requests and should whenever possible explain why a particular task needs to be done.

People use political behavior in organizations in response to the five main factors: y Ambiguous goals y Scarce resources y Technology and the environment y Non-Programmed decisions y Organizational change FACTORS INFLUENCING POLITICAL BEHAVIOR Ambiguous Goals When the goals of a department or the entire organization are ambiguous then there is more room available for playing politics. These decisions are not based on clear standards and precedents. However a manager who understands why people use political behavior and the techniques people usually employ has the best chance to manage political behavior successfully. the stronger is political power base of those who possess these information. Controlling lines of communication is another political technique related to the flow of information. Thus. bunch and guesses and all these subjective feelings can be affected by political behavior. perceptions are selective and biased and information processing capacities are constrained. Some people may use the ambiguity to manipulate the situation for their benefit. Hence decisions are taken on intuition. People who have some control over lines of communication can yield considerable political power. In situations in which technologies are uncertain. For example. The more critical (he information and fewer the people who have it. If is even better that some of them are quiet effective at it. Pfeiffer. the companies have to make a lot of non-Programmed decisions on certain issues. who has done extensive research on -the subject of power in organizations. Scarce Resources When resources are scarce. peoples in powerful positions have the opportunity to play politics.Managing Political Behavior The very nature of political behavior makes it difficult to manage or even approach in a rational and systematic manner. states as follows: ³If there is one concluding message. Non-Programmed Decisions Sometimes. the secretary may have #80 . These changes may include restructuring of a division or creating a division. It is widely accepted that managers have to be politicians in order to maintain their positions in the organizational hierarchy as well as serve the interests of their units. preferences are conflicting. it is that it is probably effective and it is certainly normal that these managers do behave as politicians. because such issues involve many factors and variables that are complex in nature. personnel changes. political behavior is increased when the internal technology is complex and when external environment is highly volatile. people have the tendency to use political behavior to make sure that they get the biggest possible share of the resource. Organizational Change Whenever there are changes in the organizational structure and policies. the model of an effective politician may be an appropriate one for both the individual and for the organization in the long-run´. CHANGES IN TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Organizational effectiveness is largely a function of the organization¶s ability to appropriately respond to external environment which is highly dynamic and generally unpredictable as well as adequately adopt to complex technological developments. TECHNIQUES OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR The most commonly used techniques of political behavior are: y Controlling information y Controlling lines of communication y Controlling agenda y Using outside experts : y Game playing y Image building y Building coalitions One technique of political behavior is to control the dissemination of critical information to others. introducing a new product line and all these changes influence political behavior when various individuals and groups try to control the given situation.

Hence. having a pleasant smile. For instance. combating politics must be undertaken by the top management and some of the steps that can be undertaken are: open communication. It is necessary to have the alliance with the right people. Building coalitions or alliance is another technique of gaining political power. Managers with this awareness will expect an increase in political activity during times of organizational change and will learn how to handle it. Coalition building can become simply a matter of quid pro quo: I will support you if you will support me. Managing Political Behavior Though it is virtually impossible to eliminate political behavior in organizations. hiring an outside consultant can be a clever political move. managers who develop an ability to recognize and predict political activity are in the best position to limit its effects. for instance. therefore. create enemies. Accordingly. She may use this power in favoring those whom she likes and frustrating those against whom she may have it grudge. honest. In addition. The person who controls a meeting's agenda. avoid meeting by going out of the town on the day of meeting. Some of the factors that enhance a preferred image consist of being well dressed. the employees will be likely to put their energy into meeting the stated criteria for gelling resources rather than into political activity. Politics when carried to the extreme can damage morale. It involves people doing something insincere. then employees will he less likely to think that the decisions were political and less likely to use political techniques to try to influence the next decision. appearance and style. Image building is creating positive impression reflected by the personality.considerable power in deciding who sees the boss and who does not at a given time. For instance. Controlling the agenda also gives a person power over information. laying down clear criteria and making it transparent to the employees who will be laid off. The opinions of outside experts and consultants often curry much weight in organizations and many consultants can be swayed by political interests. always project an image of competence and selfassurance. if a manager understands the reasons for it and the techniques of political behavior. for instance. Uncertainty in the form of ambiguous goals and changes that affect the organization tends to increase the use of political activity. in case of lay off the organization can reduce political behavior. may consistently put a particular item last on the list and then take up time so that meeting adjourns before considering the item. Open communication can reduce the political activity if all employees know how and why an organization allocates resources. destroy loyalty. If the organization is open about why it made particular decision. #81 . Finally. a manager who does not want to answer a committee's tough questions may. it is possible to reduce it. damper co-operative spirit and much time and energy is spent planning attacks and counter attacks which are detrimental to organizational health. but not outright illegal or unethical to gain political ends. reduce the political behavior. sociable and loyal to the organizational interests. being attractive. reduction of uncertainty and creating awareness. Consultants know who is paying them and even honest consultants are likely to give opinions consistent with those of their employer. Game playing can range from fairly innocent to very manipulative. Reducing such uncertainty can. Open communication is one of the ways an organization can reduce uncertainty.

