POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 

 

 

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS
 

SUBMITTED TO:  ENGR.M.JUNAID
 

  SUBMITTED BY: ASAD NAEEM 2006-RCET-EE-22

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (A CONSTITUENT COLLEGE: RACHNA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY GUJRANWALA) UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY LAHORE, PAKISTAN
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

01

To plot the daily load curve for the given data using MATLAB

02

Introduction to basics of Electrical Transients Analyzer Program (ETAP)

03

Evaluate the value of voltages for a 4-BUS system using node equations in MATLAB

04

Modeling and Load flow analysis of RCET power distribution network using ETAP

05

Bus elimination of a 4-BUS system using MATLAB

06

To study the Concept of Modifications of an Existing BusImpedance Matrix & Implementing in MATLAB

07
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Application of Gauss-Siedal and Newton-Raphson method for load flow studies on a three bus system using MATLAB

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

08

Harmonic Load Modeling using built-in and user defined models of ETAP Impact of personal computer load on power distribution network of RCET Flow of triplen harmonics (zero-sequence harmonics) during 5 different schemes of connection for a 3-phase transformer with presence of large non-linear load using ETAP Three phase short circuit analysis (3-phase faults-device duty) for a given power system using ETAP Three phase short circuit analysis (3-phase faults-30 cycle network) for a given power system using ETAP Three phase short circuit analysis (LG, LL, LLG, & 3-Phase Faults - ½ Cycle) for a given power system using ETAP Three phase short circuit analysis (LG, LL, LLG, & 3-Phase Faults - 1.5 to 4 Cycle) for a given power system using ETAP Three phase short circuit analysis (LG, LL, LLG, & 3-Phase Faults - 30 Cycle) for a given power system using ETAP

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

  EXPERIMENT#01 
To plot the daily load curve for the given data using  MATLAB    Given data:  Interval from  12 A.M  2  6  9  12 P.M  2  4  6  8  10  11    Requirements:  1. 2. 3. 4. Find average value of load  Find peak value of load  Find the load factor  Plot the load curve  To  2 A.M  6  9  12   2 P.M  4  6  8  10  11  12 A.M Load MW 6 5 10 15 12 14 16 18 16 12 6

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

Theory
Loads:

Loads of power systems are divided into three main categories that are given below. 1. Industrial Loads 2. Commercial Loads 3. Residential Loads Very large industrial loads are served through the transmission lines. Large industrial loads are served directly from the sub-transmission level. And small industrial loads are served directly from the primary distribution network. The industrial loads are composite loads and induction motors from a high proportion of these loads. These composite loads are functions of voltage and frequency and form a major part of the system load. Commercial and residential load consist largely of lighting, heating and cooling. These loads are independent of frequency and consume negligibly small reactive power. The real power of loads is expressed in terms of kilowatts or megawatts. The magnitude of load varies throughout the day and power must be available to the consumer on demand. The daily load curve of a utility is a composite of demands made by various classes of users. The greatest value of load during a twenty four hours is called the peak or maximum demand. Smaller peaking generators may be commissioned to meet the peak load that occurs for only a few hours. In order to asses the usefulness of the generating plant the load factor is defined. The load factor is the ratio of average load over a designated period of time to the peak load occurring in that period. Load factor may be given for a day, a month or an year. Yearly or annual load factor is the most useful since a year represents a full cycle of time. The daily load factor is

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

Daily load factor = average load / peak load Multiplying the numerator and denominator by a time period of 24 hr we have Daily load factor= average load*24 hr / (peak load*24 hrs) = energy consumed during 24 hr/ (peak load*24 hr) The annual load factor is Annual load factor = total annual energy / (peak load*8760 hr) Today’s typical system load factors are in range of 55-70%. In Pakistan WAPDA standard for urban areas load factor is 60% and that of rural areas is 65%.

Matlab code:
data=[0 2 6; 2 6 5; 6 9 10; 9 12 15; 12 14 12; 14 16 14; 16 18 16; 18 20 18; 20 22 16; 22 23 12;

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

23 24 6]; p=data(:,3); Dt=data(:,2)-data(:,1); w=p'*Dt; pavg=w/sum(Dt) peak=max(p) LF=pavg/peak*100 L=length(data); tt = [data(:,1) data(:,2)]; t = sort(reshape(tt, 1, 2*L)); for n = 1:L pp(2*n-1)=p(n); pp(2*n)=p(n); end plot(t,pp) xlabel('TIME,Hr'),ylabel('P,MW')

Matlab results:
pavg =11.5417  peak =18  LF =64.1204   
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

 
18

 
 

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12 P,MW

             

10

8

6

4 0

5

10 TIME,Hr

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25

COMMENTS:
In this experiment we learn how to find the daily load curve for any power system using MATLAB. Load curve is very important as we can achieve very important information from it like: • Peak load • Average load • Load factor These quantities are very helpful for understanding any power system.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

EXPERIMENT#02 
Introduction to basics of Electrical Transients Analyzer  Program (ETAP)  What is ETAP?
ETAP is the most comprehensive analysis platform for the design, simulation, operation, control, optimization, and automation of generation, transmission, distribution, and industrial power systems. 

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Copy 

Paste    raceway   Zoom In  Zoom Out 

Zoom to Fit Page  Check Continuity 
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

Power Calculator 

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Drag & Drop Elements  Connect Elements  Change IDs  Cut, Copy, & Paste Elements  Move from Dumpster  Insert OLE Objects  Cut, Copy & OLE Objects  Merge PowerStation Project  Hide/Show Groups of Protective Devices  Rotate Elements  Size Elements  Change Symbols  Edit Properties  Run Schedule Report Manager 

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

 

   

     
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

 

   

 

 
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

 

 

   

 
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

   

 

 
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

 

 

   

 

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

   

 

   

 
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

   

 

   

 
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

 

  Example implementation:

   
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

EXPERIMENT#03 
Evaluate the value of voltages for a 4­BUS system using  node equations in MATLAB 

GIVEN ONE LINE DIAGRAM

REACTANCE DIAGRAM
In the first step, we draw the reactance diagram of the given one-line diagram as shown below:

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

SOURCE TRANSFORM
• After making the reactance diagram, we apply source transformation on the given network by replacing the voltage sources with current sources • Replace all the reactance by admittances using the relation: • Y=1/X • The resultant diagram now can be shown as:

NODE EQUATIONS
Now, using the above figure write the node equations of the system: • Applying KCL at node-1: I1= (V1-0) y10 + (V1-V4) y14+ (V1-V3) y13 I1= (y10+y14+y13) V1 + 0V2 + (-y13) V3+ (-y14) V4

