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General Knowledge

01 The first Prime minister of Bangladesh was – Mujibur Rehman 02 The longest river in the world is the – Nile 03 The longest highway in the world is the – Trans-Canada 04 The longest highway in the world has a length of About – 8000 km 05 The highest mountain in the world is the – Everest 06 The country that accounts for nearly one third of the total teak production of the world is –Myanmar 07 The biggest desert in the world is the – Sahara desert 08 The largest coffee growing country in the world is – Brazil 09 The country also known as “country of Copper” is – Zambia 10 The name given to the border which separates Pakistan and Afghanistan is – Durand line 11 The river Volga flows out into the – Capsian sea 12 The coldest place on the earth is Verkoyansk in – Siberia 13 The country which ranks second in terms of land area is – Canada 14 The largest Island in the Mediterranean sea is – Sicily 15 The river Jordan flows out into the – Dead sea 16 The biggest delta in the world is the – Sunderbans 17 The capital city that stands on the river Danube is – Belgrade 18 The Japanese call their country as – Nippon 19 The length of the English channel is – 564 kilometres 20 The world’s oldest known city is – Damascus 21 The city which is also known as the City of Canals is – Venice 22 The country in which river Wangchu flows is – Myanmar

23 The biggest island of the world is – Greenland 24 The city which is the biggest centre for manufacture of automobiles in the world is – Detroit, USA 25 The country which is the largest producer of manganese in the world is – China & South Africa 26 The country which is the largest producer of rubber in the world is – Malaysia 27 The country which is the largest producer of tin in the world is – China 28 The river which carries maximum quantity of water into the sea is the – Mississippi 29 The city which was once called the `Forbidden City’ was – Peking 30 The country called the Land of Rising Sun is – Japan 31 Mount Everest was named after Sir George – Everest 32 The volcano Vesuvius is located in – Italy 33 The country known as the Sugar Bowl of the world is – Cuba 34 The length of the Suez Canal is – 162.5 kilometers 35 The lowest point on earth is The coastal area of – Dead sea 36 The Gurkhas are the original inhabitants of – Nepal 37 The largest ocean of the world is the – Pacific ocean 38 The largest bell in the world is the – Tsar Kolkol at Kremlin, Moscow 39 The biggest stadium in the world is the – Strahov Stadium, Prague 40 The world’s largest diamond producing country is – South Africa 41 Australia was discovered by – James Cook 42 The first Governor General of Pakistan is – Mohammed Ali Jinnah 43 Dublin is situated at the mouth of river – Liffey 44 The earlier name of New York city was – New Amsterdam 45 The Eifel tower was built by – Alexander Eiffel 46 The Red Cross was founded by – Jean Henri Durant

47 The country which has the greatest population density is – Monaco 48 The national flower of Britain is – Rose 49 Niagara Falls was discovered by – Louis Hennepin 50 The national flower of Italy is – Lily 51 The national flower of China is – Narcissus 52 The permanent secretariat of the SAARC is located at – Kathmandu 53 The gateway to the Gulf of Iran is Strait of – Hormuz 54 The first Industrial Revolution took place in – England 55 World Environment Day is observed on – 5th June 56 The first Republican President of America was – Abraham Lincoln 57 The country famous for Samba dance is – Brazil 58 The name of Alexander’s horse was – Beucephalus 59 Singapore was founded by – Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles 60 The famous British one-eyed Admiral was – Nelson 61 The earlier name of Sri Lanka was – Ceylon 62 The UNO was formed in the year – 1945 63 UNO stands for – United Nations Organization 64 The independence day of South Korea is celebrated on – 15th August 65 `Last Judgement’ was the first painting of an Italian painter named – Michelangelo 66 Paradise Regained was written by – John Milton 67 The first President of Egypt was – Mohammed Nequib 68 The first man to reach North Pole was – Rear Peary 69 The most famous painting of Pablo Picasso was – Guermica 70 The primary producer of newsprint in the world is – Canada

71 The first explorer to reach the South Pole was – Cap. Ronald Amundson 72 The person who is called the father of modern Italy is – G.Garibaldi 73 World literacy day is celebrated on – 8th September 74 The founder of modern Germany is – Bismarck 75 The country known as the land of the midnight sun is – Norway 76 The place known as the Roof of the world is – Tibet 77 The founder of the Chinese Republic was – San Yat Sen 78 The first Pakistani to receive the Nobel Prize was – Abdul Salam 79 The first woman Prime Minister of Britain was – Margaret Thatcher 80 The first Secretary General of the UNO was – Trygve Lie 81 The sculptor of the statue of Liberty was – Frederick Auguste Bartholdi 82 The port of Banku is situated in – Azerbaijan 83 John F Kennedy was assassinated by – Lee Harry Oswald 84 The largest river in France is – Lore 85 The Queen of England who married her brother-in-law was – Catherine of Aragon 86 The first negro to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize was – Ralph Johnson Bunche 87 The first British University to admit women for degree courses was – London University 88 The principal export of Jamaica is – Sugar 89 New York is popularly known as the – city of Skyscrapers 90 Madagascar is popularly known as the – Island of Cloves 91 The country known as the Land of White Elephant is – Thailand 92 The country known as the Land of Morning Calm is – Korea 93 The country known as the Land of Thunderbolts is – Bhutan 94 The highest waterfalls in the world is the – Salto Angel Falls(Venezuela)

95 The largest library in the world is the – United States Library of Congress Washington DC 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. The largest museum in the world is the American Museum of Natural History. The lowest mountain range in the world is the Buena Bhaile. The country known as the Land of Cakes is Scotland. The place known as the Garden of England is Kent. The tallest tower in the world is the Burj Khalifa, Dubai. The country famous for its fish catch is Japan. The old name of Taiwan was Farmosa. Montreal is situated on the bank of River Ottawa. The city of Bonn is situated in Germany. The literal meaning of Renaissance is Revival. Julius Caesar was killed by Brutus. The title of Desert Fox was given to Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. The largest airport in the world is the King Khalid International Airport, Saudi Arabia. The city in Russia which faced an earthquake in the year 1998 was Armenia. The largest bay in the world is Hudson Bay, Canada. The largest church in the world is Basilica of St. Peter, Vatican City, Rome. The largest peninsula in the world is Arabia. The largest gulf in the world is Gulf of Mexico. The tallest statue in the world is the Motherland, Volgograd Russia. The largest railway tunnel in the world is the Oshimizu Tunnel, Japan. The world’s loneliest island is the Tristan da cunha. The word ‘Quiz’ was coined by Jim Daly Irishman. The original meaning of ‘Quiz’ was Trick. The busiest shopping centre of London is Oxford Street. The residence of the Queen in London is Buckingham Palace. Adolf Hitler was born in Austria. The country whose National Anthem has only music but no words is Bahrain. The largest cinema in the world is the Fox theatre, Detroit, USA. The country where there are no Cinema theatres is Saudi Arabia. The world’s tallest office building is the Sears Tower, Chicago. In the year 1811, Paraguay became independent from Spain. The cross word puzzle was invented by Arthur Wynne. The city which was the capital of the ancient Persian Empire was Persepolis. WHO stands for World Health Organization. WHO (World Health Organization) is located at Geneva. FAO stands for Food and Agriculture Organization. FAO is located at Rome and London. UNIDO stands for United Nations Industrial Development Organization. UNIDO is located at Vienna. WMO stands for World Meteorological Organization. WMO is located at Geneva. International Civil Aviation Organization is located at Montreal. The Angel Falls is located in Venezuela. The Victoria Falls is located in Rhodesia. Ice Cream was discovered by Gerald Tisyum. The number regarded as lucky number in Italy is thirteen. Napoleon suffered from alurophobia which means Fear of cats. The aero planes were used in war for the first time by Italians. (14 Oct.1911) Slavery in America was abolished by Abraham Lincoln. The Headquarters of textile manufacturing in England is Manchester. The famous Island located at the mouth of the Hudson River is Manhattan. The founder of plastic industry was Leo Hendrik Baekeland. The country where military service is compulsory for women is Israel. The country which has more than 10,000 golf courses is USA. The famous painting ‘Mona Lisa’ is displayed at Louvre museum, Paris. The earlier name for tomato was Love apple. The first President of USA was George Washington. The famous words ‘Veni Vidi Vici’ were said by Julius Caesar. The practice of sterilization of surgical instruments was introduced by Joseph Lister. The number of countries which participated in the first Olympic Games held at Athens was nine. Mercury is also known as Quick Silver. Disneyland is located in California, USA. The country which built the first powerful long range rockets is Germany. Sewing Machine was invented by Isaac M. Singer.

65. Adding Machine was invented by Aldrin. 66. The national emblem of Spain is Eagle. 67. Archimedes was born in Sicily. 68. The total area of Vatican City is 0.272 square kilometers. 69. The largest temple in the world is Angkor Wat in Kampuchea. 70. The largest dome in the world is Louisiana Superdome, New Orleans, USA. 71. The largest strait in the world is Tartar Strait. 72. The Mohenjo-Daro ruins are found in Larkand District of Sind, Pakistan. 73. The largest city of Africa is Cairo. 74. The founder of KODAK Company was Eastman. 75. The Cape of Good Hope is located in South Africa. 76. The Heathrow Airport is located in London. 77. The neon lamp was invented by Georges Claude. 78. The last letter of the Greek alphabet is Omega. 79. The place known as the land of Lincoln is Illinois. 80. The US state Utah is also known as Beehive state. 81. The Kalahari Desert is located in Africa. 82. The Patagonian desert is located in Argentina. 83. The person known as the father of aeronautics is Sir George Cayley. 84. The most densely populated Island in the world is Honshu. 85. The two nations Haiti and the Dominion Republic together form the Island of Hispaniola. 86. The largest auto producer in the USA is General Motors. 87. The largest auto producing nation is Japan. 88. The famous ?General Motors? company was founded by William Durant. 89. The country that brings out the FIAT is Italy. 90. The first actor to win an Oscar was Emil Jannings. 91. The first animated colour cartoon of full feature length was Snow White and Seven Dwarfs. 92. The first demonstration of a motion picture was held at Paris. 93. The first country to issue stamps was Britain. 94. The actor who is considered as the biggest cowboy star of the silent movies is Tom Mix. 95. The Pentagon is located at Washington DC. 96. The world’s largest car manufacturing company is General Motors, USA. 97. The world’s biggest manufacturer of bicycles is Hero cycles, Ludhiana. 98. The world’s oldest underground railway is at London. 99. The White House was painted white to hide fire damage. 100. The largest oil producing nation in Africa is Nigeria. 101. The longest river in Russia and Europe is Volga River. 102. The first Emperor of Germany was Wilhelm. 103. The last French Monarch was Louis Napoleon III. 104. “History is Bunk” was said by Henry Ford. 105. The term ‘astrology’ literally means Star Speech. 106. Togo is situated in Africa. 107. Coal is also known as Black Diamond. 108. The first Boxer to win 3 gold medals in Olympics was Laszlo Papp. 109. The first ruler who started war games for his soldiers was Genghis Khan. 110. The first cross word puzzle in the world was published in 1924 by London Sunday Express. 111. The lightest known metal is Lithium. 112. The Atacama Desert is located in North Chile. 113. The oil used to preserve timber is Creosote oil. 114. The founder of USA was George Washington. 115. The first talkie feature film in USA was ‘The Jazz Singer’. 116. The chemical name of laughing gas is Nitrous oxide. 117. The US state Mississippi is also known as Tar Heel state. 118. The US state Indiana is also known as Volunteer state. 119. The US state Missouri is also known as Hoosier state. 120. The US state West Virginia is also known as Blue Grass state. 121. The US state known as ‘Pine Free State’ is Vermont. 122. The US state known as ‘Mountain state’ is Pennsylvania. 123. The US state known as ‘Land of 1000 Lakes’ is Arkansas. 124. The popular detective character created by Agatha Christie is Hercule Poirot. 125. The Pakistani President who died in an air crash was Zia-ul-Huq. 126. Yoghurt means Fermented milk. 127. Yankee is the nickname of American. 128. The International court of Justice is located in Hague, Holland. 129. The headquarters of World Bank is located at Washington DC. 130. Victoria Falls was discovered by David Livingstone.

131. The technique to produce the first test tube baby was evolved by Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards. 132. The oldest residential university of Britain is the Oxford University. 133. The name of the large clock on the tower of the House of Parliament in London is called Big Ben. 134. Prado Museum is located in Madrid. 135. The number of keys in an ordinary piano is Eighty eight. 136. ‘Man is a Tool Making Animal’ was said by Benjamin Franklin. 137. The term ‘anesthesia’ was coined by Oliver Wendell Holmes. 138. The first man to reach Antarctica was Fabian Gottlieb. 139. The Kilimanjaro volcano is situated in Tanzania. 140. The invention that is considered to have built America is Dynamite. 141. Words that contains all the vowels: Authentication, Remuneration, Education, Automobile, Miscellaneous and many more. 142. Words that contain all the vowels in order: Facetious and Abstemious. 143. Words that contain all the vowels in reverse order: Uncomplimentary, Unproprietary, Unoriental and Subcontinental. 144. Words with no vowel in them: Myth, Fly, Sky, Dry, Cry, Rhythm, Crypt. 145. Which country declares independence on 18th Feb 2008? – Kosovo. 146. Who was the founder of the kindergarten education system? – German educator Friedrich Froebel. 147. What is the scientific name of Vitamin C? – Ascorbic Acid 148. What is the full form of GPRS? – General Packet Radio Service 149. Which was the first university established in the world? – Nalanda University 150. What is full form of CEO, CFO & CIO titles? Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer & Chief Information Officer. 151. Shakespeare invented the word ‘ assassination’ and ‘bump’. 152. Stewardesses is the longest word typed with only the left hand. 153. The ant always falls over on its right side when intoxicated. 154. The electric chair was invented by a dentist. 155. The human heart creates enough pressure when it pumps out to the body to squirt blood 30 feet. 156. Wearing headphones for just an hour will increase the bacteria in your ear By 700 times. 157. Ants don’t sleep. 158. Owls have eyeballs that are tubular in shape, because of this, they cannot move their eyes. 159. A bird requires more food in proportion to its size than a baby or a cat. 160. The mouse is the most common mammal in the US. 161. A newborn kangaroo is about 1 inch in length. 162. A cow gives nearly 200,000 glasses of milk in her lifetime. 163. The Canary Islands were not named for a bird called a canary. They were named after a breed of large dogs. The Latin name was Canariae insulae – “Island of Dogs.” 164. There are 701 types of pure breed dogs. 165. A polecat is not a cat. It is a nocturnal European weasel. 166. The animal responsible for the most human deaths world-wide is the mosquito. 167. The biggest pig in recorded history was Big Boy of Black Mountain, North Carolina, who was weighed at 1,904 pounds in 1939. 168. Cats respond most readily to names that end in an “ee” sound. 169. A cat cannot see directly under its nose. This is why the cat cannot seem to find tidbits on the floor. 170. Pigs, walruses and light-colored horses can be sunburned. 171. Snakes are immune to their own poison. 172. An iguana can stay under water for 28 minutes. 173. Cats have more than one hundred vocal sounds, while dogs only have about ten. 174. The biggest member of the cat family is the male lion, which weighs 528 pounds (240 kilograms). 175. Most lipstick contains fish scales. 176. Rats multiply so quickly that in 18 months, two rats could have over a million descendants. 177. Each day in the US, animal shelters are forced to destroy 30,000 dogs and cats. 178. A shrimp’s heart is in their head. 179. A pregnant goldfish is called a twit. 180. A cockroach will live nine days without its head, before it starves to death. 181. The cat lover is an ailurophile, while a cat hater is an ailurophobe. 182. A woodpecker can peck twenty times a second. 183. It may take longer than two days for a chick to break out of its shell.

184. Dragonflies are one of the fastest insects, flying 50 to 60 mph. 185. Despite man’s fear and hatred of the wolf, it has not ever been proved that a non-rabid wolf ever attacked a human. 186. There are more than 100 million dogs and cats in the United States. 187. Americans spend more than 5.4 billion dollars on their pets each year. 188. Cat’s urine glows under a black light. 189. The largest cockroach on record is one measured at 3.81 inches in length. 190. It is estimated that a single toad may catch and eat as many as 10,000 insects in the course of a summer. 191. Amphibians eyes come in a variety shapes and sizes. Some even have square or heartshaped pupils. 192. It would require an average of 18 hummingbirds to weigh in at 1 ounce. 193. Dogs that do not tolerate small children well are the St. Bernard, the Old English sheep dog, the Alaskan malamute, the bull terrier, and the toy poodle. 194. Moles are able to tunnel through 300 feet of earth in a day. 195. Howler monkeys are the noisiest land animals. Their calls can be heard over 2 miles away. 196. A quarter of the horses in the US died of a vast virus epidemic in 1872. 197. The fastest bird is the Spine-tailed swift, clocked at speeds of up to 220 miles per hour. 198. There is no single cat called the panther. The name is commonly applied to the leopard, but it is also used to refer to the puma and the jaguar. A black panther is really a black leopard. A capon is a castrated rooster. 199. The world’s largest rodent is the Capybara. It is an Amazon water hog that looks like a guinea pig; it can weigh more than 100 pounds. 200. The poison-arrow frog has enough poison to kill about 2,200 people. 201. The hummingbird, the loon, the swift, the kingfisher, and the grebe are all birds that cannot walk. 202. The poisonous copperhead snake smells like fresh cut cucumbers. 203. A chameleon’s tongue is twice the length of its body. 204. Worker ants may live seven years and the queen may live as long as 15 years. 205. The blood of mammals is red, the blood of insects is yellow, and the blood of lobsters is blue. 206. Cheetahs make a chirping sound that is much like a bird’s chirp or a dog’s yelp. The sound is so intense; it can be heard a mile away. 207. The underside of a horse’s hoof is called a frog. The frog peels off several times a year with new growth. 208. The bloodhound is the only animal whose evidence is admissible in an American court. 98% of brown bears in the United States are in Alaska. 209. Before air conditioning was invented, white cotton slipcovers were put on furniture to keep the air cool. 210. The Barbie doll has more than 80 careers. 211. To make one pound of whole milk cheese, 10 pounds of whole milk is needed. 212. 99% of pumpkins are sold for decoration. 213. Every 30 seconds a house fire doubles in size. 214. The month of December is the most popular month for weddings in the Philippines. 215. A one ounce milk chocolate bar has 6 mg of caffeine. 216. Carbon monoxide can kill a person in less than 15 minutes. 217. The largest ever hailstone weighed over 1kg and fell in Bangladesh in 1986. 218. Ants can live up to 16 years. 219. In Belgium, there is a museum that is just for strawberries. 220. The sense of smell of an ant is just as good as a dog’s. 221. Popped popcorn should be stored in the freezer or refrigerator as this way it can stay crunchy for up to three weeks. 222. Coca-Cola was originally green. 223. The most common name in the world is Mohammed. 224. The name of all the continents ends with the same letter that they start with. 225. The strongest muscle in the body is the tongue. 226. TYPEWRITER is the longest word that can be made using the letters only on one row of the keyboard. 227. Women blink nearly twice as much as men!! 228. You can’t kill yourself by holding your breath. 229. It is impossible to lick your elbow. 230. People say “Bless You? when you sneeze because when you sneeze, your heart stops for a millisecond. 231. It is physically impossible for pigs to look up into the sky. 232. The “sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick” is said to be the toughest tongue twister in the English language.

233. If you sneeze too hard, you can fracture a rib. If you try to suppress a sneeze, you can rupture a blood vessel in your head or neck and die. 234. Each king in a deck of playing cards represents great king from history. Spades – King David, Clubs – Alexander the Great, Hearts ? Charlemagne, Diamonds – Julius Caesar. 235. 111,111,111 x 111,111,111 = 12,345,678,987,654,321 236. If a statue of a person in the park on a horse has both front legs in the air, the person died in battle. If the horse has one front leg in the air, the person died as a result of wounds received in battle. If the horse has all four legs on the ground, the person died of natural causes. 237. What do bullet proof vests, fire escapes, windshield wipers and laser printers all have in common? Ans. – All invented by women. 238. This is the only food that doesn’t spoil. What is this? Answer: Honey. 239. A crocodile cannot stick its tongue out. 240. A snail can sleep for three years. 241. All polar bears are left handed. 242. American Airlines saved $40,000 in 1987 by eliminating one olive from each salad served in first-class. 243. Butterflies taste with their feet. 244. Elephants are the only animals that can’t jump. 245. In the last 4000 years, no new animals have been domesticated. 246. On average, people fear spiders more than they do death. 247. The cigarette lighter was invented before the match. 248. Most lipstick contains fish scales. 249. Like fingerprints, everyone’s tongue print is different. 250. Tapeworms range in size from about 0.04 inch to more than 50 feet in length. 251. A baby bat is called a pup. 252. German Shepherds bite humans more than any other breed of dog. 253. A female mackerel lays about 500,000 eggs at one time. 254. It takes 35 to 65 minks to produce the average mink coat. The numbers for other types of fur coats are: beaver – 15; fox – 15 to 25; ermine – 150; chinchilla – 60 to 100.

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Turtles have no teeth. Prehistoric turtles may have weighed as much as 5,000 pounds. Only one out of a thousand baby sea turtles survives after hatching. Sea turtles absorb a lot of salt from the sea water in which they live. They excrete excess salt from their eyes, so it often looks as though they’re crying. Helium is a colorless, odorless, tasteless inert gas at room temperature and makes up about 0.0005% of the air we breathe. Helium Balloon Gas makes balloons float. Helium is lighter than air and just as the heaviest things will tend to fall to the bottom, the lightest things will rise to the top. Helium Balloon Gas makes balloons float. Helium is lighter than air and just as the heaviest things will tend to fall to the bottom, the lightest things will rise to the top. Camels can spit. An ostrich can run 43 miles per hour (70 kilometers per hour). Pigs are the fourth most intelligent animal in the world. Dinosaurs didn’t eat grass? There was no grass in the days of the dinosaurs. Dolphins can swim 37 miles per hour (60 kilometers per hour). A crocodile’s tongue is attached to the roof of its mouth? It cannot move. It cannot chew but its Digestive juices are so strong that it can digest a steel nail, Glass pieces, etc. Sharks are immune to disease i.e. they do not suffer from any Disease. Animals are either right- or left-handed? Polar bears are always left-handed, and so is Kermit the Frog. Paris, France has more dogs than people. New Zealand is home to 70 million sheep and only 40 million people. Male polar bears weigh 1400 pounds and females only weight 550 pounds, on average. Bison are excellent swimmers? Their head, hump and tail never go below the surface of the water. There are 6 to 14 frog?s species in the world that have no tongues. One of these is the African dwarf frog. A frog named Santjie, who was in a frog derby in South Africa jumped 33 feet 5.5 inches. The longest life span of a frog was 40 years The eyes of a frog flatten down when it swallows its prey The name `India’ is derived from the River Indus

25. The Persian invaders converted it into Hindu. The name `Hindustan’ combines Sindhu and Hindu and thus refers to the land of the Hindus. 26. Chess was invented in India. 27. The’ place value system’ and the ‘decimal system’ were developed in 100 BC in India. 28. The game of snakes & ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called ‘Mokshapat.’ The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices. 29. India has the most post offices in the world 30. ‘Navigation’ is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH 31. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Nou’. 32. Until 1896, India was the only source for diamonds to the world 33. The’ place value system’ and the ‘decimal system’ were developed in 100 BC in India. 34. A snail can sleep for 3 years. 35. The names of the continents all end with the same letter with which they start 36. Twenty-Four-Karat Gold is not pure gold since there is a small amount of copper in it. Absolutely pure gold is so soft that it can be molded with the hands. 37. Electricity doesn’t move through a wire but through a field around the wire. 38. The first bicycle that was made in 1817 by Baron von Drais didn’t have any pedals? People walked it along 39. The first steam powered train was invented by Robert Stephenson. It was called the Rocket. 40. A cheetah does not roar like a lion – it purrs like a cat (meow). 41. The original name for the butterfly was ‘flutterby’ 42. An ostrich’s eye is bigger than its brain. 43. Ants don’t sleep. 44. Dolphins usually live up to about twenty years, but have been known to live for about forty. 45. Dolphins sleep in a semi-alert state by resting one side of their brain at a time 46. A dolphin can hold its breath for 5 to 8 minutes at a time 47. Bats can detect warmth of an animal from about 16 cm away using its “nose-leaf”. 48. Bats can also find food up to 18 ft. away and get information about the type of insect using their sense of echolocation. 49. The eyes of the chameleon can move independently & can see in two different directions at the same time. 50. Cockroach: Can detect movement as small as 2,000 times the diameter of a hydrogen atom. 51. Dragonfly: Eye contains 30,000 lenses. 52. Pig’s Tongue contains 15,000 taste buds. For comparison, the human tongue has 9,000 taste buds. 53. The number system was invented by India. Aryabhatta was the scientist who invented the digit zero. 54. Intelligent people have more zinc and copper in their hair. 55. Earth weighs 5,972,000,000,000,000,000,000 tons 56. Like fingerprints, everyone’s tongue print is different. 57. A duck’s quack doesn’t echo anywhere 58. Man is the only animal who’ll eat with an enemy 59. The average woman uses about her height in lipstick every five years. 60. The first Christmas was celebrated on December 25, AD 336 in Rome. 61. A Cockroach will live nine days without its head, before it starves to death. 62. A chimpanzee can learn to recognize itself in a mirror, but monkeys can’t 63. A rat can last longer without water than a camel can 64. About 10% of the world’s population is left-handed 65. Dolphins sleep with one eye open 66. Snakes have no external ears. Therefore, they do not hear the music of a “snake charmer”. Instead, they are probably responding to the movements of the snake charmer and the flute. However, sound waves may travel through bones in their heads to the middle ear. 67. Many spiders have eight eyes. 68. The tongue of snakes has no taste buds. Instead, the tongue is used to bring smells and tastes into the mouth. Smells and tastes are then detected in two pits, called “Jacobson’s organs”, on the roof of their mouths. Receptors in the pits then transmit smell and taste information to the brain. 69. Birds don’t sweat 70. The highest kangaroo leap recorded is 10 ft and the longest is 42 ft 71. Flamingo tongues were eaten common at Roman feasts 72. The smallest bird in the world is the Hummingbird. It weighs 1oz 73. The bird that can fly the fastest is called a White it can fly up to 95 miles per hour. 74. The oldest living thing on earth is 12,000 years old. It is the flowering shrubs called creosote bushes in the Mojave Desert 75. Tea is said to have been discovered in 2737 BC by a Chinese emperor when some tea leaves accidentally blew into a pot of boiling water.

76. A person can live without food for about a month, but only about a week without water. If the amount of water in your body is reduced by just 1%, one will feel thirsty. If it’s reduced by 10%, one will die. 77. Along with its length neck, the giraffe has a very long tongue — more than a foot and a half long. A giraffe can clean its ears with its 21-inch tongue 78. Ostriches can kick with tremendous force, but only forward. Don’t Mess with them 79. An elephant can smell water three miles away 80. If you were to remove your skin, it would weigh as much as 5 pounds 81. A hippopotamus can run faster than a man 82. India never invaded any country in her last 10000 years of history 83. The world’s known tallest man is Robert Pershing Wadlow. The giraffe is 5.49m (18 ft.), the man is 2.55m (8ft. 11.1 in.). 84. The world’s tallest woman is Sandy Allen. She is 2.35m (7 ft. 7 in.). 85. The only 2 animals that can see behind themselves without turning its head are the rabbit and the parrot. 86. The blue whale is the largest animal on earth. The heart of a blue whale is as big as a car, and its tongue is as long as an elephant. 87. The largest bird egg in the world today is that of the ostrich. Ostrich eggs are from 6 to 8 inches long. Because of their size and the thickness of their shells, they take 40 minutes to hard-boil. The average adult male ostrich, the world’s largest living bird, weighs up to 345 pounds. 88. Every dolphin has its own signature whistle to distinguish it from other dolphins, much like a human fingerprint 89. The world’s largest mammal, the blue whale, weighs 50 tons i.e. 50000 Kg at birth. Fully grown, it weighs as much as 150 tons i.e. 150000 Kg. 90. 90 % of all the ice in the world in on Antarctica 91. Antarctica is DRIEST continent. Antarctica is a desert 92. Antarctica is COLDEST continent, averaging minus 76 degrees in the winter 93. Mercury is the closest planet to the sun and it doesn’t have a moon. Its atmosphere is so thin that during the day the temperature reaches 750 degrees, but at night it gets down to -300 degrees. 94. Jupiter is the largest planet. If Jupiter were hollow, you could fit 1000 earths inside! It is made up of gas and is not solid. The most famous feature on Jupiter is its Red Spot, which is actually an enormous hurricane that has been raging on Jupiter for hundreds of years! Sixteen moons orbit Jupiter. 95. Saturn is a very windy place! Winds can reach up to 1,100 miles per hour. Saturn is also made of gas. If you could find an ocean large enough, it would float. This planet is famous for its beautiful rings, and has at least 18 moons. 96. Uranus is the third largest planet, and is also made of gas. It’s tilted on its side and spins northsouth rather than east-west. Uranus has 15 moons. 97. Neptune takes 165 Earth years to get around the sun. It appears blue because it is made of methane gas. Neptune also has a big Spot like Jupiter. Winds on Neptune get up to 1,200 mile per hour! Neptune has 8 moons. 98. Pluto is the farthest planet from the sun… usually. It has such an unusual orbit that it is occasionally closer to the sun than Neptune. Pluto is made of rock and ice. 99. Just about everyone listens to the radio! 99% of homes in the United States have a least one radio. Most families have several radios. 100. Sound is sent from the radio station through the air to your radio by means of electromagnetic waves. News, music, Bible teaching, baseball games, plays, advertisementsthese sounds are all converted into electromagnetic waves (radio waves) before they reach your radio and your ears. 101. At the radio station, the announcer speaks into a microphone. The microphone changes the sound of his voice into an electrical signal. This signal is weak and can’t travel very far, so it’s sent to a transmitter. The transmitter mixes the signal with some strong radio signals called carrier waves. These waves are then sent out through a special antenna at the speed of light! They reach the antenna of your radio. Your antenna “catches” the signal, and the radio’s amplifier strengthens the signal and sends it to the speakers. The speakers vibrate, and your ears pick up the vibrations and your brain translates them into the voice of the radio announcer back at the station. When you consider all the places the announcer’s voice travels. 102. Every radio station has its own frequency. When you turn the tuning knob on your radio, you are choosing which frequency you want your antenna to “catch.” 103. Mountain lions are known by more than 100 names, including panther, catamount, cougar, painter and puma. Its scientific name is Felis concolor, which means “cat of one color.” At one time, mountain lions were very common! 104. The large cats of the world are divided into two groups- those that roar, like tigers and African lions, and those that purr. Mountain lions purr, hiss, scream, and snarl, but they cannot roar. They can jump a distance of 30 feet, and jump as high as 15 feet. It would take quite a fence to keep a mountain lion out! Their favorite food is deer, but they’ll eat other critters as

well. They hunt alone, not in packs like wolves. They sneak up on their prey just like a house cat sneaks up on a bird or toy- one slow step at a time. A lion can eat ten pounds of meat at one time! 105. Queen ants can live to be 30 years old 106. Dragonflies can flap their wings 28 times per second and they can fly up to 60 miles per hour 107. As fast as dragonflies can flap their wings, bees are even faster… they can flap their wings 435 times per second 108. Human thigh bones are stronger than concrete. 109. You can’t kill yourself by holding your breath 110. Your heart beats over 100,000 times a day 111. Right handed people live, on average, nine years longer than left-handed people 112. The elephant is the only mammal that can’t jump! 113. Fingernails grow nearly 4 times faster than toenails! 114. Women blink nearly twice as much as men 115. Honey is the only food that does not spoil. Honey found in the tombs of Egyptian pharaohs has been tasted by archaeologists and found edible 116. Coca-Cola would be green if colouring weren’t added to it. 117. More people are allergic to cow’s milk than any other food. 118. Camels have three eyelids to protect themselves from blowing sand 119. Earth is the only planet not named after a god. 120. It?s against the law to burp, or sneeze in a church in Nebraska, USA. 121. Some worms will eat themselves if they can’t find any food! 122. It is impossible to sneeze with your eyes open 123. Queen Elizabeth I regarded herself as a paragon of cleanliness. She declared that she bathed once every three months, whether she needed it or not 124. Slugs have 4 noses. 125. Owls are the only birds that can see the blue colour. 126. Your tongue is the only muscle in your body that is attached at only one end 127. More than 1,000 different languages are spoken on the continent of Africa. 128. There was once an undersea post office in the Bahamas. 129. Abraham Lincoln’s mother died when she drank the milk of a cow that grazed on poisonous snakeroot 130. After the death of Albert Einstein his brain was removed by a pathologist and put in a jar for future study. 131. Penguins are not found in the North Pole 132. A dentist invented the Electric Chair. 133. A whip makes a cracking sound because its tip moves faster than the speed of sound 134. Alexander Graham Bell’s wife and mother were both deaf 135. Cockroaches break wind every 15 minutes. 136. Fish scales are an ingredient in most lipsticks 137. Canada” is an Indian word meaning “Big Village”. 138. 259200 people die every day. 139. 11% of the world is left-handed 140. 1.7 liters of saliva is produced each day 141. The world?s oldest piece of chewing gum is 9000 years old! 142. The largest beetle in the Americas is the Hercules beetle, which can be 4 to 6 inches in length. That’s bigger than your hand! 143. A full-grown male mountain lion may be 9 feet long, including his tail! 144. There are two kinds of radio stations: AM and FM. That’s why there are two dials on your radio. AM is used mostly for stations that specialize in talking, such as Christian stations at have Bible stories and sermons; sports stations that broadcast live baseball and football games; and stations that specialize in news programs and “talk shows,” where listeners call the station and discuss various topics. FM is used mostly for stations that specialize in music. 145. The average lead pencil can draw a line that is almost 35 miles long or you can write almost 50,000 words in English with just one pencil 146. The Wright Brothers invented one of the first airplanes. It was called the Kitty Hawk. 147. The worst industrial disaster in India occurred in 1984 in Bhopal the capital of Madhya Pradesh. A deadly chemical, methyl isocyanate leaked out of the Union Carbide factory killing more than 2500 and leaving thousands sick. In fact the effects of this gas tragedy are being felt even today. 148. Mars is nicknamed the “Red Planet,” because it looks reddish in the night sky. Mars has 2 moons. 149. Venus is nicknamed the “Jewel of the Sky.” Because of the greenhouse effect, it is hotter than Mercury, even though it’s not as close to the sun. Venus does not have a moon but it does have clouds of sulfuric acid! If you’re going to visit Venus, pack your gas mask!

150. Tens of thousands of participants come from all over the world, fight in a harmless battle where more than one hundred metric tons of over-ripe tomatoes are thrown in the streets.

1. Who is the author of “The Kalam effect: My years with the president”? (a) P.M.Nayar (b) Sonia Gandhi (c) L.K.Adwani (d) Arun Shaurie ANS (a) 2. Who is the author of the book “Superstar India : From Incredible to Unstopable”? (a) L.K.Adwani (b) Arundhati Roy (c) Shobha De (d) Vikram Seth ANS (c) 3. The Sanskrit poet called as the Indian Shakespeare? (a) Kalidasa (b) Thulasidas (c) Sudraka (d) Kautilya ANS (a) 4. Mulk Raj Anand is the author of (a) The Post Office (b) Gora (c) India Wins Freedom (d) Coolie ANS (Try Yourself) 5. Who is the author of the book ’My other two daughters’? (a) Lalu Prasad Yadav (b) Surjit Singh Barnala (c) E.M. Forster (d) Paul Kennedy ANS (b) 6. Who is known as the Father of Detective Story (a) Arthur Conan Doyle (b) Bram Stoker (c) Edgar Allen Poe (d) None of the above ANS (c) 7. Man-The Maker of His Own Destiny’ “ book was written by (a) V.S. Naipaul (b) Mahatma Gandhi (c) Guenter Grass (d) Swami Vivekananda ANS (d) 8. Find out the odd one (a) Louis Fischer (b) Ibsen(c) William Shakespeare (d) Sherlock HolmesANS (d) Others are writers. Sherlock Holmes is a character 9.One among the following is not written by Kalidasa

(a) Saakunthalam (b) Raghu Vamsam (c) Rith Samharam (d) Kaavyadooth ANS (d) 10. ’Sonia, a Biography’ was written by (a) Sonia Gandhi (b) Arundhathi Roy (c) Rasheed Kidvai (d) V.K. Madhavan Kutty ANS (c) 11. One among the following is not a Harry Potter story (a) Chamber of secrets (b) The philosopher’s stone (c) Half blood prince (d) Naked Truth ANS (d) 12. Jules Verne, a French science fiction writer wrote a book, which carried a more or less accurate prediction of the launching of Apollo-8. Which is the book (a) From the Earth to the moon (b) All under Heaven (c) A Midsummer Night’s Dream (d) Past and Present ANS (a) 13. Who is the author of “A Passage to England”? (a) E.M. Forster (b) Nirad C. Chaudhari (c) G.B. Shaw (d) Winston Churchill ANS (b) 14. “Does IT matter” is a book written by (a) Bill Gates (b) N. R. Narayanan (c) Nicholas Carr (d) Thomas D. Harris (e) None of these ANS (c) 15. ’Beyond time’ is the book written by (a) Namita Gokhale (b) Ruskin Bond (c) William Balrymple (d) Josef Korbel (e) None of these ANS (e) 16. The famous book ’Anandmath’ has been authorised by (a) Rabindranath Tagore

(b) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya (c) Sarojini Naidu (d) Sri Aurobindo ANS (b) 17.Who wrote a book describing the theory of economic drain of India during British rule? (a) Dadabhai Naoroji (b) Lala Lajpat Rai (c) Mahatma Gandhi (d) Jawaharlal Nehru ANS (a) 18. The author of the book ’Waiting for Godot’ is: (a) Ruth Harring (b) Susan Sontag (c) Samuel Beckett (d) Ben Jonson ANS (c) Waiting for the Mahatma – R. K. Narayanan Waiting to Exhale – Terry Mc Millan 19. “The Vedas contain all the truth”, was interpreted by: (a) Swami Vivekananda (b) Swami Dayanand (c) Swami Shraddhanand (d) S. Radhakrishnan ANS (b) 20. Sirr-i-Akbar was the Persian translation of fifty-two Upanishads by which son of shah Jahan? ANS – Dara Shikoh 21.In “The Travels of Gulliver”, what is the first things two Lilliputians discuss when they meet in the morning? ANS – The health of the sun 22.”The man who knew infinity” is the biography of (a) Rene Descartes (b) Stephen Hawking (c) Albert Einstein (d) S. Ramanujan ANS (d) 23.What was the original name of ’Alice in Wonderland’ when Lewis Carroll first showed it to novelist Henry Kingsley in 1863? ANS – Alice’s Adventures Underground 24. The author of the book “Waiting for the Mahatma” is (a) R.K Narayan (b) N.A Palkhiwala (c) Amrita Pritam (d) M. Malgonkar

ANS (a)

25. Under the patronage of which ruler of the Javanese house of Mataram, was the epic poem ’Arjuna vivaha’ written? ANS – King Airlangga 26. To whom, in his own words, did Rudyard Kipling dedicate his collection, ’Plain Tales From the Hills’? ANS – To the wittiest woman in India 27. ’Beyond the Last Blue Mountain’ is R.M Lala’s biography of which Indian? ANS – J. R. D. Tata 28. Which of Agatha Christie’s books was the first to be serialised in the Evening News under the title ’Anna the Adventure’? ANS – The Man In The Brown Suit 29. Who has authored the book A Brief History of Time? (a) Carl Sagan (b) Issac Asimov (c) John Gribbin (d) Stephen Hawking ANS (d) 30. The book ’Living with Honour’ is written by (a) Arundhati Roy (b) Shiv Khera (c) Pramod Batra (d) Vikram Seth ANS (b) 31. The book ’Cricket My Style’ is written by (a) Sunil Gavaskar (b) Sachin Tendulkar (c) Kapil Dev (d) Mohinder Amarnath ANS (c) 32. Who wrote the book ’The Book of Indian Birds’ ANS – Dr. Salim Ali 33. ’Economic History of India’ was written by ANS – R. C. Dutt 34.The oldest of the vedic literature is (a) Sama Veda (b) Yajur Veda (c) Rig Veda (d) Atharva Veda ANS (c)

35. ’Leelavathi’ the famous sanskrit grantha is a book on ANS – Mathematics 36. Who is the author of ˜An Equal Musicâ (1999) ANS – Vikram Seth 37. Who wrote the poem ˜Passage to India in 1871 ANS – Walt Whitman (American Poet) 38. Who is the author of the book ˜The Canterbury Tales ANS – Geoffrey Chaucer 39. Who is the author of the book ˜Anna Karenin ANS – Leo Tolstoy 40.Who is the author of the book ˜The Adventures of Tom Sawyer ANS – Mark Twain 41. Who is the author of the book ˜The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes? ANS – Sir Arthur Conan Doyle 42.Who is the author of the book ˜The Comedy of Errors? ANS – William Shakespeare 43. Who is the author of the book ˜Animal Farm ANS – George Orwell 44. Who is the author of the book ˜The Rime of the Ancient Mariner? ANS – Samuel Taylor Coleridge 45. Who is the author of the book, ˜Through the Looking-Glass? ANS – Lewis Carroll 46. Who is the author of the book, ˜Allâs Well That Ends Wellâ? ANS – William Shakespeare 47. Who is the author of the book ˜Akbar-nama ANS – Abul Fazl 48. Who is the author of the book ˜The Adventures of Huckleberry Finnâ? ANS – Mark Twain 49. Who is the author of the book ˜Antony and Cleopatraâ? ANS – William Shakespeare

50. Who is the author of the book , Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, 1687) ANS – Sir Isaac 51. Who is the author of the book “Jyoti Punj”? (a) L.K.Adwani (b) Atal Bihari Vajpeyi (c) Narendra Modi (d) Vikram Seth ANS (c)

National Parks in India
This is the list of Important National Parks in India. this article definitely helpful in various exams. state psc, RRB exams, Bank exams other competitive exams. so enjoy reading… Bandhavgarh National Park Check out the place where firstly and formostly the white Tigers of Rewa were discovered Bandhavgarh. This park is some of the left out preserved wild pockets of Madhya Pradesh of what were once splendid forests that extended across the whole of Central India. Ranthambore National Park A nearby attraction of Sawai Madhopur, in the state of Rajasthan, Ranthambore National Park is an outstanding example of Project Tiger’s efforts at conservation in the India. Kaziranga National Park The land of Rhino is counted among the two major wild pockets, the only surviving habitats of this prehistoric survivor in India. Kanha National Park Ever though what it feels like to visit a tiger country, then visit the state of Madhya Pardesh, check out the wilds of Kanha and see for yourself why this place is called a wild hideout taken straight from the famous “Jungle Book”. Sundarbans National Park Come to Sundarbans where adventure awaits you at every corner. Known as the largest estuarine delta in the world, this Tigerland vibrates with countless forms of colourful life. Manas National Park Assam is the state of the Great One Horned Rhino. Beside the Kaziranga there’s Manas another habitat of the Rhino’s, located in one of the remotest region among the foothills of Himalayas.