patterns of authority. Since the environment affects organization both directly and indirectly. DETERMINANTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN The key situational determinants of organizational design are technology. it has a more centralized structure with numerous rules and regulations.  In unit or small-batch technology. Since the computer manufacturer has to respond to frequent technological breakthroughs and changes in its competitive environment. Joan Woodward was the first person to see the link between technology and organizational design. Examples are home-appliance. which include interest rates. shareholders competitors. war. non-routine or intensive technology needs to ensure that its structure can adapt to changes in the technologies.  In continuous-process technology. Technology can affect all aspects of an organization. which include as elections. therefore. then. She found that organizations within each set had similar designs but the designs varied somewhat from set to set. y Technology: Technology is the set of processes that an organization uses to transform various resources such as materials and labor into products or services. not just production and the same technological change can have very different effects on different organizations. the differences in organizational design that might exist between a computer manufacturer and university. approaches to co-ordination and line-staff differentiation into a single and unified organizational system. a highly formalized centralized structure is appropriate for an organization that uses the same routine technology while a more flexible structure is necessary for an organization that often uses new technology. products are manufactured according to customer specifications in small quantities. Charles Perrow concluded that me key question concerning an organization¶s technology is whether it is routine or non-routine. Woodward viewed unit or small-batch technology as -the least complex while the continuous process technology as the most complex. finance. Examples are petroleum refiners.LESSON -17 ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. They recommended a bureaucratic or mechanistic structure for organizations with slowly changing technology and an organic or flexible structure for organizations with rapidly changing technology. In particular. Consider. Woodward defined three basic types of technology. the managers must keep an eye on it and be ready to modify organization's design to respond to environmental changes.  In large batch or mass-production technology. for example. products. #82 . In his view. If the managers are good at analyzing and predicting changes in the environment. the hierarchy. y Environment: The environment also influences the type of design an organization is likely to adopt. you should be able to: y Understand the concept of organizational design y Identify the determinants of organizational design y Know the various forms of organizational design CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN Organizational design is the overall configuration of structural components that defines jobs. Examples are printing press and studios. machines and events. they can help the organization to take advantage of any change. Bums and Stalker argued that managers should examine the rate of change in technology to determine the best organizational structure. products are transformed from raw materials into finished goods through a series of machine transformations that change the composition of the materials themselves. objects. groupings of jobs. are manufactured in assembly-line fashion by combining component pans to create finished goods. Therefore." automobile and computer manufacturers. legislatures and regulatory agencies. it is likely to have a relatively flat and decentralized design whereas the university has a more stable environment and is less affected by technology. which include customers. which include buildings. organizational environment. floods etc. ' An organization that uses continuous process. unemployment rate. The environment of an organization consists of all the factors and conditions outside the organization that might affect it. economic factors. and organization size and life cycle. food processors and chemical manufacturers.

The figure 17. The design relics on product departmentalization with the various products constituting different businesses.2 shows the H-form organization. Life cycle refers to organization's maturity relative to that of other organizations. It allows an organization to staff each department with experts. and more decentralization than small organizations. Organizations tend to follow a predictable pattern of growth. Size can affect organization design in many different ways. usually. an organization can buy and sell its individual businesses with little or no disruption to the others. U stands for Unity. more standard operating procedures. The following figure 17. After they are created. as organizations grow in size. it also facilitates wide spans of management and helps the Managing Director to maintain centralized authority. more rules and regulations. The main disadvantage of this form of organization is that it is complex and diverse thereby creating difficulty for top managers in having knowledge about all products. H stands for Hybrid and is also known as conglomerate. the U-form design shows decision-making and employees within each department may concentrate on their own function forgetting overall organizational goals. A group of researchers in England found that large organizations tend to have more job specialization. Members of the organization who perform the same functions arc grouped together into departments. It is also called as "functional design as it relies exclusively on the functional approach to departmentalization. they grow for some period of time and then eventually stabilize as a mature organization. First. The loss in one product is compensated by profit in another. An organization's life cycle and growth rates are directly linked to the strategy that the organization is pursuing. It tends to make it hard for organization to monitor the performance of individual managers within each functional area. in terms of the number of its full-time employees. This design has two advantages. an organization design needed by a small but rapidly growing business is different from an organization design needed by an established and entrenched industry giant growing at a stable and predictable rate. Following are the various forms of an organization based on their design: y The U-Form Organization: In the U-form organization. limits and potentials of" its environment and the life cycle stage it follows. This design usually results from the corporate strategy of unrelated diversification of the products. The H-Form Organization: In the H-form organization. Secondly. they often find that the disadvantages of the U-form tend 10 become more significant and adopt different designs as they evolve through their life cycles. since each department is highly dependent on another. such an organization can protect itself from cyclical fluctuations in a single industry.y Organizational Size and Life Cycle: Organization size refers to how large : the organization is. CONTEMPORARY FORMS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN Every organization has its own unique design depending on its technology. they should be prepared to adapt their design accordingly. The U-Form design has several advantages.1 shows the organization cycle. #83 . An organization's life cycle is related to its size. Such organization requires perfect coordination to operate smoothly aiming the various departments. When the organizations grow. Thus. To summarize. However.