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

• Applying KCL at node-2: I2= (V2-0) y20 + (V2-V3) y23+ (V2-V4) y24 I2= 0V1+ (y20+y23+y24) V2 + (-y23) V3+ (-y24) V4 • Applying KCL at node-3: I3= (V3-0) y30 + (V3-V1) y31+ (V3-V4) y34 + (V3-V2) y32 I3= (-y31) V1+ (-y32) V2+ (y30+y31+y34) V3 + (-y34) V4 • Applying KCL at node-4: 0= (V4-V1) y14+ (V4-V3) y43 + (V4-V2) y42 0= (-y14) V1+ (-y42) V2 + (-y34) V3+ (y14+y43+y42) V4 Matrix form of the node equations is:

Where:

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CALCULATIONS

 

MATLAB CODE
YBUS= [0-9.80i 0 0+4.00i 0+5.00i 0 0-8.30i 0+2.50i 0+5.00i 0+4.00i 0+2.50i 0-15.30i 0+8.00i 0+5.00i; 0+5.00i; 0+8.00i; 0-18.00i];

I= [0-1.20i; 0-0.7200-0.9600i; 0-1.2000i; 0]; ZBUS=inv (YBUS); V=ZBUS*I

MATLAB RESULTS
V= 1.4111 - 0.2668i 1.3831 - 0.3508i 1.4059 - 0.2824i 1.4010 - 0.2971i

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

COMMENTS:
In this experiment we learn that using the bus impedance or admittance matrix we can find the voltages and currents for all buses of a given power system. Moreover, we use MATLAB for the calculation of these quantities by just entering the bus impedance matrix and one given quantity (current or voltage) and MATLAB gives the results of very complex networks within no time.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

EXPERIMENT#04 
Modeling and Load flow analysis of RCET power  distribution network using ETAP  INTRODUCTION:

LOAD FLOW STUDIES
In power engineering, the power flow study (also known as load-flow study) is an important tool involving numerical analysis applied to a power system. Unlike traditional circuit analysis, a power flow study usually uses simplified notation such as a one-line diagram and per-unit system, and focuses on various forms of AC power (i.e: reactive, real, and apparent) rather than voltage and current. It analyses the power systems in normal steady-state operation. There exist a number of software implementations of power flow studies. The great importance of power flow or load-flow studies is in the planning the future expansion of power systems as well as in determining the best operation of existing systems. The principal information obtained from the power flow study is the magnitude and phase angle of the voltage at each bus and the real and reactive power flowing in each line.

LOAD FLOW STUDIES IN ETAP
ETAP load flow analysis software calculates bus voltages, branch power factors, currents, and power flows throughout the electrical system. ETAP allows for swing, voltage regulated, and unregulated power sources with multiple power grids and generator connections. It is capable of performing analysis on both radial and loop systems. ETAP
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

allows you to select from several different methods in order to achieve the best calculation efficiency and accuracy.

Run Load Flow Studies Update Cable Load Currents

Load Flow display Option Alert View

Report Manager

Halt current calculations

Net on line data

       

STEPS Modeling of the main network Modeling of composite networks Running of load flow analysis Complete report from ETAP load flow analyzer

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

MODELING OF BASIC RCET NETWORK

 

     

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

MODELING OF COMPOSITE NETWORKS
STAFF COLONY:

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

OLD BUILDING:

NEW BUILDING:

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

HOSTEL-A,B:

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

HOSTEL-E:

 

                 
Complete ETAP load flow analysis report of the given network is attached with this experiment.

COMMENTS:
In this experiment we learn how to: • • • • Model a power system in ETAP Model composite networks in a basic network Assign properties of components added Study the load flow analysis for that network

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

EXPERIMENT#05 
Bus elimination of a 4­BUS system using MATLAB 

REACTANCE DIAGRAM
It is given that the transformer and generator at bus-3 are disconnected, so the reactance diagram now becomes:

SOURCE TRANSFORM
• After making the reactance diagram, we apply source transformation on the given network by replacing the voltage sources with current sources • Replace all the reactance by admittances using the relation: • Y=1/X • The resultant diagram now can be shown as:

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

Part‐1: Elimination of Bus‐3&4  

MATRIX FORM

Where:

 
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MATLAB CODE
>>YBUS= [0-9.80i 0 0 0+4.00i 0+5.00i 0-8.30i 0+2.50i 0+5.00i 0+4.00i 0+2.50i 0-14.5i 0+8.00i 0+5.00i; 0+5.00i; 0+8.00i; 0-18.00i];

>>K= [0-9.80i 0; 0 0-8.30i]; >>L= [0+4.00i 0+5.00i; 0+2.50i 0+5.00i]; >>M= [0-14.5i 0+8.00i; 0+8.00i 0-18.00i]; >>LT= [0+4.00i 0+2.50i; 0+5.00i 0+5.00i]; >>N=inv (M); >>P=L*N*LT; >>Ybus=K-P

MATLAB RESULTS
Ybus = 0 - 4.8736i 0 + 4.0736i
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0 + 4.0736i 0 - 4.8736i 

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
  Part-2: Elimination Bus-4

MATLAB CODE:
>>Ybus=[-9.8i 0 4i 5i 0 -8.3i 2.5i 5i 4.0i 2.5i -14.5i 8i 5i; 5i; 8i; -18i];

>>K=[-9.8i 0 4i;0 -8.3i 2.5i;4i 2.5i -14.5i]; >>L=[5i;5i;8i]; >>M=[-18i]; >>P=L'; >>T=inv(M); >>A=K-L*T*P

MATLAB RESULTS
A= 0 -11.1889i 0 - 1.3889i 0 + 1.7778i 0 - 1.3889i 0 - 9.6889i 0 + 0.2778i 0 + 1.7778i 0 + 0.2778i 0 -18.0556i

Part-3: Elimination Bus-3

MATLAB CODE:
>>P=[-11.1889i -1.3889i;-1.3889i -9.6889i]; >>Q=[1.7778i;0.2778i];
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

>>R=[-18.0556i]; >>S=Q'; >>T=inv(R); >>B=P-Q*T*S

MATLAB RESULTS
B= 0 -11.3639i 0 - 1.4163i
 

0 - 1.4163i 0 - 9.6932i

COMMENTS:
Bus impedance matrix is a very important tool for the calculation of voltages and currents at all the buses of a given network. Suppose that any fault occurs in the power system then we can get a task to modify the bus impedance matrix by eliminating the faulty node which will reduce the order of matrix by eliminating the faulty node. In this experiment we learn how to: • Eliminate last two nodes together • Eliminate only one last node
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

EXPERIMENT#06 
To study the Concept of Modifications of an Existing Bus­ Impedance Matrix & Implementing in MATLAB 

IMPEDANCE MATRIX
Impedance matrix is a very important tool in power system analysis. Using this matrix we can find: • Voltages at all buses when currents are given • Currents at all buses when voltages are given So it is very important that how to modify the bus impedance matrix when any new impedance is add into the original system. Suppose a power system with n-buses having the impedances matrix of order n*n:

There are four cases that can take place while adding a new impedance Zb in the system: • • • • Adding Adding Adding Adding Zb Zb Zb Zb from a new bus-P to reference bus from a new bus-P to an existing bus-K from an existing bus-K to reference bus between two existing buses

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

MODIFICATION CASES
CASE‐1: ADDING Zb FROM A NEW BUS TO REFERENCE BUS  
This condition is explained in the following diagram:

Clearly, Vp-0=Ib*Zb Vp=Ib*Zb Hence the modified matrix will take the form as:

MATLAB CODE
function [Z]=Case1(Zorg,Zb) Zorg=[1 2 3 4;2 5 6 7;3 6 8 9;4 7 9 10]
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

Zb=17; l=length(Zorg); for i=1:l+1 for j=1:l+1 if i<=l && j<=l Znew(i,j)=Zorg(i,j); elseif i==l+1 && j==l+1 Znew(i,j)=Zb; else Znew(i,j)=0; end end end Znew

MATLAB RESULTS

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CASE‐2: ADDING Zb FROM A NEW BUS‐P TO AN EXISTING BUS‐K  
This condition is explained in the following diagram:

 
Clearly, Vp-Vk,new=Ip*Zb Vp=Vk,new+Ip*Zb Where, Vk,new=Vk,org+Ip*Zkk Vp= Vk,org+Ip(Zkk+Zb) Hence the modified matrix will take the form as:

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

  MATLAB CODE:
function [Z]=CASE2(Zorg,Zb) Zorg=[1 2 3 4;2 5 6 7;3 6 8 9;4 7 9 10] Zb=5; l=length(Zorg); row =Zorg(l,:); column =Zorg(:,l); for i=1:l+1 for j=1:l+1 if i<=l && j<=l Znew(i,j)=Zorg(i,j); elseif i==l+1 for p=1:l Znew(i,p)=row(p); end elseif j==l+1 for q=1:l Znew(q,j)=column(q); end end if i==l+1 && j==l+1 Znew(i,j)=Zb+Zorg(l,l); end end end Znew
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

MATLAB RESULTS

CASE‐3: ADDING Zb FROM AN EXISTING BUS‐K TO REFERENCE                 BUS 
This condition is explained in the following diagram:

 

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

Here we can apply the same case as in case-2 and then put Vp=0. This task can be achieved by eliminating the last row and column of the Znew matrix.

Now this matrix is of the order (n+1)*(n+1), we have to achieve a matrix of order n*n using formula: Zkj(new)=Zkj(org)-(Zk(n+1)Z(n+1)j/Zkk+Zb) In this case, K=n

MATLAB CODE:
function [Z]=CASE3(Zorg,Zb) Zorg=[1 2 3 4;2 5 6 7;3 6 8 9;4 7 9 10] Zb=5; l=length(Zorg); row =Zorg(l,:); column =Zorg(:,l); for i=1:l+1 for j=1:l+1
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

if i<=l && j<=l Znew(i,j)=Zorg(i,j); elseif i==l+1 for p=1:l Znew(i,p)=row(p); end elseif j==l+1 for q=1:l Znew(q,j)=column(q); end end if i==l+1 && j==l+1 Znew(i,j)=Zb+Zorg(l,l); end end end Znew for a=1:l for b=1:l K(a,b)=Znew(a,b); end
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

end for a=1:l L(a,1)=Znew(a,5); end M=Znew(l+1,l+1); P=L'; T=inv(M); Zwithnewbusrefferenced=K-L*T*P

MATLAB RESULTS

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

 

CASE‐4: ADDING Zb BETWEEN TWO EXISTING BUSES  
This condition is explained in the following diagram:

 

 
In this case, Zbb=Zb+Zjj+Zkk-2Zjk Hence the modified matrix will take the form as:

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

Here again we have to eliminate the last row and column to achieve the final matrix.

MATLAB CODE:
function [Z]=CASE4(Zorg,Zb) Zorg=[1 2 3 4;2 5 6 7;3 6 8 9;4 7 9 10] Zb=5; l=length(Zorg); R1 =Zorg(l,:); C1 =Zorg(:,l); R2 =Zorg(l-1,:); C2 =Zorg(:,l-1); for i=1:l+1 for j=1:l+1 if i<=l && j<=l Znew(i,j)=Zorg(i,j);
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

elseif i==l+1 for p=1:l Znew(i,p)=R1(p)-R2(p); End elseif j==l+1 for q=1:l Znew(q,j)=C1(q)-C2(q); End End if i==l+1 && j==l+1 Znew(i,j)=Zb+Zorg(l,l)+Zorg(l-1,l-1)-(2*Zorg(l,l-1)); end end end Znew for a=1:l for b=1:l K(a,b)=Znew(a,b); end end for a=1:l
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

L(a,1)=Znew(a,5); end M=Znew(l+1,l+1); P=L'; T=inv(M); Zfinal=K-L*T*P

MATLAB RESULTS

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

COMMENTS:
Bus impedance matrix is a very important tool for the calculation of voltages and currents at all the buses of a given network. Suppose that any improvement occurs in the power system then we can get a task to modify the bus impedance matrix by adding the new impedance in the system. The new impedance can be added in four different conditions: • Addition of new bus • Addition of new bus • Addition of new reference bus • Addition of new impedance from a new bus to reference impedance from a new bus to existing impedance from an existing bus to impedance between two existing buses

In this experiment we learn how to modify the bus impedance matrix for all four cases using MATLAB.
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EXPERIMENT#07 
Application of Gauss­Siedal and Newton­Raphson method for load  flow studies on a three bus system using MATLAB(Implimentation  of example#6.7,6.8 & 6.10 from POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS by Hadi­ Saadat) 

EXAMPLE 6.7
Given figure shows the one line diagram of a simple three bus system with generation at bus-1. The magnitude of voltage at bus-1 is adjusted to 1.05 per unit. The scheduled loads at buses-2 and 3 are as marked on the diagram. Line impedances are marked in per unit on a 100-MVA base and the line charging susceptances are neglected.