Bandipur National Park Lies halfway down the Mysore-Ooty highway became one of the first of India’s Tiger Reserves and the southernmost of the nine reserves specially established under Project Tiger. Sultanpur National Park Sultanpur national park was a stretch of marshy land that has been remodeled and converted into a water body. The park is home to a large range of birds, both resident and migratory. Royal Chitwan National Park (Nepal) Established in 1973, provides a great wildlife experience with its rich flora and fauna. Short grass makes the months of February-May the best game-viewing season, but the autumn months are perfect for visiting, with Himalayan views, and in winter months of December-January, Chitwan has quiet a pleasant climate compared to Kathmandu. Royal Bardia National Park (Nepal) Largest and most undisturbed wild area of the Terai region of the Nepal Himalayas. Simialar to Chitwan park, but with a drier climate and a more remote location, Bardia encompasses 1,000-sq-kms of riverine grassland and sal forests. Rajaji National Park, Uttaranchal Situated in the forested hills, east of Haridwar, is quiet known for its wild Elephants, which have an approximate population of 150. Because of the pleasant climate this hideout becomes a pretty good tourist destination and a perfect retreat for picnicking. Dudhwa National Park, U.P. Also popular as a Tiger Reserve, this national park is located in the district of Lakhimpur, along the IndoNepal border. Another major attraction of this wild reserve is the Barasingha or the Swamp Deer, found in the southwest and southeast region of the park. Bandipur & Nagarhole National Parks, Karnataka Two of the most attractive national parks of Karnataka are Nagarhole and Bandipur. Even if separate entities, they are a part of a large neighboring wildlife reserve that also includes Madumalai Sanctuary of Tamil Nadu and Wynad Reserve of Kerala. Bhalukpong, Arunachal For the energetic visitor, keen to experience of faraway Arunachal Pradesh, Bhalukpong is a place to visit. On the edge of the luxuriant forest of the Pakhui Game Sanctuary, along the Kameng river lies the village settlement of Bhalukpong, also known as the gateway to Bomdila and the Tawang Monastery. Simplipal National Park, Orissa Simplipal is counted among the earliest Project tiger reserves of India and is located in the northern-

forested belt of Orissa. Beside the faunal attractions, the attractive terrain also includes numerous waterfalls. Nandankanan Zoo, Orissa A combination of a beautiful botanical garden, a zoo and a sanctuary, Nandankanan, is situated 20-km from Bhubaneshwar, and is popularly known as the “Garden of Pleasure” in Orissa. The zoo at Nandankanan is world famous for its White Tigers. Gahirmatha Turtle Sanctuary, Orissa Aqua fauna is what going to attract you to this sanctuary, the breeding center of the Giant Olive Ridley Turtles, who crossover the Pacific to come here and lay their eggs. Namdhapha National Park, Arunachal Tucked away in the northern most state of Arunachal, is the Namdhapa National Park, famous for the extremely elusive snow and the clouded Leopard. The park is also a Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger. Velvadhar Blackbuck Sanctuary, Gujarat Popularly known as the home of the Indian Black Buck, has attracted worldwide attention for the successful conservation of the fastest of the Indian Antelopes – Black Buck. Wild Ass Sanctuary, Gujarat Gujarat is an exciting place for wildlife enthusiasts, mainly because it resides some of the unique wild attractions within its numerous sanctuaries. Wild Ass sanctuary is another of Gujarat’s wild surprises famous for its large wild Ass herds. Dachigam National Park, J&K Of all the sanctuaries present in the state of Jammu & Kashmir, the one at Dachigam is the best known. Once an exclusive hunting preserve of the Maharaja of Kashmir, it was declared a national park in 1951, owing to a strictly enforced conservation programme, to preserve the or Hangul population or the Kashmiri Stag. The Great Himalayan National Park, H.P. The National Park with an area of 620-sq-kms is caved out of the splendid mountain terrain of the Kullu District and has the representative area of temperate and alpine forests of Himachal. It is also one of the largest protected area of the state. Dibru Saikhowa National Park, Assam Located on the alluvial flood plains of Brahmaputra in Upper Assam neighboring Arunachal is a biosphere reserve called Dibru Saikhowa National Park Its also an orchid paradise besides being a home to numerous wild animals and birds.

Milroy or Pabha Sanctuary, Assam This splendid wildlife reserve even if doesn’t have many faunal varieties to offer, still it possesses the most coveted one, the Wild Water Buffalo.This sanctuary has been exclusively built for the protection of the wild water buffalo. Nameri National Park, Assam Nameri is the second Tiger reserve of Assam, situated at the foothills of eastern Himalayas. The hilly backdrop, deciduous and the river Jia Bhoroli have added a unique natural charm to it. Pin Valley National Park, H.P. Tucked in between the snow laden higher reaches and scree slopes covered with scanty tufted vegetation, Pin Valley National Park forms the natural habitat of a number of endangered animals including Himalayan Ibex, Snow Leopard, Bharal, Wooly Hare, Tibetan Wolf, and Snow Cock. Hemis High Altitude National Park, J&K Hemis is a high altitude protected area that was created in the year 1981, in the eastern part of the cold desert of Ladakh, for the conservation and protection of its unique flora and fauna.

Metals found in India at Major Level
• • • • • • • • • •
Aluminium is found in Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh ,Chttishgarh , Maharastra ,Gujarat Asbestos is found in Rajasthan, Karnataka Coal is found in Jharkhand, West Bengal ,Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh ,Orissa, Andhra Pradesh Diamonds are found in Madhya Pradesh ,Chttishgarh Marble is found in Rajasthan Mica is found is Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan Thorium is found in Kerala ,Tamil Nadu ,Andhra Pradesh Uranium is found in Kerala , Jharkhand Zinc is found in Rajasthan The reserves of lignite have been estimated as little over 37.15 billion tones as on 1 April 2005 out of which the major contributors is the lignite basins of Tamil Nadu.

List of Cups And Trophies
(Associated with Sports and Games) Sport: Hockey Aga khan Cup ,Begam Rasul Torphy (woman’s), Maharaja Ranjit Singh Gold Cup, Lady Ratan Tata Trophy (woman’s), Gurunanak Championship (woman’s) Dhyanchand Trophy, Nehru Trophy, Sindhia Gold cup, Murugappa Gold Cup, Wellington Cup etc, Sport: Football Beghum Hazarat Mahal Cup, BILT Cup, Bordoloi Trophy Colombo Cup, Confederation cup,

DCM Trophy, Durand Cup, Rovers Cup, B.C. Raj Trophy (National Championship), FIFA world Cup, Jules Rimet Trophy, Kalinga Cup, Santosh Trophy (National Championship), IFA Shield, Scissor Cup, Subroto Mukherjee Cup, Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee Trophy, Todd Memorial Trophy, Vittal Trophy, etc, Sport: Cricket Anthony D, Mellow Trophy, Ashes, Asia Cup, Benson and Hedges Cup, Bose Trophy, Champions Trophy, Charminar Challender Cup, C.K Naidu Trophy, Cooch – Behar Trophy, Deodhar Trophy, Duldeep Trophy, Gavaskar –Border Trophy, G.D. Birla Trophy, Gillette Cup, Ghulam Ahmad Trophy, Hamkumat Rai Trophy, ICC World Cup, Irani Trophy Interface Cup, Jawharlal Nehru Cup, Lomboard World Challenge Cup, Mc Dowells Challenge Cup, Merchant Cup, Moin –ud –Dowla Cup, Net West Trophy, Prudential Cup(World Cup), Rani Jhansi Trophy, Ranji Trophy, Rohinton Barcia Trophy, Rothmans Cup, Sahara Cup, Sharjah Cup, Sheesh Mahal Trophy, Sheffield Shield, Singer Cup, Sir Frank Worrel Trophy, Texaco Cup, Titan Cup, Vijay Hazare Trophy, Vijay Merchant Trophy, Vizzy Trophy, Wisden Trophy, Wills Trophy, World Series Cup. Sport: Table Tennis Berna Bellack cup( Men), Cobillion Cup (women), Jai Laxmi cup(women),Rajkumari Challenge Cup (women junior), Ramanuja Trophy (men Junior), Travancore Cup (women), Swathling Cup (men) etc. Sport: Badminton Aggrawal Cup, Amrit Diwan Cup, Asia Cup, Australasia Cup, Chaddha Cup, European Cup, Harilela Cup, Ibrahim Rahimatillah Challenger Cup, Konica Cup, Sophia Cup, Kitiakara Cup, Thomas Cup Tunku Abdulrahman Cup, Uber Cup, Yonex Cup etc. Sport: Basketball Basalat Jha Trophy, B.C. Gupta Trophy, Federation Cup, S.M. Arjuna Raja Trophy, Todd memorial Trophy, William jones Cup, Bangalore Bules Challenge Cup, Nehru Cup, Federation Cup etc. Sport: Bridge Basalat Jha Trophy, Holkar Trophy, Ruia Gold Cup, Singhania Trophy. etc Sport: Polo Ezra Cup, Gold Cup, King’s Cup, Prithi Pal Singh Cup, Radha Mohan Cup, Winchester Cup etc. Sport: Athletics Charminar Trophy, Federation Cup etc.

Sport: Air Racing Jawaharlal Challenge Trophy, King’s Cup, Schneider Cup etc. Sport: Billiards Arthur Walker Trophy, Thomas Cup etc. Sport: Boxing Aspy Adjahia Trophy, Federations Cup,Val Baker Trophy etc. Sport: Golf Canada Cup, Eisenhower Trophy, Muthiah Gold Cup, Nomura Trophy, President ‘s Trophy, Prince of wales Cup, Ryder Cup, Solheim Cup, Topolino Trophy, Walker Cup, World Cup etc. Sport: Chess Naidu Trophy, Khaitan Torphy , Lin Are City Trophy, World Cup etc. Sport: Horse Racing Beresford Cup, Blue Riband Cup, Derby, Grand National Cup etc. Sport: Netball Anantrao Pawar Trophy etc. Sport: Rugby Football Bledisloe Cup, Calcutta Cup, Webb Ellis Trophy, etc. Sport: Shooting North Wales Cup, Welsh Grand Prix etc. Sport: Volleyball Centennial Cup, Federation Cup, and Indira Pradhan Trophy, Shivanthi Gold Cup, etc. Sport: Yatch Racing America Cup etc.

List of Abbreviation (India)
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Abbreviation Stands For AAFI AAPSO AASU ABM AC Amateur Athletics Federation of India Afro-Asian People’s Solidarity Organisation All Assam Students Union Anti Ballistic Missile Alternate Current OR Air Conditioner

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

ACC AD ADB AERE AGOC AICC AICTE AIDS AIFE AIIMS AIL AIMPLB AIR AITUE AM ANC APEC APSC ASEAN ASLV ASI ASSOCHAM ASWAC ATS BAMS BARC BBC BC BCG BCCI BEL BENELUX BHEL BIFR BIMSTEC BIS B Pharma BSF CAD

Ancillary Cadet Core Ano Domini (After the birth of Jesus) Asian Development Bank. Atomic Energy Research Establishment Asian Games Organisation Committee All India Congress Committee All India Council of Technical Education Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome All India Football Federation All India Institute of Medical Sciences Aeronautics India Limited All India Muslim Personal Law Board All India Radio (Broadcasting) All India Trade Union Congress Anti Meridian (Before Noon) African National Congress Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Army Postal Services Core Association of South East Asian Nations Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle Archaeological Survey of India Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (India) Airborne Surveillance Warning and Control Anti Tetanus Serum Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery Bhabha Atomic Research Centre British Broadcasting Corporation Before Christ (Before the birth of Jesus) Bacillus Calmette Guerin (Anti TB Vaccine) Board of Control for Cricket in India Bharat Electronics Limited Belgium, Netherlands and Luxemburg Bharat Heavy Electronics Limited Board of Industrial Finance and Reconstruction (Formerly Industrial Reconstruction Finance Board) Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand Economic Cooperation Bureau of Indian Standards Bachelor of Pharmacy Border Security Force Command Area Development

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 82 83 84 85 86

CAG CARE CASE CBI CBSE CCEA CCS C-DAC CDMA CDRI CHOGM CID CIS CISF CITU CLAT CNG COD COFEPOSA CPO CPRI CRPF CRR CSIR CSO CTS CVC DDT DFDR DIG D. Lit. DM DMK DNA DPAP DPC DRDO DTH DVD EAS ECD

Comptroller and Auditor General Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere Commission for Alternative Sources of Energy Central Bureau of Investigation Central. Board of Secondary Education Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs Cabinet Committee on Security Centre For Development of Advance Computing Code Division Multiple Access Central Drug Research Institute Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting Criminal Investigation Department Commonwealth of Independent States Central Industrial Security Force Centre of Indian Trade Unions Common Law Admission Test (Started May 2008) Compressed Natural Gas Central Ordnance Depot Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Act Central Passport Organisation Central Power Research Institute Central Reserve Police Force Cash Reserve Ratio Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Central Statistical Organisation Computerised Tomography Scanner Central Vigilance Commission Dichloro Diphenyle Tri-chloroethane ‘Digital Flight Data Recorder (Black box)’ Deputy Inspector General Doctor of Literature District Magistrate Dravida Munetra Kazhagam Di-oxyribo-Nucleic Acid ‘Drought Prone Area Programme Dabhol Power Company Defence Research and Development Organisation Direct to Home Digital Versatile Disk Employment Assurance Scheme European Central Bank

87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127

ECG EEC EEG ELISA EMF EPABX EPZ ERDA ESMA EVM EXIM Bank FAO FBI FBTR FCI FDR FERA FEMA FICCI FIPB FIR FRS FTII FTZ GAIL GATT GIC GMT GNLF GNP GPF GPO GPS GSI HAC HAL HCF HDFC HIV HMT HUDCO

Electro Cardiogram European Economic Community Electro Encephalogram Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay Electromotive Force Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange Export Processing Zone Energy Research and Development Administration Essential Services Maintenance Act Electronic Voting Machine Export-Import Bank of India Food and Agriculture Organisation Federal Bureau of Investigation (USA) Fast Breeder Test Reactor Food Corporation of India / Fertilizer Corporation of India Flight Data Recorder (Black Box) Foreign Exchange Regulation Act Foreign Exchange Management Act Federation of India Chambers of Commerce and Industry Foreign Investment Promotion Board First Information Report Fellow of the Royal Society Films and Television Institute of India Free Trade Zone Gas Authority of India Limited General Agreement on Tariff and Trade General Insurance Corporation Greenwich Mean Time Gorkha National Liberation Front Gross National Product General Provident Fund General Post Office Global Positioning System Geological Survey of India Hindustan Aluminium Corporation Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Highest Common Factor Housing Development Finance Corporation Human Immuno-deficiency Virus Hindustan Machine Tools Housing and Urban Development Corporation

128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168

HYVS IAAI lAC IAEA IARI IBRD ICAR ICBM ICC ICFTU ICICI ICJ ICMR ICSI IDA IDBI IDO IDPL IFA IFCI IFFI IFFCO IFTU IIPA IIS IISCO IIT ILO IMA IMF INGCA INS INSAT INTELSAT INTERPOL INTUC IOC IPC IPKF IQ IRBM

High Yield Variety Seeds International Airport Authority of India Indian Airlines Corporation International Atomic Energy Agency Indian Agricultural Research Institute International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) Indian Council of Agricultural Research Inter Continental Ballistic Missile International Cricket Council International Confederation of Free Trade Unions Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India Limited International Court of Justice Indian Council of Medical Research Indian Company Secretaries Institute International Development Agency Industrial Development Bank of India International Defence Organisation Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited Indian Football Association Industrial Finance Corporation of India International Film Festival of India Indian Farmers Fertilizers Cooperative International Federation of Trade Unions Indian Institute of Public Administration Indian Institute of Sciences Indian Iron and Steel Company Indian Institute of Technology International Labour Organisation Indian Military Academy International Monetary Fund Indira Gandhi Gallery for Culture and Art Indian Naval Ship Indian National Satellite International Telecommunication Satellite International Police Organisation Indian National Trade Union Congress International Olympic Committee / Indian Oil Corporation Indian Penal Code Indian Peace Keeping Force Intelligence Quotient Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile

169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209

IRC IRDA IRDP ISB ISM ISO ISP ISRO IST ITBP ITDC ITPO ITO IUCN ITUC JMM KG LASER LIC LLB LLM LMG LoC LoAC LPG LSD LTTE MA MASER MBA MBBS MBT MCA MCC MD MFN MI MISA MIT MLA MLC

International Red Cross Insurance Regulatory Development Authority Integrated Rural Development Programme Indian Standard Bureau Indian School of Mines International Organisation for Standardisation Internet Services Provider Indian Space Research Organisation Indian Standard Time Indo-Tibet Border Police Indian Tourism Development Corporation Indian Trade Promotion Organisation International Trade Organisation International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resource Indian Trade Union Congress Jharkhand Mukti Morcha Kinder Garten Light Amplification By Stimulated Emission of Radiation Life Insurance Corporation of India Bachelor of Law Master of Law Light Machine Gum Line of Control (Pakistan) Line of Actual Control (China) Liquefied Petroleum Gas Lysergic acid diethylamide Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam Master of Arts Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation Master of Business Administration Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery Main Battle Tank Monetary Compensatory Allowance / Master of Computer Application Melbourne Cricket Club Doctor of Medicine Most Favoured Nation Military Intelligence Maintenance of Internal Security Act Mechachusates Institute of Technology (USA) Member of Legislative Assembly Member of Legislative Council

210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250

MNC MRCP MRCS MRTPC MODVAT NABARD NACO NAEP NAFED NAFTA NAPP NASA NASDAQ NASSCOM NATO NCW NCCR NCERT NDA NDDB NDF NEERI NEFA NEPA NFDC NFL NHRC NICO NIDC NIIT NIMHANS NITIE NMDS NMEP NOIDA NPC NPP NPT NRDC NREP NRI

Multi National Corporation Member of Royal College of Physicians Member of Royal College of Surgeons Monopoly and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission Modified Value Added Tax National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development National AIDS Control Organisation National Adult Education Programme National Agricultural and Marketing Federation North American Free Trade Agreement Narora Atomic Power Plant National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA) National Association of Security Dealer’s Active Quotation National Association of Software & Service Companies North Atlantic Treaty Organisation National Commission for Women National Council for Civil Right National Council of Educational Research & Training National Defence Academy National Dairy Development Board National Defence Fund. National Environment Engineering Research Institute North-East Frontier Agency National Environment Protection Authority National Film Development Corporation National Fertilizer Limited National Human Rights Commission New Information and Communication Order National Industrial Development Corporation National Institute of Information Technology National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences National Institute for Training in Industrial Engineering National Missile Defence System (US) National Malaria Eradication Programme New Okhla Industrial Development Authority National Productivity Council National Population Policy Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty National Research and Development Corporation National Rural Employment Programme Non Resident Indian

251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291

NSC NSSO NTC NTPC OGL OIL OK ONGC OPEC PCI PCS Ph. D PIN PLO PM POTA PSLV PTI PRO PTO PVC PVSM PWD PWG QED QEF QEI QMG RADAR RAW R&D RBI RCC RDX RIMC RMS RLEGP RNA RPM RSS RTO

National Security Council National Sample Survey Organisation National Textile Corporation National Thermal Power Corporation Open General Licence Oil India Limited All Correct Oil and Natural Gas Commission Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries Press Council of India Provincial Civil Services Doctor of ‘Philosophy Postal lndex Number Palestine Liberation Organisation Post Meridian / Prime Minister Prevention of Terrorism Act Polar. Satellite Launch Vehicle Press Trust of India Public Relations Officer Please Turn Over Poly Vinyl Chloride / Paramvir Chakra Param Vishisht Seva Medal Public Work’s Department People’s War Group Quod Erat Demonstrandum (Which was to be proved) Quod Erat Faciendum (Which was to be done) Quod Erat Inveniendum (Which was to be found) Quarter Master General Radio Angle Direction and Range Research and Analysis Wing Research and Development Reserve Bank of India Reinforced Cement Concrete Research Developed Explosive Rashtriya Indian Military College Railway Mail Service Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme Ribonucleic Acid Revolutions Per Minute Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh Regional Transport Officer

292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332

SAARC SAC SAFTA SAI SAIL SAPTA SARS SC SCI SCOPE SCRA SDR SEBI SGPC SHAR SIDBI SIS SITA SLV SPCA SPICMC STARS STD STPI SWAPO TA TELCO TELEX TISCO TNT TOEFL TRAI TRIPS TTE TTFI TWA UDC UFO UGC UHT ULFA

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Space Application Centre South Asian Free Trade Agreement Sports Authority of India Steel Authority of India Limited South Asian Preferential Trade Arrangement Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Security Council/Supreme Court Shipping Corporation of India Standing Conference of Public Enterprises Special Class Railway Apprentice Special Drawing Rights Security Exchange Board of India Siromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee Shri Harikota Range Small Industries Development Bank of India Secret Intelligence Service (U.K) Suppression of .Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls Act Satellite Launch Vehicle Society for the Prevention of Cruelty of Animals Society for the Promotion of Indian Classical music and culture Satellite Tracking and Ranging Station Subscribers Trunk Dialing Software Technology Parks of India South West African People’s Organisation Travelling Aliowance / Territorial Anmy Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company Teleprinter Exchange Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited Tri-nitro-toluene Test of English as a Foreign Language Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights Travelling Ticket Examiner Table Tennis Federation of India Trans World Airlines (USA) Upper Division Clerk Unidentified Flying Object University Grants Commission Ultra High Temperature United Liberation Front of Assam

333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368

UNASUR UNCTAD UNDP UNEF UNEP UNESCO UNFPA UNHCR UNI UNICEF UNO UPS UPSC USSR UTI VAT VDIS VC VIP VPP VRS VSNL VSSC WEF WHO WILL WMO WWF WPI WTO WWF WWW YMCA YWCA ZBB ZSI

Union of South American Nations (Spanish: Unión de Naciones Suramericanas) United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Development Programme United Nations Emergency Force United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Economic Social and Cultural Organisation United Nations for Population Activities United Nations High Commission for Refugees United News of India United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund United Nations Organisation Uninterrupted Power Supply Union Public Service Commission Union of Soviet Socialist Republic Unit Trust of India Value Added Tax Voluntary Disclosure of Income Scheme Vice-Chancellor / Victoria Cross Very Important Person Value Payable Post Voluntary Retirement Scheme Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre World Economic Forum World Health Organisation Wireless in Local Loop World Meteorological Organisation World Wild Life Fund Wholesale Price Index World Trade Organisation World Wild Life Fund for Nature World Wide Web Young Men’s Christians Association Young Women’s Christians Association Zero Based Budgeting Zoological Survey of India

Science Questions Answers

1. Question: A man with a load jumps from a high building. What will be the load experienced by him? Answer: Zero, because while falling, both the man and the load are falling at the same acceleration i.e. acceleration due to gravity. 2. Question: A piece of chalk when immersed in water emits bubbles. Why? Answer: Chalk consists of pores forming capillaries. When it is immersed in water, the water begins to rise in the capillaries and air present there is expelled in the form of bubbles. 3. Question: Why does a liquid remain hot or cold for a long time inside a thermos flask? Answer: The presence of air, a poor conductor of heat, between the double glass wall of a thermos flask, keeps the liquid hot or cold inside a flask for a long time. 4. Question: Why does a ball bounce upon falling? Answer: When a ball falls, it is temporarily deformed. Because of elasticity, the ball tends to regain its original shape for which it presses the ground and bounces up (Newton’s Third Law of Motion). 5 Question: Why is standing in boats or double decker buses not allowed, particularly in the upper deck of buses? Answer: On tilting the centre of gravity of the boat or bus is lowered and it is likely to overturn. 6. Question: Why is it recommended to add salt to water while boiling dal? Answer: By addition of salt, the boiled point of water gets raised which helps in cooking the dal sooner. 7. Question: Why is it the boiling point of sea water more than that of pure water? Answer: Sea water contains salt, and other impurities which cause an elevation in its boiling point. 8. Question: Why is it easier to spray water to which soap is added? Answer: Addition of soap decreases the surface tension of water. The energy for spraying is directly proportional to surface tension. 9. Question: Which is more elastic, rubber or steel? Answer: Steel is more elastic for the same stress produced compared with rubber. 10. Question: Why is the sky blue? Answer: Violet and blue light have short waves which are scattered more than red light waves. While red light goes almost straight through the atmosphere, blue and violet light are scattered by particles in the atmosphere. Thus, we see a blue sky. 11. Question: Why Does ink leak out of partially filled pen when taken to a higher altitude? Answer: As we go up, the pressure and density of air goes on decreasing. A Partially filled pen leaks when taken to a higher altitude because the pressure of air acting on the ink inside the tube of the pen is greater than the pressure of the air outside.

12. Question: On the moon, will the weight of a man be less or more than his weight on the earth? Answer: The gravity of the moon is one-sixth that of the earth; hence the weight of a person on the surface of the moon will be one-sixth of his actual weight on earth. 13. Question: Why do some liquid burn while others do not? Answer: A liquid burns if its molecules can combine with oxygen in the air with the production of heat. Hence, oil burns but water does not. 14. Question: Why can we see ourselves in a mirror? Answer: We see objects when light rays from them reach our eyes. As mirrors have a shiny surface, the light rays are reflected back to us and enter our eyes. 15. Question: Why does a solid chunk of iron sink in water but float in mercury? Answer: Because the density of iron is more than that of water bus less than that of mercury. 16. Question: Why is cooking quicker in a pressure cooker? Answer: As the pressure inside the cooker increases, the boiling point of water is raised, hence, the cooking process is quicker. 17. Question: When wood burns it crackles. Explain? Answer: Wood contains a complex mixture of gases and tar forming vapors trapped under its surface. These gases and tar vapors escape, making a cracking sound. 18. Question: Why do stars twinkle? Answer: The light from a star reaches us after refraction as it passes through various layers of air. When the light passes through the earth?s atmosphere, it is made to flicker by the hot and cold ripples of air and it appears as if the stars are twinkling. 19. Question: Why is it easier to roll a barrel than to pull it? Answer: Because the rolling force of friction is less than the dynamic force of sliding friction. 20. Question: If a feather, a wooden ball and a steel ball fall simultaneously in a vacuum, which one of these would fall faster? Answer: All will fall at the same speed in vacuum because there will be no air resistance and the earth?s gravity will exert a similar gravitational pull on all. 21. Question: When a man fires a gun, he is pushed back slightly. Why? Answer: As the bullet leaves the nozzle of the gun?s barrel with momentum in a forward direction, as per Newton’s Third Law of Motion, the ejection imparts to the gun as equal momentum in a backward direction.

22. Question: Ice wrapped in a blanket or saw dust does not melt quickly. Why? Answer: Both wood and wool are bad conductors of heat. They do not permit heat rays to reach the ice easily. 23. Question: Why do we perspire on a hot day? Answer: When the body temperature rises, the sweat glands are stimulated to secrete perspiration. It is nature’s way to keep the body cool. During the process of evaporation of sweat, body heat is taken away, thus giving a sense of coolness. 24. Question: Why does ice float on water but sink in alcohol? Answer: Because ice is lighter than water it floats on it. However, ice is heavier than alcohol and therefore it sinks in alcohol. 25. Question: Why do we perspire before rains? Answer: Before the rain falls, the atmosphere gets saturated with water vapors; as a result, the process of evaporation of sweat is delayed. 26. Question: Why does a thermometer kept in boiling water show no change in reading after 1000C? Answer: The boiling point of water is 1000C. Once water starts boiling at this temperature, thermometer records no change in temperature. The quantity of heat supplied is being utilized as latent heat of evaporation to convert the water at boiling point into vapour. 27. Question: Why do we bring our hands close to the mouth while shouting across to someone far away? Answer: By keeping hands close to mouth the sound is not allowed to spread (Phenomenon of diffraction of sound) in all direction, but is directed to a particular direction and becomes louder. 28. Question: Why does a corked bottle filled with water burst if left out on a frosty night? Answer: Because of low temperature the water inside the bottle freezes. On freezing it expands, thereby its volume increases and pressure is exerted on the walls. 29. Question: Why is a small gap left at the joint between two rails? Answer: To permit expansion of rails due to heat generated by friction of a moving train. 30. Question: Why cannot a copper wire be used to make elements in electric heater? Answer: Copper melts at 108.30C and forms a black powder on reacting with atmospheric oxygen. For heater elements a metal should have more resistance to produce heat. 31. Question: Why are water or mercury droplets always round when dropped on a clean glass? Answer: The surface of a liquid is the seat of a special force as a result of which molecules on the surface are bound together to form something like a stretched membrane. They tend to compress the

molecules below to the smallest possible volume, which causes the drop to take a round shape as for a given mass he sphere has minimum volume. 32. Question: Why does a balloon filled with hydrogen rise in the air? Answer: Weight of hydrogen is less than the weight of air displaced by it. In balloons hydrogen is normally filled because it is lighter than air. 33. Question: Why do we lean forward while climbing a hill? Answer: In order to keeps the vertical line passing through our centre of gravity always between our feet, which is essential to attain equilibrium or stability. 34. Question: Why does smoke curl up in the air? Answer: Smoke contains hot gases which being lighter in weight, follows a curved path because of the eddy currents that are set up in the air. 35. Question: Why does an electric bulb explode when it is broken? Answer: The bulb encompasses partial vacuum and as it breaks, air rushes in causing a small explosion. 36. Question: Why does a man fall forward when he jumps out of a running train or bus? Answer: He is in motion while in the train or bus. When he jumps out, his feet comes to rest while touching the ground but his upper portion which is still in motion propels him forward. 37. Question: Why does an ordinary glass tumbler crack when very hot tea or milk is poured in it? Answer: When a hot liquid is poured into a tumbler, the inner layer of the tumbler gets heated, it expands before the outer layer and an unequal expansion of both layers causes the tumbler to crack. 38. Question: Why is a compass used as an indicator of direction? Answer: The magnetic needles of a compass under the influence f the earth?s magnetic field lie in a north-south direction. Hence, we can identify direction. 39. Question: Why is water from a hand pump warm in winter and cold in summer? Answer: In winter, the outside temperature is lower than that of water flowing out of the pump, and therefore, the water is warm. Whereas in summer, the outside temperature is higher than the water of the pump, and therefore, it feels cold. 41. Question: Why is a rainbow seen after a shower? Answer: After a shower, the clouds containing water droplets act like a prism through which the white light is dispersed producing a spectrum.

42. Question: Why does a swimming pool appear less deep than is actually is? Answer: The rays of light coming from the bottom of the pool pass from a denser medium (water) to a rarer medium (air) and are refracted (bend away from the normal). When the rays return to the surface, they form an image of the bottom of the pool at a point, which is little above the real position. 43. Question: Why is one?s breath visible in winter but not in summer? Answer: In winter, water vapor contained in the breath condenses into small droplets, which become visible but in summer they are quickly evaporated and not seen. 44. Question: Why doesn?t the electric filament in an electric bulb burn up? Answer: Firstly, because is made of tungsten which has a very high melting point (34100C) whereas the temperature of the filament required to glow is only 2700oC. Secondly, oxygen is absent since the bulb is filled with an inert gas which does not help in burning. 45. Question: Why does blotting paper absorb ink? Answer: Blotting paper has fine pores, which act like capillaries. When a portion of blotting paper is brought in contact with ink, ink enters the pores due to surface tension (capillary action f liquids) and is absorbed. 46. Question: Why does a small iron sink in water but a large ship float? Answer: The weight of water displaced by an iron ball is less than its own weight, whereas water displaced by the immersed portion of a ship is equal to its weight (Archimedes? Principle). 47. Question: Why does ice float on water? Answer: The weight of the ice block is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the immersed portion of the ice. 48. Question: Why does moisture gather outside a tumbler containing cold water? Answer: The water vapour in the air condenses on cooling and appears as droplets of water. 49. Question: Why does kerosene float on water? Answer: Because the density of kerosene is less than that of water. For the same reason cream rises in milk and floats at the top. 50. Question: Why is the water in an open pond cool even on a hot summer day? Answer: As the water evaporates from the open surface of a pond, heat is taken away in the process, leaving the surface cool. 51. Question: Why is it less difficult to cook rice or potatoes at higher altitudes? Answer: Atmospheric pressure at higher altitudes is low and boils water below 1000C. The boiling point of water is directly proportional to the pressure on its surface.

52. Question: Why is it difficult to breathe at higher altitudes? Answer: Because of low air pressure at higher altitudes the quantity of air is less, and so that of oxygen. 53. Question: Why are winter nights and summer nights warmer during cloudy weather than when the sky is clear? Answer: Clouds being bad conductors of heat do not permit radiation of heat from land to escape into the sky. As this heat remains in the atmosphere, the cloudy nights are warmer. 54. Question: Why is a metal tyre heated before it is fixed on wooden wheels? Answer: On heating, the metal tyre expands by which its circumference also increases. This makes fixing the wheel easier and therefore cooling down shrinks it; thus fixing the tyre tightly. 55. Question: Why is it easier to swim in the sea than in a river? Answer: The density of sea water is higher; hence the up thrust is more than that of river water. 56. Question: Who will possibly learn swimming faster-a fat person or a thin person? Answer: The fat person displaces more water which will help him float much more freely compared to a thin person. 57. Question: Why is a flash of lightening seen before thunder? Answer: Because light travels faster than sound, it reaches the earth before the sound of thunder. 58. Question: Why cannot a petrol fire be extinguished by water? Answer: Water, which is heavier than petrol, slips down permitting the petrol to rise to the surface and continue to burn. Besides, the existing temperature is so high that the water poured on the fire evaporates even before it can extinguish the fire. The latter is true if a small quantity of water is poured. 59. Question: Why does water remain cold in an earthen pot? Answer: There are pores in an earthen pot which allow water to percolate to the outer surface. Here evaporation of water takes place thereby producing a cooling effect. 60. Question: Why do we place a wet cloth on the forehead of a patient suffering from high temperature? Answer: Because of body?s temperature, water evaporating from the wet cloth produces a cooling effect and brings the temperature down. 61. Question: When a needle is placed on a small piece of blotting paper which is place on the surface of clean water, the blotting paper sinks after a few minutes but the needle floats. However, in a soap solution the needle sinks. Why? Answer: The surface tension of clean water being higher than that of a soap solution, it cans support

the weight of a needle due to its surface tension. By addition of soap, the surface tension of water reduces, thereby resulting in the sinking of the needle. 62. Question: To prevent multiplication of mosquitoes, it is recommended to sprinkle oil in the ponds with stagnant water. Why? Answer: Mosquitoes breed in stagnant water. The larvae of mosquitoes keep floating on the surface of water due to surface tension. However, when oil is sprinkled, the surface tension is lowered resulting in drowning and death of the larvae. 63. Question: Why does oil rise on a cloth tape of an oil lamp? Answer: The pores in the cloth tape suck oil due to the capillary action of oil. 64. Question: Why are ventilators in a room always made near the roof? Answer: The hot air being lighter in weight tends to rise above and escape from the ventilators at the top. This allows the cool air to come in the room to take its place. 65. Question: How does ink get filled in a fountain pen? Answer: When the rubber tube of a fountain pen immersed in ink is pressed, the air inside the tube comes out and when the pressure is released the ink rushes in to fill the air space in the tube. 66. Question: Why are air coolers less effective during the rainy season? Answer: During the rainy reason, the atmosphere air is saturated with moisture. Therefore, the process of evaporation of water from the moist pads of the cooler slows down thereby not cooling the air blown out from the cooler. 67. Question: Why does grass gather more dew in nights than metallic objects such as stones? Answer: Grass being a good radiator enables water vapour in the air to condense on it. Moreover, grass gives out water constantly (transpiration) which appears in the form of dew because the air near grass is saturated with water vapour and slows evaporation. Dew is formed on objects which are good radiations and bad conductors. 68. Question: If a lighted paper is introduced in a jar of carbon dioxide, its flame extinguishes. Why? Answer: Because carbon dioxide does not help in burning. For burning, oxygen is required. 69. Question: Why does the mass of an iron increase on rusting? Answer: Because rust is hydrated ferric oxide which adds to the mass of the iron rod. The process of rusting involves addition of hydrogen and oxygen elements to iron. 70. Question: Why does milk curdle? Answer: Lactose (milk sugar) content of milk undergoes fermentation and changes into lactic acid which on reacting with milk protein (casein) form curd.

71. Question: Why does hard water not lather soap profusely? Answer: Hard water contains sulphates and chlorides of magnesium and calcium which forms an insoluble compound with soap. Therefore, soap does not lather with hard water. 72. Question: Why is it dangerous to have charcoal fire burning in a closed room? Answer: When charcoal burns it produces carbon monoxide which is suffocating and can cause death. 73. Question: Why is it dangerous to sleep under trees at night? Answer: Plants respire at night and give out carbon dioxide which reduces the oxygen content of air required for breathing. 74. Question: Why does ENO’s salt effervesce on addition of water? Answer: It contains tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate. On adding water, carbon dioxide is produced which when released into water causes effervescence. 75. Question: Why does milk turn sour? Answer: The microbes react with milk and grow. They turn lactose into lactic acid which is sour in taste. 76. Question: Why is a new quilt warmer than an old one? Answer: In a new quilt the cotton is not compressed and as such it encloses more air which is bad conductor of heat. Therefore, it does not allow heat to pass. 77. Question: Curved rail tracks or curved roads are banked or raised on one side. Why? Answer: Because a fast moving train or vehicle leans inwards while taking turn and the banked or raised track provides required centripetal force to enable it to move round the curve. 78. Question: How do bats fly in dark? Answer: When bats fly they produce ultrasonic sound waves which are reflected back to them from the obstacles in their way and hence they can fly without difficulty. 79. Question: Water pipes often burst at hill stations on cold frosty nights. Why? Answer: The temperature may fall below 00C during cold frosty nights which converts the water inside the pipes into ice, resulting in an increase in volume. This exerts great force on the pipes and as a result, they burst. 80. Question: Why are white clothes more comfortable in summer than dark or black ones? Answer: White clothes are good reflectors and bad absorbers of heat, whereas dark or black clothes are good absorbers of heat. Therefore, white clothes are more comfortable because they do not absorb heat from the sun rays.

81. Question: Why does a rose appear red grass green in daylight? Answer: Rose absorbs all the constituent colors of white light except red which is reflected to us. Similarly, grass absorbs all colors except green which is reflected t us. 82. Question: Why does a ship rise as it enters the sea from a river? Answer: The density of sea water is high due to impurities and salts compared to river water as a result; the upthurst produced by the sea water on the ship is more than that of river water. 83. Question: Why are fuse provided in electric installations? Answer: A safety fuse is made of a wire of metal having a very low melting point. When excess current flows in, the wire gets heated, melts and breaks the circuit. By breaking the circuit it saves electric equipment or installations from damage by excessive flow of current. 84. Question: Why is it easier to lift a heavy object under water than in air? Answer: Because when a body is immersed in water, it experiences an upward thrust (Archimedes? Principle) and loses weight equal to the weight of the water displaced by its immersed potion, and hence, is easier to lift objects. 85. Question: If a highly pumped up bicycle tyre is left in the hot sunlight, it bursts. Why? Answer: The air inside the tube increases in volume when heated up. As sufficient space for the expansion of the air is not available because the tube is already highly pumped, it may result in bursting of the tyre. 86. Question: What will be the color of green in blue light? Answer: Grass will appear dark in color because it absorbs all other colors of the light except its own green color. The blue light falling on grass will be absorbed by it, and hence, it will appear dark in color. 87. Question: Why do two eyes give better vision than one? Answer: Because two eyes do not form exactly similar images and he fusion of these two dissimilar images in the brain gives three dimensions of the stereoscopic vision. DISCOVERY / INVENTION IN MEDICAL SCIENCE

SNo Discovery / Invention 1 Adrenaline 2 Anesthesia, Local 3 Anesthesia, Spinal Anti-toxins (Science of 4 Immunity) 5 Aspirin 6 7 Ayurveda Bacteria

Year 1894 1885 1898 1890

Discoverer / Inventor Schafer and Oliver Koller Bier Behring and Kitasato

Country Britain Austria Germany Germany, Japan Germany India Netherlands

1889 Dreser 2000-1000 BC 1683 Leeuwenhock

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

Bacteriology Biochemistry Blood Plasma storage (Blood bank) Blood Transfusion Cardiac Pacemaker CAT Scanner Chemotherapy Chloroform as anaesthetic Chloromycetin Cholera T.B germs Circulation of blood Cryo-Surgery Diphtheria germs Electro-Cardiograph Electro-encephalogram Embryology Endocrinology First Test Tube Baby Gene Therapy on humans

1872 1648 1940 1625 1932 1968 1493-1541 1847 1947 1877 1628 1953 1883-84 1903 1929 1792-1896 1902 1978 1980

Ferdinand Cohn Germany Jan Baptista Van Helmont Belgium Drew U.S.A France U.S.A Britain Switzerland Britain U.S.A Germany Britain U.S.A Germany Netherlands Germany Estonia Britain Britain U.S.A U.S.A S. Africa France Britain Netherlands Norway Switzerland France Germany Germany U.S.A U.S.A U.S.A Britain Switzerland U.S.A France U.S.A India U.S.A Germany

Jean-Baptiste Denys A.S Hyman Godfrey Hounsfield Paracelsus James Simpson Burkholder Robert Koch William Harvey Henry Swan Klebs and Loffler Willem Einthoven Hand Berger Kari Ernest Van Baer Bayliss and Starling Steptoe and Edwards Martin Clive Robert Weinberg and Genes associated with cancer 1982 others Heart Transplant Surgery 1967 Christian Barnard Histology 1771-1802 Marie Bichat Hypodermic syringe 1853 Alexander wood Kidney Machine 1944 Kolf Leprosy Bacillus 1873 Hansen LSD (Lysergic acid 1943 Hoffman diethylamide) Malaria Germs 1880 Laveran Morphine 1805 Friderich Sertumer Neurology 1758-1828 Franz Joseph Gall Nuclear magnetic resonance 1971 Raymond Damadian imaging Open Heart Surgery 1953 Walton Lillehel Oral Contraceptive Pills 1955 Gregory Pincus, Rock Penicillin 1928 Alexander Fleming Physiology 1757-66 Albrecht Von Haller Positron emission 1978 Louis Sokoloff Tomography Rabies Vaccine 1860 Louis Pasteur Recombinant-DNA Paul Berg, H.W. Boyer,S 1972-73 technology Cohen Reserpine 1949 Jal Vakil Rh-factor 1940 Karl Landsteiner Serology 1884-1915 Paul Ehrlich

48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57

Sex hormones Small Pox eradicated Stethoscope Streptomycin Synthetic Antigens Terramycin Thyroxin Typhus Vaccine Vaccination Vaccine, Measles

1910 1980 1819 1944 1917 1950 1919 1909 1796 1963 1987 1954 1960 1885 1776

58 Vaccine, Meningitis 59 60 61 62 Vaccine, Polio Vaccine, Polio-orai Vaccine, Rabies Vaccine, Smallpox

63 Virology 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Vitamin A Vitamin B1 Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin K Western Scientific Therapy Yoga

U.S.A U.S.A France Britain USSR, 1892 Ivanovski and Bajernick Netherlands 1913 Mc Collum and M. Davis U.S.A 1936 Minot and Murphy U.S.A 1919 Froelich Holst Norway 1925 Mc Collum U.S.A 1938 Doisy Dam U.S.A 460-370 BC Hippocrates Greece 200-100 BC Patanjali India

Eugen Steinach W.H.O Declaration Rene Laennec Selman Waksmann Landsteiner Finlay and Others Edward Calvin-Kendall J. Nicolle Edward Jenner Enders Gardon, et al. Connaught Lab Jonas Salk Albert Sabin Louis Pasteur Jenner

Australia UN France U.S.A U.S.A U.S.A U.S.A France Britain U.S.A U.S.A

Some Quick Sciecnce GK
No. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 Question The theory of relativity was propounded by The principal metal used in manufacturing steel is An alimeter is used for measuring Oology is the study of Radioactivity was discovered by The metal used in storage batteries is Iron Altitude Birds eggs Henry Bacquerel Lead Answer Albert Einstein

The instrument used to measure the relative humidity Hygrometer of air is Barometer was invented by The unit of power is Radium was discovered by The existence of isotopes was discovered by Torricelli Watt Marie and Pierrie Curie Frederick Soddy

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

Dynamo was invented by The nuclear reactor was invented by The law of gravitation was propounded by Crescograph was invented by Crescograph is used to measure the Galileo’s first scientific discovery was Microscope was invented by The scientist who is known as father of modern biology is The first person to see a cell under microscope was The smallest flowering plant is The four blood groups were discovered by Sodium was discovered by The atomic number of oxygen is The basic building blocks of proteins are The botanical name of the cotton plant is An Electroscope is used to The unit of loudness is An ammeter is used to measure Plant that eat insects are called Plants that flower only once in their lifetime are called The botanical name for rice is Penicillin is obtained from The largest tree in the world is Herpetology is the study of Entomology is the study of Ornithology is the study of Ichtyology is the study of Osteology is the study of The botanical name for brinjal is The botanical name for onion is The study of sound is called The study of heavenly bodies is called

Michael Faraday Enrico Ferni Sir Isaac Newton J.C.Bose Rate of growth of a plant Pendulum Aaton Van Leewen Hock Aristotle Robert Hooke Worffia Karl Landsteiner Sir Humphry Davy Eight Amino acids Gossipium Hirsutum Detect charges on a body Phon Electric current Insectivorous plants

Fruits that are formed without fertilization are called Parthenocarpic Mono carpic Oryza Sativa Mould Seguoia Gigantica Reptiles Insects Birds Fishes Bones Solanum melongenal Allium Cepa Acoustics Astronomy

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77

The study of tissues is called Electric Lamp was invented by The fear of crowd is called The fear of books is called The fear of going to bed is called The symbol of gold is The symbol of sodium is The symbol of Sr stands for The symbol Rb stands for The symbol Md stands for Calcium sulphate is commonly called Sodium carbonate is commonly called Sodium chloride is commonly known as The chemical name of Chloroform is The chemical name of baking powder is The chemical name of bleaching powder is The formula HCL stands for The formula H2SO4 stands for The formula CHCI3 stands for The formula H2O2 stands for A fungus which can only survive on other living organisms is called A plant which lives in the dark is called A plant adapted to live in dry places is called a A plant adapted for growth in water is called a Bifocal lens was invented by Cement was invented by Laser was invented by Electromagnet was invented by Rayon was invented by Thermostat is an instrument used for regulating