it is easy for top managers to understand.3 shows the matrix organization. other that manufactures lyre and still another that manufactures car polish. However. It has also some drawbacks such as an organization lacks a clear chain of command thereby 'resulting into confusion about which manager lies authority over a given employee. Figure 17. y A matrix design allows an organization to capitalize on the advantages of both functional and product departmentalization. a consumer familiar with an organization¶s batteries will be inclined to buy its tyres and car polish. It is similar to the H-form design but has one notable distinction. 'the organization cannot escape from the effect of cyclical fluctuations. Such companies have offices and/or factories in different countries and usually have a centralized head office where they coordinate the global management. Although each is distinct from the other but still related. y The Matrix Organization: A matrix organization is created by overlaying product-based departmentalization on lo a functional structure. an organization with an M-form design might own one business that manufactures automobile batteries. These organizations have centralized head office in their home country that controls their various office in other parts of the world. Global Organization: An organization. if the businesses are too closely related. A primary advantage of the M-form organization is that it can achieve a great deal of synergy in its operations. The organization also has to devote more resources to coordination because of high levels of interdependence that result from a matrix. A matrix design is seldom used for an entire organization and is often used for a portion of it. Most of its businesses are in the same or related industries. Moreover. the M-form design is used to implement a corporate strategy of related diversification. because the various units are in the same or related businesses. co-ordinate and control them. in terms of manufacturing products that is used by automobile owners. Thus. For example. For example. #84 .y The M-Form Organization: In the M-form organization M stands for Multi-divisional and it is called the divisional design. which has assets in more than one country other than its home country is called as global organization.

its history.A global organization must modify and adapt its design to allow it to function effectively. #85 . who arc empowered with a great deal of autonomy and authority to make decisions. It is to be remembered that there is no one best form of design that all organizations should adopt. Nestlé¶s various organizations scattered around the world are operated by its own general managers. Each organization has to carefully assess its own strategy. life cycle and size. It must then choose a design that fit these elements most effectively. e. environment. its strengths and weaknesses. Its design is similar to the M-form but because the operating units are so far apart that there is little synergy. As a result. Nestle is almost a confederation of independent operating organizations. Us organizational design is like an umbrella. its technology.g. Nestle is a big global organization and highly decentralized.

an organization's values automatically enter every employee's personal values and actions over a period of time. Organizational Climate Even though organizational culture and organizational climate are sometimes used interchangeably. For this managers must change employee's ideas about what is and what is not appropriate behavior. Culture communicates whether the organization expects its managers to be aggressive or conservative in decisions-making. slogans and ceremonies also come into being. the box will have little effect on organization morale. which are embedded in organization's soul that stays stable irrespective of the changes in leadership and environment. then. Some organizations try to emphasize the importance of employees¶ ideas by rewarding them for their suggestions. any organization willing to change its culture must realize that such a change is never easy and cannot be brought about simply by ordering employees. heroes. serve to maintain and perpetuate the culture through subsequent generations of employees. It is. One way to brine about such changes is to manage the symbols that are important to the organization. Schein defines organizational culture as the pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has invented. However. According to Bowditch and Buono. a strong culture is. various symbols. Most managers agree that a strong and clear culture is preferable to weak and vague culture because it helps to provide a common frame of reference for managerial decision-making and a wide variety of other organizational activities. possible to change organizational culture. changes in the organizational culture will be as stable as the old culture was. stories. you should be able to understand: y y Organizational culture and explain its importance. to improve the organization performance. Some organizations have clear. however. Once successfully made. Organizational culture has a profound influence on individual employees because it is generally an accepted set of values rather than a written set of rules with which employees might not argue. According to Deal and Kennedy. Such values are part of organizational culture in spite of not being formally written like rules and regulations of the organization. strong and well-defined culture whereas: others have ambiguous. However. many organizations have difficulty in expressing their cultural values. discovered and developed while learning to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. They do not usually appear in the organizational training Program and in fact. However. All the above definitions stress acceptable and unacceptable behavior of its members. how it operates and what it considers important. These. Factors affecting organizational climate CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE Organizational culture is the set of values that states what an organization stands for. one organization might value solidarity and loyalty to organization more than any other value whereas another organization might stress on good relations with customers. there are certain differences between the two. if the suggestion box remains just a symbol and organization never translates the suggestions into actions. weak and poorly defined cultures. "a system of informal rules that spells out how people have to behave most of the time". "Organizational culture is concerned with the nature of #86 . generous or moderate in supporting social causes and ruthless or kind in competitive dealings. Changing Organizational Culture Change is most often needed when the organization has lost its effectiveness and is struggling to either" carry out or change its strategic goals. Importance of Culture Culture plays a very significant role in any organization by communicating information about the overall acceptable and unacceptable behavior. They must create new role model and new stories to help employees understand the meaning of what is happening around them. An organizational culture generally lakes shape over time and is often deeply influenced by the values of the organizational founders. An organization's suggestion box is a symbol of an organization's openness to the ideas of the employees. For instance.LESSON -18 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND CLIMATE Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. As organizational culture evolves. Because organizational culture embody the organizational values. The manager trying to change an organizational culture faces lots of difficulties.

which serve as a major force in influencing their behavior. Schneider and Barlett describe six factors that have an influence over organizational climate such as managerial support. Thus. Similarly. which include communication. challenges and innovations. strict supervision and promotional achievement orientation. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE In every organization. organizational structure and process. it is very difficult to generalize exactly the factors affecting the climate. and can be described in terms of the values of a particular set of characteristics. leadership style. the nurture of subordinates. Organizational climate has a major influence on human performance through its impact on the motivation. agent dependence and general satisfaction. Lawrence James and Allan Jones have identified five factors influencing climate. which include management philosophy. #87 ." It is a set of characteristics and factors of the organization that are perceived by the employees and. performance arid evaluation standards. while climate is an indicator of whether those beliefs and expectations are being fulfilled. inter-agency conflict. Kahn has identified factors such as rules orientation. influences their behavior.beliefs and expectations about organizational life. job satisfaction and attitudes of people. physical environment and values. These factors may include job descriptions. motivation and leadership. there exist certain factors that exert deep influence on the climate." Organizational climate is a relatively enduring quality of the internal environment that is experienced by its members.