(A) Using the Gauss-Siedal method, determine the phasor values of the voltage at the load buses 2 and 3 (P&Q buses) accurate to four decimal places (B) Find the slack bus real and reactive power (C) Determine the line flows and line losses. Construct a power flow diagram showing the direction of line flow
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SOLUTION
Line impedances are converted to admittances:

 

 
At the P-Q buses, the complex loads expressed in per unit are: S2sch=-(256.6+j110.2)/100= -2.566-j1.102 pu S3sch=-(138.6+j45.2)/100= -1.386-j0.452 pu Starting from an initial estimate of V2(0)=1.0+j0.0 and V3(0)=1.0+j0.0

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GAUSS-SIEDEL FARMULA

  SLACK1=conj(V1)*[V1*(y12+y13)-( y12*V2+y13*V3)] Sij=Vi*conj(Iij) Iij=yij*(Vi-Vj)

MATLAB CODE
y12=10-j*20; y13=10-j*30; y23=16-j*32; V1=1.05+j*0; %CODE FOR PART-A iter=0; s2=-2.566-j*1.102; s3=-1.386-j*0.452; V2=1+j*0.0; V3=1+j*0.0; for I=1:10; iter=iter+1; V2=(conj(s2)/conj(V2)+y12*V1+y23*V3)/(y12+y23); V3=(conj(s3)/conj(V3)+y13*V1+y23*V2)/(y13+y23); end V2 V3

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%CODE FOR PART-B Pslack=conj(V1)*[V1*(y12+y13)-(y12*V2+y13*V3)] %CODE FOR PART-C I12=y12*(V1-V2) I21=-I12 I13=y13*(V1-V3) I31=-I13 I23=y23*(V2-V3) I32=-I23 s12=V1*conj(I12) s21=V2*conj(I21) s13=V1*conj(I13) s31=V3*conj(I31) s23=V2*conj(I23) s32=V3*conj(I32) SL12=s12+s21 SL13=s13+s31 SL23=s23+s32

MATLAB RESULTS
PART-A RESULTS

V2 = 0.9800 - 0.0600i V3 = 1.0000 - 0.0500i PART-B RESULTS SLACK-BUS POWER Pslack = 4.0949 - 1.8900i
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PART-C RESULTS I12 = 1.9000 - 0.8000i

I21 = -1.9000 + 0.8000i I13 = 2.0000 - 1.0000i

I31 = -2.0000 + 1.0000i I23 = -0.6400 + 0.4800i I32 = 0.6400 - 0.4800i

LINE FLOWS s12 = 1.9950 + 0.8400i

s21 = -1.9100 - 0.6700i s13 = 2.1000 + 1.0500i

s31 = -2.0500 - 0.9000i s23 = -0.6560 - 0.4320i s32 = 0.6640 + 0.4480i

LINE LOSSES SL12 = SL13 = SL23 = 0.0850 + 0.1700i 0.0500 + 0.1500i 0.0080 + 0.0160i

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

EXAMPLE 6.8
Given figure shows the one line diagram of a simple three bus system with generators at buses-1 and 3. The magnitude of voltage at bus-1 is adjusted to 1.05pu. voltage magnitude at bus-3 is fixed at 1.04 pu with a real power generation of 200MW. A load consisting of 400MW and 250MVAR is taken from bus-2. Line impedances are marked in per unit on a 100MVA base, and the line charging susceptances are neglected. Obtain the power flow solution by the Gauss-Siedal method including line flows and line losses.

Where,impedances are replaced by admittances as:

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FARMULA’S

 
S3=conj(V3)*(y33*V3-y13*V1-y23*V2) Q3=-imag(conj(V3)*(y33*V3-y13*V1-y23*V2))

 

MATLAB CODE
y12=10-j*20; y13=10-j*30; y23=16-j*32; y33=y13+y23; V1=1.05+j*0; format long iter=0; s2=-4.0-j*2.5; p3=2; V2=1+j*0.0; Vm3=1.04; V3=1.04+j*0; for I=1:10; iter=iter+1; E2=V2; E3=V3; V2=(conj(s2)/conj(V2)+y12*V1+y23*V3)/(y12+y23) DV2=V2-E2; Q3=-imag(conj(V3)*(y33*V3-y13*V1-y23*V2)) s3=p3+j*Q3; Vc3=(conj(s3)/conj(V3)+y13*V1+y23*V2)/(y13+y23); Vi3=imag(Vc3); Vr3=sqrt(Vm3^2-Vi3^2);
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V3=Vr3+j*Vi3 DV3=V3-E3; end V2 V3 Q3 format short I12=y12*(V1-V2); I21=-I12; I13=y13*(V1-V3); I31=-I13; I23=y23*(V2-V3); I32=-I23; s12=V1*conj(I12); s21=V2*conj(I21); s13=V1*conj(I13); s31=V3*conj(I31); s23=V2*conj(I23); s32=V3*conj(I32); I1221=[I12,I21]; I1331=[I13,I31]; I2332=[I23,I32]; SL12=s12+s21 SL13=s13+s31 SL23=s23+s32 S1=(s12+s13) S2=(s23+s21) S3=(s31+s32) S12=s12 S21=s21 S13=s13 S31=s31 S23=s23 S32=s32

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MATLAB RESULTS ITERATION RESULTS: 
1ST ITERATION  V2 = 0.974615384615385 - 0.042307692307692i Q3 = 1.160000000000002 V3 = 1.039987148574197 - 0.005170183798502i 2ND ITERATION  V2 = 0.971057059512953 - 0.043431876337850i Q3 = 1.387957731052817 V3 = 1.039974378708180 - 0.007300111679686i 3RD ITERATION  V2 = 0.970733708554698 - 0.044791724463619i Q3 = 1.429040300785471 V3 = 1.039966679445820 - 0.008325001047174i 4TH ITERATION  V2 = 0.970652437281433 - 0.045329920732880i Q3 = 1.448333275594840 V3 = 1.039963173621928 - 0.008752000354604i 5TH ITERATION  V2 = 0.970623655331095 - 0.045554240372625i Q3 = 1.456209166612119
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V3 = 1.039961668920058 - 0.008929007616053i 6TH ITERATION  V2 = 0.970612037114234 - 0.045646940090561i Q3 = 1.459469889628077 V3 = 1.039961037734205 - 0.009002221658867i 7TH ITERATION  V2 = 0.970607253520093 - 0.045685276728252i Q3 = 1.460818201396914 V3 = 1.039960775170297 - 0.009032502820155i 8TH ITERATION  V2 = 0.970605276281561 - 0.045701131870879i Q3 = 1.461375872168914 V3 = 1.039960666313617 - 0.009045027392915i 9TH ITERATION  V2 = 0.970604458527297 - 0.045707689707255i Q3 = 1.461606535170454 V3 = 1.039960621244008 - 0.009050207830587i 10TH ITERATION  V2 = 0.970604120282796 - 0.045710402176455i Q3 = 1.461701943643423 V3 = 1.039960602594413 - 0.009052350604469i

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FINAL RESULTS: 
V2 = 0.970604120282796 - 0.045710402176455i V3 = 1.039960602594413 - 0.009052350604469i Q3 = 1.461701943643423 SL12 = 0.0839 + 0.1679i SL13 = 0.0018 + 0.0055i SL23 = 0.0985 + 0.1969i S1 = 2.1841 + 1.4085i S2 = -3.9999 - 2.5000i S3 = 2.0000 + 1.4618i S12 = 1.7936 + 1.1874i S21 = -1.7096 - 1.0195i S13 = 0.3906 + 0.2212i S31 = -0.3887 - 0.2157i S23 = -2.2903 - 1.4805i S32 = 2.3888 + 1.6775i

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EXAMPLE 6.10
Given figure shows the one line diagram of a simple three bus system with generators at buses-1 and 3. The magnitude of voltage at bus-1 is adjusted to 1.05pu. voltage magnitude at bus-3 is fixed at 1.04 pu with a real power generation of 200MW. A load consisting of 400MW and 250MVAR is taken from bus-2. Line impedances are marked in per unit on a 100MVA base, and the line charging susceptances are neglected. Obtain the power flow solution by the Newton-Raphson method including line flows and line losses.