Histology Thomas alva Edison Ochlophobia Bibliophobia Clinophobia Au Na Strontium Rubidium Mendelevium Plaster of Paris Washing Soda Common Salt Trichloromethane Sodium bicarbonate Calcium hypochlorite Hydrochloric Acid Sulphuric Acid Trichloromethane Hydrogen peroxide Obligate Parasite Scotophyte Xerophyte Hydrophyte Benjamin Franklin Joseph Aspdin Dr.Charles H.Townes William Sturgeon Sir Joseph Swann Constant temperature

The science of organic forms and structures is known Morphology as Phycology is the study of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research was established in Algae 1945

78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99

CSIR stands for ISRO stands for The first human being to land on moon was The first Indian in space was ISAC stands for VSSC stands for The headquarters of ISRO is located at VSSC is located at ISAC is located at National Science Centre is located at Central Tobacco Research Institute is located at Indian Institute of Horticultural Research is located at The Atomic Energy Commission was set up in The first Indian Satellite was The first Indian Satellite was launched in the year ASLV stands for INSAT stands for The fear of women is known as The fear of men is known as The steam engine was invented by The botanical name of tea is

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Indian Space Research Organisation Neil Armstrong Rakesh Sharma ISRO Satellite Centre Vikram Sarabhai space Centre Bangalore Thiruvananthapuram Bangalore New Delhi Rajahmundry Bangalore August 1948 Aryabhatta 1975 Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle Indian National Satellite Gynophobia Androphobia James Watt Camellia Sinensis John Napier Sulphuric acid

The scientist who developed the Quantum theory was Max Plonck

100 Logarithms were devised by 101 The acid used in a car battery is 102

The system for writing by blind people was invented Louis Braille by J.P.Blanchard Henrich Hertz Seismograph Archimedes Lactometer The German physicit who first demonstrated the existence of Radio waves was The instrument that records the intensity of earthquakes is

103 The parachute was used for the first time by 104 105

106 The laws of floating bodies was discovered by 107 The density of milk is measured by a

108 Fountain pen was invented by 109

L.E.Waterman

The instrument used to measure the pressure of gases Monometer is the Astronomer Tarapore Atomic Power Station Mendel The first atomic power station established in India was the

110 Bhaskara I was a famous 111

112 The role of heredity was demonstrated by 113

The instrument used to measure the concentration of Salinometer salt water is the Anders John Angstrom Finger Prints Strength of direct current Acron Zero Energy Thermonuclear Assembly Phenol Sir Humphry Davy Charles Goodyear Zinc Helium A.Parker Sir George Caley J.E.Lundstrom Sir J.A.Fleming Ahmedabad Mumbai Movements of bodies Forces acting on bodies at rest Forces acting on bodies Animal life Plant life Human mind John H.Glen William Einthoven C12H22O11

114 Spectroscopy is the study of 115 Dactylography is the study of 116 A tangent galvanometer is used to study the 117 The fruit of Oak is called 118 ZETA stands for 119 The formula C6H5OH stands for 120 Michael Faraday worked as an assistant under another scientist whose name was

121 Vulcanised rubber was invented by 122 The symbol Zn stands for 123 The symbol He stands for 124 Celluloid was invented by 125 Glider was invented by 126 Safety matches was invented by 127 Radio valve was invented by 128 Space Applications Centre is located at 129 Atomic Energy Commission is located at 130 Dynamics is the study of 131 Statics is the study of 132 Mechanics is the study of 133 Zoology is the study of 134 Botany is the study of 135 Psychology is the study of 136 The first American to orbit earth was 137 The electro-cardiograph was invented by 138 The molecular formula of cane sugar is

139 140

A compound which contains only hydrogen and Carbon is called a The liquid used to preserve specimens of plans and animals is

Hydrocarbon Formalin Mendel Ear disorders Solid,liquid and gas Thrombocytes Thermotropism Trigmotropism Zirconium Cronstledt Gahn Potash Valentine Cocodemer Poisons Viruses Fossils Quantity of heat John Harrison William Stockes Sir Richard Arkwright Aluminium Gadolinium Iridium Bismuth NaHCO3 Nacl Na2CO3,IOH2O CaCO3 CHcl3 Agrostology Archaeology Chronobiology

141 The law of segregaton was propounded by 142 Auriscope is used to detect 143 The three states of matter are 144 The scientific name for blood platelets is 145 The response of a plant to heat is called 146 The response of a plant to touch is called 147 The symbol Zr stands for 148 Nickel was discovered by 149 Manganese was discovered by 150 The common name for pottasium carbonate is 151 Bismuth was discovered by 152 The biggest plant seed is 153 Toxicology is the study of 154 Virology is the study of 155 Paleontology is the study of 156 Calorimeter is used to measure 157 Chronometer was invented by 158 Stethoscope was invented by 159 Spinning frame was invented by 160 Al stands for 161 Gd stands for 162 Ir stands for 163 Bi stands for 164 The Chemical formula of sodium bicarbonate is 165 The chemical formula of common salt is 166 The chemical formula of washing soda is 167 The chemical formula of lime soda is 168 The chemical formula of chloroform is 169 The study of grasses is known as 170 The study of antiquities is known as 171 The study of the duration of life is known as

172 The study of bacteria is known as 173 Nylon was invented by 174 Electric razor was invented by 175 The symbol of silver is 176 The symbol of silicon is 177 The symbol of titanium is 178 Calcium oxide is commonly known as 179 180 181 A deviation of light passing from one medium to another is known as An apparatus for generation of atomic energy is called a A machine used for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy is called a

Bacteriology Dr.Wallace H.Carothers Jacob Schick Ag Si Ti Quick lime Refraction Reactor Generator Kalpana Chawla Samuel Colt J.Perkins

182 The first Indian woman in space was 183 The revolver was invented by 184 The refrigerator was invented by

Indian History
Famous Birthdays 1483-02-15 – Babur, founder of Mughal dynasty in India (1526-30) 1506-04-07 – Francis Xavier, saint/Jesuit missionary to India, Malaya, & Japan 1542-10-14 – Abul-Fath Djalal-ud-Din, 3rd Mogol emperor of India (1556-1605) 1542-10-15 – Djalalud-Din Mohammed Akbar, emperor of India (1556-1605) 1569-08-31 – Djehangir/Jahangir, great mogol of India 1592-01-05 – Shah Jahan, Mughal emperor of India (1628-58), built Taj Mahal 1592-01-14 – Sjihab al-Din Sultan Choerram Sjah Djahan, leader of India 1618-11-03 – Aurangzeb, [Alamgir], Emperor of India (1658-1707) 1643-10-14 – Bahadur Shah I, Mughal Emperor of India (d. 1712) 1682-07-10 – Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg, German Lutheran missionary to India (d. 1719) 1685-01-07 – Gerard George Clifford, Dutch director of East India Company 1725-09-29 – Robert Clive, English explorer/founder (British empire in India) 1725-09-29 – Robert Clive, founder (British empire in India) 1732-12-06 – Warren Hastings, England, 1st governor-General of India (1773-84) 1750-11-20 – Tipu Sultan, Indian ruler (d. 1799) 1767-05-04 – Tyagaraja, Composer of Indian classical Carnatic music (d. 1847) 1787-06-28 – Henry G W Smith, leader of British-Indian forces 1796-12-27 – Mirza Ghalib, Indian poet (d. 1869)

1809-01-23 – Veer Surendra Sai, Indian Freedom Fighter 1809-12-24 – Christopher “Kit” Carson, KY, Union brig-general/indian fighter 1817-05-15 – Debendranath Tagore, Indian religious reformer (d. 1905) 1817-10-17 – Sajjid Ahmad Chan, Indian moslem leader/co-founder (Pakistan) 1823-06-30 – Dinshaw Maneckji Petit, Indian industrialist (d. 1901) 1824-02-12 – Arya Samaj Maha Rishi Dayanand Sarsvati, Indian hindu leader 1825-05-08 – George Bruce Malleson, Indian officer (d. 1898) 1825-09-04 – Dadabhai Naoroji, 1st Indian in British parliament 1827-07-19 – Mangal Pandey, Indian freedom fighter (d. 1857) 1831-11-08 – Edward R L Bulwer-Lytton, English under king of India 1832-06-10 – Edwin Arnold, English writer (Light of India) 1833-11-02 – Mahendralal Sarkar, Indian doctor (d. 1904) 1835-11-19 – Rani Lakshmi Bai, Indian Queen (d. 1858) 1836-02-18 – Swami Ramakrishna [Gadadhar Chatterji], Indian mystic/hindu leader 1839-03-03 – Jamsetji Tata, Indian industrialist (d. 1904) 1845-11-04 – Vasudeo Balwant Phadke, The First Indian Revolutionary (d. 1883) 1848-04-16 – Kandukuri Veeresalingam, Social Reformer of Andhra Pradesh, India (d. 1919) 1849-09-21 – Maurice Barrymore, Indian-born patriarch of the Barrymore family (d. 1905) 1850-09-09 – Harishchandra, India, poet/dramatist/father of modern Hindi 1853-12-06 – Haraprasad Shastri, Indian academic, Sanskrit scholar, archivist and historian of Bengali literature (d. 1931) 1856-04-01 – Acacio Gabriel Viegas, Indian physician (d. 1933) 1856-04-11 – Constantly Lievens, Flemish missionary in India 1856-07-23 – Bal Gangadhar Tilak, British-Indian Hindi leader 1858-10-21 – Ramabai Dongre’ Medhavi, India, social reformer 1858-11-07 – Bipin Chandra Pal, Indian freedom fighter, (d. 1932) 1858-11-30 – Jagdish Chandra Bose, Indian physicist (d. 1937) 1860-08-10 – Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, Indian musician (d. 1936) 1860-09-15 – Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, Indian engineer (d. 1962) 1861-05-06 – Motilal Nehru, Indian freedom fighter (d. 1931) 1861-05-07 – Rabindranath Tagore, First Indian to win Nobel Prize for Liturature. (d. 1941) 1861-12-25 – Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Indian founder of Banaras Hindu University (d. 1946) 1865-01-28 – Lala Lajpat Rai, Indian freedom fighter (d. 1928) 1865-01-31 – Shastriji Maharaj, Indian spiritual leader (d. 1951) 1866-05-09 – Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Leader of Indian Independence Movement (d. 1915) 1867-12-16 – Amy Carmichael, missionary in Dohnavur, India (d. 1951) 1868-08-12 – Frederick JNT lord Chelmsford, viceroy of British-India (1916-21) 1869-10-02 – Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Porbandar Kathiawad India, pacifist and spiritual leader

1872-04-14 – Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Indian-born Islamic scholar and translator (d. 1953) 1873-11-22 – Leopold CMS Amery, British minister of Colonies (India) 1875-10-31 – Vallabhbhai Patel, Indian freedom fighter and statesman (d. 1950) 1876-09-15 – Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay, Indian novelist (d. 1938) 1877-11-24 – Kavasji Jamshedji Petigara, Indian CID Commissioner of Police (d. 1941) 1878-02-21 – The Mother, Indian spiritual leader (d. 1973) 1878-11-27 – Jatindramohan Bagchi, Indian (Bengali) poet (d.1948). 1878-12-10 – Rajaji, India’s freedom fighter and the first Governor General of independent India (d.1972) 1879-02-13 – Sarojini Naidu, Indian freedom fighter (d. 1949) 1879-09-17 – Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, Indian Social Reformer (d. 1973) 1880-07-31 – Munshi Premchand, Indian Author (d. 1936) 1880-10-08 – Ernest F E Douwes Dekker, Dutch founder (National-India Party) 1882-07-05 – Inayat Khan, Indian sufi (d. 1927). 1882-12-11 – Subramanya Bharathy, Indian poet (d. 1921) 1883-05-28 – Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Indian activist (d. 1966) 1884-12-03 – Rajendra Prasad, first President of India (d. 1963) 1885-02-14 – Syed Zafarul Hasan, Prominent Muslim Indian/Pakistani philosopher (d. 1949) 1886-05-25 – Rash Behari Bose, leader against the British Raj in India (d. 1945) 1886-11-02 – Philip Merivale, Rehutia India, actor (Nothing But Trouble) 1887-02-26 – Benegal Narsing Rau, India, pres of UN Security Council (1950) 1887-06-07 – William Walraven, Dutch journalist/writer (Indian Daily) 1887-12-22 – Srinivasa Ramanujan, Indian mathematician (d. 1920) 1888-09-05 – Sarvepalli Radhakrishan, president (India)/philosopher 1888-11-07 – Chandrasekhara Raman, India, physicist (Nobel 1930) 1888-11-11 – Maulana Azad, 1st minister of education in independent India 1889-11-14 – Jawaharlal Nehru, 1st Indian PM (1947-64) 1891-04-14 – B. R. Ambedkar, Indian jurist (d.1956) 1893-01-05 – Paramahansa Yogananda, Indian guru (d. 1952) 1894-01-01 – Satyendra Nath Bose, Indian mathematician (d. 1974) 1894-02-25 – Meher Baba, Indian spiritual leader (d. 1969) 1894-04-10 – Shri Ghanshyam Das Birla, Indian industrialist (d. 1983) 1894-05-20 – Chandrashekarendra Saraswati, Indian Hindu sage, Jivanmukta (d. 1994) 1894-06-23 – Edward VIII, King of Great Brit/N-Ireland/emperor of India (1936) 1894-08-10 – Varahagiri Venkata Giri, Fourth President of India (d. 1980) 1895-05-12 – Jiddu Krishnamurti, India, philosopher (Songs of Life) [NS=May 22] 1895-05-22 – Jiddu Krishnamurti, India, philosopher (Songs of Life) [OS=May 12] 1895-06-03 – Kavalam Madhava Panikkar, India, diplomat (Asia & Western Dominance)

1895-09-01 – Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavatar, Indian musician (d. 1974) 1896-02-29 – Ranchhodji Morarji Desai, premier of India (1977-79) 1896-09-01 – A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Indian theologian (d. 1977) 1896-11-12 – Salim Ali, Indian ornithologist (d. 1987) 1897-01-23 – Subhas Chandra Bose, Indian politician 1897-04-19 – Peter de Noronha, Indian businessman and philanthropist (d. 1970) 1897-05-03 – V K Krishna Menon, India, minister of defense 1897-11-23 – Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Indian writer (d. 1999) 1898-12-02 – Indra Lal Roy, Indian pilot (d. 1918) 1898-12-05 – Josh Malihabadi, Urdu poet of India and Pakistan (d. 1982) 1902-06-04 – Richard Allen, India, field hockey goal tender (Olympic-gold-1928) 1902-10-11 – Jayaprakash Narayan, Indian freedom fighter and political leader (d. 1979) 1903-07-15 – Kumaraswami Kamaraj, Indian politician (d. 1975) 1904-02-29 – Rukmini Devi Arundale, Indian dancer and founder of Kalakshetra (d. 1986) 1904-03-04 – Chief Tahachee, American-born Old Settler Cherokee Indian stage and film actor (d. 1978) 1904-07-29 – J. R. D. Tata, Indian industrialist (d. 1993) 1904-10-01 – A.K. Gopalan, Indian communist leader (d. 1977) 1904-10-02 – Shi Lal Bahadur Shastri, India premier (1964-66) 1905-09-09 – Hussain Sha – Indian Saint, Philosopher ,Pithapuram 1906-05-05 – Ursula Jeans, Simla India. actress (I Lived With You, Over the Moon) 1906-05-29 – Terence Hanbury White, Bombay India, novelist (England Have My Bones) 1906-07-23 – Chandrasekhar Azad, Indian revolutionary (d. 1931) 1906-10-10 – R.K. Narayan, Indian novelist (d. 2001) 1907-05-15 – Sukhdev Thapar, Indian freedom fighter (d. 1931) 1907-09-27 – Bhagat Singh, Indian freedom fighter (d. 1931) 1907-09-28 – Bhagat Singh, Indian activist (d. 1931) 1908-04-05 – Jagjivan Ram, Indian politician (d. 1986) 1908-06-24 – Guru Gopinath, Indian classical dancer (d 1987) 1908-07-25 – Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer, Indian musician (d. 2003) 1908-10-22 – John Sutton, Rawalpindi India, actor (Tower of London, Return of Fly) 1909-10-30 – Homi J. Bhabha, Indian physicist (d. 1966) 1909-12-20 – Vakkom Majeed, Indian politician (d. 2000) 1910-01-30 – C Subramaniam, Indian politician (d. 2000) 1910-07-03 – Eric Franklin, Indian civil servant 1910-10-19 – Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, India, astrophysicist (Nobel 1983) 1910-12-04 – Ramaswamy Venkataraman, president of India (1987-92) 1911-02-19 – Merle Oberon, Calcutta India, actress (Assignment Foreign Legion)

1911-09-20 – Shriram Sharma Acharya, Indian spiritual leader (d. 1991) 1911-10-13 – Ashok Kumar, Indian actor (d. 2001) 1912-01-27 – Lawrence Durrell, Darjeeling, Indian/British writer (Private Country, Alexandria Quartet) 1912-02-27 – Kusumagraj, Indian writer (d. 1999) 1913-05-13 – Sanjiva Reddy, president (India) 1913-05-19 – Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, president of India 1914-01-01 – Noor Inayat Khan, Indian princess and SOE agent (d. 1944) 1914-07-08 – Jyoti Basu, Indian politician 1916-01-22 – Harilal Upadhyay, Gujarati Author, Poet, Astrologist (Gujarat is a State of India) (d. 1994) 1916-05-05 – Zail Singh, President of India (d. 1994) 1916-05-08 – Swami Chinmayananda, Indian spiritualist (d. 1993) 1916-08-03 – Shakeel Badayuni, Indian poet and lyricist (d. 1970) 1916-09-15 – Margaret Lockwood, Karachi India, actress (Lady Vanishes) 1916-09-16 – M.S. Subbulakshmi, Indian singer (d. 2004) 1917-01-12 – Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Indian spiritualist (d. 2008) 1917-01-17 – Maruthur Gopalan Ramachandran, (MGR), Indian film star, politician 1917-02-11 – T. Nagi Reddy, Indian revolutionary (d. 1976) 1917-03-12 – Googie Withers, Karachi India, actress (1 of Our Aircraft is Missing) 1917-11-05 – Banarsi Das Gupta, Indian former Chief Minister of Haryana (d. 2007) 1917-11-19 – Indira Gandhi, Allahabad India, Indian PM (1966-77, 1980-84) 1918-04-16 – Spike Milligan, India, actor/comedian (Digby, 3 Musketeers) 1918-12-14 – B.K.S. Iyengar, Indian yoga advocate 1918-12-23 – Kumar Pallana, Indian-born American actor 1919-01-19 – Dharam Singh, India, field hockey player (Olympic-gold-1964) 1919-08-12 – Vikram Sarabhai, Indian physicist (d. 1971) 1919-08-31 – Amrita Preetam, Indian poet and author (d. 2005) 1919-11-08 – P. L. Deshpande, Indian author (d. 2000) 1919-12-25 – Naushad Ali, Indian music director (d. 2006) 1920-02-12 – Pran, Indian actor 1920-03-15 – Ranganandhan Francis, India, field hockey (Olympic-gold-1948, 52, 56) 1920-04-05 – Rafique Zakaria, Indian author (d. 2005) 1920-04-07 – Ravi Shankar, Benares India, sitar player (Sounds of India) 1920-10-19 – Pandurang Shastri Athavale, Indian philosopher (d. 2003) 1920-10-27 – K. R. Narayanan, 10th President of India 1920-10-29 – Catholicos Baselios Mar Thoma Didymos I, Indian Catholic 1920-12-04 – Michael Bates, Jhansi India, actor (Clockwork Orange, Patton) 1921-01-20 – Telmo Zarraonaindía, Spanish footballer (d. 2006)

1921-02-15 – Radha Krishna Choudhary, Indian historian and writer (d. 1985) 1921-05-02 – Satyajit Ray, Calcutta India, director (Goddess, Adversary) 1921-06-28 – P V Narasimha Rao, premier of India (1991- ) 1921-08-08 – Vulimiri Ramalingaswami, Indian medical scientist (d. 2001) 1921-12-07 – Pramukh Swami Maharaj, Indian spiritual leader 1922-01-09 – Har G Khorana, India/Canada bio-chemist (Nobel 1968) 1922-02-04 – Pandit Bhimsen Joshi, Indian Classical Singer 1922-12-11 – Dilip Kumar, Indian actor 1923-04-17 – Lindsay Anderson, Bangalore India, director (Thursday’s Children) 1923-05-15 – Johnny Walker, Indian actor (d. 2003) 1923-05-28 – Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao, India, film star (Patala Bhairavi) 1923-07-10 – G. A. Kulkarni, Indian (Marathi) writer (d. 1987) 1923-07-22 – Mukesh, Indian singer (d. 1976) 1923-09-26 – Dev Anand, Indian actor and film producer 1924-01-04 – Sebastian Kappen, Indian theologian (d. 1993) 1924-01-27 – Sabu, [Dastagir], India, actor (Elephant Boy, Drum) 1924-12-14 – Raj Kapoor, Indian actor (d. 1988) 1925-08-07 – M. S. Swaminathan, Indian scientist 1925-09-24 – Autar Singh Paintal, Indian medical scientist (d. 2004) 1925-12-24 – Mohd. Rafi, Indian actor and playback singer (d. 1980) 1926-01-08 – Kelucharan Mohapatra, Indian Odissi dancer (d. 2004) 1926-05-19 – Swami Kriyananda, Indian teacher and author 1926-11-23 – Sathya Sai Baba, Indian guru and philosopher 1927-01-18 – Sundaram Balachander, Indian veena player (d. 1990) 1927-01-27 – Michael Craig, Poona India, actor (Escape 2000, Vault of Horror) 1927-03-25 – Leslie Claudius, India, field hockey (Olympic-gold-1948, 52, 56) 1927-05-10 – Nayantara Sahgal, Indian author 1927-07-27 – Sat Mahajan, Indian politician 1927-08-26 – B. V. Doshi, Indian architect 1928-08-04 – Udham Singh, India, field hockey player (Olympic-gold-1952, 56, 64) 1929-01-08 – Saeed Jaffrey, Indian actor 1929-03-29 – Utpal Dutt, Indian actor (d. 1993) 1929-05-20 – Andre Carolus Cirino, Suriname/Indian poet 1929-06-06 – Sunil Dutt, Indian actor and politician (d. 2005) 1929-07-20 – Rajendra Kumar, Indian actor (d. 1999) 1929-07-25 – Somnath Chatterjee, Indian communist leader 1929-08-04 – Kishore Kumar, Indian singer and actor (d. 1987) 1929-09-28 – Lata Mangeshkar, Indian playback singer

1929-10-19 – Balbir Singh, India, field hockey player (Olympic-gold-1948-56) 1930-07-21 – Anand Bakshi, Indian lyricist (d. 2002) 1930-09-17 – Lalgudi Jayaraman, Indian violinist 1931-02-18 – Swraj Paul, Indian/British industrial/multi-millionaire (Caparo) 1931-05-16 – Natwar Singh, Indian politician 1931-06-30 – June Thorburn, Kashmir India, actress (Touch & Go, Children Galore) 1931-08-27 – Sri Chinmoy, Indian guru (d. 2007) 1931-10-14 – Nikhil Banerjee, Indian classical musician (d. 1986) 1931-10-15 – Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, Eleventh President of India 1932-06-22 – Amrish Puri, Indian actor (d. 2005) 1932-08-01 – Meena Kumari, Indian film actress (d. 1972) 1932-09-27 – Yash Chopra, Indian director 1932-09-29 – Mehmood, Indian actor (d. 2004) 1932-10-26 – Chinadorai Deshmutu, India, field hockey player (1952) 1932-10-30 – Barun De, Indian historian 1932-12-28 – Dhirubhai Ambani, Indian businessman (d. 2002) 1933-02-14 – Madhubala, Indian actress (d. 1969) 1933-09-08 – Asha Bhonsle, Indian singer 1933-11-03 – Amartya Sen, Indian economist, Nobel Prize laureate 1933-12-02 – K. Veeramani, Indian anti-caste activist 1934-03-15 – Kanshi Ram, Indian dalit leader 1934-05-19 – Ruskin Bond, Indian author 1934-10-15 – N. Ramani, Indian flutist 1935-12-08 – Dharmendra, Indian actor 1935-12-11 – Pranab Mukherjee, Indian politician 1936-02-09 – Clive Swift, Liverpool, actor (Frenzy, Passage to India) 1936-04-29 – Zubin Mehta, Bombay India, conductor (NY Philharmonic) 1936-05-03 – Engelbert Humperdinck, [Arnolde Dorsey], India, singer (EH Show) 1936-09-25 – Juliet Prowse, Bombay India, actress/dancer (Who Killed Teddy Bear) 1936-12-25 – Ismail Merchant, Bombay India, producer (Householder) 1937-01-14 – Shoban Babu, Indian actor 1937-12-03 – Binod Bihari Verma, Indian linguist 1937-12-28 – Ratan Tata, Indian industrialist 1938-02-07 – S. Ramachandran Pillai, Indian communist leader 1938-03-18 – Shashi Kapoor, Calcutta India, actor (Shalimar, Heat & Dust) 1938-07-19 – Jayant Narlikar, Indian astrophysicist 1939-01-20 – Nalin Chandra Wickramasinghe, Indian astronomer 1939-06-27 – Rahul Dev Burman, Indian composer and actor (d. 1994)

1939-09-25 – Feroz Khan, Indian actor 1939-11-21 – Mulayam Singh Yadav, Indian politician 1939-11-22 – Mulayam Singh Yadav, Indian politician 1940-01-02 – S. R. S. Varadhan, Indian-American mathematician 1940-01-20 – Krishnam Raju, Indian actor and politician 1940-10-14 – Cliff Richards, [Harry Webb], Lucknow India, rock voclist (Suddenly) 1940-11-01 – Ramesh Chandra Lahoti, Chief Justice of India 1940-12-12 – Sharad Pawar, Indian politician 1941-02-27 – Paddy Ashton, New Delhi India, British MP (Soc/Lib Democrat) 1941-04-14 – Julie Christie, Assam India, actress (Dr Zhivago) 1941-07-31 – Amarsinh Chaudhary, Indian politician 1941-09-04 – Sushilkumar Shinde, Indian politician 1941-11-25 – Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi, Indian Muslim Sufi, author, spiritual leader (d. 2001) 1942-04-02 – Roshan Seth, Indian actor 1942-04-07 – Jeetendra, Indian actor 1942-05-23 – K. Raghavendra Rao, Indian film director 1942-12-29 – Rajesh Khanna, Indian actor 1943-01-01 – Raghunath Anant Mashelkar, Indian scientist 1943-01-24 – Subhash Ghai, Indian film director 1943-06-02 – Ilaiyaraaja, Indian composer 1943-12-25 – Ravish Malhotra, India cosmonaut (Soyuz T-11 backup) 1944-01-11 – Shibu Soren, Indian politician 1944-02-13 – Oduvil Unnikrishnan, Indian actor (d. 2006) 1944-05-01 – Suresh Kalmadi, Indian politician 1944-08-20 – Rajiv Gandhi, PM of India (1984-89) 1945-01-17 – Javed Akhtar, Indian lyricist, poet and scriptwriter 1945-02-20 – Annu Kapoor, Indian actor 1945-05-04 – Narasimhan Ram, Indian journalist 1945-05-23 – Padmarajan, Indian film director (d. 1991) 1945-07-24 – Azim Premji, Indian businessman 1945-12-06 – Shekhar Kapur, Indian filmmaker 1946-05-01 – Joanna Lumley, Kashmir India, actress (Abs Fab, OHM’s Secret Service) 1946-05-28 – Satchidanandan, Indian poet 1946-08-20 – N.R. Narayana Murthy, Indian businessman 1946-10-06 – Vinod Khanna, Indian actor 1946-10-15 – Victor Banerjee, Calcutta India, actor (A Passage to India) 1946-12-08 – Sharmila Tagore, Indian Actress 1946-12-09 – Sonia Gandhi, Italian-born Indian politician

1946-12-09 – Shatrughan Sinha, Indian actor 1947-01-07 – Shobha De, Indian writer 1947-02-12 – Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, Indian leader of Damdami Taksal (d. 1984) 1947-06-11 – Laloo Prasad Yadav, Indian politician 1947-08-15 – Raakhee Gulzar, Indian actress 1948-02-24 – J. Jayalalithaa, Indian politician 1948-02-25 – Danny Denzongpa, Indian actor 1948-04-09 – Jaya Bachchan, Indian actress 1948-10-16 – Hema Malini, Indian Actress 1949-01-13 – Rakesh Sharma, India, cosmonaut (Soyuz T-11) 1949-03-07 – Ghulam Nabi Azad, Indian politician 1949-04-28 – Indian Larry, American stuntsman (d. 2004) 1949-09-01 – P.A. Sangma, Indian politician 1949-12-18 – Joni Flynn, Assam India, actress (Octopussy) 1950-01-07 – Johnny Lever, Indian actor 1950-04-20 – Chandra Babu Naidu, Indian politician 1950-05-30 – Paresh Rawal, Indian actor 1950-06-15 – Lakshmi Mittal, Indian industrialist 1950-07-20 – Naseeruddin Shah, Indian actor 1950-09-17 – Narendra Modi, Indian politician 1950-09-18 – Shabana Azmi, Indian actress 1950-10-02 – Persis Khambatta, Bombay India, actress (Star Trek, Megaforce) 1950-10-18 – Om Puri, Indian actor 1950-12-12 – Rajnikanth, Indian actor 1951-01-01 – Nana Patekar, Indian film and stage actor 1951-11-19 – Zeenat Aman, Indian actress 1952-03-20 – Anand Armitraj, India, tennis player (Brother of ViJay) 1952-04-13 – Erick Avari, British-Indian actor 1952-06-20 – Vikram Seth, Indian poet 1952-09-04 – Rishi Kapoor, Indian actor 1952-11-05 – Vandana Shiva, Indian physicist 1952-12-28 – Arun Jaitley, Indian Politician 1953-09-27 – Mata Amritanandamayi, Indian religious leader 1953-12-14 – Vijay Amritraj, India, tennis player/actor (Octopussy) 1954-03-19 – Indu Shahani, Indian educationist and Sheriff of Mumbai 1954-07-27 – G. S. Bali, Indian politician 1954-11-07 – Kamal Haasan, Indian actor 1955-05-17 – Bill Paxton, actor (Brain Dead, Next of Kin, Indian Summer, True Lies)

1955-11-05 – Karan Thapar, Foremost Indian Journalist, Political Analyst & Commentator 1955-12-31 – Dawood Ibrahim, Indian crime boss 1956-01-15 – Mayawati, Indian politician 1956-02-01 – Brahmanandam, Indian film actor 1956-03-09 – Shashi Tharoor, Indian author & United Nations Under-Secretary General 1956-04-18 – Poonam Dhillon, Indian actress 1956-06-02 – Mani Ratnam, Indian dire 1956-08-14 – Johnny Lever, Indian actor 1956-10-19 – Sunny Deol, Indian actor 1957-01-07 – Reena Roy, Indian actress 1957-04-19 – Mukesh Ambani, Indian businessman 1957-08-03 – Mani Shankar, Indian film maker 1957-09-23 – Kumar Sanu, Indian playback singer 1957-10-15 – Mira Nair, Indian director 1957-12-10 – Prem Rawat, known also as Guru Maharaj Ji and Maharaji, American Indian spiritual leader and speaker 1958-02-01 – Jackie Shroff, Indian actor 1958-04-03 – Jaya Prada, Indian Actress 1959-05-03 – Uma Bharati, Indian politician 1959-07-29 – Sanjay Dutt, Indian actor 1959-08-26 – Jim Rutledge, Victoria, Canadian Tour golfer (1995 Indian Open) 1959-08-29 – Akkineni Nagarjuna, Indian Telugu actor 1959-12-24 – Anil Kapoor, Indian actor 1960-01-03 – Sandeep Marwah Founder of Film City, Noida, India 1960-05-21 – Mohanlal, Indian actor 1960-06-10 – Balakrishna Nandamuri, Indian actor 1960-12-13 – Daggubati Venkatesh, Indian actor 1961-01-07 – Supriya Pathak, Indian actress 1961-04-18 – Pamella Bordes, New Dehli India, Brit parliament prostitute 1961-05-04 – Ishita Bhaduri, Indian (Bengali) Poet 1961-05-26 – Tarsem Singh, Indian film director 1961-06-05 – Ramesh Krishnan, Indian tennis star 1961-06-27 – Meera Syal, British-Indian comedienne and actress 1961-07-01 – Kalpana Chawla, Karnal India, astronaut (STS 87) 1961-08-13 – Sunil Shetty, Indian Actor, Producer 1961-11-24 – Arundhati Roy, Indian writer 1962-02-14 – Sakina Jaffrey, Indian actress 1962-09-30 – Shaan, Indian singer

1963-08-10 – Phoolan Devi, Indian bandit and revolutionary (d. 2001) 1963-08-13 – Sridevi, Indian actress 1963-08-17 – S. Shankar, Indian film director. 1964-01-31 – Remi Bouchard, Lasalle Que, Canadian Tour golfer (1989 India Open) 1964-02-19 – Sonu Walia, Indian actress 1964-12-25 – Anil Kaul, Amritsar India, Canadian badminton player (Olympics-96) 1965-03-14 – Aamir Khan, Indian actor 1965-06-01 – India Allen, Portsmouth Va, playmate of the year (Dec, 1987) 1965-09-02 – Partho Sen-Gupta, Indian filmmaker 1965-11-02 – Shahrukh Khan, Indian actor 1965-12-27 – Salman Khan, Indian actor 1966-01-06 – A. R. Rahman, Indian composer 1966-03-05 – Aasif Mandvi, Indian-born American actor and comedian 1966-03-20 – Alka Yagnik, Indian singer 1966-04-17 – Vikram, Indian actor 1966-05-03 – Firdous Bamji, Indian-American actor 1966-08-28 – Priya Dutt, Indian social worker and politician 1966-09-28 – Puri Jagannadh, Indian film director 1967-01-26 – Pradip Somasundaran, Indian playback singer 1967-01-27 – Bobby Deol, Indian actor 1967-02-01 – Patle Shishupal Natthu, Indian politician 1967-02-12 – Chitravina N. Ravikiran, Indian composer and musician 1967-05-15 – Madhuri Dixit, Indian actress 1967-08-18 – Daler Mehndi, Indian bhangra/pop singer 1967-09-09 – Akshay Kumar, Indian Actor 1967-11-13 – Juhi Chawla, Indian actress 1968-02-09 – Rahul Roy, Indian actor 1968-03-16 – Ananya Khare, Indian actress and teacher 1968-04-19 – Arshad Warsi, Indian actor 1968-09-29 – Samir Soni, Indian film actor 1968-12-15 – Javid Hussain, Indian film producer 1969-12-11 – Vishwanathan Anand, Indian chess grandmaster 1970-05-30 – Ness Wadia, Indian industrialist 1970-06-01 – R. Madhavan, Indian actor 1970-06-19 – Rahul Gandhi, Indian politician 1970-08-06 – M. Night Shyamalan, Indian/American film director 1970-08-16 – Manisha Koirala, Indian actress 1970-08-16 – Saif Ali Khan, Indian actor

1970-09-01 – Padma Lakshmi, Indian actress 1970-10-26 – Raveena Tandon, Indian actress 1971-04-16 – Natasha Zvereva, Minsk Belarus, tennis ace (finals 1995 Indian Wells) 1971-05-01 – Ajith Kumar, Indian film actor 1971-09-02 – Pawan Kalyan, Indian actor 1971-11-01 – Vikram Chatwal, Indian hotelier 1971-12-18 – Barkha Dutt, Indian journalist 1972-04-16 – Conchita Martinez, Monzon Spain, tennis star (1996 final Indian Wells) 1972-08-27 – Dalip Singh, Indian professional wrestler 1972-11-04 – Tabassum Hashmi, Indian actress 1972-11-09 – Laxmi Poruri, Guntur India, tennis star (1994 Futures-College Park) 1972-11-26 – Arjun Rampal, Indian actor 1972-12-17 – John Abraham, Indian actor 1973-06-17 – Leander Paes, Indian tennis player 1973-07-23 – Himesh Reshammiya, Indian Bollywood composer, singer and actor. 1973-07-30 – Sonu Nigam, Indian singer/actor 1973-08-10 – Lisa Raymond, Norristown Penn, tennis star (1995 Indian Wells doubles) 1973-08-23 – Malaika Arora Khan, Indian actress and model 1973-09-01 – Ram Kapoor, Indian actor 1973-11-01 – Aishwarya Rai, Indian actress 1974-01-09 – Farhan Akhtar, Indian Bollywood Director, Actor, Producer, Singer. 1974-01-10 – Hrithik Roshan, Indian actor 1974-05-15 – Shiney Ahuja, Indian actor 1974-06-07 – Mahesh Bhupathi, India, tennis pro 1974-06-22 – Joseph Vijay, Indian actor 1974-06-25 – Karisma Kapoor, Indian actress 1974-09-09 – Vikram Batra, Officer of the Indian Army 1974-12-25 – Nagma, Indian actress 1975-01-01 – Sonali Bendre, Indian model and actress 1975-01-08 – Harris Jayaraj, Indian music composer 1975-01-31 – Preity Zinta, Indian actress 1975-03-08 – Fardeen Khan, Indian actor 1975-06-08 – Shilpa Shetty, Indian actress 1975-06-22 – Laila Rouass, Moroccan-Indian actress 1975-08-05 – Kajol Mukherjee, Indian actress 1975-10-03 – India.Arie, American singer 1976-02-05 – Abhishek Bachchan, Indian actor 1976-02-20 – Rohan Gavaskar, Left-handed batsman, India ODI 2004 (son of Sunil Gavaskar)

1976-06-29 – Sandhya Chib, Miss Universe-India (1996) 1976-09-03 – Vivek Oberoi, Indian actor 1976-12-15 – Baichung Bhutia, Indian footballer 1977-06-09 – Roopa Mishra, Indian civil servant 1977-06-09 – Amisha Patel, Indian actress 1977-07-17 – Lehmber Hussainpuri, Famous Indian Singer 1977-09-01 – Aamir Ali, Indian television actor 1978-01-01 – Paramahamsa Sri Nithyananda, Indian spiritualist 1978-03-21 – Rani Mukherjee, Indian actress 1978-03-28 – Nafisa Joseph, Miss India Universe (1997) 1978-04-16 – Lara Dutta, Indian actress 1978-06-11 – Ujjwala Raut, Indian supermodel 1978-11-01 – Manju Warrier, Indian actress 1978-12-17 – Riteish Deshmukh, Indian actor 1979-01-07 – Bipasha Basu, Indian model 1979-02-02 – Shamita Shetty, Indian actress 1979-03-23 – Emraan Hashmi, Indian actor 1979-03-24 – Emraan Hashmi, Indian actor 1979-03-31 – Amey Date, Indian playback singer 1979-04-17 – Siddharth Narayan, Indian actor 1979-04-23 – Yana Gupta, Indian actress & model 1980-02-21 – Parthiva Sureshwaren, Indian racing driver 1980-08-18 – Preeti Jhangiani, Indian actress 1980-09-21 – Kareena Kapoor, Indian actress 1980-12-11 – Arya, Indian actor 1981-02-25 – Shahid Kapoor, Indian actor 1981-03-29 – Jlloyd Samuel, WestIndian-born footballer 1981-06-07 – Amrita Rao, Indian model and actress 1981-06-25 – Pooja Umashankar, Indian actress 1981-09-21 – Rimi Sen, Indian actress 1981-10-12 – Sneha, Indian actress 1981-10-24 – Mallika Sherawat, Indian actress 1981-10-29 – Reema Sen, Indian actress 1981-12-09 – Diya Mirza, Indian actress 1982-02-23 – Karan Singh Grover, Indian Television Actor 1982-03-28 – Sonia Agarwal, Indian actress 1982-04-07 – Sonjay Dutt, Indian American professional wrestler 1982-07-03 – Kanika, Indian actress

1982-07-18 – Priyanka Chopra, Indian actress and beauty queen 1982-09-11 – Shriya Saran, South Indian actress 1982-09-28 – Abhinav Bindra, Indian shooter 1982-09-28 – Ranbir Kapoor, Indian Actor 1982-12-10 – Shilpa Anand, Indian film and television actress 1983-02-03 – Silambarasan Rajendar,famous south Indian actor 1983-02-23 – Aziz Ansari, Indian American Comedian 1983-04-08 – Allu Arjun, Indian film actor 1983-05-04 – Trisha Krishnan, Indian actress 1983-05-20 – Jr. NTR, Indian film actor 1983-05-25 – Kunal Khemu, Indian actor 1984-01-19 – Karun Chandhok, Indian racing driver 1984-02-15 – Meera Jasmine, Indian actress 1984-02-29 – Adam Sinclair, Indian field hockey player 1984-03-12 – Shreya Ghoshal, Indian singer 1984-03-19 – Tanushree Dutta, Indian actress 1984-07-16 – Katrina Kaif, Indian Actress 1984-08-03 – Sunil Chetri, Indian Footballer 1985-01-18 – Minnisha Lamba, Indian Actress and Model 1985-01-30 – Aaadietya Pandey, Indian astrologer 1985-06-09 – Sonam Kapoor, Indian actress 1985-10-26 – Asin Thottumkal, Indian actress 1986-01-01 – Vidya Balan, Indian actress 1986-01-05 – Deepika Padukone, Indian model and actress 1986-01-28 – Shruti Haasan, Indian actress 1986-03-27 – Ramani, Indian Girl 1986-04-10 – Ayesha Takia, Indian actress 1986-10-20 – Priyanka Sharma, Indian actress 1986-11-15 – Sania Mirza, Indian tennis player 1987-03-31 – Humpy Koneru, Indian chess grandmaster 1987-08-05 – Genelia D’Souza, Indian actress 1987-08-19 – Ileana D’Cruz, Indian actress 1988-01-04 – Nabila Jamshed, Indian writer 1988-11-22 – Suresh Guptara and Jyoti Guptara, British-Indian novelists 1988-12-02 – Soniya Mehra, Indian Actress 1989-09-02 – Ishmeet Singh Sodhi, Indian Playback Singer (d. 2008) 1991-08-09 – Hansika Motwani, Indian actress 1996-03-09 – Darsheel Safary, Youngest Indian actor to win filmfare award for best performance.