it is important to explain the difference between the concepts of effectiveness and efficiency to understand why organizations may he effective bin not efficient. or efficient but not effective. it is difficult to accept that ultimate goal of organization will be to serve society. productivity. As such. y Functional Approach y System Resource Approach Goal Approach Goal attainment is the most widely used criterion of organizational effectiveness. i. the approach should focus on operative goals that would serve as a basis for assessment of effectiveness. the vital question in determining effectiveness is how well an organization is doing for the super-ordinate system. The limitation of this approach is that when organizations have autonomy to follow its independent courses of action. motivation and satisfaction. The main limitation of this approaches the problem of identifying the real goals rather than the ideal goals. accidents. Parson states that since it has been assumed that an organization is identified in terms of its goal. turnover. effectiveness refers to maximization of profits by providing an efficient service that leads to high productivity and good employee morale. However the concept of effectiveness is not simple because there are many approaches in conceptualizing this term. the manager's own behavior contributes to achievement of organizational goals. this model is not different from the goal model. System Resource Approach System-resource approach of organizational effectiveness emphasizes on interdependency of processes that relate the organization to its environment. It has been defined in terms of organizational goal-achieving behavior. which help in measuring organizational effectiveness. efficiency. discussion of organizational effectiveness leads to the conclusion that there is no single indicator of effectiveness. The limitation of this model is that an acquisition of resources from environment is again related to the goal of an organization. Thus. Further. Thus. It refers to an amount of resources used to produce a particular unit of output. quality.19 ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. However. it cannot be applied for measuring organizational effectiveness in terms of its contributions to social system. On the other hand. economic and human for which every organization competes. It is generally measured as the ratio of inputs to outputs. profit.e. Managerial effectiveness is a causal variable in organizational effectiveness. Therefore. in goal approach. Functional Approach This approach solves the problem of identification of organizational goals. none of the single variable has proved to be entirely satisfactory. However. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Likert has classified the factors affecting organizational effectiveness into following three variables: y Causal y Intervening y End result #88 . Campbell has suggested several variables such as.. you should be able to understand: y y The concept of organizational effectiveness Factors contributing organizational effectiveness CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Organizational effectiveness is defined as an extent to which an organization achieves its predetermined objectives with the given amount of resources and means without placing undue strain on its members. Such approaches can be grouped into following three approaches: y Goal Approach. effectiveness concentrates more on human side of organizational values and activities whereas efficiency concentrates on the technological side of an organization. there exists a difference between the two concepts. morale. efficiency is a limited concept that pertains to the internal working of an organization. Therefore. Both the goal and functional approach do not give adequate consideration to the conceptual problem of the relations between the organization and its environment. Effectiveness is a broad concept and takes into account a collection of factors both inside and outside an organization. Instead. Sometimes efficiency and effectiveness are used as synonyms. focus towards attainment of these goals should also aim at serving the society.LESSON . The interdependence takes the form of input-output transactions and includes scarce and valued resources such as physical. It is commonly referred to as the degree to which predetermined goals are achieved.

e. The causal. loss and earnings.1 shows the relationship among various variables. The effectiveness model can be presented in a more complex way i. group and organizational levels in order to make the organization more effective. These causal variables include only those independent variables. motivations. attitudes. The inter-relationship may be visualized as psychological process where stimuli or causal variables acting upon the organism or intervening variables and creating certain responses or end-result variables. Hence. Intervening Variables Intervening variables according to Likert are those variables that reflect the internal state and health of an organization.Causal Variables Causal variables are those independent variables that determine the course of developments within an organization and the objectives achieved by an organization. at three different levels such as the individual. The causal variables are the key to organizational effectiveness. skills and behavior. to make organization effective. loyalties. costs. Causal variables include organization and management's policies.1: Inter-relationship of Variables The above model is quiet simple. while other variables will be corrected or improved automatically because of causal variables. Inter-Relationship of Variables The three variables such as causal. Figure 19. Figure 19. End-Result Variables End-Result variables are the dependent variables that reflect achievements of an organization such as its productivity. business and leadership strategies. Casual Variables y Leadership Style Management Decision y Organizational Philosophy Objectives and policies y Technology y Intervening Variables y Commitment to Objective y Motivation and Morale y Communication Leadership Skills y Conflict Resolution y Decision ±Making Figure 19. For example. performance goals and perceptions of all the members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. End Results Variables y Production y Cost y Sales y Earning y Turnover y Management Union Relationship #89 . intervening and end-result ore interrelated. attempt should be made to improve the causal variables. decisions. communication and decision-making. intervening and end-result variables comprise a complex network with many interdependent relationships. which can be altered by organization and its management.2 shows Levels of Variables.