Where,impedances are replaced by admittances as:

The bus impedance matrix can be constructed as: YBUS=[20-j50
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-10+j20

-10+j30

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

-10+j20 -10+j30

26-j52 -16+j32

-16+j32 26-j62];

FARMULA’S
P1=V1^2*Y11*cos(Ѳ11)+V1*V2*Y12*cos(Ѳ12-d1+d2)+... V1*V3*Y13*cos(Ѳ13-d1+d3) Q1=-V1^2*Y11*sin(Ѳ11)-V1*V2*Y12*sin(Ѳ12-d1+d2)-... V1*V3*Y13*sin(Ѳ13-d1+d3) Q3=-V3*V1*Y31*sin(Ѳ31)-d3+d1)-V3*V2*Y32*... sin(Ѳ32-d3+d2)-V3^2*Y33*sinѲ33

MATLAB CODE
V=[1.05;1.0;1.04]; d=[0;0;0]; Ps=[-4;2.0]; Qs=-2.5; YB=[20-j*50 -10+j*20 -10+j*30 -10+j*20 26-j*52 -16+j*32 -10+j*30 -16+j*32 26-j*62]; Y=abs(YB); t=angle(YB); iter=0; pwracur=0.00025; %power accuracy DC=10; %set the maximun power residue to a high value while max(abs(DC))>pwracur iter=iter+1 P=[V(2)*V(1)*Y(2,1)*cos(t(2,1)d(2)+d(1))+V(2)^2*Y(2,2)*cos(t(2,2))+... V(2)*V(3)*Y(2,3)*cos(t(2,3)-d(2)+d(3)); V(3)*V(1)*Y(3,1)*cos(t(3,1)d(3)+d(1))+V(3)^2*Y(3,3)*cos(t(3,3))+... V(3)*V(2)*Y(3,2)*cos(t(3,2)-d(3)+d(2))];
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Q=-V(2)*V(1)*Y(2,1)*sin(t(2,1)-d(2)+d(1))V(2)^2*Y(2,2)*sin(t(2,2))-... V(2)*V(3)*Y(2,3)*sin(t(2,3)-d(2)+d(3)); J(1,1)=V(2)*V(1)*Y(2,1)*sin(t(2,1)-d(2)+d(1))+... V(2)*V(3)*Y(2,3)*sin(t(2,3)-d(2)+d(3)); J(1,2)=-V(2)*V(3)*Y(2,3)*sin(t(2,3)-d(2)+d(3)); J(1,3)=V(1)*Y(2,1)*cos(t(2,1)d(2)+d(1))+2*V(2)*Y(2,2)*cos(t(2,2))+... V(3)*Y(2,3)*cos(t(2,3)-d(2)+d(3)); J(2,1)=-V(3)*V(2)*Y(3,2)*sin(t(3,2)-d(3)+d(2)); J(2,2)=V(3)*V(1)*Y(3,1)*sin(t(3,1)-d(3)+d(1))+... V(3)*V(2)*Y(3,2)*sin(t(3,2)-d(3)+d(2)); J(2,3)=V(3)*Y(2,3)*cos(t(3,2)-d(3)+d(2)); J(3,1)=V(2)*V(1)*Y(2,1)*cos(t(2,1)-d(2)+d(1))+... V(2)*V(3)*Y(2,3)*cos(t(2,3)-d(2)+d(3)); J(3,2)=-V(2)*V(3)*Y(2,3)*cos(t(2,3)-d(2)+d(3)); J(3,3)=-V(1)*Y(2,1)*sin(t(2,1)-d(2)+d(1))-2*V(2)*Y(2,2) *sin(t(2,2)) ... V(3)*Y(2,3)*sin(t(2,3)-d(2)+d(3)); DP=Ps-P; DQ=Qs-Q; DC=[DP;DQ] J DX=J\DC d(2)=d(2)+DX(1); d(3)=d(3)+DX(2); V(2)=V(2)+DX(3); V, d, delta=180/pi*d; end P1=V(1)^2*Y(1,1)*cos(t(1,1))+V(1)*V(2)*Y(1,2)*cos(t(1,2)d(1)+d(2))+... V(1)*V(3)*Y(1,3)*cos(t(1,3)-d(1)+d(3)) Q1=-V(1)^2*Y(1,1)*sin(t(1,1))-V(1)*V(2)*Y(1,2)*sin(t(1,2)d(1)+d(2))-... V(1)*V(3)*Y(1,3)*sin(t(1,3)-d(1)+d(3)) Q3=-V(3)*V(1)*Y(3,1)*sin(t(3,1)-d(3)+d(1))-V(3)*V(2)*Y(3,2)*... sin(t(3,2)-d(3)+d(2))-V(3)^2*Y(3,3)*sin(t(3,3))

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MATLAB RESULTS
1ST ITERATION DC = -2.8600 1.4384 -0.2200 J= 54.2800 -33.2800 -33.2800 -27.1400 DX = -0.0453 -0.0077 -0.0265 V= 1.0500 0.9735 1.0400 d= 0 24.8600

66.0400 -16.6400 16.6400 49.7200

-0.0453 -0.0077
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2ND ITERATION  DC = -0.0992  0.0217 -0.0509 J= 51.7247 -31.7656 -32.9816 -28.5386 DX = -0.0018 -0.0010 -0.0018 V= 1.0500 0.9717 1.0400 d= 0 -0.0471 -0.0087 21.3026

65.6564 -15.3791 17.4028 48.1036

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

3RD ITERATION  DC = 1.0e-003 * -0.2166 0.0382 -0.1430 J= 51.5967 -31.6939 -32.9339 -28.5482 DX = 1.0e-005 * -0.3856 -0.2386 -0.4412 V= 1.0500 0.9717 1.0400 d= 0 21.1474

65.5976 -15.3516 17.3969 47.9549

-0.0471 -0.0087
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

FINAL RESULTS:  P1 = 2.1842 Q1 = 1.4085 Q3 = 1.4618

COMMENTS:
Power system calculations are mostly very complex for large power systems. To analyze such power systems, there are two very important iterative methods: • Gauss Siedel Method • Newton Raphson method In this experiment we learn how to apply these two methods using MATLAB. Gauss-Seidel iteration has two advantages:

Errors do not accumulate during the calculation. If the procedure converges, it approaches the correct answer without rounding errors such as can occur during inversion of large matrices. The method can be used for nonlinear sets of equations.