Famous Deaths 1351-03-20 – Mohammed ibn-Tughluq, sultan of Delhi India, dies 1510-03-01 – Francisco d’Almeida, viceroy of India, dies in battle at about 59 1539-03-05 – Nuno da Cunha, Portuguese governor in India (b. 1487) 1605-10-15 – Abul-Fath Djalal-ud-Din, Mogol keizer of India (1556-1605), dies at 63 1627-10-28 – Djehangir/Jahangir, great mogol of India, dies 1629-04-19 – Sigismondo d’India, Italian composer 1631-06-07 – Mumtax Mahal, wife of Shah Jahan of India, her tomb (Taj Mahal) 1666-02-01 – Sjihab al-Din Sultan C Shah Djahan, mogol of India (Taj-Mahal), dies 1680-04-03 – Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Empire, India (b. 1630) 1680-04-17 – Kateri Tekakwitha, first American Indian to receive beatification (b. 1656) 1699-06-22 – Josiah Child, English Governor of the East India Company (b. 1630) 1707-02-20 – Aurangzeb, Mogul emperor of India (1658-1707), dies 1707-03-03 – Aurangzeb, Emperor of India (1658-1707), dies at 88 1713-02-11 – Jahandar Shah, Mughal emperor of India (b. 1664) 1754-10-04 – Tanacharison, Catawba Indian chief 1755-07-09 – E Braddock, British Gen, mortally wounded during French & Indian War 1760-04-10 – Gerard George Clifford, head of East-Indian Company, dies at 75 1773-11-22 – Robert Clive, English occupier (India), dies at about 48 1781-05-18 – Túpac Amaru II, Peruvian Indian revolutionary, a descendant of the last Inca ruler, Túpac Amaru (b. 1742) 1799-05-04 – Tipu Sultan, Indian military leader (b. 1750) 1815-09-24 – John Sevier, indian fighter (Gov/Rep-Tn), dies at 70 1818-08-22 – Warren Hastings, 1st governor-general of India (1773-84), dies at 85 1843-12-18 – Thomas Graham, Lord Lynedoch, British Viceroy of India (b. 1748) 1856-09-24 – Henry, 1st viscount Hardinge of Lahore, gov-gen of India, dies 1857-04-08 – Mangal Pandey, Indian soldier (b. 1827) 1858-06-17 – Rani Lakshmibai, queen of Jhansi in North India, one of the leading figures of the Indian rebellion of 1857 (b. 1828) 1860-10-12 – Henry G W Smith, leader of British-Indian forces, dies at 73 1868-05-23 – Kit Carson, American trapper, scout, and Indian agent (b. 1809) 1869-02-15 – Mirza Ghalib, Indian poet (b. 1796) 1871-03-18 – Augustus De Morgan, Indian-born British mathematician and logician (b. 1806) 1871-06-08 – Satank, Kiowa indian chief, shot to death 1881-07-17 – Jim Bridger, American mountain man, Indian fighter, and explorer (b. 1804) 1883-02-17 – Vasudeo Balwant Phadke, Indian revolutionary (b. 1845) 1890-12-10 – Ludolf AJW Sloet van de Beele, gov-gen (Net India 1861-66), dies at 84 1893-11-07 – Constantly Lievens, Flemish missionaries in India, dies at 37

1898-03-01 – George Bruce Malleson, English officer in India, author (b. 1825) 1898-03-27 – Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Indian Muslim intellectual (b. 1817) 1902-07-04 – Swami Vivekananda, Indian spiritual leader (b. 1863) 1905-01-19 – Debendranath Tagore, Indian philosopher (b. 1817) 1908-08-11 – Khudiram Bose, Indian freedom fighter (b. 1889) 1915-02-19 – Gopal Krishna Gokhale, India’s social reformer/politician, dies 1918-07-22 – Indra Lal Roy, Indian pilot (b. 1898) 1918-10-15 – Sai Baba of Shirdi, Indian saint (b. circa 1838) 1919-05-27 – Kandukuri Veeresalingam, Indian social activist (b. 1848) 1920-04-26 – Srinivasa Ramanujan, Indian mathematician (b. 1887) 1920-08-01 – Bal Gangadhar Tilak, British-Indian hindu leader, dies 1925-06-16 – Chittaranjan Das, Indian patriot and freedom fighter (b. 1870) 1927-02-05 – Inayat Khan, Indian sufi 1927-06-13 – Henry CK “Clan” Petty-Fitzmaurice, gov of India (1888-94), dies at 82 1928-11-17 – Lala Lajpat Rai, Indian author, politician, & freedom fighter (b. 1865) 1931-03-23 – Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Sukhdev Indian freedom fighters 1936-09-19 – Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, Indian musician (b. 1860) 1937-11-23 – Jagdish Chandra Bose, Indian physicist (b. 1858) 1938-04-21 – Allama Iqbal, Indian philosopher and poet (b. 1877) 1940-01-01 – Panuganti Lakshminarasimha Rao, Indian writer and essayist (b. 1865) 1941-03-28 – Kavasji Jamshedji Petigara, Indian Police Commissioner (b. 1877) 1941-08-07 – Radindranath Tagore, Indian philosopher/poet/writer, dies at 80 1948-01-30 – Mahatma Gandhi, India’s political and spiritual leader, assassinated in New Delhi 1948-01-30 – Mahatma Ghandi, murdered by Hindu extremists in India 1950-04-14 – Sri Ramana Maharshi, Indian philosopher (b. 1879) 1950-08-08 – Ernest F E Douwes Dekker, founder National-India Party, dies 1950-12-05 – Shri Aurobindo, Indian guru (b. 1872) 1950-12-15 – Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Indian political leader, Iron Man of India (b. 1875) 1951-12-05 – Abanindranath Tagore, Indian writer (b. 1871) 1952-01-05 – Victor Alexander John Hope, viceroy of India (1936-43), dies at 64 1952-03-07 – Paramahansa Yogananda, Indian guru (b. 1893) 1953-12-10 – Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Indian-born scholar and translator (b. 1872) 1955-09-16 – Leopold C M S Amery, Brit minister of Colonies (India), dies at 81 1956-12-06 – Dr. Bhimji Ramji Ambedkar, Indian Minister of Law and architect of The Constitution of India (b. 1891) 1958-06-27 – Robert Greig, actor (Devil Doll, Indian Love Call), dies at 78 1959-12-23 – Edward FLW Halifax, English viscount/viceroy of India, dies at 78 1962-04-12 – Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya, Indian politician and engineer (b. 1861)

1963-02-28 – Rajendra Prasad, First President of India (b. 1884) 1964-05-27 – Jawaharial Nehru, Independent India’s 1st PM, dies at 74 1966-01-11 – Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indian premier (1964-66), dies at 61 1966-01-24 – Homi J. Bhabha, Indian physicist (b. 1909) 1966-02-26 – Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Indian freedom fighter and writer (b. 1883) 1967-10-12 – Ram Manohar Lohia, Indian Socialist politician leader 1969-01-31 – Meher Baba, Indian guru (b. 1894) 1969-05-03 – Zakir Hussain, 3rd President of India, (b. 1897) 1969-06-24 – Ted Hecht, actor (Time to Kill, Song of India, Gangster), dies 1970-06-07 – Edward M Forster, Brit writer (Maurice, passage to India), dies at 91 1970-07-24 – Peter de Noronha, Indian businessman (b. 1897) 1970-11-21 – Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, Indian physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1888) 1971-12-31 – Vikram Sarabhai, Indian physicist (b. 1919) 1972-03-31 – Meena Kumari, Indian actress (b. 1932) 1972-05-28 – Edward VIII, King of Gr Brit/N Ireld/emperor (India 1936), dies at 77 1972-07-28 – Charu Majumdar, Indian revolutionary leader (b. 1918) 1972-09-27 – S. R. Ranganathan, Indian mathematician (b. 1892) 1973-09-11 – Neem Karoli Baba, Indian guru 1974-02-04 – Satyendra Nath Bose, Indian physicist (b. 1894) 1975-04-17 – Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Indian philosopher (b. 1888) 1975-10-02 – Kumaraswami Kamaraj, Indian political leader, Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu (b. 1903) 1975-10-31 – SD Burman, Indian musician (b. 1906) 1976-08-27 – Mukesh, Indian playback singer (b. 1923) 1977-03-22 – A.K. Gopalan, Indian communist leader (b. 1904) 1979-12-03 – Dhyan Chand, Indian field hockey player (b. 1905) 1980-06-23 – Sanjay Gandhi, Indian politician, dies 1980-06-23 – Varahagiri Venkata Giri, Fourth President of India (b. 1894) 1980-07-24 – Uttam Kumar, Indian actor (b. 1926) 1980-07-31 – Mohd. Rafi, Indian playback singer (b. 1924) 1981-02-05 – Kuda Bux, Indian mystic (I’d Like to See), dies at 75 1981-12-26 – Savithri, Indian actress (b. 1937) 1982-02-22 – Josh Malihabadi, Urdu poet of India and Pakistan (b. 1898) 1983-01-11 – Shri Ghanshyam Das Birla, Indian industrialist and educator (b. 1894) 1984-02-03 – Ravindara Mhatrem, Indian diplomat, killed in England 1984-02-09 – Balasaraswathi, Indian classical dancer, dies in Madras 1984-10-31 – Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, assassinated by two of her bodyguards at 66 1984-11-27 – Percy Norris, deputy high commissioner of India, shot dead 1985-03-15 – Radha Krishna Choudhary, Indian historian and writer (b. 1921)

1986-02-17 – Jiddu Krishnamurti, Indian philosopher (Kingdom Happiness), dies at 90 1986-06-06 – Bhavana Balachandran, Indian actress 1986-07-06 – Jagjivan Ram, Indian politician (b. 1908) 1987-10-09 – Guru Gopinath, Indian classical dancer (b. 1908) 1987-10-13 – Kishore Kumar, Indian Singer (b.1929) 1987-12-11 – G. A. Kulkarni, Indian (Marathi) writer (b. 1923) 1990-01-19 – Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh, indian guru, dies at 58 1990-05-21 – Moelvi Mohammed Farouk, Indian spiritual leader, murdered 1990-11-07 – Lawrence Durrell, Indian/English author (Alexandria Quartet, Mount Olive), dies at 78 1991-03-23 – Parkash Singh, Indian soldier, recipient of the Victoria Cross (b. 1913) 1991-05-21 – Rajiv Gandhi, Indian Prime Minster (1984-91), assassinated at 46 1991-06-14 – Peggy Ashcroft, British actress (A passage to India), dies at 83 1992-04-23 – Satyajit Ray, Indian director (Distant Thunder/Agantuk), dies at 70 1993-04-06 – Divya Bharati, “Baby Doll” Indian Bollywood actress (Diwana), dies at 19 by mysteriously falling from her husband’s apartment 1993-11-29 – JRD Tata, Indies industrialist (Air-India), dies at 89 1993-11-30 – Sebastian Kappen, Indian theologian (b. 1924) 1994-01-04 – RD Burman, Indian musician (b. 1939) 1994-12-25 – Zail Singh, president of India (1982-87), dies at 78 1995-04-10 – Morarji Desai, PM of India (1977-79), dies 1995-08-31 – Beant Singh, PM of Punjab province of India, assassinated at 73 1996-01-18 – N T Rama Rao, PM of Andhra Pradesh India (1983-84, 84-89, 94-95), dies 1996-01-18 – Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao, Indian actor (b. 1923) 1996-04-22 – Hiteshwar Saikia, PM of Indian state of Assam (1991-96), dies 1996-05-20 – Janaki Ramachandran, PM of Indian state of Tamil Nadu (1988), dies 1996-05-31 – Neela Sanjiva Reddy, president of India (1977-82), dies 1996-06-01 – Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, president of India, dies at 83 1998-01-15 – Gulzarilal Nanda, temporary PM of India (1964, 66), dies 1998-08-18 – Persis Khambatta, Indian actress (b. 1950) 1999-07-07 – Captain Vikram Batra, Indian Army officer, awarded Param Vir Chakra (September 9,1974) 1999-08-01 – Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Indian-born writer (b. 1897) 1999-08-10 – Padma Bhushan Acharya Baldev Upadhyaya, Eminent Sanskrit Scholar in India (b. 1899) 1999-12-26 – Shankar Dayal Sharma, President of India (b. 1918) 2000-07-10 – Vakkom Majeed, Indian Freedom fighter, Travancore-Cochin Legislative member (b. 1909) 2000-11-07 – Chidambaram Subramaniam, Indian politician (b. 1910) 2000-12-23 – Noor Jehan, Indian singer and actress (b. 1926)

2001-05-13 – R.K. Narayan, Indian novelist (b. 1906) 2001-07-21 – Sivaji Ganesan, South Indian Tamil actor (b. 1927) 2001-12-01 – Ellis R Dungan, American born Indian film director (b. 1909) 2001-12-10 – Ashok Kumar, Indian actor (b. 1911) 2002-07-06 – Dhirubhai Ambani, Indian businessman (b. 1932) 2002-07-07 – Dhirubhai Ambani, Indian business tycoon (b. 1933) 2002-10-11 – Dina Pathak, Indian Actress (b. 1922) 2003-10-31 – Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer, Indian singer (b. 1908) 2003-11-09 – Binod Bihari Verma, Indian Maithili literateur (b.1937) 2004-02-23 – Vijay Anand, Indian film director (b. 1934) 2004-02-26 – Shankarrao Chavan, Indian politician (b. 1920) 2004-04-17 – Soundarya, Indian actress (b. 1971) 2004-06-26 – Yash Johar, Indian film producer (b. 1929) 2004-07-23 – Mehmood, Indian actor (b. 1932) 2004-08-15 – Amarsinh Chaudhary, Indian politician (b. 1941) 2004-08-30 – Indian Larry, American motorcycle builder and stuntman (b. 1949) 2004-10-18 – Veerappan, Indian bandit and smuggler (b. 1945) 2004-12-11 – M.S. Subbulakshmi, Indian singer (b. 1916) 2004-12-21 – Autar Singh Paintal, Indian medical scientist (b. 1925) 2004-12-23 – P. V. Narasimha Rao, Prime Minister of India (b. 1921) 2005-01-03 – JN Dixit, Indian government official (b. 1936) 2005-01-12 – Amrish Puri, Indian actor (b. 1932) 2005-01-21 – Parveen Babi, Indian actress (b. 1955) 2005-03-30 – O. V. Vijayan, Indian author and cartoonist (b. 1930) 2005-04-25 – Swami Ranganathananda, Indian monk (b. 1908) 2005-05-25 – Sunil Dutt, Indian actor and politician (b. 1929) 2005-07-27 – Swami Shantanand, Mahasamadhi Day, Indian Saint, Philosopher (b. 1934) 2005-10-30 – Shamsher Singh Sheri, Indian communist leader (b. 1942) 2005-11-09 – K. R. Narayanan, President of India (b. 1921) 2006-02-09 – Nadira, Indian actress (b. 1932) 2006-02-23 – Telmo Zarraonaindía, Spanish footballer (b. 1921) 2006-03-26 – Anil Biswas, Indian politician (b. 1944) 2006-04-12 – Dr. Rajkumar, Kannada language film actor/singer (India)(b. 1929) 2006-04-21 – T.K. Ramakrishnan, Indian politician (b. 1922) 2006-05-03 – Pramod Mahajan, Indian politician (b. 1949) 2006-05-05 – Naushad Ali, Indian composer (b. 1919) 2006-05-27 – Oduvil Unnikrishnan, Indian actor (b. 1944) 2006-08-21 – Ustad Bismillah Khan, Indian musician (b. 1916)

2006-08-27 – Hrishikesh Mukherjee, Indian film director (b. 1922) 2007-02-02 – Vijay Arora, Indian film and television actor (b. 1944) 2007-03-04 – Sunil Kumar Mahato, Indian parliamentarian (b. 1966) 2007-03-22 – Uppaluri Gopala Krishnamurti, Indian philosopher (b. 1918) 2007-04-16 – G. V. Loganathan, Indian American professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering (b. 1954) 2007-06-30 – Sahib Singh Verma, Indian politician and former Chief Minister of Delhi (b. 1943) 2007-10-03 – M.N. Vijayan, Indian writer, orator, and academic 2008-01-01 – Pratap Chandra Chunder, union minister of India (b. 1919) 2008-02-05 – Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Indian guru, founder of Transcendental Meditation (b. ca. 1917) 2008-02-25 – Hans Raj Khanna, Judge of the Supreme Court of India (b. 1912) 2008-03-20 – Shoban Babu, Indian actor (b. 1937) 2008-05-19 – Vijay Tendulkar, Indian playwright, (b. 1928) 2008-06-27 – Sam Manekshaw, Indian Field Marshal (b. 1914) 2008-07-29 – Ishmeet Singh Sodhi, Indian Playback Singer (b. 1989) 2008-08-01 – Harkishan Singh Surjeet, Indian politician (b. 1916) 2008-09-27 – Mahendra Kapoor, Indian singer (b. 1934) 2009-01-27 – R. Venkataraman, 8th President of India (b. 1910) 2009-01-31 – Nagesh, Indian comedian actor in Kollywood (b. 1933) 2009-04-27 – Feroz Khan, Indian actor (b. 1939) 2009-05-03 – Ram Shewalkar, Indian Marathi writer, cardiac arrest.(b.1931) 2009-06-28 – A. K. Lohithadas, Indian screenwriter, director, and producer (b. 1955) 2009-07-29 – Gayatri Devi, Ex-Maharani of Indian state Jaipur. (b. 1919) 2009-09-02 – Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy, Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, India (b. 1949) 2009-11-11 – Dhanpat Rai Nahar, Indian labour leader (b. 1919) 2010-01-17 – Jyoti Basu, Indian politician (b. 1914) Historical Events 1311-04-24 – Gen Malik Kafur returns to Delhi after campaign in South India 1329-08-09 – Quilon the first Indian Diocese was erected by Pope John XXII and Jordanus was appointed the first Bishop 1459-05-12 – Sun City India founded by Rao Jodhpur 1497-07-08 – Vasco da Gama departs for trip to India 1498-05-20 – Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama arrives at Calcutta India 1500-03-09 – Pedro Cabral departs with 13 ships to India 1502-02-12 – Vasco da Gama sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal on his second voyage to India. 1509-02-02 – The Battle of Diu takes place near Diu, India, between Portugal and Turkey.

1509-02-03 – The Battle of Diu, between Portugal and the Ottoman Empire takes place in Diu, India. 1542-05-06 – Francis Xavier reaches Old Goa, the capital of Portuguese India at the time. 1556-03-28 – Origin of Fasli Era (India) 1565-01-25 – Battle at Talikota India: Moslems destroy Vijayanagar’s army 1575-03-03 – Indian Mughal Emperor Akbar defeats Bengali army at the Battle of Tukaroi. 1597-08-20 – 1st Dutch East India Company ships returned from Far East 1600-12-31 – British East India Company chartered 1601-02-13 – John Lancaster leads 1st East India Company voyage from London 1602-03-20 – United Dutch East Indian Company (VOC) forms 1608-08-24 – 1st English convoy lands at Surat India 1609-03-25 – Henry Hudson embarks on an exploration for Dutch East India Co 1612-08-29 – Battle at Surat India: English fleet beats Portuguese 1614-04-05 – American Indian princess Pocahontas, daughter of chief Powhatan marries English colonist John Rolfe 1621-06-03 – Dutch West India Company receives charter for “New Netherlands” (NY) 1622-03-22 – 1st American Indian (Powhattan) massacre of whites Jamestown Virginia, 347 slain 1633-10-22 – Ming dynasty fight with Dutch East India Company that Battle of southern Fujian sea (1633), Ming dynasty won great victory. 1639-08-22 – Madras (now Chennai), India, is founded by the British East India Company on a sliver of land bought from local Nayak rulers. 1641-01-14 – United East Indian Company conquerors city of Malakka, 7,000 killed 1641-08-26 – West India Company conquerors Sao Paulo de Loanda, Angola 1643-12-25 – Christmas Island founded and named by Captain William Mynors of the East India Ship Company vessel, the Royal Mary. 1658-12-09 – Dutch troops occupy harbor city Quilon (Coilan) India 1668-03-26 – England takes control of Bombay India 1668-03-27 – English king Charles II gives Bombay to East India Company 1690-02-08 – French & Indian troops set Schenectady settlement NY on fire 1690-08-24 – Job Charnock founds Calcutta India 1692-02-29 – Sarah Good & Tituba, an Indian servant, accused of witchcraft, Salem 1699-04-14 – Khalsa: Birth of Khalsa, the brotherhood of the Sikh religion, in Northern India in accordance with the Nanakshahi calendar. 1733-05-29 – The right of Canadians to keep Indian slaves is upheld at Quebec City. 1737-10-07 – 40 foot waves sink 20,000 small craft & kill 300,000 (Bengal, India) 1737-10-11 – Earthquake kills 300,000 and destroys half of Calcutta India 1739-02-24 – Battle of Karnal: The army of Iranian ruler Nadir Shah defeats the forces of the Mughal emperor of India, Muhammad Shah. 1739-03-20 – Nadir Shah occupies Delhi in India and sacks the city, stealing the jewels of the Peacock

Throne. 1751-08-31 – English troops under sir Robert Clive occupy Arcot India 1752-06-09 – French army surrenders to the English in Trichinopoly India 1755-04-02 – Commodore William James captures the pirate fortress of Suvarnadurg on west coast of India. 1755-07-09 – Brit Gen E Braddock mortally wounded during French & Indian War 1756-05-17 – Britain declares war on France (7 Years’ or French & Indian War) 1756-06-20 – 146 Brit soldiers imprisoned in India-Black Hole of Calcutta-most die 1756-06-20 – India rebels defeat Calcutta on British army 1756-09-08 – French and Indian War: Kittanning Expedition. 1756-12-06 – British troops under Robert Clive occupy Fulta India 1757-01-02 – British troops occupy Calcutta India 1757-11-05 – Battle at Rossbach (7 year war/French & Indian War) 1758-05-21 – Mary Campbell is abducted from her home in Pennsylvania by Lenape during the French and Indian War. 1759-04-08 – British troops chase French out of Masulipatam India 1760-01-22 – Battle at Wandewash India: British troops beat French 1761-01-07 – Battle at Panipat India: Afghan army beats Mahratten 1761-01-16 – The British capture Pondicherry, India from the French. 1764-11-09 – Mary Campbell, a captive of the Lenape during the French and Indian War, is turned over to forces commanded by Colonel Henry Bouquet. 1767-09-28 – Gentlemen 17 forbid private slave transport India to Cape of Good Hope 1772-02-12 – Yves de Kerguelen of France discovers Kerguelen Archipelago, India 1773-10-14 – American Revolutionary War: The United Kingdom’s East India Company tea ships’ cargo are burned at Annapolis, Maryland. 1783-04-09 – Tippu Sahib drives out English from Bednore India 1786-02-24 – Charles Cornwallis appointed governor-general of India 1795-03-11 – Battle at Kurdla India: Mahratten beat Mogols 1796-04-13 – 1st elephant arrives in US from India 1798-09-01 – England signs treaty with nizam of Hyderabad, India 1800-07-10 – The British Indian Government establishes the Fort William College to promote Urdu, Hindi and other vernaculars of sub continent. 1803-02-27 – Great fire in Bombay, India 1803-09-23 – Battle of Assaye-British-Indian forces beat Maratha Army 1806-07-10 – The Vellore Mutiny is the first instance of a mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British East India Company. 1818-06-03 – Maratha Wars between British & Maratha Confederacy in India ends 1829-12-04 – Britain abolished “suttee” in India (widow burning herself to death on her husband’s

funeral pyre 1835-02-24 – Siwinowe Kesibwi (Shawnee Sun) is 1st Indian lang monthly mag 1838-11-03 – The Times of India, the world’s largest circulated English language daily broadsheet newspaper is founded as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce. 1839-01-10 – Tea from India 1st arrives in UK 1839-01-19 – Aden conquered by British East India Company 1839-11-25 – A cyclone slams India with high winds and a 40 foot storm surge, destroying the port city of Coringa (never to be entirely rebuilt again). The storm wave sweeps inland, taking with it 20,000 ships and thousands of people. An estimated 300,000 deaths result from the disaster. 1842-01-06 – 4,500 British & Indian troops leave Kabul, massacred before India 1846-01-28 – Battle of Allwal, Brits beat Sikhs in Punjab (India) 1846-02-10 – British defeat Sikhs in battle of Sobraon, India 1846-02-16 – Battle of Sobraon ends 1st Sikh War in India 1849-03-29 – Britain formally annexs Punjab after defeat of Sikhs in India 1851-12-22 – The first freight train is operated in Roorkee, India. 1853-04-16 – The first passenger rail opens in India, from Bori Bunder, Bombay to Thane. 1857-05-10 – Indian Mutiny begins with revolt of Sepoys of Meerut 1858-07-28 – William Herschel of the Indian Civil Service in India 1858-08-02 – Govt of India transferred from East India Company to Crown 1859-02-10 – Gen Horsford defeats Begum of Oude & Nana Sahib in Indian mutiny 1865-11-11 – Treaty of Sinchula is signed in which Bhutan ceded the areas east of the Teesta River to the British East India Company. 1866-06-11 – The Allahabad High Court (then Agra High Court) is established in India. 1868-04-13 – Abyssinian War ends as British and Indian troops capture Magdala. 1870-09-08 – Neth & Engl sign “Koelietraktaat” Br-Indian contract work in Suriname 1876-10-31 – A monster cyclone ravages India, resulting in over 200,000 human deaths. 1877-01-01 – England’s Queen Victoria proclaimed empress of India 1879-05-14 – The first group of 463 Indian indentured labourers arrive in Fiji aboard the Leonidas. 1882-06-06 – Cyclone in Arabian Sea (Bombay India) drowns 100,000 1884-09-26 – Suriname army shoots on British-Indian contract workers, 7 killed 1888-04-20 – 246 reported killed by hail in Moradabad, India 1888-12-18 – Richard Wetherill and his brother in-law discover the ancient Indian ruins of Mesa Verde. 1889-03-23 – The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was established by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian India. 1891-09-18 – Harriet Maxwell Converse is 1st white woman to become an Indian chief 1892-07-06 – Dadabhai Naoroji elected as first Indian Member of Parliament in Britain. 1897-06-12 – Possibly most severe quake in history strikes Assam India, shock waves felt over an area size of Europe (negligible death toll)

1905-04-04 – Earthquake in Kangra India, kills 20,000 1905-10-16 – The Partition of Bengal (India) occurred. 1906-12-30 – The All India Muslim League is founded in Dacca, East Bengal, British India Empire, which later laid down the foundations of Pakistan. 1907-05-01 – Indian Mine Laws passes (concessions from Neth-Indies) 1911-02-18 – The first official flight with air mail takes place in Allahabad, British India, when Henri Pequet, a 23-year-old pilot, delivers 6,500 letters to Naini, about 10 km away. 1911-03-25 – L D Swamikannu publishes “Manual of Indian Chronology” in Bombay 1911-12-12 – Delhi replaces Calcutta as the capital of India. 1913-11-06 – Mohandas K Gandhi arrested for leading Indian miners march in S Afr 1914-06-30 – Mahatma Gandhi’s 1st arrest, campaigning for Indian rights in S Africa 1916-05-13 – 1st observance of Indian (Native American) Day 1916-05-24 – Last British-Indian contract workers arrive in Suriname 1917-03-11 – World War I: Baghdad falls to the Anglo-Indian forces commanded by General Stanley Maude. 1918-05-18 – Neth Indian Volksraad installed in Batavia 1919-04-13 – Amritsar Massacre-British Army fires on nationalist rioters in India 1919-04-13 – British forces kill 100s of Indian Nationalists (Amritsar Massacre) 1919-08-13 – British troops fire on Amritsar India demonstrators; killing 350 1919-09-10 – Indian’s Ray Caldwell no-hits Yankees 3-0 1920-03-23 – Perserikatan Communist of India (PKI) political party forms 1920-10-10 – Indian Bill Wambsganns makes 1st unassisted World Series triple play 1920-10-10 – Indian’s Elmer Smith hits 1st World Series grand slam 1922-03-18 – Brit magistrates in India sentence Gandhi to 6 years for disobedience 1925-12-26 – The Communist Party of India is founded. 1926-08-28 – Indian Emil Levsen pitches complete doubleheader victory (Red Sox) 1926-12-28 – Imperial Airways begins England-India mail & passenger service 1928-08-30 – Jawaharlal Nehru requests independence of India 1929-01-06 – Mother Teresa arrives in Calcutta to begin a her work amongst India’s poorest and diseased people. 1929-01-26 – Indian National Congress proclaims goal for India’s independence 1929-04-08 – Indian Independence Movement: At the Delhi Central Assembly, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt throw handouts and bombs to court arrest. 1929-04-24 – 1st non-stop England to India flight takes-off 1929-04-26 – 1st non-stop England to India flight lands 1930-03-08 – Mahatma Gandhi starts civil disobedience in India 1931-02-10 – New Delhi becomes capital of India 1931-03-23 – Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev embrace the gallows during the Indian struggle for

independence. Their request to be shot by a firing squad is refused. 1932-10-08 – The Indian Air Force is established. 1932-10-15 – Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) makes its first flight. 1933-01-28 – The name Pakistan is coined by Choudhary Rehmat Ali Khan and is accepted by the Indian Muslims who then thereby adopted it further for the Pakistan Movement seeking independence. 1933-05-08 – Mohandas Gandhi begins a 21-day fast in protest against British oppression in India. 1934-01-15 – 8.4 earthquake in India/Nepal, 10,700 die 1934-04-07 – In India, Mahatma Gandhi suspended his campaign of civil disobedience 1934-08-02 – William Franks twirls an indian club overhead 17,280 times in 1 hour 1936-02-08 – Pandit Jawaharlal follows Gandhi as chairman of India Congress Party 1936-04-01 – Orissa constituted a province of British India 1938-10-02 – Indian Bob Feller strikes out record 18 Tigers (Chester Laabs 5 times) 1938-11-16 – K B Regiment refuses round-table conference in East-India 1939-03-03 – In Mumbai, Mohandas Gandhi begins to fast in protest of the autocratic rule in India. 1939-03-10 – 17 villages damaged by hailstones in Hyderabad India 1939-04-13 – In India, the Hindustani Lal Sena (Indian Red Army) is formed and vows to engage in armed struggle against the British. 1939-05-03 – The All India Forward Bloc is formed by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. 1940-03-23 – All-India-Moslem League calls for a Moslem homeland 1940-03-23 – The Lahore Resolution (Qarardad-e-Pakistan or the then Qarardad-e-Lahore) is put forward at the Annual General Convention of the All India Muslim League. 1940-07-02 – Indian independence leader Subhas Chandra Bose is arrested and detained in Calcutta. 1941-05-25 – 5,000 drown in a storm at Ganges Delta region in India 1941-11-24 – Indian infantry attacks German tanks at Sidi Omar 1942-08-09 – Mahatma Gandhi & 50 others arrested in Bombay after passing of a “quit India” campaign by the All-India Congress 1942-10-16 – Cyclone in Bay of Bengal kills some 40,000 south of Calcutta India 1943-12-30 – Subhash Chandra Bose raises the flag of Indian independence at Port Blair. 1944-04-01 – Japanese troops conquer Jessami, East-India 1944-04-14 – Freighter “Fort Stikene” explodes in Bombay India, killing 1,376 1944-08-19 – Last Japanese troops driven out of India 1945-11-13 – Australian Services draw 1st Victory Test against India 1946-03-15 – British premier Attlee agrees with India’s right to independence 1946-08-08 – India agrees to give Bhutan 32 sq miles 1946-09-02 – Nehru forms govt in India 1946-12-01 – Australia compile 645 v India at the Gabba (Bradman 187) 1947-02-20 – Lord Mountbatten appointed as last viceroy of India 1947-06-03 – British viceroy of India lord Mountbatten visits Pakistan

1947-07-18 – King George VI signs Indian Independence Bill 1947-08-14 – India granted independence within British Commonwealth 1947-08-15 – India declares independence from UK, Islamic part becomes Pakistan 1947-08-17 – The Radcliffe Line, the border between Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan is revealed. 1947-10-26 – Maharajah of Jammu & Kashmir accedes to India 1948-01-01 – Bradman scores 132 in the 1st innings of the 3rd Test v India 1948-01-01 – Orissa province accedes to India 1948-01-01 – After partition, India declines to pay the agreed share of Rs.550 million in cash balances to Pakistan. 1948-01-03 – Bradman completes dual Test tons (132 & 127*) v India MCG 1948-01-23 – Bradman scores 201 in 272 mins v India, 21 fours 1 six 1948-01-23 – Test debut of Neil Harvey, v India at Adelaide 1948-01-24 – Australia all out 674 v India (Bradman 201, Hassett 198*) 1948-04-15 – Indian territory of Himachal Pradesh created 1948-06-21 – Lord Mountbatten resigns as gov-gen of India 1948-09-12 – Invasion of the State of Hyderabad by the Indian Army on the day after the Pakistani leader Jinnah’s death. 1949-01-14 – Black/Indian race rebellion in Durban, South Africa; 142 die 1949-02-19 – Mass arrests of communists in India 1949-03-05 – The Jharkhand Party is founded in India. 1949-05-12 – 1st foreign woman ambassador received in US (S V L Pandit India) 1949-09-23 – Indian owner Bill Veeck holds funeral services to bury 1948 pennant 1949-10-15 – Administration of territory of Manipur taken over by Indian govt 1949-10-15 – Tripura accedes to Indian union 1949-11-26 – India adopts a constitution as a British Commonwealth Republic 1949-12-30 – India recognizes People’s Republic of China 1950-01-01 – The state of Ajaigarh is ceded to the Government of India. 1950-01-26 – India becomes a republic ceaseing to be a British dominion 1950-07-02 – Indian Bob Feller, wins his 200th game, 5-3 over Detroit 1950-08-15 – 8.6 earthquake in India kills 20,000 to 30,000 1950-08-15 – Srikakulam district is formed in Andhra Pradesh, India. 1950-10-26 – Mother Teresa found her Mission of Charity in Calcutta, India 1950-11-06 – King Tribhuvana of Nepal flees to India 1950-12-05 – Sikkim becomes a protectorate of India 1952-01-21 – Nehru’s Congress party wins general election in India 1952-05-13 – Pandit Nehru becomes premier of India 1952-05-13 – The Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India, holds its first sitting.

1952-07-19 – Freddie Trueman takes 8-31, India all out 58 at Old Trafford 1952-07-19 – India all out 82 in 2nd innings after making 52 earlier in the day 1952-10-16 – Pakistan’s 1st Test starts, v India at Delhi 1952-10-18 – Vinoo Mankad takes 13 Pakistan wkts to win 1st India-Pak clash 1952-10-25 – Nazar Mohammad scores Pakistan’s 1st Test century 124* v India 1953-04-01 – Walcott Worrell & Weekes all make centuries in innings v India 1953-10-01 – Indian state of Andhra Pradesh partitioned from Madras 1954-11-01 – India takes over administration of 4 French Indian settlements 1955-04-11 – The Air India Kashmir Princess is bombed and crashes in a failed assassination attempt on Zhou Enlai by the Kuomintang. 1955-04-30 – Imperial Bank of India nationalized 1955-05-02 – India poses discrimination “onaanraakbaren” punishable 1955-06-07 – India premier Nehru visit USSR 1956-09-01 – Indian state of Tripura becomes a territory 1956-09-02 – Collapse of a RR bridge under a train kills 120 (India) 1956-11-01 – Delhi becomes a territory of Indian union 1956-11-01 – Indian state of Madhya Pradesh forms 1956-11-01 – Indian states of Punjab, Patiala & PEPSU merge as Punjab protection 1956-11-01 – Formation of Kerala state in India. 1957-01-26 – India annexes Kashmir 1957-03-22 – Republic of India adopts Saka calendar along with Gregorian 1959-01-01 – Rohan Kanhai completes 256 v India at Calcutta 1959-03-17 – Dalai Lama flees Tibet for India 1959-03-31 – Dalai Lama fled China & was granted political asylum in India 1959-07-27 – Abbas Ali Baig scores 112 for India v England on debut 1959-08-24 – England complete 5-0 series drubbing of India 1959-09-21 – 600 Indian Dutch emigrate to US 1959-10-23 – Chinese troops move into India, 17 die 1959-12-20 – Jasu Patel takes 9-69, India v Australia at Kanpur 1960-02-12 – Chinese army kills 12 Indian soldiers 1960-05-01 – India’s Bombay state split into Gujarat & Maharashtra states 1961-11-05 – India’s premier Nehru arrives in NY 1961-12-17 – India seizes Goa & 2 other Portuguese colonies 1961-12-18 – India annexes Portuguese colonies of Goa, Damao & Diu 1962-02-25 – India Congress Party wins elections 1962-05-30 – 69 killed in bus crash (Ahmedabad India) 1962-09-08 – Chinese troops exceed Mac-Mahon-line (Tibet-India boundary) 1962-10-10 – Indies assault up Chinese positions in North-India attack

1962-10-20 – Chinese army lands in India 1962-11-21 – The Chinese People’s Liberation Army declares a unilateral cease-fire in the Sino-Indian War. 1963-05-28 – Estimated 22,000 die in another cyclone in Bay of Bengal (India) 1963-12-01 – Nagaland becomes a state of Indian union 1964-01-13 – Hindu-Muslim rioting breaks out in the Indian city of Calcutta – now Kolkata – resulting in the deaths of more than 100 people. 1964-02-09 – Hanumant Singh scores 105 India v England on debut at Delhi 1964-06-02 – Lal Bahadur Sjastri elected premier of India 1964-10-29 – Star of India & other jewels are stolen in NY 1964-12-23 – India & Ceylon hit by cyclone, about 4,850 killed 1965-01-08 – Star of India returned to American Museum of Natural History 1965-04-09 – India & Pakistan engage in border fight 1965-05-11 – 1st of 2 cyclones in less than a month kills 35,000 (India) 1965-05-25 – India & Pakistan border fights 1965-05-28 – Fire & explosion at Dhori mine in Dhanbad India kills 400 1965-06-02 – 2nd of 2 cyclones in less than a month kills 35,000 (Ganges R India) 1965-08-06 – Indian troops invade Pakistan 1965-09-01 – India & Pakistan border fights 1965-09-06 – India invades West Pakistan 1965-09-07 – China announces that it will reinforce its troops in the Indian border. 1965-09-22 – India & Pakistan ceases-fire goes into effect 1966-01-10 – India & Pakistan sign peace accord 1966-01-19 – Indira Gandhi elected India’s 3rd prime minister 1966-04-06 – Mihir Sen swims Palk Strait between Sri Lanka & India 1966-06-24 – Bombay-NY Air India flight crashes into Mont Blanc (Switz), 117 die 1966-11-01 – Indian Haryana state created from Punjab; Chandigarh terr created 1966-12-13 – Test debut of Clive Lloyd, v India Bombay, 82 & 78 1967-05-06 – Zakir Hussain elected 1st Moslem president of India 1967-06-09 – Boycott scores 246* v India, Leeds, 573 minutes, 29 fours 1 six 1967-09-04 – 6.5 earthquake of Kolya Dam India, kills 200 1967-09-11 – Indian/Chinese border fights 1967-12-11 – 6.5 earthquake in West India, 170 killed 1968-01-31 – Bobby Simpson takes 5-59 v India in his last Test for ten years 1968-02-16 – Beatles George Harrison & John Lennon & wives fly to India for transcendental meditation study with the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi 1968-12-25 – 42 Dalits are burned alive in Kilavenmani village, Tamil Nadu, India, a retaliation for a campaign for higher wages by Dalit labourers.

1969-12-25 – India all out for 163 at Madras v Aust, Ashley Mallett 5-91 1970-04-02 – Meghalaya becomes autonomous state within India’s Assam state 1971-01-25 – Himachal Pradesh becomes 18th Indian state 1971-03-09 – J M Noreiga takes 9-95 WI v India at Port-of-Spain 1971-08-24 – India beat England by 4 wickets, their win against the Poms 1971-11-21 – Indian troops partly aided by Mukti Bahini (Bengali guerrillas) defeat the Pakistan army in the Battle of Garibpur. 1971-12-03 – Indo-Pakistani War of 1971: India invades West Pakistan and a full scale war begins claiming hundreds of lives. 1971-12-04 – The UN Security Council calls an emergency session to consider the deteriorating situation between India and Pakistan. 1971-12-04 – The Indian Navy attacks the Pakistan Navy and Karachi. 1971-12-16 – India’s army occupies Dacca, West Pakistani troops surrenders 1971-12-17 – Cease fire between India & Pakistan in Kashmir 1972-01-21 – Manipur, Meghalaya & Tripura become separate states of Indian union 1972-01-21 – Mizoram, formerly part of Assam, creates an Indian union territory 1972-01-21 – Tripura becomes a full-fledged state in India. 1972-03-19 – India & Bangladesh sign friendship treaty 1972-07-02 – India & Pakistan sign peace accord 1972-07-10 – Herd of stampeding elephants kills 24, Chandka Forest India 1972-12-17 – New line of control agreed to in Kashmir between India & Pakistan 1972-12-23 – Chandrasekhar takes 8-79 India v England at Delhi 1973-02-09 – Biju Patnaik of the Pragati Legislature Party elected leader of opposition in the state assembly in Orissa, India. 1973-02-27 – American Indian Movement occupy Wounded Knee in South Dakota 1973-02-27 – Members of American Indian Movement begin occupation of Wounded Knee 1973-07-07 – 78 drown as flash flood sweeps a bus into a river (India) 1973-08-28 – India & Pakistan sign POW accord 1973-11-01 – The Indian state of Mysore was renamed as Karnataka to represent all the regions within Karunadu . 1974-05-18 – India becomes 6th nation to explode an atomic bomb 1974-07-13 – India’s 1st one-day international (v England, Headingley) 1974-11-07 – 63rd Davis Cup: South Africa beats India in (w/o) 1975-01-29 – W I win Fifth Test against India to take exciting series 3-2 1975-04-19 – India launches 1st satellite with help of USSR 1975-05-16 – India annexes Principality of Sikkim 1975-05-19 – Farm truck packed with wedding party struck by a train, killing 66 in truck, 40 miles south of Poona, India

1975-06-26 – Indian PM Indira Gandhi declares a state of emergency 1975-06-26 – Two FBI agents and a member of the American Indian Movement are killed in a shootout on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota; Leonard Peltier is later convicted of the murders in a controversial trial. 1975-07-20 – India expels three reporters from The Times, The Daily Telegraph, and Newsweek because they refused to sign a pledge to abide by government censorship. 1975-12-27 – Explosion at Chasnala Colliery collapses drowning 350 (Dhanbad India) 1976-02-17 – Richard Hadlee takes 7-23 v India, his 1st match-winning spell 1976-04-12 – India set 403 to win by WI They get them, 6 wkts 7 overs spare 1976-04-25 – India all out for 97 v West Indies 1977-01-19 – World’s largest crowd-12.7 million-for Indian religious festival 1977-03-20 – Premier Indira Gandhi loses election in India 1977-03-22 – Indira Gandhi resigns as PM of India 1977-03-28 – Morarji Desai forms govt in India 1977-12-17 – Bobby Simpson scores 176 Australia v India at the WACA, aged 41 1978-01-01 – Air India B747 explodes near Bombay killing 213 1978-01-03 – Chandrasekar takes 6-52 & 6-52 at MCG in Indian innings win 1978-02-03 – Australia beat India 3-2 on 6th day of final test 1978-02-03 – India needing 493 to beat Australia at Adelaide, all out 445 1978-10-16 – Test debut of Kapil Dev, India v Pakistan at Faisalabad 1978-12-19 – Indira Gandhi ambushed in India 1978-12-26 – India’s former PM, Indira Gandhi, released from jail 1979-01-02 – Gavaskar gets twin tons for India for the third time (v WI) 1979-02-07 – Faoud Bacchus scores 250 for WI v India at Kanpur 1979-06-01 – Vizianagaram district is formed in Andhra Pradesh, India. 1979-06-07 – Bhaskara 1, Indian Earth resources/meteorology satellite, launched 1979-07-15 – Morarji Desai resigns as premier of India 1979-07-17 – David Gower 200* in England score of 5-633 v India at Edgbaston 1979-08-20 – India premier Charan Singh resigns 1979-09-04 – India need 438 to win v England, game ends at 8-429 1979-09-20 – The Punjab wing of the Unity Centre of Communist Revolutionaries of India (MarxistLeninist) formally splits and constitutes a parallel UCCRI(ML). 1979-10-17 – Mother Teresa of India, awarded Nobel Peace Prize 1980-01-06 – Indira Gandhi’s Congress Party wins elections in India 1980-07-18 – Rohini 1, 1st Indian satellite, launches into orbit 1981-01-03 – Greg Chappell scores 204 v India at the SCG 1981-01-08 – India all out 63 in one-day international v Australia 1981-01-24 – Kim Hughes scores 213 v India at Adelaide

1981-02-11 – Australia all out 83 v India at MCG chasing 143 to win 1981-06-06 – A passenger train travelling between Mansi and Saharsa, India, jumps the tracks at a bridge crossing the Bagmati river. The government places the official death toll at 268 plus another 300 missing; however, it is generally believed that the actual figure is closer to 1,000 killed. 1981-06-19 – India’s APPLE satellite, 1st to be stabilized on 3 axes, launched 1981-07-16 – India performs nuclear Test 1981-10-14 – Citing official misconduct in the investigation and trial, Amnesty International charges the U.S. government with holding Richard Marshall of the American Indian Movement as a political prisoner. 1982-07-09 – Botham scores 208 in 225 balls, England v India at The Oval 1982-07-27 – Indian PM Indira Gandhi 1st visit to US in almost 11 years 1982-12-27 – Imran Khan 8-60 to bring innings victory v India at Karachi 1983-01-15 – Javed Miandad & Mudassar Nazar make 451 stand v India 1983-02-22 – Hindus kill 3000 Moslems in Assam, India 1983-04-17 – India entered space age launching SLV-3 rocket 1983-11-16 – Kapil Dev takes 9-83 v WI at Ahmedabad, but India still lose 1983-11-27 – Desmond Haynes out handled the ball v India 1984-02-01 – Ravindara Mhatrem, Indian diplomat, kidnapped in England (killed 0203) 1984-04-03 – Soyuz T-11 carries 3 cosmonauts (1 Indian-Rakesh Sharma) to Salyut 7 1984-04-15 – Extremist Sikhs plunder 40 stations in Punjab India 1984-06-06 – 1,200 die in Sikh “Golden Temple” uprising India 1984-08-03 – Bomb attack on Madras India airport, 32 killed 1984-09-28 – 1st floodlit ODI outside of Australia (India v Aust, New Delhi) 1984-11-03 – 3,000 die in 3 day anti-Sikh riot in India 1984-11-03 – Body of assassinated Indian PM Indira Gandhi cremated 1984-12-03 – 2,000 die from Union Carbide poison gas emission in Bhopal, India 1984-12-28 – Rajiv Gandhi’s Congress party wins election in India 1984-12-29 – Indian PM Rajiv Gandhi claims victory in parlimetary elections 1984-12-31 – Rajiv Gandhi takes office as India’s 6th PM succeeds his mom, Indira 1985-01-15 – Mike Gatting & Graeme Fowler both scores 200′s v India 1985-04-08 – India files suit against Union Carbide over Bhopal disaster 1985-05-11 – Booby trap bomb kills 86 people in India 1985-06-23 – Bomb destroys Air India Boeing 747 in air near Ireland, 329 die 1985-08-17 – Rajiv Gandhi announces Punjab state elections in India 1985-09-25 – Akali Dal wins Punjab State election in India 1985-12-13 – David Boon’s 1st Test century, 123 v India at Adelaide 1985-12-13 – Test debut of Merv Hughes, Geoff Marsh & Bruce Reid (v India) 1986-01-04 – David Boon’s second Test century, 131 v India at Adelaide

1986-02-02 – Dalai Lama meets Pope John Paul II in India 1986-02-11 – Australia beat India 2-0 to win the World Series Cup 1986-03-28 – Extremist Sikhs kill 13 hindus in Ludhiana India 1986-07-25 – Sikhs extremist kill 16 hindus in Muhktsar India 1986-09-19 – Dean Jones scores 210 v India at Madras 1986-10-02 – Failed assassination attempt on India premier Rajiv Gandhi 1986-10-02 – Sikhs attempt to assassinate Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi 1986-10-19 – Allan Border scores the 1,000,000th run in Tests (v India, Bombay) 1987-07-06 – 1st of 3 massacres by Sikh extremists takes place in India 1987-11-25 – India all out for 75 v West Indies at Delhi, Patterson 5-24 1987-12-11 – Test debut of Carl Hooper, WI v India at Bombay 1987-12-20 – 76th Davis Cup: Sweden beats India in Gothenburg (5-0) 1988-01-11 – Test debut of Phil Simmons, WI v India, Madras 1988-07-21 – ESA’s Ariane-3 launches 2 communications satellites (1 Indian) 1988-08-20 – 6.5 earthquake strikes India/Nepal, 1,000s killed 1988-11-30 – Cyclone lashes Bangladesh, Eastern India; 317 killed 1989-10-20 – Pakistan win Sharjah Trophy over India & WI on round-robin 1989-11-29 – India president Rajiv Gandhi, resigns 1989-12-02 – Vishwanath Pratap Singh sworn in as president of India 1990-02-23 – Ian Smith 173* NZ v India, 136 balls, world record for no 9 bat 1990-03-24 – Indian troops leave Sri Lanka 1990-03-27 – Bus accidentally touches high voltage wire in Karagpur India; 21 die 1990-04-17 – Gas explodes on passenger train in Kumrahar India, 80 die 1990-07-27 – Graham Gooch scores 333 v India at Lord’s 1990-07-30 – Graham Gooch scores 123 v India to follow up 1st innings 333 1990-12-10 – Hindu-Muslim rebellion in Hyderabad-Aligargh India, 140 die 1991-10-16 – Jharkhand Chhatra Yuva Morcha is founded at a conference in Ranchi, India. 1991-10-20 – 6.1-7.1 earthquake in Uttar Kashi, India, about 670 die 1991-10-25 – Aaqib Javed takes 7-37 in 10 overs v India in cric 1-dayer at Sharjah 1991-12-26 – Militant Sikhs kill 55 & wound 70 in India 1992-01-02 – Test debut of Shane Warne, v India at Sydney 1992-01-20 – Australia beat India 2-0 to win the World Series Cup 1992-01-28 – Boon completes twelfth Test century, 135 v India at Adelaide 1992-05-20 – India launches its 1st satellite independently 1992-05-22 – India launches its Agni rocket 1992-06-23 – “Tin Bigha Day” protest in India of corridor opening to Bangladesh 1992-06-26 – India leases Tin Bigha corridor to Bangladesh 1992-10-18 – Start of Zimbabwe’s 1st Test match, v India at Harare

1992-10-20 – David Houghton gets Zimbabwe’s 1st Test ton (121 v India, debut) 1992-12-06 – 300,000 hindus destroy mosque of Babri India, 4 die 1993-01-23 – Indian Airlines B737 crashes art Aurangabad, 61 die 1993-01-29 – Test debut of Vinod Kambli, prolific Indian batsman 1993-02-23 – India complete a 3-0 series drubbing of England 1993-09-30 – 6.4 earthquake at Latur, India, 28,000 killed 1994-01-25 – Mine fire at Asansol India, kills 55 1994-03-15 – Experts from AL certify Indian’s Jacobs Field is properly lit 1994-04-13 – United Arab Emirates’ 1st official ODI, losing to India 1994-05-20 – Miss India (Sushmita Sen) selected Miss Universe 1994-05-21 – Sushmita Sen, 18, of India, crowned 43rd Miss Universe 1994-07-24 – Bodo kills 37 Moslems in Bashbari NE India 1994-07-29 – India army kills 27 Moslem militants 1994-10-29 – National Museum of American Indian opens (NYC) 1994-11-19 – Aishwarya Rai, 21, of India, crowned 44th Miss World 1995-02-25 – Bomb attack on train in Assam India (27 soldiers killed) 1995-03-12 – Congress party loses India national election 1996-03-09 – Javed Miandad’s last international in Pak’s WC QF loss to India 1996-03-13 – Sri Lanka beat India in World Cup semi as riots stop play 1996-08-20 – India defeat Pakistan in Under-15 World Challenge Final at Lord’s 1996-09-16 – 1st one-day international in Canada, India v Pakistan at Toronto 1997-03-13 – India’s Missionaries of Charity chooses Sister Nirmala to succeed Mother Teresa as its leader. 1997-07-25 – K.R. Narayanan is sworn-in as India’s 10th president and the first Dalit— formerly called “untouchable”— to hold this office. 1998-03-24 – A tornado sweeps through Dantan in India killing 250 people and injuring 3000 others. 1998-04-06 – Pakistan tests medium-range missiles capable of hitting India. 1998-05-11 – India conducts three underground nuclear tests in Pokhran, including a thermonuclear device. 1998-05-13 – India carries out two nuclear tests at Pokhran, in addition to the three conducted on May 11. The United States and Japan impose economic sanctions on India. 1998-05-28 – Nuclear testing: Pakistan responds to a series of Indian nuclear tests with five of its own, prompting the United States, Japan, and other nations to impose economic sanctions. 1999-01-22 – Australian missionary Graham Staines and his two sons are burned alive by radical Hindus while sleeping in their car in Eastern India. 1999-03-11 – Infosys becomes the first Indian company listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange. 1999-04-08 – Haryana Gana Parishad, a political party in the Indian state of Haryana, merges with the Indian National Congress.