This is because change in one may affect other and this change can be either positive or negative. which consists of various activities that enable an organization to cope with the dynamics of environment. research and development and other similar devices for effective coping with the environment. Effectiveness through Adaptive-Coping Cycle The organization must develop a system through which it can adapt or cope with the environmental requirements. which is dependent on external.The effective organization is built of effective individuals who work collectively in groups. 5. There are six stages in the adaptive-coping cycle as follows: 1. Stabilizing Internal Changes: The fourth stage of the cycle is to stabilize an internal sub-system of an organization. especially when the major organizational changes take place. #90 . Adaptive-Coping cycle is a continuous process. normally known as conversion process. i. Schein has suggested that an organization can do this through the adaptive coping cycle. Maintaining organizational effectiveness requires additional efforts. each individual tries to satisfy his goal by working in an organization and simultaneously satisfying organizational minis. 2. The extent to which individual and organizational goals are integrated. y There should be supportive internal climate. However. which can support good communication. A successful coping suggests that all the stages have to be successfully-negotiated and failure at any of these stages may result into ineffectiveness. which constitutes the input. Most of the organizations have adaptive sub-system such as marketing research. which provide willingness for change. Sensing of Change: The first stage is the sensing of change in internal or external environment. sub-system.e. 4. Obtaining Feedback: The last stage in the cycle is to obtain feedback on the outcome of the changes for further sensing the state of the external environment and the degree of integration of internal environment. This is similar to first stage. affects the degree of organizational effectiveness. Changing Conversion Process: The organization takes the inputs from environment for further processing. 6. Exploring New Outputs: When the internal change is stabilised. If there is no perfect integration of individual and organizational goals then organizational effectiveness is affected adversely. reduction in inflexibility and stimulation of self-protection. organizational effectiveness is not a result of integration between individual and organizational goals only but there are other causal variables affecting it. which are in accordance with environment requirements. Following are the major organizational conditions for effective coping: y There should be an effective communication system through which reliable and valid information can be passed.. y There should be enough internal flexibility so that changes can be brought and absorbed by an organization. 3. the organization can export new outputs. y Successful coping requires integration and commitment to organizational goals. Importing the Relevant Information: Organizations must be able to take the relevant information from the environment. He may sec his goal satisfaction in satisfying organizational goals.

Organizations encounter different forces for change. This may come from both human resource problems and managerial behavior. INTERNAL FORCES Internal forces for change come from inside the organization. The economic and social environment is so dynamic that without adapting to such change even the most successful organizations cannot survive in the changed environment. the degree of difficulty involved in the change and the time taken to bring about the change will depend on the target of change. Technological Advancements: Both manufacturing and service organizations are increasingly using technology as a means to improve productivity and market competitiveness. Although. Inappropriate leader behavior such as inadequate direction and support are the cause of conflict between managers and their subordinates. Unless the people arc willing to accept the need and responsibility for organizational change. Individual change is behavioral change. you should-be able to understand: y The concept of change in the organization y Forces affecting the change y Model and dynamics of planned change y The reasons for resistance to change y The method of overcoming resistance to change Change simply refers to alteration in the existing conditions of an organization. attitudes. management must continuously monitor the outside environment and be sufficiently innovative and creative to implement these changes effectively.LESSON . expectations and skills. many organizations hire lobbyists and consultants to help them detect and respond to social and political changes. managers need to adjust their managerial style according to the changing employee values. There are four key external forces for change: Demographic Characteristics: These include age. stress. Human Resource Problems These problems stem from employee perceptions about their work environment and conflict between an employee and organization needs. work overload and ambiguity. Managerial Behavior Excessive interpersonal conflict between managers and their subordinates is a sign of implementing an immediate change. Therefore. Organizations might respond to these problems by using the various approaches to job design by implementing realistic job previews and by reducing employees' role conflict. Management of change involves both individual and organizational change. education. educative strategies. Personal values affect employees¶ needs. Therefore. Nature of Change Organizations introduce changes through people. Organizations are entering into new partnerships with their suppliers in order to deliver higher quality products at lower prices. skill level and gender of employees.20 MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. which is determined by individual characteristics of members such as their knowledge. These forces come from external and internal sources of the organization. needs. #91 . EXTERNAL FORCES External forces for change originate outside an organization. Market Changes: The emergence of a global economy is forcing Indian organizations to change the way they do business. Although it is difficult for organizations to predict changes in political forces. individuals have to learn to adapt their attitudes and behavioral patterns to constantly changing environments. It is possible to bring about a total change m_ an organization by changing behaviors of individual members through participative and. In addition. intended changes can never be translated into reality. Organizations need to effectively manage these characteristics in order to receive maximum contribution and commitment from their employees. priorities and motivation. beliefs. Even in most stable organizations change is necessary to maintain stability. Social and Political Pressures: These forces are created by social and political events. Political events also create substantial change in an organization.