While Newton Raphson method is readily applied to nonlinear equations, and can use finite-difference estimates of the derivatives to evaluate the gradients.
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EXPERIMENT#08 
Harmonic Load Modeling using built­in and user defined  models of ETAP 
 

HARMONIC ANALYSIS
Because of the wide and ever increasing applications of power  electronic devices, such as variable speed drives, uninterruptible  power supplies (UPS), static power converters, etc., power system  voltage and current quality has been severely affected in some  areas.  In these areas components other than that of fundamental  frequency can be found to exist in the distorted voltage and  current waveforms.  These components usually are the integer  multipliers of the fundamental frequency, called harmonics.  In  addition to electronic devices, some other non‐linear loads, or  devices including saturated transformers, arc furnaces,  fluorescent lights, and cycloconverters are also responsible for the  deterioration in power system quality. 

HARMONIC SOURCES
The following components can be modeled as a harmonic voltage  source in PowerStation:  • • • • Power Grid  Synchronous Generator  Inverter  Charger/Converter 

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• Static Load 

IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS
Transients

The term transient has long been used in the analysis of power  system variations to denote an event that is undesirable and  momentary in nature. Transient is “that part of the change in a  variable that disappears during transition from one steady state  operating condition to another.” 
Impulsive transient

An impulsive transient is a sudden; non–power frequency change  in the steady‐state condition of voltage, current, or both that is  unidirectional in polarity (primarily either positive or negative). 
Oscillatory transient

An oscillatory transient is a sudden, non–power frequency change  in the steady‐state condition of voltage, current, or both, that  includes both positive and negative polarity values. 
Long-Duration Voltage Variations

Long‐duration variations encompass root‐mean‐square (rms)  deviations at power frequencies for longer than 1 minute.  
Overvoltage

An overvoltage is an increase in the rms ac voltage greater than  110 percent at the power frequency for duration longer than 1 

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min. Over voltages are usually the results of load switching (e.g.,  switching off a large load or energizing a capacitor bank).  
Under voltage

An under voltage is a decrease in the rms ac voltage to less than  90 percent at the power frequency for a duration longer than 1  min. Under voltages are the results of switching events that are  the opposite of the events that cause over voltages. 
Short-Duration Voltage Variations

This category encompasses the IEC category of voltage dips and  short interruptions. Each type of variation can be designated as  instantaneous, momentary, or temporary, depending on its  duration.  Short‐duration voltage variations are caused by fault conditions,  the energization of large loads which require high starting  currents, or intermittent loose connections in power wiring. 
Interruption

An interruption occurs when the supply voltage or load current  decreases to less than 0.1 pu for a period of time not exceeding 1  min. 
Sags (dips)

Sag is a decrease to between 0.1 and 0.9 pu in rms voltage or  current at the power frequency for durations from 0.5 cycle to 1  min. 
Swells
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A swell is defined as an increase to between 1.1 and 1.8 pu in rms  voltage or current at the power frequency for durations from 0.5  cycle to 1 min. 
Voltage Imbalance

Voltage imbalance (also called voltage unbalance) is sometimes  defined as the maximum deviation from the average of the three‐ phase voltages or currents, divided by the average of the three‐ phase voltages or currents, expressed in percent. 
Waveform Distortion

Waveform distortion is defined as a steady‐state deviation from  an ideal sine wave of power frequency principally characterized  by the spectral content of the deviation. 
Harmonics

Harmonics are sinusoidal voltages or currents having frequencies  that are integer multiples of the frequency at which the supply  system is designed to operate (termed the fundamental  frequency usually 50 or 60 Hz). 
Interharmonics

Voltages or currents having frequency components that are not  integer multiples of the frequency at which the supply system is  designed to operate (e.g., 50 or 60 Hz) are called Interharmonics. 
Odd harmonics

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Voltages or currents having frequency components that are odd  integer multiples of the frequency at which the supply system is  designed to operate (e.g., 50 or 60 Hz) are called odd harmonics. 
Even harmonics

Voltages or currents having frequency components that are even  integer multiples of the frequency at which the supply system is  designed to operate (e.g., 50 or 60 Hz) are called even harmonics. 
Voltage Fluctuation

Voltage fluctuations are systematic variations of the voltage  envelope or a series of random voltage changes, the magnitude of  which does not normally exceed the voltage ranges specified by  ANSI C84.1 of 0.9 to 1.1 pu. 
Power Frequency Variations

Power frequency variations are defined as the deviation of the  power system fundamental frequency from it specified nominal  value (e.g., 50 or 60 Hz). 
Power factor, displacement

The power factor of the fundamental frequency components of  the voltage and current waveforms 
Power factor (true)

The ratio of active power (watts) to apparent power (volt  amperes) 
Total harmonic distortion (THD)

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The ratio of the root mean square of the harmonic content to the  rms value of the fundamental quantity, expressed as a percent of  the fundamental. 
Triplen harmonics

A term frequently used to refer to the odd multiples of the third  harmonic, which deserve special attention because of their  natural tendency to be zero sequence.   

ONE LINE DIAGRAM

   

MODELING OF HARMONIC LOAD
• Double click on the charger • Select the harmonics section • Select the type of harmonics from the given library of harmonics

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

BUILT-IN MODELS OF ETAP

ROCKWELL (12-Pulse-VFD)

ROCKWELL (18-Pulse-VFD)

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

ROCKWELL (6-Pulse-VFD)

TOSHIBA (PWM-ASD)

TYPICAL (LCI)
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

TYPICAL-IEEE (12-Pulse1)

TYPICAL-IEEE (12-Pulse2)

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

TYPICAL-IEEE (18-Pulse-CT)

TYPICAL-IEEE (18-Pulse-VT)

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

TYPICAL-IEEE (6-Pulse1)

TYPICAL-IEEE (6-Pulse2)

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

TYPICAL-IEEE (Fluorescent)

TYPICAL-IEEE (Large-ASD)

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

TYPICAL-IEEE (SPC)

TYPICAL-IEEE (XFMR-Magnet)

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

USER DEFINED MODELING
• • • • • • Go to the library tab given on the main window of ETAP Select the harmonic section Click on add tab Enter the name of new harmonic model Click on edit tab Enter the spectrum components in the table

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

COMMENTS
In this experiment, we learnt: • How to model a harmonic load using built-in models • How to built a user-defined harmonic model • How to model a harmonic load using user-defined models So, ETAP is a very powerful tool for harmonic analysis of any power distribution network.