1999-08-11 – Total solar eclipse in India-North -France (2m23s) 2000-02-15 – Indian Point II nuclear power plant in New York State vents a small amount of radioactive steam when a steam generator fails. 2000-11-15 – A chartered Antonov AN-24 crashes after takeoff from Luanda, Angola killing more than 40 people. New Jharkhand state came into existence in India. 2001-01-26 – An earthquake hits Gujarat, India, causing more than 20,000 deaths. 2001-06-18 – Protests occur in Manipur over the extension of the ceasefire between Naga insurgents and the government of India. 2001-09-21 – University of Roorkee, becomes India’s 7th Indian Institute of Technology, rechristened as IIT Roorkee 2001-12-13 – the Indian Parliament Sansad is attacked by terrorists. 15 people are killed, including all the terrorists. 2002-05-03 – A military MiG-21 aircraft crashes into the Bank of Rajasthan in India, killing eight. 2003-06-05 – A severe heat wave across Pakistan and India reaches its peak, as temperatures exceed 50°C (122°F) in the region. 2003-10-17 – Eunuchs in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh float the political party Jiti Jitayi Politics. 2003-11-18 – The congress of the Communist Party of Indian Union (Marxist-Leninist) decides to merge the party into Kanu Sanyal’s CPI(ML). 2004-03-23 – Andhra Pradesh Federation of Trade Unions holds its first conference in Hyderabad, India. 2004-06-06 – Tamil is established as a Classical language by the President of India, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam in a joint sitting of the two houses of the Indian Parliament. 2004-09-17 – Tamil is declared the first classical language in India. 2004-09-21 – The Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) People’s War and the Maoist Communist Centre of India merge to form the Communist Party of India (Maoist). 2005-01-25 – A stampede at the Mandher Devi temple in Mandhradevi in India kills at least 258. 2005-07-26 – Mumbai, India receives 99.5cm of rain (39.17 inches) within 24 hours, bringing the city to a halt for over 2 days. 2006-07-06 – The Nathula Pass between India and China, sealed during the Sino-Indian War, re-opens for trade after 44 years. 2006-07-11 – 209 people are killed in a series of bomb attacks in Mumbai, India. 2007-07-25 – Pratibha Patil is sworn in as India’s first woman president 2008-10-22 – India launches its first unmanned lunar mission Chandrayaan-1. 2008-11-26 – Terrorist attacks in Mumbai, India: Ten coordinated attacks by Pakistan-based terrorists kill 164 and injure more than 250 people in Mumbai, India. 2010-02-13 – A bombing at the German Bakery in Pune, India, kills 10 and injures 60 more.

Indian Railway History
The first trains in India

Q. When did the first train run in India?
The customary answer to this question is 3:35pm on April 16th, 1853, when a train with 14 railway carriages and 400 guests left Bombay’s Bori Bunder for Thane, with a 21-gun salute. It was hauled by three locomotives: Sindh, Sultan, and Sahib. The journey took an hour and fifteen minutes. That, however, was just the first commercial passenger service in India. In fact, a steam loco, Thomason, had been used for hauling construction material in Roorkee for the Solani viaduct in 1851 (it began working there on 22nd December 1851, to be exact). The Solani viaduct construction was a part of the Ganges Canal project, started in 1845. The viaduct had 15 arches and spanned the 4km-wide Solani valley (about 145km north-east of New Delhi). Earth for the approach embankments was transported along light rail lines about 5 to 10 km long from Piran Kaliyar to Roorkee. Standard gauge wagons were used, built from parts brought over from England, and hauled by men and later horses. In late 1851, the locomotive Thomason (named for the engineer on the project) was assembled on the spot from parts transported from Calcutta. It hauled two wagons at a time, at a speed of about 6km/h. It did not last very long, and after about 9 months India’s first steam locomotive died a spectacular death with a boiler explosion, reportedly to the delight of the construction workers who had viewed it more as a hindrance than help. Hughes’ book states that this was a six-wheeled tank engine, probably a 2-2-2WT built by E. B. Wilson, and of standard gauge. Some details of the wagons and the use of the locomotive are in Sir Proby T Cautley’s “Report on the Ganges Canal Works” (3 volumes, 1860). “[The railway is] a triumph, to which, in comparison, all our victories in the East seem tame and commonplace. The opening of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway will be remembered by the natives of India when the battlefields of Plassey, Assaye, Meanee, and Goojerat have become landmarks of history.” (The Overland Telegraph and Courier, April 1853) The second locomotive to arrive in India was Falkland (named for a governor of Bombay), used by the contractors of the GIPR for shunting operations on the first line out of Bombay that was being built. It began work on February 23, 1852. Hughes’ book suggests that this was also built by E. B. Wilson, and

was probably a four-wheeled tank engine (0-4-0T?) with dummy crankshaft. It later became GIPR loco #9. A third locomotive, Vulcan, is said to have been used by the GIPR for material hauling and shunting duties in 1852 as well. There were also eight more locos from Vulcan Foundry imported by GIPR in 1852 and 1853. On November 18, 1852, a locomotive hauled some coaches on a trial run from Bori Bunder to Thana. This probably counts as the first “real” train to run in India.

Q. What was the Guarantee System? What were Guaranteed Railways?
In the 1840s, when the first proposals for railways in India were being debated in Great Britain, there was intense lobbying in support of these proposals by banks, traders, shipping companies, and others who had a strong interest in seeing railways be formed in India. These supporters prevailed upon the British Parliament to create the Guarantee System, whereby any company that constructed railways in India was guaranteed a certain rate of interest on its capital investment. This guarantee was honoured by the East India Company which then controlled large parts of India. The railways that were formed with such agreements governing them were called guaranteed railways. Typically, the guarantee was for a return of 5% annually, and the right for the railway company to pull out of the venture and get compensation from the government at any time.

Chronology of railways in India, Part 1 (1832 – 1865)
Note: This chronology is intended as a general overview for non-specialists to give them a feel for some of the interesting and complex events that shaped the development of railways in India. Many line openings are mentioned to give an idea of the geographic spread of railway services. Dates in most cases are those for when the completed lines were open to traffic; usually sections of the line may have been opened years earlier, and might even have supported revenue traffic in parts. Dates are often somewhat uncertain because of varying reports in different sources, or lack of documentation, hence in many cases they may be off by a couple of years. Anyone seeking reliable and specific information and more detail is strongly urged to consult the reference works listed in the guide to historical research and the section on books about IR history

1832

First proposal for a railway in India, in Madras. This remained a dream on paper.

1840s

Various proposals for railways in India, especially around Calcutta (EIR) and Bombay (GIPR).

1844

R MacDonald Stephenson’s “Report upon the Practicability and Advantages of the Introduction of Railways into British India” is published.

1845

Survey work carried out for Bombay-Kalyan line and an extension up the Malay Ghat for proposed connections to Khandwa and Pune. May 8: Madras Railway Company is formed. East India Railway company is formed.

1848

Governor-General Lord Dalhousie while advocating railway construction in India also says, “No one can safely say whether railways in this country will earn or not”.

1849

August 1: Great Indian Peninsular Railway incorporated by an Act of Parliament. “Old Guarantee System” providing free land and guaranteed rates of return (5%) to the private English companies willing to work on building railways. Agreed upon in March, finalized on August 17.

1851

Locomotive Thomason is used for construction work in Roorkee, beginning on December 22. Construction begins of an “experimental” section of track (Howrah-Rajmahal) for the proposed CalcuttaDelhi link via Mirzapur (EIR).

1852

Construction of a line out of Bombay begins, and a locomotive, Falkland, begins shunting operations on February 23. The line is ready by November, and on the 18th of November, a trial run of the BombayThane trip (35 km) is held. (Some accounts suggest another locomotive, Vulcan might have also been used for shunting operations here.) The Madras Guaranteed Railway Company is formed.

1853

On April 16th, at 3:35pm, the first train in India leaves Bombay for Thane (see above for details). Initial scheduled services consist of two trains each way between Bombay and Thane and later Bombay and Mahim via Dadar. Madras Railway incorporated; work begins on Madras-Arcot line. Lord Dalhousie’s famous Railway Minute of April 20 lays down the policy that private enterprise would be

allowed to build railways in India, but that their operation would be closely supervised by the government.

1854

On August 15th, the first passenger train in the eastern section is operated, from Howrah to Hoogly (24 miles). The section is soon extended to Pundooah. Howrah station at the time is simply a tin shed with a small booking office, and a single narrow platform. By May, GIPR Bombay-Thane line is extended to Kalyan and is a double tracked line; inaugurated by Lord Elphinstone. Dapoorie viaduct is completed. GIPR opens its first workshops at Byculla. Stations are classified into 4 groups on some railways, according to traffic and the proportion of European and Indian passengers.

1855

BB&CI Railway incorporated, and begins work on a Surat-Baroda line. Thane-Kalyan line extended to Vasind on the north-east. February 3: EIR’s “experimental” track for a Calcutta-Delhi route now consists of a Howrah to Raneegunje (Raniganj, collieries near Asansol) section of 121 miles. August: EIR 21 and 22 (“Express” and “Fairy Queen”) begin work. The Fairy Queen is still working!

1855-1856

HMS Goodwin carrying railway carriages for East Indian Railway Co. sinks. Another ship carrying a locomotive is mis-routed to Australia.

1856

May 28: Royapuram – Wallajah Road line constructed by the Madras Railway Company Jul 1: The first train service in the south begins, from Royapuram / Veyasarapady (Madras) to Wallajah Road (Arcot) (approx. 100km) by the Madras Railway Company. A combined Loco, Carriage and Wagon Workshop is set up by the Madras Guaranteed Rly. (later part of the MSMR) at Perambur, near Madras, later to become the Carriage and Wagon Workshops of SR (and the Loco Workshops at Perambur). Sind (later Sind, Punjab and Delhi) Railway is formed, a guaranteed railway. GIPR line extended to Khopoli via Palasdhari on the south-east. Regular services are now run from Mumbai to Vasind and from Mumbai to Khopoli. Stations opened at Dadar, Kurla, Titwala, Badlapur, and Neral.

1858

Eastern Bengal Railway and the Great Southern of India formed (guaranteed railways). June 14: Khandala-Pune section of GIPR open to traffic. The 21km gap over the Bhore ghat (Karjat – Khandala) is crossed by palanquin, horses, or on foot. In some cases the passenger cars were also carried over each way.

1859

On March 3rd, the first train in the north was operated, from Allahabad to Kanpur (180km). BBCI Railway obtains permission to extend its lines southwards from Surat, and opens its Grant Road terminus for its proposed line from Surat. Eastern Bengal Railway begins construction on Calcutta-Kushtia line (175km). Calcutta and South-Eastern Railway formed, with 5% guarantee from the government.

1855-1870

Several (about a dozen) railway companies are incorporated. Early 1860s Various early experiments with providing passenger amenities such as toilets, lights, etc. These naturally tended to be introduced first in the First Class carriages and only later in the lower classes of accommodation. Sind and Punjab Railway is engaged in construction of a northward line from Karachi, a Lahore-Multan line, and a Lahore-Delhi line. Kanpur-Etawah section opened.

1860

Bhusawal station set up by GIPR. Vasind-Asangaon line opened.

1861

Madras Railway’s trunk route from Madras extended to Beypur / Kadalundi (near Calicut). Work begins on a north-western branch out of Arakkonam. Great Southern Railway of India completes 125km BG line between Nagapatnam and Trichinopoly. (? Some sources suggest the line was till Tanjore, and extended to Trichinopoly by March 1862.) Churchgate station opened by BBCI Railway as its new terminus for Bombay. January 1: GIPR’s Kasara line opens (extended from Asangaon). May 13: Karachi-Kotri section of the Scinde Rly. opens to public traffic, the first section in the region that would later become Pakistan.

1862

Feb. 8: Jamalpur Loco Works established. Khanderao, the Gaekwar of Baroda, opens 8 miles of an NG railway line from Dabhoi towards Miyagam. Oxen were used as the motive power! EIR’s Delhi-Calcutta route progresses as far as the west bank of the Yamuna, via Mughalsarai. Sahibganj Loop. Sealdah station commissioned. Bhore ghat incline constructed, connecting Palasdhari to Khandala. November: EBR’s Calcutta-Kushtia line open for traffic. Calcutta and South-Eastern Railway’s 45km line from Calcutta to Port Canning is constructed. Amritsar-Attari section completed on the route to Lahore. The Indian Branch Railway Co. formed to construct short branches and feeder lines in northern India, with a 20-year subsidy but no guarantee. The Indian Tramway Co. is formed for building short lines around Madras, also with a 20-year subsidy. This suffered losses later, was reorganized to become the Carnatic Railway and finally was taken over by the South Indian Railway. Two-tier seating is introduced in Third Class (on EIR, GIPR, etc.) as a measure to alleviate overcrowding. A typical coach carries 50 passengers on the lower seats, and 70 on the upper level, nearly doubling the capacity of the already overcrowded third-class coaches. These were the first double-decker coaches to be used in India, and perhaps in the world (?). Madras Railway extends its lines to Renigunta. GSIR’s Nagapatnam – Trichinopoly line opened to traffic.

1863

May 14: GIPR line from Bombay across the Bhore Ghat to Pune constructed. BB&CI Railway completes Surat-Baroda-Ahmedabad line. EIR completes Arrah bridge over the Sone. Port Canning – Mutlah line opened by the Calcutta & South-Eastern R Railway. Nalhati – Azimganj 4′ gauge line built by the Indian Branch Railway Co. First luxury carriage in India is built for the Governor of Bombay.

1864

August 1: First train into Delhi. Through trains run between Delhi and Calcutta; coaches are ferried on boats across the river at Allahabad. Bombay-Surat line completed by BB&CI Railway. Jolarpettai – Bangalore Cantt. branch added by Madras Railway; Bangalore Mail begins running. First proposals for (horse-drawn) trams in Bombay.

1865

Sind and Punjab Railway’s Multan-Lahore-Amritsar line is completed. Works begins on line from Delhi to Amritsar. BB&CI completes Bombay-Ahmedabad rail link. Yamuna bridge at Allahabad opened, allowing EIR trains to cross over without using ferries. Arakkonam-Conjeevaram 3’6″ line built by the Indian Tramways Co. Kasara line extended to Igatpuri over the Thull (Thall) ghat. GIPR timetables show ‘local trains’ separately for the first time. These are in the sections to Mahim and Kalyan. Alambagh Workshops set up by the Oudh and Rohilkhand Rly. (formerly the Indian Branch Rly. Co.). Howrah station gets a second platform.

1866

Railway Branch formed in Central Public Works Department. Delhi and Calcutta are linked directly by rail as the completion of the Yamuna bridge (road and rail) in Delhi allows the trains to reach what later became Delhi Junction. The 1 Dn / 2 Up Mail begins running — this is the predecessor of the Howrah – Kalka Mail. Bhusawal-Khandwa section opened. W. Newman & Co. begins publishing the “Newman’s Indian Bradshaw” for train timetables in India. Indian Branch Rly. Co. begins construction of Lucknow-Kanpur light MG line.

1867

Virar – Bombay Backbay suburban service commences (BB&CI); one train in each direction each day. Some Indian locos are sent overseas for the Abyssinian expedition. GIPR branch line extended to Nagpur; Bhusawal-Badnera section opened. EIR branch line extends from Allahabad to Jubbulpore (Jabalpur). Lucknow-Kanpur line opened by the Indian Branch Railway Co.

1868

Madras Railway extends its network (with a new terminus at Royapuram) to Salem, and also finishes the Jolarpettai – Bangalore Cantonment branch. November: Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway’s line towards Amritsar from Delhi (Ghaziabad) is open for traffic up to Ambala. Calcutta and South-Eastern Railway, having suffered extensive losses on their Sealdah-Canning line because of floods and other problems, decide to transfer the line to the government in return for capital costs, becoming the first railway to be taken over by the state. GSIR’s line reaches Erode, connecting to the Madras State Rly. Charbagh workshops set up by the Oudh and Rohilkhand Rly

1869

Governor-General Lord Lawrence suggests that the Government of India itself undertake all future construction of railway lines. But GIPR’s guarantees and leases are extended, and also those of the Bombay, Baroda, and Madras Railway Companies. Still, this year marks a turning point in government policy away from the guarantee system. GIPR locals extended from Mahim to Bandra. Jan. 25: Runaway train on the Bhore Ghat derails and crashes after failing to be stopped by a catch siding, and is made (in)famous by pictures in the Illustrated London News. Total trackage in India is about 4000 miles.

Chronology of railways in India, Part 2 (1870 – 1899)

1870

March 7: GIPR connection over the Thull Ghat reaches Jubbulpore (Jabalpur) from Itarsi, linking up with EIR track there from Allahabad, and establishing connectivity between Bombay and Calcutta. BBCI Railway runs direct trains between Ahmedabad and Bombay. October: Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway completes Amritsar-Saharanpur-Ghaziabad line, linking Punjab Railway with the EIR and providing connectivity between Multan and Delhi. Mughalsarai – Lahore main line is also completed. Lord Mayo introduces meter gauge as a compromise between proposals for narrow gauges less thand 3′ and broad gauge, for use in areas with limited traffic. Mobile post-office services in trains on EIR. The Nizam of Hyderabad pays for the construction of a railway linking Hyderabad to the GIPR. Jamalpur workshop gets a rolling mill of its own.

1871

South-east of Kalyan, the GIPR line extended over the Bhore Ghat to reach Raichur, connecting with the Madras Railway, whose branch line out of Arakkonam reaches Raichur by now. BB&CI line to Viramgam. The ‘Shorter Main Line’ on the Delhi-Calcutta route (via Jhajha, Patna) is in place with the completion of the section from Raniganj to Kiul. EBR line from Calcutta to Goalundo opens. EIR trackage totals 1350 miles; other railways: GIPR — 875, Madras Railway — 680, Sind and Punjab — 400, BBCI — 300, East Bengal — 115, and Great Southern — 170.

1872

Bombay suburban services extended to Arthur Bunder in Colaba. First (??) MG line from Delhi to Farukh Nagar is built. The Saunders system of air-cooling first-class coaches is introduced on the GIPR. BB&CI line to Wadhwan (Surendranagar)

GSIR merged with with the MG Carnatic Rly. Oudh & Rohilkund Rly. opens line from Benares (Varanasi) to Lucknow.

1873

Colaba Terminus commissioned, envisioned as a temporary station pending completion of a permanent line between Marine Lines and Churchgate, making Marine Lines the new terminus. The world’s first commercial MG sevice runs from Delhi to Rewari. Dabhoi-Miyagam line (the first 2’6″ line) is re-laid with stronger rails to allow locomotives to be used (earlier oxen were the motive power) although locomotives were not used regularly on this until 1880. This later becomes part of the Gaekwar’s Baroda State Railway. Early attempts to set up a horse-drawn tram system in Calcutta, between Sealdah and Armenian Ghat Street (3.8km). This service opened on Feb. 24 and closed by Nov. 20 for lack of patronage. Stearnes and Kittredge get contract for horse-drawn tram system in Bombay.

1874-1880

Famines in several areas of India result in more railway lines being bulit for relief.

1874

Wadi-Secunderabad railway line built with financing from the Nizam of Hyderabad, and later becomes part of the Nizam’s Guaranteed State Railway. Secunderabad railway station built by this railway. Delhi-Bandikui, Bandikui-Agra lines of Rajputana State Railway opened, and Alwar line is under construction (all MG). Fourth Class accommodation is introduced on several railways, consisting of coaches with no seats in them, or just a few benches, as a way of alleviating overcrowding. Lord Salisbury, Secretary of State for India, stipulates the use of BG to settle the gauge debate, and work begins on relaying many MG lines to BG. “F” class 0-6-0 MG locomotives are introduced, soon to be among the most widely-used in India for just about all kinds of duties. Dubs & co. of Glasgow built the first few. GSIR and Carnatic Rly. merger is now renamed the South Indian Railway. ORR extends line from Lucknow to Moradabad. Tirhoot State Rly. opens MG lines to Samastipur and Darbhanga. SIR on July 1 takes over GSIR (BG) and Carnatic Rly. (MG). May 9: Horse-drawn tram system begins operation in Bombay, betwen Parel and Colaba. Operated by Stearnes and Kittredge with a stable of 900 horses.

1875

Hathras Road – Mathura Cantt. section opened to traffic. The first train runs here on Oct. 19. Rajputana State Railway MG line reaches Ajmer. Special train built for the Prince of Wales on his visit to India; this train is later used as the vice-regal train for the next 3 decades. Former GSIR Nagapatnam – Trichinopoly BG line converted to MG.

1877

Indian Railway Conference Association (IRCA) formed.

1877

Construction work begins on the Ajmer workshops of the Rajputana-Malwa State Rly. Masjid, Parel, Ghatkopar, Diva, and Chinchpokli stations opened for Mumbai local services. (Possibly 1876?) Emile Moreau, a French author, and T K Bannerjee, an Indian businessman, start the bookstore chain ‘A H Wheeler & Co.’, which later spread to have its book stalls in a great many small and big railway stations in India, especially in the north. The company was also the one that published Rudyard Kipling in 1988 when he was all but unknown. The company’s name was borrowed from a thensuccessful London bookstore, Arthur Henry Wheeler’s.

1878

Punjab Northern State Railway builds the Lahore-Jhelum line (parts that opened as MG in 1876 are converted to BG). Railway line laid across the Bolan Pass to help move men and materiel during hostilities in Afghanistan. Indus Valley State Rly. opens Multan-Kotri line. Khandwa-Indore MG line of Holkar State Railway under construction, passing the Mhow ghat section by 1878. Construction of Victoria Terminus begins in Bombay. Construction of the Siliguri-Darjeeling line, the first hill railway in India (not counting the ghat sections near Bombay).

1879

In a reversal of the broad-gauge policy instituted under Lord Salisbury, the Rajputana-Malwa Railway is authorized to build its lines to meter-gauge. Continuous vacuum brakes are brought into use for passenger rakes. BB&CI extends BG network to Wadhwan (Surendranagar) in Kathiawar. Ahmedabad-Palanpur MG section opened. All of the former GSIR lines (now in SIR) are converted to MG from BG. The state takes over the Nizam’s Railway.

North Bengal State Rly. opens Parbatipur-Kaunia MG line. (1877?) Following an agreement between the British and the French, an MG line is laid between Pondicherry and Villupuram. Parel workshops established.

1880

About 9,000 miles of railways in India, of which 2,175 miles are state-owned. Famine Commission suggests creating another 5,000 miles of railways, and private construction of railways is resumed. EIR taken over by the state (1879?), but the construction and operation of the railway are handed back to the company. The Kandahar State Railway from Ruk to Sibi is formed; 133.5 miles of track are laid in 101 days! The Darjeeling Steam Tramway (later the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway) starts services on its first section, the Siliguri-Darjeeling line. The durable ‘L’ class 4-6-0 tender locos make their appearance. GIPR runs about 14 local services in each direction in Mumbai, including five terminating at Kurla. It is believed that at this time Currey Road station is used for loading and unloading horses for the races at Mahalaxmi. Bhavnagar-Wadhwan (Surendranagar) line opened by Kathiawar State Rly. (later part of Bhavnagar State Rly.). (MG) Kanpur-Farukhabad section is operational. Dec. 22 : Calcutta Tramways Co. incorporated.

Early 1880′s

Bengal and North Western, Bengal Central, Rohilkhand-Kumaon, and Indian Midland Railways formed without guarantees; Southern Mahratta Railways formed with guarantees.

1881

Ajmer-Ahmedabad line (MG) opens, and becomes part of the Rajputana State Railway. September: Darjeeling Steam Tramway becomes the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway. The Maharaja Sindia of Gwalior opens the Agra-Gwalior line of what became the Sindia State Rly. Jan.: Horse-drawn trams begin regular operation in Calcutta.

1882

BB&CI trunk route reaches Godhra. Khandwa-Indore line extended to Ajmer. Rajputana State Rly. merged into Rajputana Malwa Rly. Bangalore-Mysore MG line opened by the Mysore State Rly. (this line later went to the Southern

Mahratta Railway Co. which was chartered in 1882 to operate some famine-relief lines opened by the state). Marwar-Pali section opened on June 24 as part of the new Jodhpur Railway. Bangalore City linked to Bangalore Cantonment by Madras Railway. Assam Rly. and Trading Co. opens Dibrugarh/Amlapatty – Dinjan Stream MG section as part of the Dibru-Sadia Railway (section operational on Aug. 15). Railway Watch and Ward, the predecessor of the RPF, constituted. Post of Director General of Railways is created in the Central Public Works Department. Jan 1: Victoria Terminus, still under construction, is opened to the public. First ‘A’ class tank locomotives built for the DHR. Nagpur-Rajnandgaon MG line opened. Steam tramway system begins operating in Calcutta.

1883

Punjab Northern State Railway line extended from Jhelum to Peshawar. Attock bridge across the Indus is constructed.

1884

Bengal-Nagpur Railway (a private company) sanctioned, with guarantees. A Select Committee in the House of Commons recommends continuing the policy of using MG for local and secondary lines only, and suggests that feeder lines to BG should also be BG. Amlapatty – Dinjan route extended to Tinsukia and Margherita. Pali-Luni section of Jodhpur Railway opens on June 17. Delhi-Mathura line opened Calcutta-Khulna line opened by Bengal Central Rly. Bhopal-Itarsi line opened by the Begum of Bhopal. Southern Mahratta Rly. Co. opens Hospet-Bellary and Gadag-Hotgi lines. April: Bengal & North-Western Rly. opens Nawabganz-Gonda-Bahraich line (MG). MG lines: Assam Behar State Rly. builds to Parbatipur; Bangalore-Tumkur-Gubbi (Mysore State Rly.); Rohilkund-Kumaon Rly. builds line to Kathgodam. Budni-Burkhera ghat section opened. NG lines: Two lines from Kaunia to Dharlla river (part of the East Bengal State Rly.) Meridian Conference in Washington, DC, sets the foundation for worldwide standard time zones from which, eventually, Indian Standard Time emerged in the 20th century.

1885

Jodhpur is connected (via Luni) to the Rajputana Malwa Railway network (first train on March 9) (MG). This line later becomes part of the Jodhpur Bikaner Rly.

Seats are provided in Fourth Class accommodation. Simultaneously, accommodation classes are reorganized so that the Fourth Class becomes Third Class, Third Class is renamed Second Class, and Second Class is transformed to “Inter” Class. First coaches (wooden-bodied) with steel underframes introduced. Assam Rlys. & Trading Co. builds Dibru-Sadiya Rly. (MG) Narayangang-Mymensingh MG line opened by Dacca State Rly. DHR line extended to Darjeeling Bazaar. April 20: A steam tramway opens in Karachi. Victoria Terminus – Byculla track is doubled.

1886

ORR line extended to Saharanpur. NG lines: Cherra-Companyganj Rly. (Cherrapunjee Mountain Rly.) builds line from Companyganj to Therria Ghat and across it to Cherrapunji with 7 gradients worked by rope mechanisms. Miraj-Pune MG line opened. Karachi’s steam tramway is replaced by a horse-drawn system.

1887

Dufferin Bridge constructed over the Ganga at Varanasi, allowing EIR trains to go from Mughalsarai to Varanasi. Victoria Terminus named after Queen Victoria on Jubilee Day.

1888

Madras Railway trunk route from Madras extended along the west coast to Calicut. Construction of Bombay’s Victoria Terminus building is completed. The cost was estimated at Rs 1,640,000 Landsdowne bridge over the Indus (at Sukkur). Kushtia-Siliguri line (MG) of North Bengal State Railway. A. H. Wheeler and Co. introduce their Indian Railway Library series of publications. Southern Mahratta Rly.’s main eastward route connects with other lines going until Bezwada (Vijayawada), which were later taken over by the SMR. The section in Goa worked by SMR for West of India Portuguese Rly. terminating at Marmagoa opens.

1889

Nizam’s State Railway’s main line is extended to Bezwada (Vijayawada). Delhi-Ambala-Kalka line laid. A Select Committee in the House of Commons recommends against laying any new MG lines outside

areas where MG was dominant. Jamshedpur workshops work on putting together some locos (but the first complete loco is not built in India until 1895 at Ajmer). EIR appoints the first Signal Engineer in India (Mr S T Dutton). Jodhpur Bikaner Railway formed. First ‘B’ class locomotives of the DHR built. Indian Midland Rly. opens lines from Jhansi to Gwalior, Kanpur, Manikpur, and Bhopal. Assam Behar State Rly.’s Parbatipur MG line is extended to Katihar. Jamlpur-Jagannathganj Rly. open to traffic. Gubbi-Birur-Harihar MG line opened by Mysore State Rly. Six platforms constructed at Bombay Victoria Terminus.

1890

Goa-Guntakal MG line completed by the Southern Mahratta Rly Co., with branches from Londa to Poona (connecting to Mysore via Bangalore, and also with Gadag-Hotgi), and Bezwada (Vijayawada) to Marmagoa. East Coast State Railway (government-owned) sanctioned. SIR taken over by the state, but working of lines is by a reconstituted SIR company (1891?). NG lines: Wadhwan-Morvi-Rajkot line opened (later converted to BG); Shahjahanpur-Powayan (Powayan Steam Tramways). (Approximate date) Some time in the 1890s third class passengers are allowed on the prestigious Mail trains. Railways Act passed by the government defining the framework for railway construction and operation.

1891

Jodhpur connected to Bikaner by MG (Jodhpur – Merta Road opened April 8, Merta Road – Nagaur on Oct. 16, and Nagaur-Bikaner on Dec. 9). Following political and passenger demands, toilet facilities are introduced on a large scale in first class carriages. Khojak tunnel opens, the westernmost point of the Kandahar State Rly. (Chaman Extension Rly.) which was to reach Afghanistan but which in fact never crossed the frontier from British India beyond Chaman. At the time, this was the longest railway tunnel in the subcontinent. Construction begins for the Nilgiri railway. Delhi-Ambala-Kalka line opened. Rope-worked section over Therria Ghat of Cherra-Companyganj Rly. dismantled. Dec. 1: Mysore – Nanjangud line (24km, MG) opened.

1892

Assam Bengal Railway incorporated (MG). Early use of simple mechnanical interlocking devices (List and List & Morse systems) at six single line crossings of NWR. BB&CI line to Godhra Yeshwantpur-Dodballapur MG line by Mysore State Rly.

1893

The government-built Godhra-Nagda link is handed over to the BB&CI Railway for operation. Cabin interlocking introduced in some places by the GIPR on the Bombay-Delhi route. (Equipment supplied by Saxby and Farmer.) First railway foundry set up at Jamalpur Workshops Merta – Kuchaman section opened to carry salt traffic from the Rajputana areas. Bengal Dooars Rly. opens (MG). Cuttack – Khurda Road – Puri line opened by the East Coast Rly. MG line from Yeshwantpur extended to Mysore frontier by Mysore State Rly.

1894

List & Morse interlocking system introduced for 29 single line crossings between Lahore and Ghaziabad. NG lines: Powayan Steam Tramways extended to Mailani on the Rohilkund-Kumaon Rly.

1895

First locomotive built in India at the Ajmer works, an ‘F’ class 0-6-0 MG loco for the Rajputana Malwa Railway (F-734). This is now preserved at the National Rail Museum. Udaipur-Chittorgarh MG line built by the Mewar Darbar. NG lines: Tezpore-Balipara; Tarakeshwar-Howrah (Bengal Provincial Rly. Co.) Madras trams begin operating, with a conduit system. (This is replaced in 1905 with electric traction.) Howrah station gets its third platform.

1896

Indian railway staff and some MG locos are sent overseas to help build the Uganda Railway. BB&CI line to Nagda and Ujjain.

1897

The first section of the NG Barsi Light Railway is built from Barsi Road Junction to Barsi Town. (Late 1890′s) Lighting in passenger coaches introduced by many railway companies. Lower classes tended to get gas lamps, whereas upper classes sometimes got electric lights, but often gas or oil lamps. First Godavari bridge built near Rajahmundry, helping Chennai-Howrah traffic.

Hoogly (Hooghly) bridge built. Strategic considerations from the War Department force all new narrow-gauge lines to be laid to 2’6″ gauge instead of 2′ gauge from 1897 onwards. 2’6″ was the narrow-gauge standard for all the imperial colonies. Rajkot – Jamnagar MG section opened by Jamnagar Rly. Mettupalayam-Coonoor rail line constructed. Delhi – Bhatinda – Samasatta line opened by Southern Punjab Railway Co.

1898

August: Mettupalayam-Coonoor rail line opens, but is soon closed after heavy rains cause severe damage to the track. NG lines: Howrah-Amta, Howrah-Sheakhala (2′ gauge, Martin & Co.).

1899

Maharaj Scindia of Gwalior opens NG (2′) railway lines from Gwalior to Bhind and Shivpuri. These later become part of the Gwalior Light Railways. Jamalpur Workshops officially begin producing steam locomotives (earlier they were putting together locomotives with parts from other locomotives, etc.). The first engine is CA 764, Lady Curzon. July 12: Mysore-Nanjangud extended to Nanjangud Town station. Nov. 1 : Through BG connection between Bezwada (Vijayawada) and Madras (Chennai) opens. Mettupalaiyam-Coonoor section of the Nilgiri Mountain Rly. re-opens after repair and restoration. Bina-Baran line opened. South Indian Railway begins Madras – Tuticorin service connecting with the boat to Ceylon, using vestibuled coaches for both First and Second class. The trip takes nearly 22 hours for the 443 mile route. Electric traction for trams introduced in Calcutta.

Chronology of railways in India, Part 3 (1900 – 1947)

1900

GIPR network becomes state property on July 1, but the company is allowed to continue operating the services. Upper Sone bridge built, the longest in India at 10,052 feet. Balotra-Hyderabad section of Jodhpur Bikaner Rly. opens. Doon Railway opens (Haridwar-Dehradun). Tapti Valley Railway opened. Connection to Gaya added on the Calcutta Delhi route Assam Bengal Rly. opens branch line to Guwahati. Bengal Dooars Rly. open link to EBR at Lalmonirhat. Rajputana Malway Rly. becomes part of the BB&CI Rly. Bengal-Nagpur Railway lays a line to Howrah. Brahmaputra-Sultanpur Branch Rly. opens MG line from Santahar east (with a ferry section) to

Mymensingh. Manmad-Secunderabad MG line opened by the Hyderabad Godavary Valley Rly. Calcutta tramways’ electrification and conversion to standard gauge from meter gauge begins. Total system size is at 30km. NG lines opened: Parlakimedi Light Rly. from Navpada (BNR); Rajpur-Dhamtari (BNR). Planning begun for Matheran Light Railway.

1901

Sir Thomas Robertson Committee submits recommendations on administration and working of the railways.An early version of the railway board is constituted, with three members serving on it at first. Railway mileage now at about 24,750 miles in India, of which 14,000 miles are BG, and most of the rest MG (with only a few hundred miles of 2′ and 2’6″ gauge lines). The railways also start returning some modest profits; for the last 40 years they had been making large losses. Indian Midland Railway merged into BBCI Railway. EIR’s “Grand Chord” section finished connecting Sitarampur – Gaya – Mughalsarai. BB&CI line to Cambay. East Coast Rly. line to Waltair becomes part of the Madras Railway. MG lines: Kaunia-Dharlla Rly. lines converted to MG; Jodhpur – Hyderabad (by Jodhpur Bikaner Rly., after a section near Hyderabad is converted from BG to MG). NG lines: Gitaldaha-Jainti (Cooch Behar State Rly.); Nawshera-Dargai State Rly. (later NWR). Burn & Co. sets up a workshop at Howrah.

1902

Shoranur-Cochin line is built, owned by the state but operated by the SIR. A monorail of the Ewing system (double-flanged wheels and an outrigger wheel for balance) powered by ponies is installed for transporting tea and other light goods at the High Range near Keranganie. The Luni-Shadipalli line is completed in the Thar desert. The Shadipalli-Hyderabad (now Pakistan) line is regauged to MG. BNR takes over part of the East Coast Rly. lines (Cuttack – Vizianagaram, branch line to Puri). NG lines: Khushalgarh-Kohat (later NWR). Mar. 27: Electric trams begin operating in Calcutta. The Jodhpur Railway becomes the first to introduce electric lights as standard fixtures. (Electric lighting had been tried by other railways starting in the 1890s.)

1903

BESA standards for new loco types are formulated. The Robertson Report recommends re-laying all BG and MG lines to standard gauge, but this report

seems to have been completely ignored. Nov. 9: Kalka-Shimla Railway line opened, built at 2’0″ gauge (but relaid later, see below). The first bogie-mounted coaches appear, including bogie dining cars on some railways. Assam-Bengal Rly. joins Dibru-Sadiya Rly. at Tinsukia from Chittagong via Lumding (MG). GIPR appoints its first Signal Engineer (following belatedly in EIR’s footsteps), Mr I W Stokes. Interlocking introduced for 9 stations (3 on Bombay-Thane section, 6 on Thane-Kalyan section) — including Bombay VT. NG lines: Gondia-Nainpur (BNR); Kohat-Thal (later NWR).

1904

The Moghulpura workshops near Lahore build six 0-6-2T “ST” class locos by using parts from other locos, making them the only works other than Ajmer to build locomotives in (British) India. The Kharagpur Locomotive and Carriage and Wagon Workshop is set up. Railway Board expanded, given more powers. Agra-Delhi chord line opened. NG lines: Nainpur-Chhindwara (BNR); Howrah-Tribeni (Bengal Provincial Rly. Co., connecting to Katwa line); Gwalior light railway sections: Gwalior – Jora Alapur (Jan. 1), Jora Alapur – Sabalgarh (Dec. 1). Construction begun on Matheran Light Railway.1905 Powers of the Railway Board are formalized under Lord Curzon. The Board is under the Department of Commerce and Industry, and has government railway official serving as chairman, and a railway manager from England and an agent of one of the company railways as the other two members. The visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales gives EIR a chance to build a special train with coaches rivalling the luxury saloons used by nobility in Europe. A petrol-driven 0-4-0 loco from Kerr Stuart is in use by the Morvi Railway and Tramways company. Kalka-Shimla Railway regauged to 2’6″ gauge under guidelines from the War Department seeking to ensure uniformity in all imperial narrow gauge systems. “F” class 0-6-0 MG locomotives are introduced, soon to be among the most widely-used in India for just about all kinds of duties. Dubs & co. of Glasgow built the first few. Railway Board decides that lavatories will be provided in all lower class carriages for trains running more than 50 miles. BNR’s Satpura Railway complete’s Gondia-Nainpur-Jabalpur link. Surendranagar – Rajkot MG section opened. A short MG spur is built into Afghanistan along the Kabul river. NG lines: Wadhwan-Rajkot line of Morvi Rly. converted to BG; Rupsa-Barapada line of Mourbhang (Mayurbhanj) Rly. opens (BNR); Tirupattur-Krishnagiri; Gondia-Nainpur line extended to Jabalpur (BNR); Tuna-Anjar by the Maharaja of Cutch, later part of the Cutch State Rly. GIPR line quadrupled up to Currey Road. The first electric trams run in Madras with overhead electrification.