due to the same reasons of a group's over-riding influence on individual members.who are honest but in certain situations. it increases the likelihood of a poorly conceived and poorly executed Program. To accomplish this. Every group has its own dynamics of push and pull that attempt to neutralise the change that may have taken place in an individual.1 shows seven steps that can lead to effective change. This model is useful for both planned and reactive change. A COMPREHENSIVE MODEL OF CHANGE The comprehensive model of change shown in the figure 20. The more effective approach is to anticipate the significant forces for change working in an organization and plan ways to address them. In contrast to planned change. APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE As organizational change is a complex process. External forces that the organization has failed to anticipate or interpret always bring about reactive change. Managers who sit back and respond to change only when they can no longer avoid it are likely to waste a lot of time and money trying to patch together a last-minute solution. Planned change is designed and implemented by an organization in an orderly and timely fashion in the anticipation of future change. Changing group behavior is usually a more prolonged and harder task. Planned change is always preferable to reactive change. Due to this group dynamics. attitude and behavior. it is a piece-meal response to circumstances as they develop. we know that honesty is the best policy and we have favourable altitudes towards people. Since reactive change may have to be carried out hastily. sometimes it may be easier to tackle the group as a whole rather than trying to change the behavior of members one by one. individual member's µchanged behavior¶ may revert to earlier normative behavior in order to maintain the change in the existing conditions. As these two kinds of changes are interdependent.The attitudes towards change are largely dependent on the nature of the situation and the manner in . procedures and techniques leads to total organizational change. we may still act in a less honest way. More often than not. it is a slow painful process to usher a total cultural change in an organization. One's attitude does not necessarily get reflected in one's behavior.which changes are initiated and executed. #92 . Modification in the organization's structures. Changing individual behavior is more time consuming and a difficult task. These types of changes alter prescribed relationships and roles assigned to members and eventually modify the individual members¶ behavior and attitudes. policies. the complexity of managing change increases manifold. It is possible to change total organization without focusing at the level of individual's change of knowledge. Reactive change results from a reaction of an organization to unexpected events. For example. However. The linkage between attitude and behavior is not direct and therefore changing behavior is more difficult than changing attitudes. Some organizational changes are planned whereas other changes are reactive. Bringing total behavioral change in all the groups and members of an organization involves difficult long-range effort. managers must understand the steps needed for effective change. therefore managers must approach it systematically and logically.

Plan implementation of change The manager must then carefully plan the implementation of change. the manager must understand what has caused it in a particular situation in order to make the right changes. to restore employee morale. recognition is likely to come much earlier. how the change will affect other areas of the organization and the degree to #93 . Establish goals for change The manager must then set goals for the proposed change. The goals can be set to maintain or increase the market standing. poor working conditions. For marketing managers who anticipate needed . poor supervision. These managers tend to µinitiate change because they expect it to be necessary in the near future in any case¶. An intervention is a specific change induced in an organization with the intention of solving a particular problem or accomplishing a specific objective. if turnover is caused by low pay. to enter new markets. To carry out this diagnosis. Turnover. Planning the implementation of change involves consideration of the cost of the change. change. Thus. as a result of marketing forecasts indicating new market potential. for example.The seven steps of comprehensive model of change are as follows: Recognize need for change The first step in this model is recognizing need for change. For example. then a new reward system is required and if the cause is poor supervision then interpersonal skills and training for supervisors is required. Diagnose relevant variables An important next step is diagnosing organizational variables that have brought about the need for change. may be caused by a variety of factors such as low pay. to settle a strike and to identify good investment opportunities. It is important for the manager to specify goals that the change is supposed to accomplish. expert indications about impending socio-economic change or a perceived opportunity to capitalize on a key technological breakthrough. if turnover is the recognized stimulus for change. Select change intervention After the manager has developed an understanding of the problem and its causes then he must select a change intervention that will accomplish the intended goal. to reduce turnover. better alternatives in the job market or employee job dissatisfaction etc. the manager may discuss the situation with employees and other managers.

In doing so individuals are encouraged to replace old behaviors and attitudes with those desired by management. this model is based: 1. it does not deal with several important issues. Expanded process model is illustrated in the figure 20. group process. Before reviewing each stage. Once exhibited. attitudes and organizational practices. new behavioral models. Resistance to change is found even when the goals of change are highly desirable. behaviors and organizational practices. Lewin developed a three-stage model of planned change. This is often the most difficult part of the change process. Changing The focus of this stage is in providing employees with new information. The three stages are unfreezing. Additional coaching and modelling are also used at this point to reinforce the stability of the change. if the change involves the use of new equipment. after the change has been implemented. #94 . MODELS AND DYNAMICS OF PLANNED CHANGE Managers are criticized for emphasizing short-term. or new ways of looking at things. if change is thrust upon them too quickly. Researchers and managers have thus tried to identify effective ways to manage the change process. Effective change requires reinforcing new behaviors. 3. This may be due to inappropriate goals or inaccurate diagnosis of the situation or wrong selection of intervention. However. The change process involves learning something new. manage and stabilize the change process. benchmarking organization against world-class organizations and training are useful mechanisms to facilitate change. People are the hub of all organizational changes. as well discontinuing current attitudes. Managers also need to devise ways to reduce the barriers to change during this stage. Evaluate implementation Finally.which employees should participate in bringing about the change.2. The purpose is to help employees learn new concepts to implement change. This is accomplished by first giving employees the chance to exhibit the new behaviors or attitudes. 5. For example. Re freezing The focus of this stage is stabilizing the change during refreezing by helping employees integrate the changed behavior or attitude into their normal way of doing things. A change may fail to bring about the intended results. quick fix solutions to organizational problems. The following models have been developed to effectively manage change: Lewin's Change Model Most theories of organizational change originated from the landmark work of social psychologist Kurt Lewin. Any change. Quick-fix solutions do not really solve underlying problems and they have little staying power. Moreover. their resistance may stiffen. 4. whether in terms of structure. changing and refreezing. mentors. the manager should not make any changes that rely on the use of new equipment until it has arrived and been installed and workers know how to use it. This model looks at planned change from the perspective of top management. 2. Expanded Process Model Lewin's model is very simple and straightforward and virtually all models of organizational change use his approach. Change will not occur unless there is motivation to change. Implement change A systematically implemented change is more likely to proceed smoothly and to encounter fewer obstacles than is a change that is implemented too quickly and without adequate preparation. The following are the three stages of change: Unfreezing The focus of this stage is to make organization open to change. positive reinforcement is used to reinforce the desired change. Hastily implemented change can result in more harm than benefit. experts. which explained how to initiate. it is important to highlight the assumptions on which. the manager should verify that it has accomplished its intended goals. The model incorporates Lewin's concept as part of the implementation phase. Role models. reward systems or job design requires individuals to change.