EXPERIMENT#09 
Impact of personal computer load on power distribution  network of RCET 

Harmonics
Harmonics are sinusoidal voltages or currents having frequencies  that are integer multiples of the frequency at which the supply  system is designed to operate (termed the fundamental  frequency usually 50 or 60 Hz). 
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

PC LOAD THD’S Harmonic No.
3
rd

%THD
91.63 86.61 69.87 44.76 54.81 46.44 46.44 33.05 24.70 11.74 7.900 5.120 178.97

5th 7th 9
th

11th 13th 15th 17
th

19th 23rd 25
th

29th %THD

   

ONE LINE DIAGRAM

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

           

LOAD FLOW DIAGRAM
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

           
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

             

LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS REPORT

 

HARMONIC ANALYSIS RESULTS
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS & SPECTRAS

BUS-5:

BUS-11:
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

BUS-27:
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

BUS-33:
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CURRENT WAVEFORMS & SPECTRAS
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CABLE-2:

CABLE-7:
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CABLE-11:
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CABLE-18:
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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

   

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

HARMONIC ANALYSIS REPORT

COMMENTS
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

In this experiment, we learnt: • How to apply harmonic analysis to a power distribution network • How to perform load flow analysis on a power distribution network • How to perform harmonic analysis on a power distribution network • How to get harmonic spectra at required locations

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

EXPERIMENT#10 
Flow of triplen harmonics (zero­sequence harmonics)  during 5 different schemes of connection for a 3­phase  transformer with presence of large non­linear load using  ETAP 
 

ONE LINE DIAGRAM

   

HARMONIC MODEL USED
PC load is used as a source of harmonics in this experiment that has the following range of THD’S.

Harmonic No.
3rd
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

%THD
91.63

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

5th 7th 9th 11th 13
th

86.61 69.87 44.76 54.81 46.44 46.44 33.05 24.70 11.74 7.900 5.120 178.97

15th 17th 19
th

23rd 25th 29
th

%THD

5 DIFFERENT SCHEMES OF TRANSFORMER WINDING PRIMARY SIDE
1 2 3 4 5 Y-Grounded Y-Grounded Y-Grounded Y-Ungrounded Delta

SECONDARY SIDE
Y-Ungrounded Y-Grounded Delta Delta Delta

       

HARMONIC ANALYSIS RESULTS
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CASE-1: Transformer primary side Y-Grounded and secondary Y-Ungrounded
VOLTAGE SPECTRA ON LT-SIDE

VOLTAGE SPECTRA ON HT-SIDE

VOLTAGE WAVEFORM ON LT-SIDE

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

VOLTAGE WAVEFORM ON HT-SIDE

CURRENT SPECTRA ON LT-SIDE

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CURRENT SPECTRA ON HT-SIDE

CURRENT WAVEFORM ON LT-SIDE

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CURRENT WAVEFORM ON HT-SIDE

OBSERVATIONS:
Harmonic source is connected on the LT side of transformer, so the triplen harmonics are blocked due to ungrounded Yconnection. The magnitude of remaining harmonic components is reduced on the HT side of transformer.

CASE-2:
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

Transformer primary side Y-Grounded and secondary Y-Grounded
VOLTAGE SPECTRA ON LT-SIDE

VOLTAGE SPECTRA ON HT-SIDE

VOLTAGE WAVEFORM ON LT-SIDE

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

VOLTAGE WAVEFORM ON HT-SIDE

CURRENT SPECTRA ON LT-SIDE

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CURRENT SPECTRA ON HT-SIDE

CURRENT WAVEFORM ON LT-SIDE

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CURRENT WAVEFORM ON HT-SIDE

OBSERVATIONS:
Harmonic source is connected on the LT side of transformer, so the triplen harmonics are not blocked due to grounded Yconnection. The triplen harmonics are also present on the HT side of transformer as that is also Y-grounded.

CASE-3:
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

Transformer primary side Y-Grounded and secondary Delta
VOLTAGE SPECTRA ON LT-SIDE

VOLTAGE SPECTRA ON HT-SIDE

VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS ON LT-SIDE

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

VOLTAGE WAVEFORM ON HT-SIDE

CURRENT SPECTRA ON LT-SIDE

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CURRENT SPECTRA ON HT-SIDE

CURRENT WAVEFORM ON LT-SIDE

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CURRENT WAVEFORM ON HT-SIDE

OBSERVATIONS:
Harmonic source is connected on the LT side of transformer, so the triplen harmonics are blocked due to deltaconnection. The triplen harmonics are also blocked on the HT side of transformer as there are no triplen harmonics on secondary side of transformer.

CASE-4:
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

Transformer primary side Y-Ungrounded and secondary Delta
VOLTAGE SPECTRA ON LT-SIDE

VOLTAGE SPECTRA ON HT-SIDE

VOLTAGE WAVEFORM ON LT-SIDE

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

VOLTAGE WAVEFORM ON HT-SIDE

CURRENT SPECTRA ON LT-SIDE

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CURRENT SPECTRA ON HT-SIDE

CURRENT WAVEFORM ON LT-SIDE

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CURRENT WAVEFORM ON HT-SIDE

OBSERVATIONS:
Harmonic source is connected on the LT side of transformer, so the triplen harmonics are blocked due to deltaconnection. The triplen harmonics are also blocked on the HT side of transformer as there are no triplen harmonics on secondary side of transformer.

CASE-5:
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

Transformer primary side Delta and secondary Delta
VOLTAGE SPECTRA ON LT-SIDE

VOLTAGE SPECTRA ON HT-SIDE

VOLTAGE WAVEFORM ON LT-SIDE

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

VOLTAGE WAVEFORM ON HT-SIDE

CURRENT SPECTRA ON LT-SIDE

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CURRENT SPECTRA ON HT-SIDE

 

CURRENT WAVEFORM ON LT-SIDE

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

CURRENT WAVEFORM ON HT-SIDE

 

OBSERVATIONS:
Harmonic source is connected on the LT side of transformer, so the triplen harmonics are blocked due to deltaconnection. The triplen harmonics are also blocked on the HT side of transformer as there are no triplen harmonics on secondary side of transformer. Moreover, primary side is also delta-connected.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

EXPERIMENT#11  
Three phase short circuit analysis (3­phase faults­device  duty) for a given power system using ETAP 

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
The power station short circuit analysis program analyze the effect of three phase, line to ground, line to line, and line to line to ground faults on the electrical distribution networks. The program calculates the total short circuit currents as well as the contributions of individual motors, generators, and utility ties in the system. Fault duties are in compliance with the latest editions of the ANSI/IEEE standards and IEC standards. The ANSI/IEEE Short-Circuit Toolbar and IEC Short-Circuit Toolbar sections explain how you can launch a short-circuit calculation, open and view an output report, or select display options. The Short-Circuit Study Case Editor section explains how you can create a new study case, what parameters are required to specify a study case, and how to set them. The Display Options section explains what options are available for displaying some key system parameters and the output results on the one-line diagram, and how to set them.

Short-Circuit Toolbar
This toolbar is active when you are in Short-Circuit mode and the standard is set to ANSI in the Short-Circuit Study Case Editor.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

3-Phase Faults - Device Duty
Click on this button to perform a three-phase fault study per ANSI C37 Standard. This study calculates momentary symmetrical and asymmetrical rms, momentary asymmetrical crest, interrupting symmetrical rms, and interrupting adjusted symmetrical rms short-circuit currents at faulted buses. The program checks the protective device rated close and latching, and adjusted interrupting capacities against the fault currents, and flags inadequate devices.
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

Generators and motors are modeled by their positive sequence sub-transient reactance.