Entire Calcutta tram network is now electrified and converted to standard gauge. The Howrah Station to Bandhaghat line opens in June. Construction begins on a new, larger Howrah Terminus station with six platforms and provision for four more, to replace the older Howrah station in use from 1854.

1906

The ‘General Rules’ are framed, governing operation of railways. Howrah Terminus rebuilt and inaugurated, the largest railway station in India. Madras Rly. builds Morappur-Dharmapuri MG line for famine relief. Barsi Road Jn. – Pandharpur section of Barsi Light Railway opens. Kalka-Shimla Rly. taken over by the state. Rajputana-Malwa Rly. taken over by state and made part of BB&CI Rly. BB&CI Rly. starts a Weekend Special from Bombay to Surat, the forerunner of the Flying Ranee. Kasganj-Kathgodam section opens to passenger rail traffic. Kurla-Chembur single line built for garbage trains. Dec. 6: The Grand Chord via Gaya, which significantly shortens the distance between Delhi and Calcutta, opens on the EIR’s Calcutta-Delhi trunk route (inaugurated by the Earl of Minto, the Viceroy and Governor-General of India. Indian Standard Time (IST) comes into force for timekeeping in British India (except for Calcutta and some other regions).

1907

The government purchases all major lines and re-leases them to private operators, with the exception of Rohilkhund & Kumaon Rly. and Bengal & North-Western Rly. Sirhind-Morinda section of the Patiala State Monorail is opened, powered by oxen and army mules from 1907 until 1927. By now, toilets are standard in most lower class carriages, except for short suburban lines. Railway Mail Service (RMS) is established. 22 March: Matheran Light Railway opens, with 4 articulated 0-6-0T locomotives. Madras Railway trunk route extended from Calicut to Mangalore. Jaipur – Sawai Madhopur MG line opened by the Jaipur State Rly. NG lines: Purulia-Ranchi (BNR); Tuna-Anjar extended to Bhuj (Cutch State Rly.); Shahdara-Saharanpur Light Rly. (Martin & Co.). The Sir James Mackay Committee suggests further enhancements to financial and administrative procedures. May 7: Electric trams begin operating in Bombay. June: Kanpur’s electric tram system begins operation.

1908

Kaunia-Dharlla MG line of East Bengal Railway extended to Amingaon, where a ferry across the Brahmaputra connected to the rail system of the Assam Bengal Railway through Guwahati. BB&CI Railway constructs a line from Baroda to Mathura. India’s first internal combustion locomotive, a petrol-driven MG loco, is delivered to the Assam Oil Co. by McEwan Pratt & Co. of Wickford, Essex. Patiala State Monorail obtains the four famed Orenstein and Koppel monorail locomotives for some of its lines. Inward-opening doors are introduced on passenger coaches. The spur from the north-west territories into Afghanistan, the only railway line in Afghanistan at this time, is dismantled. NG lines: Gwalior – Sheopur Kalan (2′ gauge, Gwalior Light Rly.), Sabalgarh – Birpur (Nov. 1). Karachi’s horse-drawn trams are replaced by petrol trams. Calcutta tram network extended to Sibpur via G.T. Road.

1909

India’s first electric locos (two of them) are delivered to the Mysore Gold Fields by Bagnalls (Stafford) with overhead electrical equipment by Siemens. Also among the earliest electric vehicles, electrically operated rail trolleys (” White’s patented rail motor trolleys”) are brought into use (by EIR’s Carriage & Wagon workshops, by the Oudh and Rohilkhund Rly., by the Eastern Bengal State Rly., etc.). A petrol-driven 0-4-9 loco is supplied to Morvi Railway and Tramways by Nasmyth Wilson. A couple of Thornycroft petrol-driven parcel delivery vehicles are also in use by the EIR. Saharanpur marshalling yard under construction by the North Western State Rly. and the Oudh and Rohilkhund Rly. 23-ton BG bogie hopper wagons brought into use by Bengal Nagpur Rly. for transporting iron to the Tata Iron and Steel Works. South India Rly.’s contract is renewed despite widespread support for appropriation by the state among local interests. South India Rly. is engaged in ultimately abandoned attempt to build a direct railway between India and Ceylon with a viaduct over the Panban viaduct. The Harbour Line opens from Kurla to Reay Road as the terminus (double track). Syke’s Lock and Block system of interlocking introduced on the BB&CI Rly. and other railways. NG lines: Gwalior Light Rly. : Birpur – Sheopur (Jun. 15)

1911

Kanpur – Chachran line opened by princely state of Bahawalpur (now in Pakistan, closed in the 1980s). NG lines: Barsi Light Railway extended until Latur; Champaner-Shivrajpuri Light Rly. (later part of BB&CI); Dehri-on-Sone – Rohtas (Dehri-Rohtas Light Rly.); Bukhtiarpur-Bihar Rly. (Martin & Co.).

1912

June 1: Punjab Mail (GIPR) makes its inaugural run. Cabin interlocking completed for the entire length of the Bombay-Delhi route (GIPR). Work begins on Mysore-Arsikere link.

1913

Bowringpet-Kolar 2’6″ line (part of the Kolar District Rly.) opened by the Mysore State Railways. Madras Rly. extends MG line from Dharmapuri to Hosur. NG lines: BB&CI lines to Godhra, Nadiad; Jessore-Jhenidah (McLeod’s). NG lines: Kalabagh-Bannu (Trans-Indus Rly.; later NWR). In the Mumbai area, suburban terminals are opened at Kurla, Kalyan, Thane, and one at the BB&CI station at Bandra for GIPR trains.

1914-1919

World War I places heavy strain on the railways. Railway production is diverted to meet the needs of British forces outside India. At the end of the war Indian railways are in a total state of dilapidation and disrepair. All services are downgraded or restricted.

1914

Ceylon Government Railway extends the line from Polgahawela to Talaimannar at the northern tip of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), to enable connecting services with SIR trains with a ferry crossing across the Palk Strait. Steamer services from Dhanushkodi (India) to Talaimannar (Ceylon) start on March 1. RBS standards for rails adopted (90lb/yd for BG, 60lb/yd for MG). Double line between Ravli Cabin and Mahim on Harbour Branch. NG lines: Dholpur-Bari line extended to Tantpur; Dhond-Baramati (Central Provinces Rly.; later GIPR); Murtazapur-Achalpur/Yavatmal; Arrah-Sasaram, Baraset-Basirhat (Martin & Co.); Larkana – Jacobabad and Jacobabad-Kashmore (NWR, now in Pakistan after conversion to BG).

1915

Two new branches of the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway opened to traffic. The Kalimpong Road (now Gelkhola) branch followed the Teesta valley (hence known as the Teesta Valley Line) and the Kishanganj branch (built in the preceding year, 1914) ran west – southwest of Siliguri. Lower Ganges Bridge (Hardinge Bridge) opened on the trunk route to Siliguri on the EIR.

Burdwan-Katwa line opened. Mandra – Bhaun and Sialkot – Narowal lines opened (both now in Pakistan; the former was closed in the 1990s). First ever diesel locomotive in India, a 2’6″ gauge unit from Avonside (Bristol) is supplied to the India Office for use on a tea plantation (in Assam??). Currey Road – Thane line is quadrupled. Calcutta-Santahar MG line of East Bengal State Rly. opens. NG lines: Yeshwantpur-Devanahalli-Chikaballapur section of what would become the Bangalore Chikaballapur Light Rly. opens (2’6″); Ellichpur-Yeotmal (Central Provinces Rly.; later GIPR); BurdwanKatwa (McLeod’s).

1916

Bowringpet-Kolar 2’6″ line extended to Chintamani / Chikkaballapur (forming the Kolar District Rly.) by the Mysore State Railway. Kacheguda station built by the Nizam of Hyderabad. Parsik tunnel (1.3km) opened to traffic. NG lines: BB&CI lines to Pani mines.

1917

Ahmadpur-Katwa line opened. Thane-Kalyan line is quadrupled. Yeshwantpur-Yelahanka MG line is made mixed gauge to allow NG 2’6″ traffic. NG lines: Pulgaon-Arvi (Central Provinces Rly., later GIPR); Khanai-Hindubagh (Zhob Valley Rly.; later NWR); Bankura-Damodar, Kalighat-Falta, and Ahmadpur-Katwa (McLeod’s). Nushki Extension Rly. towards Iran opened till Dalbandin, from Spezand on the Sibi-Quetta line.

1918

Bangalore-Chikkaballapur Light Railway (2’6″) opens the Bangalore-Yeshwantpur section. Mysore-Arsikere MG line opened by the Mysore Darbar. Nushki Extension Rly. is completed until Zahidan (Duzdap) in Iran.

1919

Wagon pooling comes into wide use among the various regional railways as a result of war-time necessities. Oct. 1: Mysore Darbar takes over Nanjangud-Mysore-Bangalore and Birur-Shimoga lines. NG lines: Pachora-Jamner (Central Provinces Rly.; later GIPR). Batasia Loop constructed on the DHR.

Bhusawal loco shed set up by GIPR; at the time the largest loco shed in Asia and the third largest in the world.

Early 1920′s

Vacuum braking comes into wide use. Track-circuiting introduced on WR suburban lines. Telephones are brought into use for train control purposes in some suburban sections.

1920

Total trackage at 37,000 miles (about 15% privately-held). The East India Railway Committee (chaired by Sir William Acworth, hence also known as the Acworth Committee) points out the need for unified management of the entire railway system. On the recommendations of this committee, the government takes over the actual management of all railways, and also separates railway finances from the general governmental finances (the latter step led to the practice, followed to this day, of presenting the Railway Budget separately from the General Budget every year). Superheating makes its appearance in India. Electric lighting of signals is introduced between Dadar and Currey Road. A 2′ gauge diesel loco is delivered to Bengal by Baugleys of Burton-on-Trent. (1921?) Sep.: Double-decker electric trams are introduced in Bombay.

1921

The Peninsular Locomotive Company is founded at Jamshedpur for the purpose of building locomotives; this would have been the third loco manufacturing plant in India after Ajmer and Jamlpur, but unfortunately it failed even before it manufactured a single loco. July 1: Chikjajur-Chitradurg line opened by MSMR. Total trackage stands at 61,220 route km. The Railway Board is reorganized with a Chief Commissioner of Railways having overriding powers on technical matters. (1921?) Nanjangud – Chamarajanagar railway line construction begins but stops because of financial difficulties.

1922

Retrenchment Committee under Lord Inchcape recommends drastic cuts in working expenses and other measures designed to produce a fixed annual profit for the state. An electric loco with overhead power collection is delivered to the Naysmyth Patent Press Co. at Calcutta, by British Electric Vehicles. Jamnagar-Khambaliya-Gorinja-Okha MG section opened. Locomotive Standards Committee publishes a paper with details of proposed standardization of

locomotive classes. Jamnagar-Kuranga MG line opened by the Jamnagar & Dwarka Rly., and the Kuranga-Okha MG line by the Okhamandal Rly. NG lines: Larkana-Jacobabad (NWR); Futwah-Islampur (Martin & Co.).

1923

Two diesel locos delivered to Barsi Light Railway by Ruton Proctor of Lincoln. Total trackage at 60,540 route-km.

1924

Railway finances separated from general finances in the general government budget after the first Railway ‘Convention’. Railway board expanded to have a Financial Commissioner, a member in charge of ways, works, stores and projects, and a member in charge of administration, staff, and traffic. Uniform system of loco classification codes based on an initial letter for the gauge comes into use. Jodhpur Bikaner Rly. split into Jodhpur State Rly. and Bikaner State Rly. Kurla-Chembur line open for passenger traffic. Rajkot-Morvi 2’6″ line of Morvi Rly. converted to BG. Rupsa-Barapada NG line extended to Talband.

1925

February 3: First electric railway operates on Harbour branch of the GIPR from Victoria Terminus to Kurla (16 km), using 1500V DC overhead traction. The section is designated as a suburban section. EMUs from Cammell Laird and Uerdingenwagonfabrik are used. In the same year electrification of VTBandra is also completed and EMU services begin there as well, with an elevated platform at Sandhurst Road. The GIPR suburban line is later electrified up to Kalyan. Feb. 3: The EF/1 (later WCG-1) “crocodile” loco is introduced. VT-Kurla section is also completely track-circuited. Oudh and Rohilkhund Rly. amalgamated with EIR. Locomotive Standards Committee adopts several IRS loco classes as standards. First Railway Budget. East Indian Railway Company taken over by the state on January 1; Great Indian Peninsular Railway taken over on June 30. Khyber Railway opened from Peshawar Cantt. to Landi Kotal. IRCA reviews experiments with wagon pooling and establishes it as a policy for all BG railways.

1926

Ex-GIPR suburban line is electrified up to Kalyan. Main line electrified up to Poona and Igatpuri over the Bhore and Thal Ghats (1500 V DC). Order placed with Vulcan Foundry for the new classes of locos (XA, XB, XC, etc.). Lucknow’s Charbagh Station built. East Bengal State Rly.’s line to Siliguri is converted to BG. Khyber Railway’s last section from Landi Kotal to Landi Khana, 2km short of the frontier with Afghanistan, is opened. NG lines: Bhavnagar-Talaja section of Bhavnagar Tramways. Aug. 27: Nanjangud-Chamarajanagar section opened, completing the link from Mysore.

1927

The BB&CI suburban lines extended to Borivili and Virar. In the Bombay area tracks in some places are doubled and even tripled or quadrupled (e.g., between Bandra and Borivili). Patiala State Monorail stops operations. NG lines: line from Barsi Road Jn. to Pandharpur is extended to Miraj; Dehri-Rohtas extended to Rohtas Fort. In Nepal, the Raxaul-Amlekhganj line is opened (Martin & Co.). 8-coach EMU rakes are introduced on the main line in Mumbai and 4-coach rakes on the Harbour line.

1928

Work begun on Madras suburban line. Jan 5: Colaba-Borivili section electrification completed by BB&CI Rly. Two suburban tracks of the Bombay-Borivli section are electrified, but the two mainline tracks are left for steam traction. The first batch of electric EMUs for Bombay arrive (made by British Thompson Houston / Cammell Laird). Sep. 1: The Frontier Mail is flagged off from Colaba Terminus, with Peshawar as its destination. First automatic colour-light signals in India, on GIPR’s lines between Bombay VT and Byculla. Kanpur Central and Lucknow stations inaugurated. Golden Rock workshops near Trichy set up by the South Indian Railway. Bahawalnagar – Fort Abbas line opened by princely state of Bahawalpur (now in Pakistan, closed in the 1990s).

1924-1929

Railways build more than 1,000 miles of tracks each year. General period of prosperity for the railways– generous provisions are made for passenger amenities (waiting rooms, etc.).

1929-1937

Railways (like everything else!) hit by the 1929 Wall Street Crash and the ensuing global depression; severe economy measures undertaken.

1929

Kazipet-Balharshah link completed, connecting Delhi and Madras directly. The Grand Trunk Express begins running between Peshawar and Mangalore. Kalyan-Igatpuri-Pune section is now completely electrified, and the quadruple line between Bombay and Kalyan is also electrified. A 2′ gauge diesel loco from Maffei is supplied to C K Andrew and Co. (Probably used on a plantation?) Burma Railways taken over by the state. Chola Power House near Thakurli built by the GIPR for supplying power for the newly electrified KalyanIgatpuri-Pune section. Punjab Limited Express begins to run between Mumbai and Lahore, leaving Mumbai on Thursdays. Bombay’s Victoria Terminus undergoes some reconstruction work so that it gets 14 platforms. Automatic colour-light signalling extended to the Byculla-Kurla section. The Kurla car shed is opened. NG lines: BB&CI line to Piplod; Kangra Valley Rly. (NWR). Railway Board reorganized with separate members in charge of traffic and labour matters.

1930′s

Experiments with railcars on the Jamnagar & Dwarka Rly. Power signalling introduced; upper-quadrant semaphore signals introduced.

1930

The Times (London) nominates the Frontier Mail “the most famous express train in the British empire”. Through electric services begin on the Kalyan – Pune section. June 1: The Deccan Queen begins running, hauled by a WCP-1 (No. 20024, old number EA/1 4006) and with 7 coaches, on the GIPR’s newly electrified route to Poona (Pune). Two BG diesel shunters from William Beardmore in use on the North Western Railway. NWR procures two 420hp diesel-electric shunters from William Beardmore. Hyderabad Godavary Valley Rly. merged into Nizam’s State Rly. Axle boxes with roller bearings come into use. The route of the Grand Trunk Exp. is changed to Delhi – Madras.

1931

Madras MG suburban railway line completed. ((April 2?) May 11: Tambaram-Beach has electric traction). The first MG EMU service.

The YCG-1 DC MG locos are introduced in the Madras area. Samdari – Raniwara section opens as the first phase of a rail connection between Jodhpur-Bikaner and Gujarat. Phalodi – Jodhpur section opens. Total trackage in India at about 43,000 miles. Hardly any new construction until after World War II. NG lines: Darwha-Pusad (Central Provinces Rly; later GIPR). More than 700 stations have interlocking by now.

1932

MSMR’s workshops at Perambur split into the Carriage and Wagon Workshops and the Locomotive Workshops. NG lines: Agar-Ujjain (Gwalior Light Rlys.) Nok Kundi – Zahidan section of Nushki Extension Rly. is closed.

1933

Kaunia-Dharlla MG lines north of the Brahmaputra are extended to Rangapara. May 16: Kanpur trams stop operating.

1934

Shoranur-Cochin line converted to BG.

1935

NWR procures two 1200hp diesel-electric locos from Armstrong-Whitworth with the intention of using them for a new Bombay-Karachi route. They were deployed on the Karachi-Lahore mail route, but then were withdrawn soon afterwards, having manifested many problems as they were not designed for Indian conditions.

1936

Borivli-Virar electrification complete. The two mainline tracks on the Bombay-Borivli section are also electrified. BBCI obtains one diesel shunter from Armstrong Whitworth. Air-conditioning introduced in some (first-class) passenger coaches. Matunga workshops manufacture 5 air-conditioned coaches, the first such to be made locally. Indian Railway Committee under Sir Ralph Wedgwood constituted to look into the position of the stateowned railways and how to improve their finances Mavli-Marwar MG line opened. Jodhpur Rly. acquires two Drewry railcars, one for the Maharaja and the other an inspection car.

1937

Wedgwood Committee makes recommendations for public relations, advertising, etc. which until then had been neglected. Also recommends faster and more reliable passenger services and expansion of freight activities, for the railways to compete with road transport. The post of Minister for Transport and Communications is created; the Minister was a civil servant, and could decide on matters dealt with by the Railway Board. The infamous Bihta accident, in which the excessive oscillations of an XB class loco caused the derailment of the Punjab-Howrah mail, killing 154 persons. NG lines: In Nepal, the Nepal Jaynagar-Janakpur Rly. opens. May 1: The Flying Queen (predecessor of Flying Ranee) is introduced between Bombay and Surat, hauled by an H class 4-6-0 and making her run in 4 hours.

1938

All lines of the MSMR in Mysore are taken over by the Mysore Darbar. NG lines: Bhavnagar Tramways line extended to Mahura.

1939

World War II. Railways under strain again. Locomotives, wagons, and track material are taken from India to the middle East; 28 branch lines were completely cannibalized for this. Railway workshops are used to manufacture shells and other military equipment. The entire railway system is in poor shape by the end of the war. Diesel railcars from Ganz are tried out on the Nizam’s State Railways. A light railcar built at Bikaner is used on the minor lines around there. The power systems of the Chola Power House and the Tata Hydroelectric plant are combined for supplying traction power to Bombay-area suburban trains as well as for long-distance trains across the ghats. Wagon pooling established across north Indian MG networks.

1940

The Jamnagar and Dwarka Railway procures a single MG diesel loco for its Saurashtra Passenger service, from Brookville. Jodhpur-Phalodi section extended to Pokharan. All-steel BG coaches manufactured for the first time in India.

1940′s

Large numbers of American and Canadian locos are imported (AWD, CWD, along with AWC, AWE, and MAWD classes). Neale’s Ball Token Instruments come into use.

1941

Hosur-Dharmapuri NG line decommissioned. The ‘Following Trains’ system of train working is introduced as an emergency measure in some areas out of necessity because of wartime requirements.

1942

Most of the remaining large railway companies are taken over by the state. July 11: A flash flood washes out portions of the tracks on the Chappar Rift of the Sind Peshin State Railway (now in Pakistan), and through running never resumes on this line. Nok Kundi – Zahidan section of the Nushki Extension Rly. is re-opened. First Link Train run between Bhusaval and Nagpur with two XP engines.

1943

Bengal and North-Western Railway is taken over by the state, after being merged with the Rohilkund and Kumaon Rly., the Mashrak-Thane Extension Rly., the Lucknow-Bareilly Rly., and the Tirhut Rly. The new railway is known as the Oudh and Tirhut Rly. The opening of the Howrah bridge in February allows the Calcutta routes of trams to be connected to the Howrah routes; total system is at 67km.

1944-45

Fifteen diesel locos from GE supplied by USATC and deployed on WR, among the first diesel locos to be successfully used in many locations in India. Most of these were classified as WDS-1.

1944

April: MSMR merged with the lines worked by the SIR company, and taken over by the state. Oct. 1: BNR taken over by the state.

1945

Indian Railway Standards renamed Indian Government Railway Standards. Locomotive classification codes updated to include diesels and electrics. Tata Engineering and Locomotive Co. (TELCO) formed as a company. Bandra station has the country’s first all-electric interlocking. Link Trains run between Bhusaval and Igatpuri with nine AWE engines. Apr. 1: Jacobabad-Kashmore line taken over by state (now in Pakistan).

1946

A Skelton system monorail (locomotive with rubber tires guided by a rail, and wagons carried on the rail with outrigger wheels for stability) is installed for the 18km section from Bhanvad to Khambalia in Gujarat, powered by a modified diesel loco. 16 prototypes of the new WP class Pacifics ordered.

Chronology of railways in India, Part 4 (1947 – 1970)

1947

Apr. 1: Mandra-Bhaun line taken over by state (now in Pakistan). Independence/Partition. Two big systems, Bengal Assam Railway and North Western Railway are no longer in India (these included the workshops of Saidpur and Mogulpura, respectively). Some 2955 route-km of NWR became the East Punjab Railway in India, leaving 8070km in the then West Pakistan. Part of the Jodhpur Railway also went to West Pakistan. Much of the Bengal Assam Railway went to the then East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). Exchanging assets and staff dislocates all normal work, as does the large-scale movement of people between India and Pakistan. Assam Railway is cut off from the rest of the Indian system. Traffic patterns change drastically. Instead of Karachi to northern India, now all traffic is from Bombay. Traffic from and to Jammu & Kashmir which used to be through Lahore (via Rawalpindi and Jammu) now had to go directly to Delhi. There are 42 separate railway systems, including 32 lines owned by the former Indian princely states. Baldwin supplies the first batch of prototypes of the WP class locos (classified WP/P). TELCO starts production of boilers. Dec. 19: 56 EMU coaches ordered for Bombay suburban system from Metropolitan Cammell.

1948

100 WG class 2-8-2 locos ordered from North British, the start of this very successful class in India. Bhavnagar State Rly., Kathiawar State Rly., Jamnagar & Dwarka Rly., Gondal Rly., and Morvi Rly. all merged into Saurashtra Rly. Hyderabad lines of the Jodhpur-Bikaner Rly. west of Jodhpur transferred to Pakistan Western Rly. on Aug. 1. Darjeeling Himalayan Railway is taken over by the state. Calcutta time is discontinued and Indian Standard Time (introduced in 1906) is observed everywhere in the country.

1949

YP prototypes in trial runs. Several diesel locos with mechanical transmissions obtained to work services in arid areas of Saurashtra (supplied by Fowler). The Gaekwar’s Baroda State Railway is merged into the BBCI Rly.

Jodhpur-Bikaner Rly. taken over by the government of the state of Rajasthan. Railway Board adopts all-steel construction for coaches as the new standard. An initial agreement is signed with the Swiss Car and Elevator Co. of Schlieren-Zurich, Switzerland, which eventually led to the establishment of the Integral Coach Factory at Perambur.

1950

Assam Rail Link finished, re-connecting Assam Railways with the rest of the Indian system wholly through Indian territory: 229 km meter-gauge line built within 2 years. Link opened to passenger traffic on Jan 26, 1950: Republic Day. For this link, the Kishanganj branch of the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway was taken over and converted to MG and connected to the NER network at Barsoi. The Teesta Valley Line was taken over for MG (until Sivok), but the rest of it was devastated by floods and closed. The link spanned the Teesta, Torsha, and Sankosh rivers. The Assam Rail Link project also saw the first use of pre-stressed reinforced concrete in railway construction in India. Jan. 26: Chittaranjan Locomotive Works established in West Bengal for the manufacture of 120 steam locos annually. The first of the extremely successful WG class (#8401, “Deshbandhu”) from CLW is commissioned on November 1, 1950. Several Janata Express (“People’s Express”) trains are introduced, with only second-class accommodation. Nov. 1: Flying Ranee introduced (resurrection of the Flying Queen from 1938). Kurla-Mankhurd section electrified. Some railway coaches production (10 a month) begins at Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd., Bangalore. These are all-metal coaches made with indigenous components. Wagon pooling established across south Indian MG networks.

1951

Zonal grouping of IR begun. SR is created on April 14, CR and WR on Nov. 5. About 388 km of trackage is electrified (Bombay and Madras suburban lines) out of a total of about 55,000 km. New batch of 30 EMUs from Metropolitan Cammell arrive at Bombay for CR. One track between Kurla and Mankhurd opened for suburban steam services. Widening of the route and re-spacing of the double lines (from 3.65m to 4.72m) on the Bhore and Thull (Thal) ghat sections completed. (1951-1953) New Metro-Cammell EMU units for Bombay suburban trains have air brakes with the Westinghouse twin pipe system. One track between Kurla and Mankhurd is opened for suburban steam service, although the section was electrified the previous year. The post of Chief Commissioner of Railways is abolished; the Railway Board now adopts the practice of

making the seniormost member Chairman of the board. The Chairman did not have overriding powers as the Chief Commissioner did; but the Chairman and Financial Commissioner could together override the rest of the Board. The government of West Bengal enters into an agreement with the Calcutta Tramways Co. to take over many of its administrative functions, and to reserve the right to purchase the entire system in the future with 2 years’ notice.

1952

NR, ER, and NER zones created on April 14. Mukerian-Pathankot line (25.8 miles) on NR opened to traffic. Fans and lights mandated for all compartments in all classes of passenger accommodation, although this is not implemented for many years. Kalka-Shimla Railway regauged to 2’6″ gauge under guidelines from the War Department seeking to ensure uniformity in all imperial narrow gauge systems. Kandla-Deesa MG line completed connecting the rail network to the Kandla port. Dec. 24: Construction of Ernakulam-Quilon MG line begins. TELCO begins production of YG locomotives. Kurla-Mankhurd suburban trains switch to electric traction.

1953

Howrah-Bandel-Burdwan electrification work commences (3kV DC). Bandra-Andheri mainline tracks electrified.

1954

Through service resumes between Amritsar and Lahore. Zafarabad-Sultanpur section dismantled during the war is restored. Following SNCF’s success with 25kV AC traction in France, IR begins to study the possibility of AC traction and ways of avoiding ill-effects of locomotive loads on the public electricity grids. The EM/1 (later WCM-1) class of 3000V DC locos is introduced. (Oct.) Railway Board reorganized, with the Chairman made responsible for all technical and policy matters with the status of a Secretary to the Government of India. One more member was added to the Board. Sleeping accommodation is introduced in 3rd class coaches. Khandwa-Hingoli MG section is sanctioned.

1955

Integral Coach Factory set up at Perambur, with the help of Swiss Car and Elevator Manufacturing Co. (Switzerland). Eastern Railway split to form a new South-Eastern Railway. New Eastern Railway comprises the portion of the old East Indian Railway up to Moghalsarai. South-Eastern comprises the old Bengal-Nagpur Railway. Fiat supplies a dozen MG railcars (YRD1, coupled in pairs). First-class abolished, and 2nd, Inter, and 3rd classes are renamed 1st, 2nd, and 3rd classes, respectively. August 1: South-Eastern Railway carved out of ER. Baraset-Basirhat section of Martin’s Light Railways is closed, as is the Kalighat-Falta line of McLeod’s Light Railways. Andheri-Borivili section electrified. WL class locos supplied by Vulcan Foundry. YDM-1, ZDM-1, and NDM-1 diesel locos are brought into use. June 16: 18 EMU shells, underframes, and bogies ordered from Metropolitan Cammell for CR’s suburban services.

1956

Passenger fares standardized at 30 paise, 16 paise, 9 paise and 5 paise per mile for 1st, 2nd, Inter, and 3rd class, respectively. (Platform tickets are 2 annas each.) Divisional system of administration set up or planned for the various regional railways. New Italian-made EMU introduced for the Madras Beach – Tambaram suburban line. The first fully air-conditioned train is introduced between Howrah and Delhi (predecessor of the Poorva Exp.). Another fully air-conditioned train (the first that is vestibuled) is introduced later between Delhi and Bombay Central. A “buffet-cum-cinema” car is introduced in the Janata Exp. between Kanpur and Jha Jha. Third-class passengers are permitted to use the dining car earlier reserved for higher classes of travel. Gandhidham-Kandla MG line opened to traffic. The first seven coaches (third-class seating coaches) assembled from imported shells and other components roll out from ICF in February. On August 14, the first all-indigenous steel-bodied integral design coach rolls out from ICF. [Disaster] The Grand Trunk Express (?) derails at Mahboobnagar in Andhra Pradesh and kills 112. [Disaster] Madras-Tuticorin express plunges into river when when bridge at Ariyalur (Tamil Nadu) is washed away in floods; 156 are killed. Railway Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri resigns accepting moral responsibility. Suri transmission developed at RDSO. SNCF delegation proposes 25kV AC traction for IR. Sep. 1: India’s first Route-Relay Interlocking set up at Churchgate – Marine Lines (WR).

Suburban Train Overcrowding Enquiry Commission presents its report with suggestions on improvements to Bombay suburban services. Railway Board expanded with posts of five Additional Members, of the status of General Managers, who were to deal with the extra work arising from the Second Five-Year Plan. The EM/2 (later WCM-2) class of 3000V DC locos is introduced.

1957

Research, Designs, and Standards Organization (RDSO) of IR formed. All-India numbering scheme introduced for locomotives. Following a decision to adopt 25kV AC traction, SNCF are chosen as technical consultants for the electrification projects. An organization called the Main Line Electrification Project — which later became the Railway Electrification Project and still later the Central Organization for Railway Electrification — is established. Burdwan-Mughalsarai via the Grand Chord is electrified, the first 25kV AC traction section. Tatanagar-Rourkela on the Howrah-Bombay route is chosen as the next route to be electrified at 25kV AC. Nov. 30: Electrification of Sheoraphulli–Tarakeshwar branch of Eastern Railway completed (142 km, on the 3000 V DC system). The EM/3 (later WCM-3) class of 3000V DC locos is introduced. Dec. 14: Electrification of main line from Howrah proceeds to Bandel. Trial runs of BG diesel locos (WDM-1). Nov. 24: Indian Railways Institute of Signal Engineering and Telecommunications established at Secunderabad. Railway Protection Force is constituted. Aug. 23: Gudur-Renigunta BG section opened to traffic. Nov. 23: Narsapur-Nidadavole Passenger collides with a goods train at 3:15am at Nidadavole (near the South Cabin); many injured.

1958

WDM-1 class BG diesel locos (100 of them) are imported from Alco (US), and most were homed at Chakradharpur, for use around Tatanagar, Rourkela, Burnpur. Electrification of Howrah–Burdwan Main Line section complete. Jan.: Ernakulam-Quilon MG section opened. January 15: North-Eastern Railway splits to form a new Northeast Frontier Railway. Karnail Singh Fuel Committee recommends a mix of 50% electric traction, 25% diesel, and 25% steam until 1975. The ubiquitous F/1 class steam locos are withdrawn from service. WCM-2 and WCM-3 locos are converted to run on 1500V DC instead of 3000V DC as ER electrification is changed to 25kV AC.

Samdari-Raniwara section extended to Bhildi. A coach washing machine is procured for the EMU carshed at Bombay Central. Signal and Telecom Workshops established at Podanur. Mar. 30: First Crack Train run between Gaya and Mughalsarai.

1959

WAM-1 locos from Kraus-Maffei, Alsthom, Krupp, Brugeoise et Nivelles, and SFAC are brought into service. (Aug. 1: First WAM-1, “Jagjivan Ram” is commissioned.) December 15: The first scheduled train runs using 25kV AC traction — Kendposi-Rajkharswan on SER. [??Some sources say this section was energized on Aug 11, 1960.] First steam loco designed and built entirely by CLW (WT class, “Chittaranjan” was the first one). The Permanent Way Training School is set up (later to become IRICEN). Fans and lights finally become standard fixtures in all passenger coaches, including Third Class. Rajendra Pul (bridge) across the Ganga at Mokameh opened; this connects the MG North-Eastern Railway to the BG network of Eastern Railway with access to the Calcutta Port. River Brahmaputra is bridged at Pandu.

1960

The Khandwa-Hingoli section is completed, which for the first time links the MG networks in northern and southern India, going across the Tapti and Purna rivers and the Satpura and Melghat ranges. The section is open only for goods traffic at first (on November 1). Sealdah Division, Asansol-Gomoh-Gaya is electrified at about this time (dates uncertain). In the early 1960′s, IR begins replacing copper wiring and electrical equipment with aluminium. Also in the early 1960′s, vestibuling of long-distance coaches became widespread. Some time in the 1960′s, the Salem-Bangalore MG line is opened on the alignment of the former HosurDharmapuri NG line which was decommissioned in 1941.

1961

CLW starts producing 1500 V DC electric locos. The first one is “Lokmanya” (a WCM-5), commissioned on October 14. Diesel Loco Works (DLW), Varanasi, is set up Khandwa-Hingoli MG link is open to passenger traffic. Jamalpur Workshops begin producing rail cranes and electric arc furnaces. Kunzru Committee investigating level-crossing accidents and other mishaps issues many recommendations for improving safety.

1962

Initial order of WDM-2 locos reaches India (supplied by Alco). Electrification reaches Mughalsarai from Gaya at about this time (dates uncertain). Bukhtiarpur-Bihar line of Martin’s Light Railway taken over by IR and under conversion to BG. First MG diesels from DLW. First Diesel-hydraulic shunters from TELCO. ICF begins production of self-propelled units (EMUs) – initially only trailer coaches. Siliguri connected to New Jalpaiguri. Saraighat Bridge across the Brahmaputra near Amingaon is completed, connecting the two parts of the MG network in Assam to the north and south of the river. Delhi trams stop operating. Jamalpur workshops begin producing ‘Jamalpur jacks’ Golden Rock workshops begin manufacturing wagons.

1963

CLW starts producing 25 kV AC electric locos. Nov. 16: The first one is “Bidhan” (a WAG-1), the first entirely India-built electric loco. Mar. 12: CLW also builds its first WP class loco. ICF begins producing MG coaches and EMU production is enhanced to include motor coaches. Sahai Committee investigates the benefits of electrification and concludes that with the prices of diesel and electricity at that time, the break-even point where electrification was worthwhile was at 6.9 million tonne km per route km a year. April: Sambalpur-Titlagarh and Bimalgarh-Kiriburu lines opened, facilitating movement of ore from mines at Kiriburu. December: Alco personnel at DLW to train local staff. All 8-car rakes in Mumbai converted to 9-car rakes, the standard formation for a long time thereafter. Early experiments carried out to test the feasibility of 140km/h and 160km/h running for passenger trains.

1964

Jan.: Diesel Locomotive Works starts production of WDM-2 locos, about 40 every year at first. The first 12 are assembled from kits supplied by Alco, and thereafter production is with mostly indigenous components. The first one from DLW is “Lal Bahadur Shastri”, commissioned in January. Diva-Panvel line opened. Taj Express from New Delhi to Agra is introduced to allow tourists to visit Agra and return to New Delhi the same day. Running at 105km/h it brought down the travel time on this route to 2h 35m. It is hauled by a WP locomotive. First AC loco, a WAG-1, built by CLW. Kalyan-Kasara/Karjat section switches to using 6-car rakes from 4-car rakes. CLW starts manufacturing traction motors (MG-1580 model).

March 31: Bombay trams stop operating. Dec 23: Boat Mail at Dhanushkodi is washed away by large waves in a cyclone and 150 or more passengers are drowned. The official death count was about 128, but the number of unreserved passengers could not be determined. Railway Board gets a post of Additional Member for vigilance.

1965

Taj Exp. runs at 105 km/h with a steam loco. The Southern Express (21 Dn/22 Up) train is introduced between New Delhi and Madras. Asansol-Bareilly Passenger is the first long-distance train on ER hauled by an AC loco. Howrah-Madras mail is the first one dieselized on SER (has a WDM-1). Madras-Tambaram-Villupuram is converted from 1.5kV DC traction to 25kV AC traction, as is the Madras Beach – Tambaram suburban section. The mainline tracks between Madras and Tambaram are also electrified (25kV AC). Fast freight services (“Super Express”) are introduced on several routes, especially those linking the four major metropolitan centres, and other important cities such as Ahmedabad and Bangalore.

1966

First containerized freight services started, between Bombay and Ahmedabad. Electrification of suburban tracks around Calcutta (Sealdah-North, Sealdah-South sections) covering 347 km completed with the 25 kV AC system. Several DC sections converted to AC in the Madras and Calcutta areas. The Igatpuri-Bhusaval section is partially electrified (Igatpuri to Nandgaon). Total electrified route km about 2,400. Oct. 2: South-Central Railway formed from portions of Southern Railway (Vijayawada, Guntakal, Hubli divisions) Brindavan Exp. is dieselized. Flying Ranee is now the fastest medium-haul train (Bombay Central – Surat). Deccan Queen gets a new ICF rake of anti-telescopic coaches. ICF begins production of YAU1 MG EMUs (4-car units) and of air-conditioned coaches. Ahmadpur-Katwa and Burdwan-Katwa lines of McLeod’s Light Railways transferred to ER. Panvel-Apta line opened. (Late 1960s) Long-welded rail (LWR) is introduced in many areas. May: Kirandul-Kottavalasa line completed, allowing ore from the Bailadilla iron mines (and Bacheli) near Kirandul to be brought to the east coast and connecting to the main rail network near Waltair. This is the highest broad-gauge line in the world and sees some of the heaviest freight loads of IR.

1967

Ajanta Exp. (Kacheguda – Manmad), the fastest MG train in India with an average speed of 42.5 km/h. Diesel Loco Shed created at Ratlam. Second-class sleeper coaches for select trains (GT Exp., Frontier Mail, Howrah-Madras Mail, BombayMadras Exp., Delhi-Lucknow Mail, etc.). First diesel loco with Indian equipment rolls out of DLW. WDS-5 shunters from Alco are introduced. CLW begins work on production of diesel locos, starting with the WDS-4 class shunters. August: Conversion of Howrah-Burdwan main line and Tarakeshwar branch near Calcutta from 3000V DC to 25kV AC finished. CR runs its first superfast goods train from Wadi Bunder to Itarsi (the “Freight Chief”). Bankura-Damodar River line of McLeod’s Light Railways transferred to SER. Bombay-Delhi containerized freight services introduced. Pokharan-Jaisalmer line constructed. Jul. 19: Calcutta Tramways Co. is taken over by the government of West Bengal. (Assets vested with government in 1976.) Pakistan Rlys. transfers the permanent way assets from Mirjawa to Zahidan, on the former Nushki Extension Rly., to Iranian Rlys.

1968

Jan. 6: CLW’s first diesel-hydraulic (WDS-4) shunter. Lakheri-Bayana section is doubled. Punjab Mail dieselized between Igatpuri and Jhansi. Dadar Terminus inaugurated. (First train out is the Dadar-Nagpur Exp. hauled by a WCM4; other trains using this station are Poona Passenger and Poona Exp.) Allahabad / Kanpur – Mughalsarai section gets electric traction (AC). ICF begins production of DC EMUs. Private goods consolidating agents are permitted to operate, thus allowing all manner of goods to be transported by standardized containers. Pokharan-Jaisalmer link built in the aftermath of the ’65 hostilities with Pakistan. Nov.: First indigenous MG diesel loco (YDM-4 “Hubli”) from DLW. State of signalling: 2 route-relay interlocking systems in use, and 4 panel interlocking systems.

1969

March 1: Howrah — New Delhi Rajdhani Express begins running, covering the 1441 km distance in 17 hrs 20 min (was previously 24 hours). Max. speed of 120 km/h with technical halts at Kanpur, Mughalsarai, and Gomoh. Total of about 3,500 route km electrified. Howrah-Kharagpur section electrification is complete, as is the Igatpuri-Bhusaval section. Salem-Bangalore MG section completed. Golconda Exp. introduced between Vijayawada and Secunderabad as the fastest steam-hauled train in the country. Average speed is 58 km/h. Divisional system introduced for NER.

Madras – Tambaram suburban section gets a Centralized Traffic Control center at Egmore. Bombay-Madras Exp. (11 Dn / 12 Up) is dieselized between Poona and Madras. Golden Rock Workshop begins operation overhauling diesel locos. Metropolitan Transport Project division set up to look into the problem of urban transit in Calcutta. Sep.: Jhund-Kandla BG line opened, providing a BG connection to now expanded major port of Kandla. The very successful WDS-4B shunters are introduced by CLW. Railway Minister Panampilly Govinda Menon makes the first proposal for a ‘West Coast Railway’ — the idea for what eventually became the Konkan Railway — although this is not acted upon.

Chronology of railways in India, Part 5 (1970 – 1995)

1970

1 Up / 2 Dn Bombay-Howrah Mail via Nagpur is dieselized; it is hauled by an electric loco between Howrah and Rourkela and between Igatpuri and Bombay. June 30: The last WG is manufacturered by CLW (WG 10560 Antim Sitara). CLW produces its first WAM-4 locos. Shahdara-Saharanpur line of Martin’s Light Railways closed. Across the border, Pakistan’s first electric services begin on June 25 (Lahore-Khanewal, 268km). Oct. : One line of the Howrah network of the Calcutta trams is closed.

1971

WCG-2 and WCAM-1 design prototypes are tested. Farakka railway bridge (one of the longest prestressed concrete bridges) is opened and the Assam Mail is routed through it, reducing its running time by five hours. Jan 1: Howrah-Amta, Howrah-Sheokhala sections of Martin’s Light Railway closed. The Permanent Way Training School becomes the IR Institute for Advanced Track Technology. Suri and Nayar begin production of diesel locos. CLW begins production of TAO-659 traction motors. Pathankot – Jammu Tawi section opened (construction of parts of this began in 1965 after the war with Pakistan). Dec. : Second line of the Howrah network of the Calcutta trams is closed.

1971-72

IR extends some operations for the military into Pakistan, during the India-Pakistan war, from the Barmer area of Rajasthan, using the Munabao – Khokraphar MG route.

1972

Electrification from Howrah reaches Tundla (near Agra). Calcutta Metro construction work begins . Petrol trams in Karachi (Pakistan) cease to operate.

May 17: The Bombay Rajdhani begins service, hauled by a WDM2. The trip takes 19 hours and 5 minutes. Feb. 5: CLW’s last steam loco, YG 3573. Liluah workshops stop manufacturing coaches. Railway Board gets a post of Additional Member for electrical engineering.

1973

Jan. 26: Jayanti Janata Express introduced between New Delhi and Ernakulam/Mangalore, the first “classless” (all coaches second-class) train. First marine ISO container handled in India at Cochin (although not by rail). May: Nimtollah (Nimtala) Ghat line of the Calcutta trams is closed. Dec. : Third line of the Howrah network of the Calcutta trams is closed. Total trackage now at 62km.