Usually. managers can use the list given in following table.Figure 20. For example. if they want to be more effective in supporting change. the top management defines its goals in terms of what the organization or certain processes. Therefore. Alternatives for change are generated and evaluated and then an acceptable one is selected. managers need to recognize the manifestations of resistance both in themselves and in others. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE Although organizations initiate changes in order to adjust to the changes in their environments but people sometimes resist them. Acceptance y y y y y y Enthusiasm Cooperation Cooperation under pressure from management Acceptance Passive resignation Indifference Indifference y y y y y y y y y y y y Apathy: loss of interest in the job Doing only what is ordered Regressive behavior Non-learning Protests Working to rule Doing as little as possible Slowing down Persona! withdrawal (increased time off the job) Committing "errors" Spoilage Deliberate sabotage Passive Resistance Active Resistance #95 . or outputs will be like after the change.2 Top management according to this model perceives certain forces or trends that call for change and issues that are subjected to the organization's usual problem solving and decision-making processes.

y Over determination or structural inertia refers to the tendency of an organization's rules. Resistance may occur when a change threatens quantum of resource allocation from one part of the organization to another. 6. y y y y y Individual Sources of Resistance According to researchers. They show reverence for tradition and respect for experience. policies and structure to maintain the existing conditions and therefore resist change even when change would benefit the organization more than stability. y People may resist change because their perceptions of underlying circumstances differ from the perceptions of those who are promoting the change. 8. leading to feeling of job insecurity. They worry about their ability to meet new job demands therefore. They can propose changes not only from their own view point but also from that of others. the top management should inform the employees about the process of change. an organization must be ready for change. 10. y Perhaps the biggest cause of employee resistance to change is uncertainty. Third. ORGANIZATIONAL SOURCES OF RESISTANCE According to Daniel Kantz and Robert L Khan. organizational sources of resistance can be divided into following six general groups. They involve their staff in the management of change and protect their security. 9. Group inertia may weaken an individual¶s attempt to bring about change. 11. For example. They harness circumstances to implement change. They clearly explain change to people affected by change. They share maximum information about possible outcomes. 14. They show that change is µrelated to business or job¶. then it is said to have a narrow focus of change. wherever possible. a British Psychologist and business consultant. Valerie Stewart (1983). The following methods of overcoming-resistance to change are as follows: #96 .The sources of resistance to change within organizations are classified into organizational sources of resistance and individual sources of resistance. Before recommending specific approaches to overcome resistance. many organizations change interventions and alter work arrangements. individuals have the following reasons for resisting change: y Simple habits create a lot of resistance. Resistance may also take the form of threatened expertise if the change lends to weaken special expertise built after years of experience. They make change by personally rewarding people. 3. They do not pile one change on another but wait for assimilation. thus disrupting existing social networks. They know clearly what they want to achieve. Social relationships are important to most people. They can translate desires into practical action. 12. Second. 13. Any change that may alter the power relationships within an organization may meet the form of resistance known as µthreatened power¶. has listed the following characteristics of people who are good at managing changes. 5. OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE Managers need not abandon planned change in the face of resistance. First. 4. They are not discouraged by setbacks. there are three key conclusions that should be kept in mind. They have a history of successful change. 7. Organizational restructuring that involves reducing the number of job categories often meets this kind of resistance. y Some people resist change to avoid feeling of loss. the employees perceptions or interpretations of a change should be considered. In the face of impending change. Often a part of division cannot be changed without changing the whole division. Most people prefer to do their work the way they did it last week rather than learn a new approach. so they resist any change that might adversely affect those relationships. 1. employees are likely to become anxious and nervous. They present changes as a relational decision. 2. Change may also threaten people's feelings of familiarity and self-confidence. When an organization tries to change one of its division or part of the division without recognizing the interdependence of the division with other divisions of the organization.