ONE LINE DIAGRAM

FAULTY POINT
• BUS-15 There is a short circuit fault on bus-15.
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

LOAD FLOW DIAGRAM

 

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POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS DIAGRAM

   

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

COMMENTS:
In this experiment, we use three phase fault-device duty analysis to analyze the effect of fault on the system. Following results are obtained in this experiment: At bus-15: Current Power flow Before fault 568A 345KW After fault 4.8KA 3.6KW

We observe that the current flowing through bus-15 is increased up to many times as compared to the current before fault. We observe that the power flowing through bus-15 is decreased up to many times as compared to the power before fault due to the short circuit at bus-15 as the load connected to that bus is now shorted and no power is flowing into that load.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

EXPERIMENT#12  
Three phase short circuit analysis (3­phase faults­30 cycle  network) for a given power system using ETAP 

3-Phase Faults – 30-Cycle Network
Click on this button to perform a three-phase fault study per ANSI standards. This study calculates short-circuit currents in their rms values after 30 cycles at faulted buses. Generators are modeled by their positive sequence transient reactance’s, and short-circuit current contributions from motors are ignored.

ONE LINE DIAGRAM

FAULTY POINT
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

• BUS-15 There is a short circuit fault on bus-15.

LOAD FLOW DIAGRAM

 
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS DIAGRAM

   

COMMENTS:
In this experiment, we use three phase fault-device duty analysis to analyze the effect of fault on the system. Following results are obtained in this experiment: At bus-15: Current Power flow
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

Before fault 568A 345KW

After fault 3.6KA 3.6KW

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

We observe that the current flowing through bus-15 is increased up to many times as compared to the current before fault. We observe that the power flowing through bus-15 is decreased up to many times as compared to the power before fault due to the short circuit at bus-15 as the load connected to that bus is now shorted and no power is flowing into that load.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

EXPERIMENT#13 
Three phase short circuit analysis (LG, LL, LLG, & 3­Phase  Faults ­ ½ Cycle) for a given power system using ETAP 
 

LG, LL, LLG, & 3-Phase Faults - ½ Cycle
Click on this button to perform line-to-ground, line-to-line, line-to-line-to-ground, and three-phase fault studies per ANSI standards. This study calculates short-circuit currents in their rms values at ½ cycles at faulted buses. Generators and motors are modeled by their positive, negative, and zero sequence sub-transient reactance. In all the unbalanced fault calculations (½ cycle, 1.5-4 cycle and 30 cycles), it is assumed that the negative sequence impedance of a machine is equal to its positive sequence impedance. Generator, motor, and transformer grounding types and winding connections are taken into consideration when constructing system positive, negative, and zero sequence networks.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

ONE LINE DIAGRAM

FAULTY POINT
• BUS-15 There is a short circuit fault on bus-15.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

LOAD FLOW DIAGRAM

 
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS DIAGRAM

   

COMMENTS:
In this experiment, we use three phase fault-device duty analysis to analyze the effect of fault on the system. Following results are obtained in this experiment:

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

At bus-15: Current Power flow Before fault 568A 345KW After fault 6.2KA 5.1KW

We observe that the current flowing through bus-15 is increased up to many times as compared to the current before fault. We observe that the power flowing through bus-15 is decreased up to many times as compared to the power before fault due to the short circuit at bus-15 as the load connected to that bus is now shorted and no power is flowing into that load.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

EXPERIMENT#14 
Three phase short circuit analysis (LG, LL, LLG, & 3­Phase  Faults ­ 1.5 to 4 Cycle) for a given power system using  ETAP 

LG, LL, LLG, & 3-Phase Faults - 1.5 to 4 Cycle
Click on this button to perform three-phase, line-to-ground, line-to-line, line-to-line-to-ground, and three-phase fault studies per ANSI standards. This study calculates shortcircuit currents in their rms values between 1.5 to 4 cycles at faulted buses. Generators are modeled by their positive, negative, and zero sequence sub-transient reactance, and motors are modeled by their positive, negative and zero sequence transient reactance. Generator, motor and transformer grounding types and winding connections are taken into considerations when constructing system positive, negative, and zero sequential networks.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

ONE LINE DIAGRAM

FAULTY POINT
• BUS-15 There is a short circuit fault on bus-15.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

LOAD FLOW DIAGRAM

 
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS DIAGRAM

     

COMMENTS:
In this experiment, we use three phase fault-device duty analysis to analyze the effect of fault on the system. Following results are obtained in this experiment:

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

At bus-15: Current Power flow Before fault 568A 345KW After fault 5.7KA 5KW

We observe that the current flowing through bus-15 is increased up to many times as compared to the current before fault. We observe that the power flowing through bus-15 is decreased up to many times as compared to the power before fault due to the short circuit at bus-15 as the load connected to that bus is now shorted and no power is flowing into that load.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

EXPERIMENT#15 
Three phase short circuit analysis (LG, LL, LLG, & 3­Phase  Faults ­ 30 Cycle) for a given power system using ETAP 

LG, LL, LLG, & 3-Phase Faults - 30 Cycle
Click on this button to perform three-phase, line-to-ground, line-to-line, line-to-line-to-ground, and three-phase fault studies per ANSI standards. This study calculates shortcircuit currents in their rms values at 30-cycles at faulted buses. Generators are modeled by their positive, negative, and zero sequence reactance, and short-circuit current contributions from motors are ignored. Generator, motor, and transformer grounding types and winding connections are taken into consideration when constructing system positive, negative, and zero sequence networks.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

ONE LINE DIAGRAM

FAULTY POINT
• BUS-15 There is a short circuit fault on bus-15.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

LOAD FLOW DIAGRAM

 
ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS DIAGRAM

     

COMMENTS:
In this experiment, we use three phase fault-device duty analysis to analyze the effect of fault on the system. Following results are obtained in this experiment:

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

At bus-15: Current Power flow Before fault 568A 345KW After fault 4.8KA 4.8KW

We observe that the current flowing through bus-15 is increased up to many times as compared to the current before fault. We observe that the power flowing through bus-15 is decreased up to many times as compared to the power before fault due to the short circuit at bus-15 as the load connected to that bus is now shorted and no power is flowing into that load.

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS LAB MANUAL 
 

COMPARISON OF SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
CURRENT POWER 3.6 3.6 3.6 6.2 5.1

3‐phase faults‐ device duty 3‐phase faults‐30  cycle network LG, LL, LLG, & 3‐ Phase Faults ‐ ½  Cycle LG, LL, LLG, & 3‐ Phase Faults ‐ 1.5 to  4 Cycle LG, LL, LLG, & 3‐ Phase Faults ‐ 30  Cycle

4.8

5.7

5

4.8

4.8

ASAD NAEEM  2006‐RCET‐EE‐22   

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