1974

CLW begins work on production of dual-power WCAM-1 locos. RITES formed for research and consultancy services. (Mid-1970s) IRS standards for rails are laid down (52kg/m for BG, 75lb/yd for MG). Third-class accommodation abolished (1972?). May 3: A total strike by railway workers including the All India Railwaymen’s Federation (led by its president at the time, George Fernandes, later Union Minister for Railways) paralyzes IR completely; tens of thousands are jailed (some sources say 28,000, others put the number as high as 70,000). This event was among the factors that led to the imposition of a state of emergency in India by then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in June 1975. Aug. 13: Parliament regulates working hours for engine drivers to 10 hours continuous duty at a time. Barauni – Samastipur – Muzaffarpur BG line.

1975

First export order for IR — DLW sends some YDM4 units to Tanzania. Jan. 30: First dual-system electric loco (WCAM-1 class) from CLW, “Vallabh”, is commissioned. February: The first of the widely used WDS-6 class shunters from DLW. June: Bombay’s Churchgate station is the first to be provided with a special 50Hz AC supply unit to keep its station clocks accurately set; the clocks’ error dropped to about 1 second in 8 days. Nov.: Ernakulam-Quilon MG line converted to BG. Charbagh Workshop of NR takes on diesel loco maintenance. Railway Board gets a post of Additional Member for health.

1976

Jan. : IR wins its first export contract, for the supply of 15 YDM locomotives (to be built in DLW, Varanasi) to Tanzania. (August) Electrification reaches New Delhi, making the New Dehli – Howrah route the first trunk route to be completely electrified (AC traction). IRCON formed as a separate organization from RITES, for railway construction projects overseas. Tamilnadu Express introduced. The Samjhauta Express begins running between India and Pakistan. Freight trains also begin running between the two countries. The rail link agreement for these trains is valid for 3 years (and later periodically renewed). Aug. 5: Entire Howrah-Delhi trunk route is electrified. Sep. 13: Trivandrum-Ernakulam BG converted line opened to traffic. Smoking is banned in Mumbai suburban trains. Nov. 8 : All assets of the Calcutta Tramway Co. are now vested with the government of West Bengal.

1977

Feb. 1: National Rail Museum opened at New Delhi. Guntakal division of SR made part of SCR, and Solapur division of SCR made part of CR (Oct. 2: Pune – Shahabad is transferred from SCR to CR; Shahabad – Wadi is transferred in 1978. Daund and Kurduwadi sheds now under CR.) (Late 1970s) Concrete sleepers come into use. DLW manufactures prototype of high-speed bogie rated for 170km/h service. March: DLW’s 1000th locomotive. Railway Convention Committee meets.

1978

Jan. 1: The eight posts of Additional Members of the Railway Board are abolished. The number of Advisors to the Board rises to 16. Arrah-Sasaram line of Martin’s Light Railways closed. Plans drawn up for Wheel and Axle Plant. Raj Committee revisits the issue of the economics of electrification; since electricity costs had risen faster than diesel prices, the break-even point for electrification to be viable was now at 30 million gross tonne km per route km a year. March 1: Shahabad – Wadi transferred from SCR to CR.

1979

CORE (Central Organization for Railway Electrification) formed. Madras-Gummidipundi (April 13) and Madras-Thiruvellore sections (Nov. 23) electrified providing a second electrified corridor for SR. Madras Beach – Korukkupet – Madras Central is also electrified (Aug.

9). Nagercoil-Tirunelveli and Trivandrum-Kanyakumari via Nagercoil opened. May 20: Mangalore – Hassan MG line opened to traffic. Oct. 2: Trivandrum division of SR created. AC 2-tier coaches are introduced (may be off by a year).

1980

Viramgam – Hapa MG section converted to BG. National Energy Policy defined, which recommends increasing the pace of railway electrification and a goal is set for 1000 route km to be electrified every year. First WDM-2 with AC-DC transmission. Oct. 1: First WAP-1 locomotive commissioned (variant of the WAM-4R); used for the Rajdhani service. Third Ghat line opened on the north-east of Mumbai.

1981

Diesel Component Works, Patiala, is set up. July 27: Bangalore division of SR created. The first ISO container is hauled by IR, to the new Inland Container Depot at Bangalore. IR contracts with BARC to develop energy-efficient EMUs for for Mumbai, leading to the development of chopper-controlled EMUs. [Disaster] June 6: Possibly the worst accident in IR’s history: 7 coaches of a passenger train fall off a bridge into the Bagmati river near Samastipur. There has never been a satisfactory explanation for the cause of the disaster, with divers reasons such as a sudden storm, or extreme braking on sighting oxen on the track, being offered for the accident. 212 bodies were recovered from the river, but it is almost certain that there were many more persons who perished in this disaster. Unofficial death toll at over 800.

Uncertain date

Bombay – Nagpur – Howrah trunk route is electrified some time in the 1980s.

1982

Oct. – The Taj Express gets diesel locomotives (WDM-2). Sep. 3: Thiruvellore – Arakkonam section electrified. Lucknow-Muzaffarpur BG line.

1983

DLW gets export order for 15 YDM-4 locos to Vietnam. Howrah Rajdhani is hauled by a WAP-1 loco. SR eliminates steam on all of its regular (non-tourist) lines. Guntakal-Bangalore BG conversion. IR begins studies on telecom, IT, and freight information management upgrades. Feb. 10: ‘Great Indian Rover’, a tourist train for Buddhist sites, with a specially built rake, launched.

1984

Wheel and Axle Plant, Yelahanka, begins production. Engineering survey begun for Mangalore-Madgaon line. Oct. 24: First phase of Calcutta Metro from Esplanade to Bhowanipur (now the Netaji Bhawan station) done, inaugural run of metro. Hapa-Okha MG section converted to BG. The Mumbai Rajdhani becomes the first long-distance train with air brakes. Jan. 22: CLW’s first loco of the WAG-5B class, at first denoted WAM-4B, is commissioned. May: DLW’s 2000th locomotive produced. May: First shipment of 15 YDM-4 locos to Vietnam from DLW. Aug. 11: Electric trains begin running between Madras and Katpadi. MUTP-I completed, with several improvements to the Mumbai suburban train services. New railway line from Guwahati to New Bongaigaon opened. Prinsep Ghat – Dum Dum Jn. section of Calcutta Circular Railway commissioned. Railway Reform Committee suggests creation of 4 new zones to cope with growing freight traffic. Dehri-Rohtas Light Railway closed.

1985

Scope of engineering survey work for Mangalore-Madgaon is extended to cover the entire west coast section from Mangalore to Roha, for the proposed Konkan Railway. Railway Convention Committee meets. SR becomes the first zone to eliminate BG steam operations. Charbagh Workshop of NR takes on electric loco maintenance. Apr. 17 : Maniktala – Ultadanga section of Calcutta Tramways built. [Disaster] Feb 23: 50 people killed in a train fire near Rajnandgaon, MP. [Disaster] Jun 13: 38 people killed, many injured, when an express train rams into a goods train near Agra.

1986

Computerized ticketing and reservation introduced, at New Delhi (pilot project begun in 1985). Futwah-Islampur section of Martin’s Light Railways closed.

Apta-Roha line opened. IRCOT (IR’s telecom division) founded. 12-car rakes used in trial runs for suburban EMU services on WR. The Taj Express gets electric locomotives. Howrah Rajdhani becomes air-braked (the train is hauled by a single WAP-1). Dec. 31 : Behala line of Calcutta Tramways extended to Joka. [Disaster] March 10: 50 people killed and 200 injured in a train collision near Khagaria, Bihar. [Disaster] Aug 6: 52 killed and 35 injured as two coaches of an express train fall into a stream after colliding with a stationary goods train in Palamau district, Bihar.

1987

Bombay-Delhi WR route is fully electrified. (CR route electrified in 1988.) January 4: First WAP-3 loco , ‘Jawahar’, commissioned. The rarely seen WDM-7 locos introduced (June). On NG, NDM-5 locos introduced. Automatic signalling based on axle counters introduced by CR on Palwal-Mathura section. July 25: First solid-state interlocking (SSI) system in operation at Srirangam. April 14: Madras-Avadi EMU services begin. Railway Coach Factory, Kapurthala, is set up. Work begins on the Narnarayan Setu road and rail bridge over the Brahmaputra at Jogighopa. (Foundation stone laid in 1983.) June: An early system for computerized reservations begins operating at Mumbai VT for a few trains (pre-CONCERT). July: Early standalone computerized reservation system begins operations at Chennai. October: Early standalone computerized reservation system begins operations at Kolkata. Electrification stands at 7275 route-km. (Dates uncertain – 1985-1988) Further closings of the Calcutta trams – High Court branch and the line over the Howrah Bridge to Howrah Station are shut down; there is now not trackage west of BBD Bag (Dalhousie Square). Behala line on the Diamond Harbour Road is extended to Joka (15km) and a new line built to Ultadanga (originally intended to reach the airport). [Disaster] July 8: 53 are killed as Dakshin Exp. derails near Macherial, AP. [Disaster] Rockfort Express plunges into river when Ariyalur bridge is blown up by terrorists. Over 75 killed.

1988

WAG5HB locos from BHEL, WAG6A from ABB, and WAG6B, WAG6C from Hitachi brought into service, mostly for the heavy freight routes of SER. The first Shatabdi Express is introduced between New Delhi and Jhansi (later extended to Bhopal), and becomes the fastest train in the country.

Feb. 1: Bombay-Delhi CR route is electrified. (WR route electrified in 1987.) March 31: First (ICF-designed) coaches produced by the newly set-up Railway Coach Factory (RCF), Kapurthala Madras – New Delhi route is electrified. Container Corporation of India (CONCOR) created. Ruthiyai-Bina section transferred from WR to CR. CLW begins production of Hitachi-designed traction motors HS-15250A for WAG-5 and WAP-4 locos. Aug. 6: Karur-Dindigul BG line opened. August: Pilot project for the NTES train status enquiry system begun. SER introduces the ‘Locotrol’ system to operate several (usually up to 5) locos (then WDM-2′s) in MU mode to haul heavy freight trains on the Kirandul-Kottavalasa line. [Disaster] July 8: Bangalore-Trivandrum Island Express derails and plunges into Ashtamudi lake near Kollam, Kerala, killing 107. It is said that a freak tornado was the cause.

1989

Systematic renumbering of train services using ‘universal’ numbers (new 4-digit scheme). Railways Act, 1989, updates the legal framework for railways in India after nearly a century, replacing the Railways Act of 1890. Work begins on the Konkan Railway. The second Shatabdi Express is introduced between New Delhi and Kanpur (later extended to Lucknow). The Indrayani Express between Bombay and Pune is introduced (as well as the Pragati Express between the same pair of cities). Aug. 29, 1989: The IRFCA electronic mailing list for IR railfans is born. Rail Spring Karkhana set up for production of coil springs for IR. July: Early standalone computerized reservation system begins operations at Secunderabad. Oct. 15: Ernakulam-Alleppey BG line is opened. [Disaster] April 18: 75 killed as Karnataka Exp. derails near Lalitpur, UP. [Disaster] Nov. 1: 48 killed as Udyan Abha Toofan Exp. derails at Sakaldiha, Bihar.

1990

Bhusaval-Itarsi section has electric services — Bombay-Delhi CR route is fully electrified. Work progresses on Mangalore-Udupi section of KR. Bombay Rajdhani gets an air-braked rake. Computerized reservations (PRS) introduced at Secunderabad, Chennai, Mumbai, and Kolkata in addition to New Delhi (this was the early version before the CONCERT system was developed to interconnect these). First Self-Printing Ticket Machine (SPTM) introduced, at New Delhi. Victoria Terminus gets a double-discharge platform.

Surekha Bhonsle joins IR – she later became the first woman locomotive driver on IR. [Disaster] April 16: 70 killed in fire on local shuttle train near Patna. [Disaster] June 6: 36 killed in collision at Gollaguda, AP. [Disaster] June 25: 60 killed as a goods train rams into passenger train at Mangra, Daltonganj, Bihar. [Disaster] Oct. 9: 47 killed when fire breaks out on the Kakatiya Fast Passenger near Cherpalli, AP, between Hyderabad and Warangal. The fire is said to have been lit deliberately by miscreants.

1991

Work begins on Udupi-Roha section of KR. RCF begins production of air-braked coaches and coaches with roof-mounted AC units. Railway Convention Committee meets. July 16: The hospital train, ‘Lifeline Express’ (Jeevan Rekha), begins operation. All platforms at Victoria Terminus converted to the double-discharge kind. Kurla Terminus opened. Gauge conversion begins on Sawai Madhopur – Jaipur – Phulera, Chhapra – Aunrihar, and Bhildi – Mahesana – Viramgam sections. Some codes with 4 or fewer letters in their names are changed to coincide with the station names. [Disaster] Oct. 31: 30 killed as Karnataka Exp. derails near Makalidurga, Karnataka. [Disaster] Dec. 7: Train derailment in north India [details?] kills 25.

1992

Palace on Wheels changed to a broad-gauge train. March 29: First of the WAG-7 class locos, ‘Shantidan’, from CLW commissioned. March: Bangalore – Jolarpettai section electrified. May 8: Churchgate-Virar Ladies’ Special is the first IR train reserved exclusively for women. August: DLW’s 3000th locomotive produced. Nov. 20: Alleppey-Kayankulam BG line opened. Liluah workshops begin producing DMUs. ECIL supplies the first chopper control equipment to CR for use with Mumbai EMUs. RDSO/ICF develop high-capacity (250kVA) power cars for Rajdhanis. RDSO develops bidirectional BG railbus design. Mumbai suburban services extended to Vashi. Bangalore Rajdhani introduced. Gauge conversion of Salempur – Barhaz Bazar, Manmad – Aurangabad, Bikaner – Merta Road. [Disaster] April 7: At least 20 killed when the Bitragunta-Vijayawada Passenger passes a signal at danger and rams into a stationary good strain at Tsundru South Cabin, near Tenali. [Disaster] Sep. 5: 41 killed when a Nagpur-Jamshedpur train rams into a stationary goods train at night near Raigarh, MP.

1993

Work begins on installing 2*25kV “dual” system of AC traction on the Bina-Katni-AnnuppurBishrampur/Chirimiri sections of ER and SER. Secunderabad-Mahboobnagar MG section is converted to BG, removing an important link in the MG system towards the north from Secunderabad. AC 3-tier coaches introduced. ICF begins production of MEMUs and 700hp DMUs. Sleeper Class introduced on IR, separate from Second Class. April 16: Bangalore-Mysore BG line opened. Railway Capital Fund established. CLW stops (apparently) the production of diesel shunters. The formerly pre-eminent steam loco shed at Bhusawal is shut down and the last steam loco homed at Bhusawal is withdrawn on Dec. 16. The first ‘chopper’ EMU rake is introduced in Mumbai. Mumbai suburban services extended to Nerul and Belapur. [Disaster] April 20: At least 15 killed when the Ranchi-Lohardagga Passenger derails 40km, from Ranchi. [Disaster] July 16: 60 killed in accident near Darbhanga, Bihar. [Disaster] Sep. 21: 71 killed when Kota-Bina passenger train collides with goods train near Chhabra, Rajasthan.

1994

Royal Orient train introduced by WR and Gujarat. CLW stops production of diesel-hydraulic locos. Five ZDM-5 locomotives and 6 NG 8-coach rakes are transferred from India to Nepal for operation on the Jaynagar (Bihar) to Janakpur Dham (Nepal) line, from SER’s Nagpur division. July 11: First MEMU service, Asansol – Burdwan. August 27: CLW’s first WAP-4 loco, ‘Ashok’, commissioned. August 22: First WDM-2C loco commissioned. August 31: Chikjajur-Chitradurg-Rayadurg line converted to BG. September: CONCERT system of computerized reservations deployed at Secunderabad. Manmad-Aurangabad MG line converted to BG. Feb.: Jaipur – Sawai Madhopur MG line converted to BG. Dec.: Ajmer-Delhi MG line converted to BG. December: Telephone-based phone inquiry (IVRS) introduced. Gauge conversion of Mau – Shahganj (?), Chaparmukh – Haibargaon. Secunderabad-Mahboobnagar gauge conversion breaks one of the important north-south MG freight connections. [Disaster] May 3: 35 killed as Narayanadri Exp. rams into a tractor near Nalgonda, AP. [Disaster] Nov: Coaches of the Bombay-Howrah Mail catch fire, several killed (number?). Kerosene fuel, LPG cylinders, and stoves were found to have been carried on to the coach by passengers. [Disaster] Dec. 1: The freak incident in which a combination of a loco fire and human error caused the rake of the Indrayani Express, full of passengers, to roll away on its own from Thakurwadi to Karjat, saved from becoming a fatal accident only when it slowed down when the incline changed.

Chronology of railways in India, Part 5 (1995 – present)

1995

January 16: First regularly scheduled services on trains hauled by locos using the 2*25kV ‘dual’ system of traction (Bina-Katni on CR). January: First prototype of the CONCERT passenger reservation system developed at Secunderabad. Gauge conversion of Purna-Nanded / Manmad-Mudkhed MG section breaks the MG network’s northsouth connection. (Mudkhed-Secunderabad is left as an isolated MG line.) Khodiyar-Mehsana MG section converted to BG. DLW and GM sign contract for technology transfer for GM’s GT46MAC and 710 series locos, and the purchase of 31 GT46MAC/GT46PAC locos. April: The first WDP-1 loco is commissioned. April 2: New Madras Beach – Tambaram BG line. July 18: The first WDG-2 loco is commissioned. December 6: Last official BG steam service (Jalandhar-Ferozepur). Hassan-Mangalore MG line dismantled in parts for gauge conversion. Miraj-Bangalore line converted to BG. Gauge conversion of Hissar-Rewari, Rewari-Jaipur, Phulera-Marwar, Jodhpur-Jaisalmer, Chikjajur-Hubli, Hubli-Londa, Londa-Miraj, Hospet-Hubli, Donakonda-Giddalur, Muzaffarpur-Raxaul, Birpur-Shimoga, Parbhani-Purna, Arjuni-Wadsa, Purulia-Kotshila (planned completion dates — some may have taken longer). Sep. 27: End-to-end through service on the Calcutta Metro begins (Tollygunge to Dum Dum) with 16 of the planned 17 stations. Delhi-Panipat MEMU service begins. Eleven WAP-5 locos imported from ABB (AdTranz), the first locos with 3-phase AC technology in India. IR begins a big push to convert passenger coaches from 24V electricals to 110V systems. Dec. : DLW exports 2 WDM-2 locos to Sri Lanka. Pune division of CR created. Mumbai’s Harbour line is extended to Khandeshwar. Diva – Veer DMU services inaugurated. IR launches ‘Exhibition-on-Wheels’, a special train with various IR-related material forming a travelling exhibition. IR signs agreement with Linke Hoffman Busch (LHB, now part of Alstom) for supply of, and technology transfer for, passenger coaches. [Disaster] May 14: 52 killed as Madras-Kanyakumari Exp. collides with goods train near Salem. [Disaster] June 1: 73 killed in two separate accidents (West Bengal, Orissa). [Disaster] Aug. 20: 302 killed as Delhi-bound Purushottam Express rams into the stationary Kalindi Express at Firozabad, UP. Some sources claim the death toll was 400+. This is India’s second worst railway disaster going by the death toll (the 1981 accident in which a train fell into a river in Bihar being the worst).

1996

Six WAG-9 locos and 16 more in kit form imported from ABB (AdTranz), the second batch of 3-phase AC locos for IR. First one is commissioned on Dec. 27. Feb. 11: The last of the 17 stations of the first phase of the Calcutta Metro (Mahatma Gandhi Road) is commissioned. March 4: Victoria Terminus is renamed Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus. April: DLW exports 10 YDM-4 locos to Bangladesh. July: Six new railway zones proposed and approved in principle. Sep.: The Union Cabinet approves the first phase of the Delhi Metro. September: CONCERT system of computerized reservations fully deployed at New Delhi. Telecom cubicle provided on the Mumbai Rajdhani for on-board telephone and fax service. [Disaster] April 18: 60 killed as Gorakhpur-Gonda passenger train rams into stationary goods train at Domingarh near Gorakhpur, UP. [Disaster] May 14: 35 in a bus killed as Ernakulam-Kayamkulam Express collides with the bus at an unmanned level crossing near Alappuzha, Kerala. [Disaster] May 25: 25 killed when Allahabad-bound passenger train rams into a tractor-trailer at an unmanned level crossing near Varanasi. [Disaster] Dec. 30: 33 killed in bomb blast on Brahmaputra Mail between Kokrajhar and Fakiragram in lower Assam.

1997

Freight services begin on Konkan Railway. Third Godavari bridge built, to replace the first one built in 1897, near Rajahmundry. RCF begins manufacture of MEMU coaches. Mehsana-Palanpur MG section converted to BG. Ahmedabad-Ajmer MG section converted to BG. Radio communication between driver and guard introduced on the Delhi – Mughalsarai route. An experimental system interconnecting Vyasarapadi, Korukkupet, and Washermanpet stations’ signalling systems to Basin Bridge Jn. (Chennai) using fibre-optic links is in place. October 18: Fairy Queen back in regular revenue service. Madras MRTS begins running with service between Beach and Luz. Oct. 19: Beach – Thirumayilai (Mylapore) construction completed. DMU services begin on KR (Karwar-Pernem). Jan. 11: Salem – Bangalore BG conversion. DLW exports one WDS-6 shunter to Puttlam Cement Co. in Sri Lanka, and 6 WDM-2 locos to Sri Lanka Railways. CONCOR buys 1300 BFKI flat wagons from IR in an effort to increase its container transport capacity. April 30: The infamous ‘Platinum Pass’ is instituted, which allowed all current and past Railway Board

members to free travel on IR by Air-conditioned First Class. This perquisite was later withdrawn on court order following a successful public interest lawsuit. WDM-2 #16859 of Ernakulam shed becomes the first Indian loco to get air-conditioning as a permanent feature (excluding locos specially provided with such equipment just for the ‘beauty contests’). Erstwhile Moradabad steam shed is dismantled to make way for a Concor depot. [Disaster] July 8: 33 killed in bomb blast on passenger train at Lehra Khanna station in Bhatinda district, Punjab. [Disaster] July 28: 12 killed in collision between Karnataka Exp. and Himsagar Exp. near Faridabad, Haryana, near New Delhi. [Disaster] Sep. 14: At least 81 killed as five coaches of Ahmedabad-Howrah Express derail and fall into a river at Bilaspur, MP. Some sources claim a death toll of 120.

1998

Konkan Railway construction is completed, and the first passenger train is flagged off on Jan. 26. IR begins upgrading communication links along high traffic routes to optic fibre. November 14: CLW begins production of indigenous versions of WAG-9 (first one is “Navyug”). April 29: CLW also manufactures its 2500th electric loco (a WAG-7, “Swarna Abha”). June 14: CONCERT system of computerized reservations deployed at Kolkata. 10 YDM-4′s sent to Tanzania under a 10-year full-service lease by RITES. Diva-Panvel doubling inaugrated; EMU services begin from Panvel. Coupon Validating Machines (CVMs) introduced at Mumbai CST. Aug. 22: Tambaram-Tiruchirappalli BG conversion. Thanjavur- Tiruchirappalli BG conversion. Oct. : The first WDP-2 (#15501) is commissioned. ‘Buddha Parikrama’, a tourist train for Buddhist sites, launched. A seventh new railway zone (in addition to the six proposed in 1996) is proposed. [Disaster] April 4: 11 killed as Howrah-Danapur Express derails between between Fatuha and Bankaghat stations. [Disaster] April 24: 24 killed, 32 injured as a goods train with 15 wagons collides with the ManmadKacheguda Exp. at Parli Vaijanath (Beed) station, MP. [Disaster] Aug. 13: 19 killed, 37 injured as the Chennai-Madurai Exp. collides with a bus at an unmanned level crossing on the New Karur – Salem bypass. [Disaster] Sep. 24: 20 killed (14 children) and 33 injured as a locomotive collides with a bus at an unmanned level crossing near Bottalapalem, AP. [Disaster] Nov. 26: At least 212 killed Jammu Tawi – Sealdah Express rams into three derailed carriages of the Amritsar-bound Golden Temple mail at Khanna, near Ludhiana, Punjab.

1999

WDG-4 locos imported and homed at Hubli. Briganza Ghat opened to traffic [10/99] with Vasco – Madgaon – Londa services. NDM-6 locos procured for the Matheran and Darjeeling Himalayan railways. WDP-2 locos in service on Konkan Railway. Jan. 11: CLW begins manufacture of 3-phase AC traction motors 6FRA 6068 for WAG-9 locos. Jan. 11: CONCERT system of computerized reservations deployed at Mumbai. The seventh new zone (South East Central) is approved in principle. Apr. 12: CONCERT system of computerized reservations deployed at Chennai. The complete networked nationwide system became operational on April 18. July 2: MRVC incorporated to execute suburban rail projects in the Mumbai area. Sep 19: HGS 26761 hauls a train from Howrah to Tribeni and back. Nov 10: ICF’s first stainless steel coach prototype. Dec 2: Darjeeling Himalayan Railway becomes the second railway site in the world to be designated a World Heritage site. New diesel locos introduced on New Jalpaiguri – Darjeeling section of the DHR. Jan. 6: Tiruchirappalli-Dindigul BG conversion. DLW turns out its 4000th locomotive. Credit cards accepted for booking tickets and reservations in some stations (including Mumbai CST). Konkan Railway begins roll-on roll-off (RORO) freight services on the Kolad-Verna section. [Disaster] June 4: 12 killed and 60 injured when 14 coaches of the Secunderabad-bound Godavari Exp. derail near Kazipet. [Disaster] July 16: 17 killed and 200 injured as Delhi-bound Grand Trunk Express collides with derailed wagons of a goods train near Mathura. [Disaster] Aug. 2: The Gaisal disaster, a head-on collision between the Guwahati-bound Awadh Assam Express and the Delhi-bound Brahmaputra Mail at Gaisal in North Dinajpur district, West Bengal, kills 288 persons and injures 360. One of India’s worst rail accident ever, it was caused by a signalling and routing error that put the two trains on the same track. Only the Purushottam Exp. tragedy (1995) and the 1981 disaster of a train falling into a river were worse.

Chronology of railways in India, Part 7 (2000 – present)

2000

February: Indian Railways’ web site deployed. Feb: 10 YDM-4′s are reconditioned at Golden Rock and sent to Myanmar. Feb. 24: CLW begins manufacturing ABB’s 6FXA 7059 3-phase traction motors. Feb: New lightweight passenger coaches supplied by Alsthom LHB. May 10: First WAP-7 locomotive, ‘Navkiran’, from CLW. May 17: First indigenous WAP-5 (named ‘Navodit’) from CLW. May: Diesel-hauling of DHR train inaugurated. Bankura-Midnapore section electrified and MEMU services begin (June 30). MEMU services also begin on Arakkonam-Jolarpettai section (May 22). June 30: First WAG-9H loco, ‘Navshakti’, #31030, from CLW. Steam: Ooty ‘X’ class loco rebuilt and successfully steamed and run on trials (February). WP 7161 steamed for filming a motion picture, at Bombay; WP 7015 steamed, takes short train around New Delhi before returning to NRM (February). Steam-hauled train from Dehradun to Harrawala to commemorate the centenary of the Doon Railway (May). CONCOR starts dedicated container services: Shalimar – Chennai, Shalimar – Hyderabad, Cossipore – New Delhi.

All-women ‘Tejaswini’ squads of ticket-checkers and police officers introduced for Mumbai suburban services. July 23: Trichur-Ernakulam section electrified. Oct. 30: Villupuram-Trichy linked by optical fibre telecom link. Nov. 22: New BG line between Penukonda and Puttaparthi. Successful trials with high-speed (100km/h) running of BOXN wagon rakes on the Gomoh-Mughalsarai section. New bridge over Ganga at Balawali (Saharanpur-Moradabad section). [Disaster] July 1: Howrah-Amritsar Express rams into an empty rake of the Saharanpur-Ambala Passenger between Ambala Cantt. and Ambala City after the latter stopped following a power failure. Two persons were killed. Signal and interlocking problems were cited as the reasons. [Disaster] Dec. 2: Howrah-Amritsar Mail collides with a derailed goods train between Sarai Banjara and Sadhugarh in Punjab. 46 are killed, 130 or so injured.

2001

Jan 21: Freight services between India and Bangladesh officially resumed after a gap of 25 years, on the Petrapole-Benapole BG link. Following successful trials of the new Alstom LHB coaches at 160km/h, IR announces they will be used on the Delhi-Lucknow route (Swarna Shatabdi) (max. speed restricted to 140km/h). Feb. 12: Second WAP-7 loco, ‘Navbharati’, #30202, commissioned. April: DLW delivers 10 BG locomotives (WDM-2 variants) to Bangladesh, and (later) 2 WDM-2 (? reported as 2300hp locos by IR) units to Sri Lanka. May 17: In trials, a single WAG-9 hauls a 4700t rake of 58 BOXN-HA wagons at speeds up to 100km/h on the Sonenagar-Mughalsarai section. MAWD 1798 steamed after restoration; first run is Guwahati-Pandu. Converted AC-DC EMU rake with Alstom electricals used in trials on Borivli-Dahanu section, and then [June 12] AC-DC EMU service is officially inaugurated on the Churchgate-Dahanu section. Four GM GT46PAC locos, classed WDP-4, arrive at Hubli. DLW begins indigenous production of WDG-4 locos. IRCON bags a contract for track doubling and electrification of the Ipoh – Padang Besar line in Malaysia. July 12: The Maitry Express begins passenger service between Bangladesh and India. August: The Rakesh Mohan Committee submits its report, recommending splitting IR into an operations body and a regulatory body, rationalization of fares, closure of unprofitable lines, a corporate approach to finances, manpower reductions, and an aim of privatization after 15 years. December: All rail traffic between India and Pakistan is suspended following rising tensions between the countries (the Samjhauta Express is also cancelled as part of this). A 2300hp Cape gauge diesel locomotive is manufactured by DLW for KTM Malaysian Railways. Pendekallu-Gooty branch line opened.

IVRS (‘Interactive Voice Response System’) for telephonic enquiries about trains introduced in some stations. [Disaster] June 22: Several coaches of the Mangalore-Chennai Mail fall into the Kadalundi river when the bridge at Parappanangadi near Kozhikode, at the time over a hundred years old, collapses. 64 persons die.

2002

Feb. 27: At least 59 persons are killed when a mainly Muslim mob sets fire to a coach carrying mostly Hindu activists in the Sabarmati Express at Godhra. March 15: Indian Rail Archives inaugurated at the NRM. March: South-Western Railway zone ‘inaugurated’ (but official notification of the new zone occurs in July, see below). Jan Shatabdi trains come into service. March 14: IR revamps classification codes for diesel locos. April 9: First locally built WDG-4 locomotive (GM EMD GT46MAC) commissioned. April 10: WR’s air-conditioned EMU coaches have trial run between Churchgate and Dadar. April 16: Various celebrations on the occasion of IR’s 150th year, including steam runs with WP’s at Mumbai. May 15: Rewari steam shed re-commissioned. July 21: Upgraded WAP-7 trial successful. June 4: At least 30 persons travelling in a bus are killed as it is rammed by the Kanpur-Kasganj Exp. after the bus driver forces the bus through the closed safety gate of a level crossing. June 14: Orders passed for creation of two new railway zones: East Central and North Western. July 6: Orders passed for creation of five new railway zones East Coast, South Western, South East Central, North Central, and West Central. July 26: The first rake for the Delhi Metro is manufactured by Rotem, South Korea. Aug. 3: IR begins online train reservations and ticketing over the Internet. Sep. 17: First trial run of the Delhi Metro. Sep. 20: Six coaches of the Kolkata-bound Teesta-Torsha Exp. derail near Mahipal station but fortunately no-one is killed or seriously injured. Dec. 1: Internet ticket booking extended to more cities. Dec. 14: Narrow gauge railway museum inaugurated at Nagpur. Dec. 25: Delhi Metro opens for commercial operation. Dec. 29: Konkan Railway conducts a trial run of the Madgaon-Roha Express at 150km/h (briefly touching 165km/h at times) using a WDP-4 loco. Also in December (confirmation needed) NR is said to have run trials with a WDP-4 hauling at train at up to 180km/h on the Ghaziabad-Tundla section. Dec. 31: First trial run of a train run on 5% biodiesel blended fuel (Amritsar Shatabdi). [Disaster] May 12: Thirteen coaches of the New Delhi – Patna Shramjeevi Exp. derail near Jaunpur

(between Kheta Sarai and Mehrawan) while traversing a bridge, killing at least 12 passengers. [Disaster] June 4: Thirty-four persons killed when the Kasgunj Exp. crashes into a bus at a level crossing. [Disaster] Sep. 9: New Delhi-bound Howrah Rajdhani derails at 130km/h on a bridge near Rafiganj in Bihar. One coach plunges into the Dhavi river, others are left suspended from the bridge. 130 are killed. Sabotage is floated as a theory, but the official inquiry also brings to light engineering problems. [Disaster] Dec. 21: At least 20 persons die after the Kacheguda/Hyderabad-Bangalore Exp. derails at 90km/h near Ramliangayapalli in Kurnool district (AP). 7 coaches overturn in the derailment.

2003

Jan. 3: The Secunderabad-Manmad Exp. runs through danger signals and rams into a stationary freight train at Parli (300km west of Hyderabad), killing 14. DLW gets another order for YDM-4 locos from Vietnam (10 units). March: Trials conducted in the Delhi – Sarai Rohilla section for a new MG DEMU manufactured by RCF. April: The 7 new railway zones begin functioning. April 26: First indigenously built WDP-4 (#20011) inaugurated at DLW. August 9: Hyderabad/Secunderabad ‘MMTS’ train services begin with 13 Lingampally-Hyderabad services and 11 Lingampally-Secunderabad services each day. August 20: The first indigenously manufactured 4-coach rake from BEML for the Delhi Metro is commissioned. [Disaster] Jan 3: Kacheguda-Manmad Express rams into a stationary train near Ghatnandur (Maharashtra), killing 20 persons. The driver of the express and six other officials are suspended following a report citing human error. [Disaster] May 15: At least 38 passengers die when fire breaks out in three coaches of the Amritsarbound Golden Temple Mail (Frontier Mail) near Ladhowal station (near Ludhiana). A kerosene stove used in a coach by some passengers is said to be the cause. The Presidential Saloon is used after a gap of 26 years. [Disaster] June 22: An Ahmedabad/Mumbai-bound special train from Karwar derails after hitting boulders and debris from a landslide on the tracks just after Vaibhavwadi station, Ratnagiri region. 53 passengers are killed in what is KR’s first fatal accident. KR is blamed by some for not having studied the stability of the landforms in the area adequately as well as for not patrolling the area thoroughly in the monsoon season. [Disaster] July 2: 21 passengers of the Hyderabad-bound Golconda Exp. and several road travellers die when the train derails (locomotive and two coaches) just outside Warangal station, with the locomotive falling off the bridge and on to a road below. Brake failure coupled with overspeeding are cited as the cause. [Disaster] Oct. 23: Seven die as five coaches of the Bangalore-bound Mysore-Bangalore push-pull train derail near Mysore. Faulty wheel discs from the Durgapur steel plant are said to be the cause.

Golden Rock’s new oil-fired ‘B’ class loco(s) for the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway built and ready for trials. Nov. 10 : Centenary celebrations of the Kalka-Shimla Railway. Dec. 15 : Mumbai Rajdhani starts running with the new LHB coaches. Dec. 13-21 : Trials with weak field arrangement for MEMUs on the Tundla-Kanpur section of NCR. With a ‘dense crush load’ and stopping at all stations, a 4-car MEMU rake could decrease its total running time by 7% with a max. speed of 90km/h and 10% with a max. speed of 100km/h on the 228km section, because of the improved acceleration.

2004

January: The Railway Board is expanded by the introduction of two new Member posts, for Signalling & Telecom and for Stores. Jan. 15: Samjhauta Express resumes running between India (Attari) and Pakistan (Lahore) twice a week. The rail link agreement of Jan. 2001 is extended through Jan. 2007. Jan. 23: BEML begins manufacture of Delhi Metro coaches. Jan 26: Second phase of Chennai MRTS, connecting Luz and Tiruvanmiyur, begins operations. May: Nine YDM-4 locos (ex-Sabarmati) are sold and sent to Togo Rail SA (Chemins de fer Togolais) (West Africa). June 30: SCR operates last MG train on the Nizamabad-Manoharabad line, bringing to an end MG services started in the 1930s on the Secunderabad-Manmad line of the Nizam’s State Railways. July 1: Chennai area MG EMU services discontinued; last MG EMU runs from Egmore to Tambaram marking the end of 73 years of these stalwart trains. Also the day of the last YAM-1 run. July 12: First goods train from Kolkata (Calcutta) to Nepal using the Raxaul-Birgunj line. July: SCR begins using new aerodynamically designed DEMU rakes from ICF. July: Golden Rock workshops manufacture the second oil-fired steam loco, ‘Himanand’, for the DHR. July: Trial runs with a diesel loco running on bio-diesel blended fuel (Trichy-Tanjor Passenger). July 25: Two brass handles and four copper pipes were stolen from the Fairy Queen (EIR No. 22), the 149-year-old steam locomotive at the National Railway Museum, New Delhi. August: Thane-Thurbe-Vashi EMU services begin in Mumbai. Sep. 15: First public trial of KR’s Skybus project in Madgaon, demonstrating the vehicle moving at 40km/h for a distance of about 1km. Sep. 15: First batch of improved flat wagons for CONCOR. Sep. 25: KR Skybus prototype has an accident where the coach crashes into a pier; one person is killed. Oct. : IR makes prototype standard-gauge bogies for possible export. Nov. 1: BG EMU Services inaugurated between Chennai Egmore and Tambaram on the newly converted BG line. Nov. 27: First successful run of Delhi Metro under ATO (first use of ATO in the country). Dec. 19: First underground section of Delhi Metro inaugurated (Delhi University – Kashmiri Gate).

Dec. 26: Indian Ocean tsunami washes away tracks on Nagore-Nagapattinam section. Luni-Barmer-Munabao section converted to BG in preparation for possible Munabao-Khokhraphar link between India and Pakistan. Preliminary approval granted for Mumbai MRTS light rail project. Gauge conversion of Purna-Akola section begins; this is the section that in 1960 first interconnected the MG networks of northern and southern India. December: Konkan Railway being considered for merger with IR. IR makes a move to open up the bookstall and catering business at its stations, ending the long reign ofbooksellers Higginbothams (in the south) and A H Wheeler (elsewhere) at railway stations in India. [Disaster] June 16: Twenty killed as Mangalore-Mumbai Matsyagandha Exp. derails between Karanjadi (Roha?) and Vir (Veer) stations in Maharashtra’s Raigarh district on Konkan Railways, with the locomotive and two coaches falling off a bridge after a collision with boulders on the tracks. [Disaster] Dec. 13: A head-on collision between the Jammu Tawi – Ahmedabad Exp. and a DMU train on the Jallandhar – Pathankot single line between Bhangala and Mirthal stations leaves 38 dead and several injured.

2005

Jan.: Boarding Rajdhanis, Shatabdis, and Jan Shatabdis at intermediate points without reservations allowed. Feb.: Chawri Bazar station of the Delhi Metro is built with new technology of pre-cast concrete blocks for the platforms. Apr. 11: New MG AC Chair Car coaches with roof-mounted AC unit inaugurated. Apr. 27 : Jammu Tawi – Udhampur line in Jammu & Kashmir inaugurated (dedication ceremony on April 13) and the Uttar Sampark Kranti from New Delhi to Udhampur begins running. This line was sanctioned in April, 1980. Apr. 26: Vigyan Mail – the second incarnation of the Science Express — is flagged off from Delhi Safdarjung. Jul. 20: Mahesana-Viramgam section opened after gauge conversion (under BOT scheme). Jul. 21: Palitana-Sihor section opened after gauge conversion (under BOT scheme). Aug.: IRCTC introduces E-ticketing for IR on Aug. 12; ticketing by SMS begins on Aug. 26. A Frequent Traveller scheme is also under consideration. Aug. 12: Construction begins on Howrah Regional Railway Museum. Oct. 17: ‘Millennium Rake’ for Mumbai suburban system inaugurated at Churchgate station. IR undertakes cultivation of Jatropha plants for production of biodiesel. Nov. 20: Nilgiri Mountain Railway gets UNESCO’s World Heritage Site status. Dec. 1-7: Centenary celebrations of Howrah Station. Dec. 31: Delhi Metro’s Barakhamba – Dwarka line opens. Madras-Howrah route completely electrified.

[Disaster] Feb. 3 : Collision between Nagpur-bound Ramtek local and a tractor-trailer at the Bordan unmanned level crossing near Kanhan kills 55. [Disaster] Apr. 3 : Howrah-bound Udyan Abha Toofan Exp. from Sriganganagar catches fire between Darauli and Dildarnagar stations. Five coaches are completely gutted in the blaze, but there are no casualties. The driver of a passing goods train notices the fire and alerts the driver of the Toofan Exp. who makes an emergency stop, allowing the passengers to escape. [Disaster] Apr. 21 : Ahmedabad-bound Sabarmati Exp. from Varanasi rams into a stationary goods train at Samlaya, between Vadodara and Godhra, killing 17 passengers. Signal and interlocking failures during maintenance and a failure to follow the appropriate backup procedures are thought to have caused the mishap. July 26: Heavy rains wash away tracks and destroy 37 bridges of the Neral – Matheran NG line and service is suspended. [Disaster] Oct. 3 : Twelve persons killed and many injured when six coaches of the Bundelkhand Exp. derail and ram into a railway control cabin near Datia, MP. [Disaster] Nov. 9 : Three killed and many injured as a goods train runs into a passenger train near Jharkhand’s Barwadih station, about 170km from Ranchi.

2006

Feb. 15: New Delhi – Bhopal Shatabdi cleared for running at 150km/h commercial speed on the New Delhi – Agra Cantt. stretch. Feb. 17: Thar Express service begins with the train on the Indian side running from Jodhpur to Munabao with the connecting train on the Pakistan side running from Karachi to Khokhropar to Munabao to connect. Feb. 19: Igatpuri – Kasara section switched from DC to AC traction. Feb.: 100km/h trials with Mumbai EMUs (however, this is not the first time trials have been conducted at these speeds). March 24: Regular double-stacked container service (on BLCA/BLCB flat wagons) begins on the Pipavav – Jaipur route between ICD Kanakpura and Pipavav Port. May – July: Telescopic fares withdrawn in Railway Budget and restored in July. [Disaster] Jul. 11 : Seven bombs go off nearly simultaneously at different places on WR’s EMUs in Mumbai during the evening rush hour, killing 181 persons and injuring nearly 900. Aug. 24 : Service on the Munabao-Khokhrapar international link to Pakistan is suspended following incessant rain and waterlogging on the Munabao-Barmer-Jodhpur section. Oct. 5 : The first Garib Rath train begins service between Saharsa and Amritsar. [Disaster] Nov. 10 : Ten coaches of the Surat Bhusawal Passenger derail near Kolde station in Maharashtra, with three of the coaches capsizing, resulting in 98 persons being injured. Nov. 17: A restored N-class Garratt locomotive built by Beyer, Peacock in 1929 and used by SER until 1971 goes on a heritage run from Shalimar to Mecheda. The Beyer Garratt class was the largest

locomotive ever used in India. Nov. 20: A bomb blast in a coach of the Haldibari – New Jalpaiguri Passenger train at Belakoba station kills 8 and injures many. Nov. 30: Deccan Queen coaches set on fire at Ulhasnagar by a mob protesting the vandalism of a statue of Dr B R Ambedkar. Coaches of a Mumbai – Karjat / Mumbai – Ambernath locals were also set on fire. [Disaster] Dec. 2 : A 150-year-old brick and masonry bridge over a railway line collapses on a running train at Bhagalpur, killing at least 47 as the debris crushed a passenger coach. The bridge was in the process of being dismantled. Also on Dec. 2, the locomotive of the Avadh Express is destroyed following a short-circuit induced fire at Lakheri station near Kota. Dec. 4: The Deccan Queen is back in service after the arson attack of Nov. 30. Dec. 10: The second Garib Rath train begins service between Rajendra Nagar and H. Nizamuddin. Dec. 16: First BG diesel shunter loco assembled by Parel Workshops of CR.