Facilitation of Change: Knowing ahead of lime that employees are likely to resist change then the manager should do as much as possible to help them cope with uncertainly and feeling of loss. an organization that plans to introduce certain changes must be prepared to face resistance from its employees.y y y y y y y Participation: Participation is generally considered the most effective technique for overcoming resistance to change. Nature of OD OD is a general strategy or approach to organizational change mat is employed to analyze and diagnose the sources of organizational problems and to develop and implement action plans for their solution. there are forces acting for and against the change. An organization should also have a planned approach to overcome such resistances. y The change agents share social philosophy about human value. However.´ Intervention Techniques y Sensitivity Training y Process Consultation y Team Development y Grid Organization Development #97 . According to Bennis. French and Well have defined OD interventions as "sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. Employees who take part in planning and implementing change are better able to understand the reasons for the change than those who are not involved. y It is an educational strategy for bringing planned change. It can be quick and inexpensive. The relationships involve mutual trust. Managers should maintain an open channel of communication while planning and implementing change. it is also a time consuming process. y It relates to real problems of an organization. y There is a close working relationship between change agents and the people who are being changed. In force-field analysis. OD can be defined as a technique for bringing change in the entire organization. they make things happen and are what is happening. However. joint goals. y Change agent applying OD technique for change is external to the forms of consultants. Education and Communication: Educating employees about the need for and the expected results of an impending change help reduce their resistance. Introducing change gradually. Each of the above methods has its advantages and disadvantages. It is speedy and can overcome resistance. Force-Field Analysis: In almost any situation where a change is being planned. Manipulation and Cooperation: This is followed when other tactics will not work or are too expensive. There is no universal strategy for overcoming resistance to change. y Laboratory training methods based on experienced behavior are primarily used to bring change. OD Interventions OD interventions refer to various activities which consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational functioning by enabling organization members to better manage their team and organization cultures. Explicit and Implicit Coercion: This is adopted where speed is essential and where the change initiators possess considerable power. Negotiation: Where someone or some group will clearly lose out in a change and where that group has considerable power to resist. They are humanists seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in organization. OD has the following characteristics. Hence. means. making only necessary changes. rather man focusing attention on individuals to bring change easily in the entire organization. They become committed to the change and make it work. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. and mutual influence. Sometimes it is a relatively easy way to avoid major resistance. the manager list each set of forces and then try to remove or minimize some of the forces acting against the change. announcing changes in advance and allowing time for people to adjust to new ways of doing things can help reduce resistance. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT The term Organizational Development (OD) refers to a broad range of behavioral science based strategies used to diagnose the need for change in organizations and to implement changes when necessary. there negotiation is required. Employees who have the opportunity to express their own ideas and to understand the perspectives of others are likely to accept change gracefully. It is a time consuming process. it can lead to further problems if people feel manipulated.

g. from ten to twenty members y The group begins its activity with no formal agenda y The primary role of trainer is to call attention of members from time to time lo the ongoing process within the group y The procedure lends to develop introspection and self-examination. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. group problem-solving and decision-making. developed by Blake and Mounton. As such. communication. procedures and authority structure. OD offers some very attractive methodologies and philosophies to practicing managers and academicians. job enrichment. There also have been experiences of failure in OD but these are being recorded and collected to be reviewed. structural and job interventions such as job enlargement. encompassing the entire spectrum of applied behavioral science". In general. Process Consultation: Process Consultation (P-C) represents a method of intervening in an ongoing system. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strength and weaknesses. William Halal is right when he says "OD in future includes any method for modifying the behavior in the organization. In sensitivity training. the actual technique employed is T-group. #98 . P-C consists of many interventions and activities which affect the various organizational processes such as. Team Development: The underlying aim of team development is to increase trust among team members because people work better together when there is open and honest sharing about the problems and difficulties that they have with one another. which requires people to become sensitive to one another's feelings in order to develop reasonable group activity. group and inter-group and total organization levels. there may be other types of interventions too. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. roles and functions of group members. at the initial level. T-group has several characteristic features: y The T-group is generally small. The objectives of such training are increased openness with others. e. It also focuses on skills. with emotional levels of involvement and behavior. The Program aims at individuals. group norms. The basic content of P-C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups to help them learn about human and social processes and learn to solve problems that stem from process events. more concern for others. management by objectives. enhanced listening skills and increased trust and support. rules. understanding of a group process. OD shows a promising future.Sensitivity Training: Sensitivity training is a small-group interaction under stress in an unstructured encounter group. increased tolerance for individual differences. the attempt should be to develop such an environment where such trust can be developed among the team members Grid Organization Development: Grid organization development. less ethnic prejudice. hereby. In addition to these people focused interventions. since there are no rigid sets of procedures in OD work and different strategies have to be evolved for different types of organizations. authority and leadership and inter-group cooperation and conflicts. is a comprehensive and systematic OD Program. groups and the organization as a whole.

What are the causes of stress? 16. 3. Discuss the personality attributes in organization. Marks: 100 SECTION-A (5x8 = 40) Answer any Five questions Note: All questions carry equal murks 9. Marks: 100 SECTION-A (5x8 = 40) Answer any Five questions Note: All questions carry equal murks 1. What is organizational culture? How it affects the behavior of the people? SECTION1. What are the barriers to effective communication? How to overcome those barriers? What are the techniques of managing political behavior? State the consequences of stress and method of managing the stress. What do you understand by organizational behavior? Bring out its nature and importance. B (4x15 = 60) Answer any four questions Compare the Maslow's Theory with ERG Theory of Motivation. What is the organizational design? What are its forms? 4. What are the barriers to effective communication? How to overcome those barriers? What are the techniques of managing political behavior? State the consequences of stress and method of managing the stress. 11. What do you understand by organizational behavior? Bring out its nature and importance. 11. 10.MODEL QUESTION PAPER ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Time: 3 Hours Max. Suggest strategies to resolve inter-group conflicts. Suggest strategies to resolve inter-group conflicts. Why do people resist change? As a manager how would you overcome such resistance? MODEL QUESTION PAPER ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Time: 3 Hours Max. What is organizational culture? How it affects the behavior of the people? SECTIONB (4x15 = 60) Answer any four questions 7. Compare the Maslow's Theory with ERG Theory of Motivation. 6. What are the causes of stress? 8. What is group cohesiveness? What are its determinants? 5. What are the forms of organizational communications? 14. 3. 9. 10. What are the forms of organizational communications? 6. 2. What are the sources of power? 7. 4. What is group cohesiveness? What are its determinants? 13. 2. What is the organizational design? What are its forms? 12. 5. Discuss the personality attributes in organization. 12. What are the sources of power? 15. 8. Why do people resist change? As a manager how would you overcome such resistance? #99 .

#100 .