2007

Jan. 1: Trial run of the Neral-Matheran NG train from Neral to Jummapatti following reconstruction of the railway line that was washed away in 2005. The special run on New Year’s Day in advance of the resumption of full passenger services was undertaken especially because 2007 is the centenary year of the line. Jan. 4: Private players allowed into the field of container transport operation, ending CONCOR’s monopoly. Jan. 12: Mahaparinirvan Express, a Buddhist tourist circuit train, begins service. [Disaster] Jan. 14: Eight killed and several injured as three wagons and a brake van of a goods train fall into a dry riverbed in Latehar district between Hehegarha and Kumundi stations of Dhanbad division. Jan. 16: Last MG train runs on Mysore – Chamarajanagar line. Feb. 7: Advance booking period of railway tickets changed to 90 days. Feb. 17: The Thar Express to Pakistan resumes running. Services were halted in 2006 following heavy rain and waterlogging of the tracks. [Disaster] Feb. 18: At least 68 passengers killed and many injured when bombs explode in the DelhiAttari special train for passengers heading to Lahore in Pakistan by the Samjhauta Exp, at Deewana near Panipat. Mar. 13: Service resumes on the Neral – Matheran NG line partially on the section from Neral to Jummapatti. Apr. 9: First private container train, owned by Boxtrans Logistics, runs from Cossipore to Loni. Apr. 11: IR announces new codes for passenger coaches (‘B-1′ for AC-3T coaches formerly designated ‘AS-1′, etc.). Apr. 11: First long-distance trains named after a corporate brand launched. SWR granted PepsiCo the right to run three summer trains (Bangalore – Nagarkole, Bangalore – Chennai, and Bangalore – Hubli)

under the name ‘Kurkure Express’ with branding by PepsiCo for its lines of snacks of that name. Apr. 17: Maersk Line launches dedicated block train operation between Bangalore and Chennai with CONCOR, connecting to the MECL2 freight ship service from the US east coast to Chennai. May 30: Private container train by APL (formerly American President Lines) runs from Loni to Jawaharlal Nehru Port. [Disaster] Jun. 11: Three killed and 22 injured when 11 coaches of the Nagercoil – Howrah Gurudev Exp. derail near Duvvada station. [Disaster] Jun. 25: Seven persons (including the driver and 6 trackmen) are killed when two locomotives and and seven wagons of a goods train fall 200 feet off a bridge between Dihakho and Mupa on the MG Lumding-Badarpur hill section of NFR. Jun. 30: Trial runs on gauge-converted BG section Madurai – Manmadurai – Rameshwaram and Pamban Bridge. Jul. 2: Successful trial runs on Borivli-Virar section under the track quadrupling project. Jul. 7: Landslides following heavy rain affect the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway services in Kurseong subdivision. Jul. 8: An Indian train (named Moitree or ‘Friendship’) arrives at Dhaka Cantonment Station on a trial run for the planned resumption of regular passenger services between Kolkata and Dhaka. Jul. 29: The Moitree Express leaves Dhaka Cantt. for Chitpur (Kolkata). Aug. 12: First train services on the Pamban bridge after conversion of Manmadurai-Rameshwaram to broad gauge. Aug. 25: ‘Himalayan Princess’ diesel-hauled train joins the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway. Aug. 25: Kashmir: Successful trial run of 24km by 7-coach diesel-hauled train on the new route linking Budgam (central Kashmir) to Kakpora (Pulwama district of Kashmir valley), at 100km/h. Sep. 7: ‘Fairy Queen’ locomotive flagged off from Perambur Loco Works after a complete overhaul which began in 1996. Sep. 24: Five coaches of the Avadh Express catch fire while passing through Bharuch district in Gujarat on its way from Gorakhpur to Mumbai. There were no fatalities. Sep. 28: Latur-Usmanabad route open to traffic after conversion to broad gauge. Oct. 19: CONCOR starts full train domestic reefer movement from the inland container depot (ICD) at Dadri. This is the first refrigerated container train on the Delhi-Mumbai route. Nov. 1: New Salem division of SR constituted out of the existing Palakkad and Madurai divisions. Nov. 7: SCR introduces high-speed goods train, ‘Himalaya Special’ from Secunderabad. This is intended for speedy transportation of goods such as coal. The train is expected to run at 100km/h. Nov. 8: Mangalore station renamed to Mangalore Central; Kankanadi to Mangalore Junction. Nov. 9: Vriddhachalam-Salem conversion to broad-gauge finished, train services start on the 18th. Dec. 1: ‘Red Ribbon’, a special train for AIDS/HIV awareness, is flagged off. Dec. 8: Direct train between Bangalore and Mangalore begins service. [Disaster] Dec. 9: At least 150 people are injured, and one killed, when 14 coaches of the Brahmaputra

Mail derail (with three of them turning turtle) between Rangapani and Nijbari stations about 15km from New Jalpaiguri station in West Bengal. [Disaster] Dec. 13: A bomb goes off in the Delhi-bound Rajdhani Express at Sungajan near Dimapur, killing five persons and injuring more than 20. [Disaster] Dec. 13: Eleven coaches of the Ahmedabad-bound Rajdhani Express derail between Sirohi and Banas near the Gujarat border. No fatalities were reported. [Disaster] Dec. 14: The Ludhiana-Ferozepur Sutlej Express collides in dense fog with a bus at the Chuharchak Nawan level crossing in Moga District in Punjab, killing 20. Dec. 26: Karimnagar-Jagityal railway line opened.

2008

[Disaster] Jan. 6: Amritsar-Dibrugarh train derails between Basdih and Sadwar railway stations, near Ballia, affecting rail traffic in the area for a day. Jan. 17: New weekly CONCOR train from the Whitefield (Bangalore) ICD to the Rajiv Gandhi Container Terminal of Kochi Port begun. Mar. 7: 49 transmission lines in western Uttar Pradesh trip, forcing mass cancellations of NR trains. Mar. 8: Hajipur railway station of ECR in Bihar becomes the first one to be staffed entirely by women. Mar. 20: Seventeen injured when the Madurai-Kollam Fast Passenger derails at Muthusamypuram. Seven coaches jumped the tracks. Mar. 28: Katpadi-Vellore BG track trials. Apr. 14: First scheduled run of the Kolkata (Calcutta) – Dhaka ‘Moitree’ Express between India and Bangladesh. Apr. 27: Trial runs on the Shahdara – Dilshad Garden line of the Delhi Metro begin, 7 months ahead of schedule. May 1: Private companies now allowed to run parcel services on trains; Books Logistics of Bangalore is the first to use SWR trains for parcel and courier service. May 19: ECR finishes electrification of Cuttack-Paradip, Kapilas Road – Barang, Barang – Naraj Marthapur/Nergundi, Kapilas Road – Salegaon on Cttack-Talcher branch line. May 28: An agitation by the Gujjar ethnic group at Bayana disrupts all traffic on the busy Mumbai – New Delhi route; many passenger and freight trains routed through Bhopal. Passenger services on the 185km MG hill section between Silchar and Lumding are disrupted for two weeks by insurgents. Jun. 2: NR’s Jagadhri workshop rolls out the first double-decker goods train with 45 double-level wagons for carrying automobiles. Jun. 3: Delhi Metro inaugurates 3.1km extension of Rithala-Shahdara line up to Dilshad Garden. Jun. 4: Jammu and Kashmir railway line: A trial train from Anantnag arrives at Nowgam on the outskirts of Srinagar. Jun. 11: Centenary of the Egmore railway station at Chennai (Madras).

Jun. 20: 12-car rakes brought into service in the Chennai area, between Chennai Beach and Chengalpattu. Jun. 26: Stone India develops a special pantograph for high catenaries allowing double-stacked container freight movement on electrified lines. Jun. 29: The 68km extension of the railway line from Ambassa to Agartala is done, and NFR successfully runs a light locomotive all the way to Tripura’s capital city Agartala; the line passes through a 1.85km long tunnel in the Atharamura hill range. Jul. 7: Kalka-Shimla Railway added to UNESCO Heritage list. (Official declaration on Nov. 9.) Jul. 6-9: Trial runs between Jakhapura and Tomka on the Jakhapura-Daitari section of East Coast Railway with electric traction under a high catenary (7.45m high) for movement of double-stacked container trains. IR introduces stainless-steel open wagons with 11.6t capacity. [Disaster] Aug. 1: Thirty-two passengers killed and several injured when five coaches of the Secunderabad-Kakinada Gautami Express catch fire in Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh. Aug. 3: Foundation stone laid for Chhapra wheel factory at Bela. [Disaster] Aug. 12: Five passengers injured when the Padmawat Express collides with the Kalindi Express from the rear; the Kalindi was running on the same track. The collision occurred between Anand Vihar and Sahibabad stations. Aug. 12: Centralized Traffic Control with electronic interlocking and automatic signalling set up on the Ghaziabad-Kanpur section (410km). Sep. 12: IR cancels the project, already running for 4 years, of building the world’s highest (359m) railway bridge across the Chenab, as part of the railway line to Jammu and Kashmir, following a reassessment of the stability of the geological structures in the area and their suitability for supporting a large steel arch bridge. Instead, the proposed alignment will be re-routed a longer way following the local terrain. Sep. 17: A new route relay interlocking (RRI) system is installed at New Delhi. [Disaster] Oct. 1: Eleven injured when the Kazipet-Hyderabad MEMU rams the stationary WadiHyderabad Passenger at Lakdikapul station. Oct. 12: Inaugural run of train services between Rajwansher in Budgam district, Srinagar, and Anantnag district in Jammu and Kashmir. Oct. 20: WR inaugurates a heritage gallery at the headquarters building at Churchgate. Oct. 22: The first load of container traffic from Kolkata port to Nepal moves through the new JogbaniBiratnagar route. Container trains can move to Jogbani in northern Bihar, and the cargo is then unloaded and transported to the intermodal container freight station at Biratnagar in Nepal. Nov. 9: Official declaration of Kalka-Shimla Railway being added to UNESCO Heritage list. Nov. 12: Purna-Hingoli-Akola BG line commissioned; connects region with Nagpur-Mumbai and Secunderabad-Manmad main lines. Gauge conversion of this section began in 2006. Nov. 26: Terror attacks in Mumbai, including at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria

Terminus). Dec. 8: Gadag-Bagalkot section of SWR opened. Dec. 10: Pollachi-Palakkad section closed to traffic for gauge conversion. Dec. 12: Deshbandhu Locomotive Park at Ranchi opened to the public. Dec. 18: High-speed trials conducted on the BG section between Erode and Tiruchi; sectional speed of trains here is expected to rise to 110km/h. Dec. 21: IR decides to close down six ticket printing presses around the country, including the centuryold press at Kurseong. [Disaster] Dec. 21: One killed and several injured when a Kalka-Shimla holiday special train derails on its first trip of the season. Dec. 30: Delhi Metro inaugurates a museum about the metro’s history and development at Patel Chowk station. Loco classes WDM-3E and WDM-3F developed and brought into service.

2009

Jan. 1: IR decides to get rid of the ‘side middle berths’ (SMB) from trains, following a lot of protests from travellers. Jan. 4: A bomb goes off on the tracks between Maibongdisa and Harangajao in central Assam (North Cacchar district), damaging 3 goods wagons and disrupting traffic for some time. [Disaster] Jan. 4: Two goods trains collide at Panki near Kanpur, leading to large-scale disruption of traffic on the Delhi-Howrah route. Jan. 5: New Delhi – Jogbani Seemanchal Express flagged off. Jan. 10: CR starts Thane – Nerul/Panvel suburban services via the new Turbhe-Nerul section. [Disaster] Jan. 12: Nine goods wagons derail near Habibganj, disrupting traffic to Chennai and Mumbai for more than a day. Jan. 12: Golden Rock develops a 3000hp Cape gauge diesel locomotive intended for export to Mozambique and other countries. [Disaster] Jan. 17: A shunting locomotive collides with two coaches of the Chennai-bound Guruvayur Express near Tiruchi Jn., injuring four. [Disaster] Jan. 17: The Pathankot-Delhi Express very narrowly avoids a direct collision at speed with a locomotive on the same track, near Phillaur station. [Disaster] Jan. 27: Varanasi-bound Kashi Vishwanath Express rams into a stationary goods train at Janghai junction, 70km from Varanasi. There were no casualties. [Disaster] Feb. 3: Two locos and some wagons of a goods train going from Nizamabad to Chinnababu Samudram (TN) derailed near Malkajgiri and ran into the compound wall of a residence. There were no casualties. Feb. 3: Vishwavidyalaya-Azadpur-Jehangirpuri section of Delhi Metro opened. Feb. 4: A mysterious incident in which an ‘unauthorized’ person took the New Delhi – Ranchi Garib Rath

Express to Ranchi. Feb 10: Construction work commences on the Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor, starting with a 105km section from New Ganjkhwaja near Mughalsarai to New Karwandia near Sonnagar. [Disaster] Feb. 13: Thirteen coaches and the pantry car of the 2841 Howrah-Chennai Coromandel Express derailed while the train was running at a fairly high speed near Jajpur Road station in Orissa. There were 9 deaths and over 50 seriously injured passengers. [Disaster] Feb. 14: Twenty passengers injured as the Bettiya-Muzaffarpur Passenger collides head-on with the Raxaul-Sugauli Passenger at Sugauli Junction on the Narkatiyaganj-Muzaffarpur section of ECR in Bihar. Mar. 10: First batch of stainless-steel EMU coaches delivered by Titagarh Wagons. Mar. 19: Golden jubilee celebrations of IRICEN, Pune. Apr. 1: Golden Rock Workshop delivers first BG shunter made by converting an MG locomotive, classed ‘WCDS-6′. Apr. 12: A bomb suspected to be set by Maoist rebels goes off derailing a security pilot locomotive ahead of the Kolkata-Dibrugarh Kamrup Express on the Karbi Anglong district. Apr. 16: Two coaches of the Patna – Gaya Passenger train catch on fire at Patna; no casualties. Apr. 21: Maoist rebels explode bombs at the Untari railway station under the Garwa Road – Dehri Onsole division. Apr. 22: About 200 Naxal rebels hijack the Gomoh-Mughalsarai-Bondamunda Passenger going from Barkakana to Mughalsarai with 700 passengers on board, and release them and the train after a fivehour standoff at Hehegara in Jharkhand’s Latehar district. Apr. 23: Chiyanki station in Palamau district is attacked by Maoist rebels. Apr. 29: ‘Unauthorized’ person drives a Chennai suburban train from the Moore Market Complex through Basin Bridge, colliding with a goods train at Vyasarpadi Jiva, killing 4. May 10: Indraprastha – Yamuna Bank extension of Line 3 of Delhi Metro opens. May 22: Trials for phase II of the Delhi Metro main line, between Sector 9 of Dwarka and Dwarka Station. May 23: Neral-Matheran steam run with ex-DHR ‘B’ class loco. Jun. 9: First indigenously-built metro train-set manufactured by Vadodara plant of Bombardier. Jul. 29: Trial runs of first standard-gauge lines of Delhi Metro (Inderlok-Mundka). Aug. 1: ‘Izzat’ scheme launched allowing steeply discounted travel for poor commuters. Aug. 22: Tollygunge – Kavi Nazrul Islam (Goria Bazaar) metro train service starts in Kolkata. Aug. 29: Mangalore-Bangalore day train services resume after 14 years – they were discontinued in September 1995 when gauge conversion of the line was taken up. Sep. 11: First indigenously built standard-gauge metro train-set for Delhi Metro, by BEML. Sep. 11-14: First runs of the Tej Shree Parcel Sewa guaranteed transit timetabled parcel services by NR – Tughlakabad-Vapi (Sep. 11) and Tughlakabad-Howrah (Sep. 14). Sep. 18-28: First ‘Duronto’ non-stop expresses launched. Sep. 18 – Howrah – H. Nizamuddin, Sep. 21 –

Chennai – H. Nizamuddin, Sep. 28 – Mumbai-Howrah and Pune – H. Nizamuddin. [Disaster] Oct. 8: One killed, several injured as the locomotive and six coaches of the Amrapali Express derail near Pasaraha station in northern Bihar’s Khagaria district. [Disaster] Oct. 21: 21 killed, several injured as the Delhi-bound Goa Sampark Kranti Express rams into the rear of the stationary Mewar Express near Mathura station. Oct. 27: New Delhi-bound Bhubaneshwar Rajdhani Express is detained and all passengers and crew held hostage for nearly 7 hours by a Maoist group at Bansala near Jhargram town in West Bengal’s Paschim Medinipur district. Oct. 28: The 18km Anantnag-Qazigund section in Kashmir is inaugurated. It includes the country’s highest BG station, Qazigund, at 1722m (5166′) above sea level. This completes the 119-km QazigundBaramulla portion of the Kashmir Rail Link project. Oct. 30: Foundation stone laid for new BG line construction between Sevoke in West Bengal and Rangpo in Sikkim. Oct. 31: Trials conducted with a YDM-4 diesel locomotive hauling 5 coaches on the Nilgiri Mountain Railway line, between Mettupalaiyam and Hillgrove stations. Nov. 12: Delhi Metro extends service to NOIDA, from Akshardham station to Noida City Centre. [Disaster] Nov. 14: 7 killed and many injured as Jodhpur-Delhi Mandore Express derails near Bansko station in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. [Disaster] Nov. 17: A goods train carrying petroleum products catches fire near Changpool in Golaghat district in Assam. [Disaster] Nov. 19: 2 killed, many injured as the locomotive and 8 coaches of the 321 Up Tata-Bilaspur Passenger derail following an explosion between Posoita and Monoharpur on the ChakradharpurRourkela section of SER in Jharkhand; sabotage is suspected. Dec: Initial construction started on gauge conversion of Lunding-Silchar-Jiriban and BadarpurKumarghat lines in Assam. Also survey work for Sevok to Rangpo in Sikkim.

2010

[Disaster] Jan. 2: Gorakhdam Exp. heading to Gorakhdham rams into stationary Prayagraj Exp. headed to Allahabad, near Panki in dense fog, killing 10. [Disaster] Jan. 2: Lichchavi Exp. rams into stationary Magadh Exp. near Sarai Bhupat station, near Etawah, again in dense fog, critically injuring some. [Disaster] Jan. 3: All seven coaches of the Murkongselek-Rangiya Passenger train derailed between Helem and Nij Bogaon (about 70km from Rangiya) in Assam. No deaths were reported. Jan. 26: Trial run of a 108m-long section of the proposed Mumbai Monorail project, at Wadala. Feb. (?) WDP-4B locomotive production begun. [Disaster] Mar. 22: Seven coaches and the locomotive of the Bhubaneshwar – New Delhi Rajdhani Express derail after Maoist guerillas blow up the tracks between Paraiya and Kastha in the GayaMughalsarai section.

Mar. 31: First air-conditioned double-decker coach, from RCF. Apr. 1: Rail link to Vallarpadam International Container Transshipment Terminal (ICTT) opened to traffic. (Includes the longest (4.62km) railway bridge in the country.) Apr. 2: First standard-gauge metro line inaugurated – the Inderlok-Mundka section (‘Green Line’) of the Delhi Metro. May 14: Trial runs on Sultanpur – Qutub Minar section of Delhi Metro. May: (International) Construction begins on a new 75-km railway in Afghanistan between the existing short spur from Termez in Uzbekistan to Mazar-i-Sharif, expected to be completed by September. [Disaster] May 16: Two dead and several injured in a stampede at New Delhi station. [Disaster] May 25: Several passengers injured as Guwahati-bound Rajdhani Express derails at Amba halt between Kharik and Naugachia stations in Bihar. [Disaster] May 28: The Mumbai-bound Jnaneshwari Express derails between Khemasuli and Sardiha stations near Jhargram in West Midnapore – sabotage is thought to be the cause; subsequently a goods train heading in the opposite direction rams into the derailed coaches, resulting in around 150 deaths.

List of Indian Railway Ministers Railway Ministers of India
Years 1947 Railway Minister (Nov.) John Mathai (not formally designated the Minister for Railways) presents the first Railway budget for independent India N Gopalaswamy Ayyangar; worked on consolidating the various railways into the zonal railways Lal Bahadur Shastri; resigned in 1956 taking responsibility for three fatal railway accidents

1948-1952

1952-1956

1956-1962 Jagjivan Ram 1962 Sardar Swaran Singh Kengal Hanumanthaiah (Note: Some sources suggest he was Railway Minister later, in 1971). Ram Sew Singh is also mentioned in some sources as a railway minister in 1966-1968, he may not have been a Cabinet minister for railways. Cheppudira Muthana Poonacha Govinda Menon Panampilly Gulzari Lal Nanda Note: Kengal Hanumanthaiah may have been the Railway Minister briefly in 1971.

1967??

1968 1969 1970-1971

1972-1973 Tonse Ananth Pai 1973-1975 Lalit Narayan Mishra; killed by a bomb blast 2-Jan-1975, at the opening of a railway line in Samastipur.

1975-1977 Kamlapati Tripathi (again briefly in 1980?) 1977-1979 Prof. Madhu Dandavate 1980-1981 Kedar Pandey (Kamlapathi Tripathi briefly in 1980) (1981?) ABA Ghani Khan Chowdhury. 1982-1984 1984 Bansi Lal; his was a brief stint during a reorganization of some ministries and government departments

(1985?) Madhav Rao Scindia 1984-1989 1989-1990 George Fernandes 1990-1991 Jnaneshwar Mishra; very short tenure 1991-1995 C K Jaffer Sharief 1995-1996 Suresh Kalmadi (briefly), followed by Atal Behari Vajpayee also briefly, who held the Railways portfolio along with being PM.

1996-1998 Ram Vilas Paswan 1998-1999 Nitish Kumar 2000 Mamata Banerjee

2001-2004 Nitish Kumar 2004-2009 Laloo Prasad Yadav 2009Mamata Banerjee

Yearly List of Presenters of the Railway Budget of India Fiscal Year Budget Presenter 1 2 1947-48 1947-48 Transport Member, Railway Board Col. R. E. Emerson (Chief Commissioner, Railways)

3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1948-49 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 (interim) 1952-53 (final) 1953-54

Dr. John Mathai N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar Lal Bahadur Shastri Lal Bahadur Shastri Lal Bahadur Shastri Lal Bahadur Shastri Lal Bahadur Shastri Jagjivan Ram Jagjivan Ram Jagjivan Ram Jagjivan Ram Jagjivan Ram Jagjivan Ram Jagjivan Ram Sardar Swaran Singh Sardar Swaran Singh H. C. Dasappa S. K. Patil S. K. Patil C. M. Poonacha C. M. Poonacha C. M. Poonacha

10 1954-55 11 1955-56 12 1956-57 13 1957-58 (interim) 14 1957-58 (final) 15 1958-59 16 1959-60 17 1960-61 18 1961-62 19 1962-63 20 1962-63 (final) 21 1963-64 22 1964-65 23 1965-66 24 1966-67 25 1967-68 (interim) 26 1967-68 (final) 27 1968-69

28 1969-70 29 1970-71 30 1971-72 (interim) 31 1971-72 (final) 32 1972-73 33 1973-74 34 1974-75 35 August 1974 36 1975-76 37 1976-77 38 1977-78 (interim) 39 1977-78 (final) 40 1978-79 41 1979-80 42 1980-81 (interim) 43 1980-81 (final) 44 1981-82 45 1982-83 46 1983-84 47 1984-85 48 1985-86 49 1986-87 50 November 1986 51 1987-88 52 1988-89

Dr. Ram Subhag Singh Gulzari Lal Nanda K. Hanumanthaiya K. Hanumanthaiya K. Hanumanthaiya Lalit Narayan Misra Lalit Narayan Misra Lalit Narayan Misra Kamalapati Tripathi Kamalapati Tripathi Prof. Mathu Dandavate Prof. Mathu Dandavate Prof. Madhu Dandavate Prof. Madhu Dandavate Kamalapati Tripathi Kamalapati Tripati Kedar Pande P. C. Sethi A. B. A. Ghani Khan Choudhury A. B. A. Ghani Khan Choudhury Bansi Lal Bansi Lal Madhavrao Scindia Madhavrao Scindia Madhavrao Scindia

53 1989-90 54 1990-91 55 1991-92 (interim) 56 1991-92 (final) 57 1992-93 58 1993-94 59 1994-96 60 1996-97 61 1996-97 (interim) 62 1996-97 (final) 63 1997-98 64 1998-99 (interim) 65 1998-99 (final) 66 1999-2000 67 2000-01 68 2001-02 69 2002-03 70 2003-04 71 2004-05 (interim) 72 2004-05 (final) 73 2005-06 74 2006-07 75 2007-08 76 2008-09 77 2009-2010

Madhavrao Scindia George Fernandes Janeshwar Mishra C. K. Jaffar Sharief C. K. Jaffar Sharief C. K. Jaffar Sharief C. K. Jaffar Sharief C. K. Jaffar Sharief Suresh Kalmadi Ram Vilas Paswan Ram Vilas Paswan Nitish Kumar Nitish Kumar Nitish Kumar Mamata Banerjee Mamata Banerjee Nitish Kumar Nitish Kumar Nitish Kumar Lalu Prasad Yadav Lalu Prasad Yadav Lalu Prasad Yadav Lalu Prasad Yadav Lalu Prasad Yadav Mamata Banerjee

Trains introduced by Railway Ministers
This is an attempt to list out the trains introduced by successive Railway Ministers in India. Much of the information is from the railway budgets of each year. There are a vast number of trains that run in India, and many are cancelled, re-introduced, renamed, rescheduled or re-routed all the time, so this is only the barest attempt at listing some of the better-known trains and their origins.

Year

Railway Minister
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Trains introduced H. Nizamuddin – Mangalore/Ernakulam Jayanti Janata Samastipur Jayanti Janata and other JJ trains. Sabarmati Express Ganga-Kaveri Exp. Neelambari Exp. Varanasi Exp. (Delhi-Lucknow Exp. extended) Tamilnadu Exp. Kashi Vishwanath Exp. Jhelum Exp. Swaraj Exp. Sarvodaya Exp. Kerala Exp. Karnataka Exp. Andhra Pradesh Exp. EMUs on Pune-Lonavala section Sealdah – Malda Gaur Exp. Sealdah – Malda Gaur Exp. Jhansi Shatabdi (later to Bhopal) Howrah-Gwalior Chambal Exp. Bombay-Gwalior Lashkar Exp. Kanpur Shatabdi (later to Lucknow) Indrayani Exp. Pragati Exp. Jammu Tawi – Mangalore/Trichy Navyug Exp Dadar – Muzaffarpur Shramshakti Exp (now cancelled) Hatia – Varanasi Exp (still running?) Surat – Varanasi Tapti Ganga Exp New Delhi and Patna (via Varanasi) Shramjeevi Exp Bombay – New Delhi AC Exp (later August Kranti Rajdhani) Bombay – Ahmedabad Karnavati Exp Bombay – Varanasi Pawan Exp

1973 T A Pai 1974 L N Mishra

1975- Kamalapati ? Tripathi

1979- Prof. Madhu ? Dandavate

A B A Ghani 1980Khan 1984 Chaudhuri 1988 Madhav Rao Scindia

Madhav Rao 1989 Scindia

1990

George Fernandes

1991 Jaffer Sharief

• •

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H. Nizamuddin – Vishakapatnam Samata Exp Puri – Tirupati Exp Mysore – Tirupati Exp (now Mysore – Tirupati Passenger) Allahabad – Chahpra Bhagirathi Exp (MG) Allahabad – Agra Exp (proposed, never introduced) New Delhi – Bangalore Rajdhani Kurla- Bangalore Exp Bidar – Bangalore Link Exp Madras – Banglaore Lalbagh Exp Madras – Vijayawada Pinakani Exp Secunderabad – Vijayawada Satvahana Exp Secunderabad – Bhadrachalam (Passenger?) Varanasi – Gorakhpur Krishak Exp Sealdah – New Jalpaiguri Teesta Torsha Exp Gandhidham – Nagercoil Exp H. Nizamuddin – Indore Inter-City Exp Valsad- Vadodara ExpThe following trains proposed by him were introduced later: Bombay Pune Pragati Exp Amritsar Barauni Amrapali Exp H. Nizamuddin – Sambalpur Hirakud Exp Delhi – Sikar Sainik Exp (MG) Vadodara – Gandhidham Exp Secunderabad – Vishakapatnam Vishaka Exp H. Nizamuddin – Madras Rajdhani H. Nizamuddin – Agra Inter-City Exp H. Nizamuddin – Mangalore Mangala Exp H. Nizamuddin – Jabalpur/Nagpur Gondwana Exp New Delhi – Puri Purushottam Exp Delhi – Jammu Tawi Super Fast Exp Delhi – Newjalpaiguri Mahananda Link Exp Dhanbad – Tatanagar Subarnarekha Exp Agra Fort – Jaipur Superfast Exp (MG) New Delhi – Bhubaneswar Rajdhani Exp New Delhi – Guwahati Rajdhani Exp Bombay – Ahmedabad Shatabdi Exp Bombay – Trivandrum Exp (weekly) New Delhi – Sriganganagar Exp Delhi – Kathgodam Exp Delhi – Sultanpur Sadbhavana Exp Saharanpur – Lucknow Exp Jodhpur – Lucknow Exp Jaipur – Sealdah Exp Katihar – Sealdah Exp Secunderbad – Guntur Nagarjuna ExpThe following

1992 Jaffer Sharief

1993 Jaffer Sharief

1994 Jaffer Sharief

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

trains proposed by him were introduced later: Madras – Mysore Shatabdi Bombay – Jaipur Super Fast New Delhi – Amritsar Shatabdi New Delhi – Chandigarh Shatabdi New Delhi – Jaipur Shatabdi Madras – Kanyakumari Exp Nagercoil – Guruvayur Exp Howrah – Bokaro Shatabdi Howrah – Raurkela Shatabdi Madras – Coimbatore Shatabdi (cancelled) Bangalore – Hubli Shatabdi (cancelled) Bombay – Madgaon Shatabdi (never introduced) Kurla – Madgaon Exp Miraj – Bangalore Rani Chennamma Exp Bangalore – Quilon Exp (weekly) Ernakulam – Trivandrum Exp (Via Alleppey) Nagercoil – Bombay Exp (weekly) Tirupati – Cuddapah Exp (Passenger?)(cancelled) Delhi – Jaipur Inter-City Exp Jodhpur – Jaipur Exp Bikaner – Jaipur Exp Jodhpur – Howrah Superfast (instead of Jaipur-Sealdah Exp) New Delhi- Muzaffarpur Lichhavi Exp Raxaul – Muzaffarpur Exp Howrah – Gorakhpur Exp (weekly) Howrah – Gauhati Saraighat Exp (weekly) Ahmedabad – Bhavnagar Exp (MG) Kanpur – Farukhabad Exp (MG) Bhagalpur – Muzaffarpur Jansewa Exp Amritsar – Barauni Jansewa Exp Ahmedabad – Puri Exp Surat – Varanasi Jansewa Exp (never introduced)For sometime, Suresh Kalmadi was the railway minister, from Pune. Bombay Pune Shatabdi Ahmedabad – Pune Ahimsa Exp Howrah – Pune Azad Hind Exp Varanasi – Pune Gyan Ganga Exp New Delhi – Patna Rajdhani Kurla – Patna Exp Delhi – Ramnagar Link Exp Kalka – Simla Shivalik Exp Gorakhpur- Darbhanga Exp (MG) Howrah – Rampurhat Gandevta Exp Howrah – Bikaner Link Exp Jaipur – Chennai Exp (weekly)

1995 Jaffer Sharief

• • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

1996

Ram Vilas Paswan

• •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Bhopal – Rewa Exp Hubli – Bangalore Intercity (instead of the Shatabdi)He also announced the following trains in BG after gauge conversion Ahmedabad – Delhi Mail Ahmedabad – Delhi Ashram Exp Ahmedabad – Bikaner Ranakpur Exp Secunderabad/Guntur – Vasco Exp Guwahati – Dibrugarh Exp Newdelhi – Ahmedabad Swarnajayanti Rajdhani H. Nizamuddin – Vishakapatnam Swarnajayanti Exp H. Nizamuddin – Bangalore Swarnajayanti Exp H. Nizamuddin – Secunderabad Rajdhani (later cancelled, then reintroduced) Delhi – Ranchi Jarkand Swarnajayanti Exp Surat – Patna Exp Gorakhpur – Dehradun Exp (bi-weekly) Koraput- Bhubaneswar Link Exp Madras – Tirupati Inter City Tata- Katihar link Exp Vasco – Bangalore Exp Coimbatore – Bangalore Intercity Exp H. Nizamuddin – Ernakulam Swarnajayanti Exp (introduced for political reasons, to placate Kerala MPs) Kurla – Howrah Super Deluxe Kurla – Nagpur Super Deluxe Kurla – Varanasi Kamyani Exp Kurla – Mangalore Matsyagandha Exp H. Nizamuddin – Bhopal Superfast Patna – Bhagalpur Intercity Secunderbad – Guntur Palnad Exp Madurai – Coimbatore Exp (MG) (cancelled) New Delhi – Muzaffarpur Swatantra senani Exp Sealdah – NewBongaigaon Uttar Bangla Exp Howrah – Trichy Exp (triweekly) Vishakaptanam – Bangalore Prashanti Exp Later on all the express trains on the Chennai – Trichy – Madurai route were restored after BG conversion. All the trains on the Ahmedabad – Delhi route announced earlier were also introduced, except that Ranakpur Exp was started from Bandra to Bikaner, Suryanagari Exp was restored from Ahmedabad to Jodhpur and Aravalli Exp was started from Bombay to Jaipur (via Ajmer). In SCR, Venkatadari Exp was introduced between Secunderabad – Tirupati (via Kurnool), Haripriya Exp was introduced between Kolhapur and Tirupati. However a Secunderabd – Hubli Exp announced earlier was never introduced.

1997

Ram Vilas Paswan

1998

Nitish Kumar

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

• •

1999 Nitish kumar

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Amritsar – Darbhanga Jansewa Exp (weekly) Delhi – Gandhidham Exp. (the train was not introduced, but Ala Hazrat Exp running between Ajmer and Bareilly was extended to Gandhidham) Kurla-Patna superfast Mumbai – Madgaon Mandovi Exp Jaipur- Bangalore Exp (via Secunderabad) Raichur – Gulbarga Passenger Secunderabd – Machilipatnam Exp Chennai – Tirupati Shatabdi (never introduced) Chennai – Guwahati Exp (biweekly) Pune – Ernakulam Exp (via Hubli) (introduced later, now runs via Madgoan) Shalimar- Haldia Azad Exp Kamakhya – NewBongaigaon Pass Patna – Mughalsarai Pass (via Gaya) H. Nizamuddin – Coimbatore Kongu Exp (weekly) Sealdah – New Delhi Rajdhani Sealdah – Amritsar Akaltakht Exp Sealdah – New Jalpaiguri Kanchkanya Exp Shalimar – Bankura Exp Howrah – Purulia Rupashi Bangla Exp Ajmer – Bangalore Exp (weekly) Jodhpur – Bangalore Exp (weekly) Shimoga – Bangalore Exp Puttaparthi – Bangalore Satya Sai Exp Tirupati – Nagercoil Exp Manmad – Kakinada Exp Ahmedabad – Nagpur Exp (weekly) Okha – Dehradun Uttaranchal Exp (weekly) Bandra – Gandhidham Exp (combining 9055 Sayajinagari Exp and 9101 Vadodara Gandhidham Exp) Hatia – Bhagalpur Vananchal Exp Manduadih – Baidynathdham Exp Lucknow – Chhapra Exp Lucknow – Bhopal Exp((weekly) Bikaner – Suratgarh Exp Kurla – Madurai Exp (weekly)Some Calcutta area specials introduced by her: Howrah – Dehradun Upasana Exp (weekly) Sealdah – Ajmer Exp (weekly) Howrah – Okha Exp (weekly) New Delhi – Bilaspur Rajdhani Newdelhi – Hatia Rajdhani H. Nizamuddin – Secunderabad Rajdhani New Delhi – Gorakhpur Gorakhdham Exp Hatia – Dhanbad Inter-City Asansol – Amritsar Superfast

2000

Mamta Banerji

2001

Mamta Banerji

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Asansol – Haldia Exp Asansol – New Jalpaiguri Exp Howrah – New Jalpaiguri Exp Howrah – Yeshwantpur Exp (weekly) Howrah – Nagercoil Gurudev Exp Howrah – Rampurhat Exp Kurla – Bhubaneswar Exp (weekly) Berhampur – Bhubaneswar Exp (now extended to Srikakulam) Chennai – Jodhpur Exp (weekly) Jodhpur – Haridwar link Exp Valsad – Patna Exp(weekly) Gandhinagar – Indore Exp Pune – Solapur Exp Pune – Ernakulam Exp (via Madgaon) Vasco – Yeshwantpur Exp (biweekly) Jaipur – Ernakulam Marusagar Exp Palghat – Trivandrum amritha Exp Jammu Tawi – Haridwar Exp New Delhi – Howrah Exp (biweekly) H. Nizamuddin – Kanyakumari Exp (weekly via Villipuram) Delhi – Pathankot Exp (triweekly) Guwahati – Jodhpur/Bikaner Exp (weekly) Jaipur – Durg Exp (weekly) Jaipur – Bandra Exp (triweekly) Indore – Patna Exp (weekly via Lucknow and Varanasi) Bhopal – Howrah Exp (weekly) Kurla – Habibganj Exp (weekly) Durg – Banglaore Exp (weekly via Chanda Fort, Secunderbad) Mhow – Chittaurgarh Exp (MG) Ahmedabad – Varanasi Exp (via Allahabad) Ahmedbad – Rajkot Exp Gandhidham – Bangalore Exp (weekly) Pune – Nanded Exp (triweekly) Cannanore – Banglaore Exp (weekly) Calicut – Erankulam Exp (after Janshatabdi is introduced between Ernakulam and Trivandrum) Chennai – Trivandrum Exp (via Nagercoil) Chennai – Vishakapatnam Exp (weekly) Kurla – Hatia Exp (weekly via Gaya) Hatia – Gervaroad Exp Rajgir – Sarnath Buddhaparikrama Exp (triweekly) Howrah – Gorakhpur Exp (weekly via Narkatiaganj) Bhubneswar – Palasa IntercityThere are also the Jan Shatabdis proposed Madgaon – Kurla Bangalore – Hubli

2002

Nitish Kumar

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Ernakulam – Trivandrum Chennai – Vijayawada Habibganj – Jabalpur Ahmedabad – Bhuj Lucknow – Varanasi Patna – Katihar Tata – Ranchi Raigarh – Durg Guwahati – Dimapur Howrah – Malda town Howrah – Bhubaneshwar New Delhi – Chandigarh New Delhi – Dehradun H. Nizamuddin – Kota

History
List of Important Historical Places in India from Alphabet A – D Abu, Mount (Rajasthan): Hill station in Rajasthan; contains famous Dilwara Jain Temple and Training College for the Central Reserve Police. Adam’s Bridge: Very nearly joined to India between two point’s viz. Mannar Peninsula and Dhanushkodi by a line of sand banks and rocks called Adam’s Bridge. Adyar (Tamil Nadu): A Suburb of Chennai, headquarters of the Theosophical Society. Afghan Church (Mumbai): It is built in 1847 known as St. John’s Church. It is dedicated to the British soldiers who died in the Sind and Afghan campaign of 1838 and 1843. Aga Khan Palace: In Pune where Mahatma Gandhi was kept interned with his wife Kasturba Gandhi. Kasturbha died in this palace. Agra (Uttar Pradesh): Famous for Taj Mahal, Fort and Pearl mosque. Sikandra, the tomb of Akbar, is situated here. It is also a centre of leather industry. Ahmednagar (Maharashtra): It was founded by Ahmed Nizam Shahi. It is the district headquarters of Ahmednagar district. It is an industrial town well known for its handloom and small scale industries. Ahmadabad (Gujarat): Once capital of Gujarat. A great cotton textile centre of India. Anti-reservation riots rocked the city in April 1985. Ajmer (Rajasthan): It has Mayo College and the tomb of Khwaja Moinud-din Chishti, which is a pilgrim centre for Muslims; Pushkar Lake, a place of Hindu pilgrimage, is about two miles from here.

Aliabet: Is the site of India’s first off-shore oil well-nearly 45 km from Bhavnagar in Gujarat State. On March 19, 1970, the Prime Minister of India set a 500-tonne rig in motion to inaugurate “Operation Leap Frog” at Aliabet. Aligarh (Uttar Pradesh): Seat of Muslim University, manufacture locks, scissors, knives and dairy products. Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh): A famous and important place of pilgrimage for Hindus, confluence of three revers-Ganges, Yamuna and the invisible Saraswati. It is the seat of a University and trading centre. Alandi (Maharashtra): Popularly called ‘Devachi Alandi’ is hallowed by the association of saint Dhyaneshwar the author of ‘Dhyaneshwari’ who lived and attained Samadhi here at the age of twntyone. Two fairs are held annually one on Ashadha Ekadasi and the other Karthikai Ekadasi. Amber Palace: Deserted capital near Jaipur (Rajasthan) containing the finest specimens of Rajput architecture. Almora (Uttaranchal): This city is one the Kashaya hill. The clean and majestic view of the Himalayan Peak is breath catching. The woolen shawl of Almora is very famous in the region. It is a good hill resort. Amarnath (Kashmir): 28 miles from Pahalgam, and is a famous pilgrim centre of Hindus. Amboli (Maharashtra): Nestling in the ranges of Sahyadri, Amboli is a beautiful mountain resort in Ratnagiri district. The climate is cool and refreshing; and ideal place for holiday. Amritsar (Punjab): A border town in the Punjab, sacred place for Sikhs (Golden Temple), scene of Jallianwala Bagh tragedy in April 1919. The 400th anniversary of Amritsar was celebrated with great gusto in October 1977. The city was founded by Guru Ram Dass. Arikkamedu (Puducherry): It is one of the archaeological places. It describes the relationship between Tamils and Romes (Yavanas) for trade purpose. Arvi (Maharashtra): Near Pune, India’s first satellite communication centre has been located here. Ashoka Pillar (Madhya Pradesh): It was erected by Emperor Ashoka. It is now the official symbol of Modern India and the symbol is four back-to-back lions. In the lower portion of the column are representation of a lion, elephant, horse and bull. The pillar stands about 20 m high. Aurangabad (Maharashtra): It is one of the important towns in Maharashtra. Tomb of Emperor Aurangzeb and his attract many tourists. Ellora and Ajanta caves are reached from here.

Auroville (Punducherry): It is an international township constructed near Pondicherry with the help of UNESCO. Avadi: Situated at Chennai in Tamil Nadu, it is known for the government-owned Heavy Vehicles Factory. Vijayanta and Ajit tanks are manufactured here. Ayodhya (Uttar Pradesh): Birth place of Rama is situated on the banks of the river Gogwa. The famous ‘Babri Masjid’ built on the birth place of Rama by the Mughal rulers in 15th century has been taken over by the Hindus after 400 years. Badrinath (Uttarakhand): It is a place of pilgrimage noted for the temple of Lord Vishnu for the Hindus, near Gangotri Glacier in Himalayas. Bahubali (Maharashtra): A pilgrim center for jains, of both Svetambar and Digambar Jains; there is a giant idol of Shree Bahubali the son of Bhagwan Adinath, the first Tirthankar. Bangalore (Karnataka): It is the capital city of Karnataka State and an important industrial centre. The places worth-seeing are Vidhan Saudha, Lal Bagh gardens, etc. The BHEL, HAL, IIM are situated here. Barauni (North Bihar): Famous for a big oil refinery. Bardoli (Gujarat): Bardoli in Gujarat State has occupied a permanent place in Indian History for no-tax payment campaign launched by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel against the British rule. Baroda (Gujarat): Baroda, (Vadodara) the capital of former Baroda State is one of the main towns in Gujarat State. Laxmi Vilas Palace is a tourist attraction. Belur (West Bengal): Near Calcutta, famous for a monastery founded by Swami Vivekananda; a beautiful temple dedicated to Shri Ramakrishna Paramhansa. It is also known for paper industry. There is another place of the same name in Karnataka, it is a famous pilgrim centre known for Channa Keshava Temple. Belgaum (Karnataka): It is a border town in Karnataka State. It has remained a place of dispute between Maharashtra and Karnataka States. Bhakhra (Punjab): It is a village in Punjab State where the Bhakra Dam has been constructed across the river Sutlej in a natural gorge just before the river enters the plains 80 km upstream Ropar. Bhilai (Chhattisgarh): It is known for the gigantic steel plants set up with the help of Russian Engineers.

Bhimashankar (Maharashtra): One of the five Jyothirlingas in Maharashtra is at Bhimashankar. The beautiful Shiva temple here was constructed by Nana Parnavis the ancient statesman of the Peshwas. Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh): Capital of Madhya Pradesh. MIC gas leaked out from the Union Carbide factory in December 1984, and more than 3000 persons died. It was the worst industrial disaster in the world. Bhubaneswar (Orissa): It is the capital city of Orissa. Lingaraja Temple is worth-seeing. Bijapur (Karnataka): It was the capital of old Adil Shahi Sultan of Bijapur. Gol Gumbaz, the biggest tomb in India constructed here, is called the whispering gallery. The town is rich with the remains of palaces, mosques and tombs. Bodh Gaya (Bihar): It is situated six miles south of Gaya in Bihar State. Gautama Budha attained enlightenment in a full moon light in the month of Baisakha under the peepal tree. Bokaro (Jharkhand): The fourth and the biggest steel plant are here. Buland Darwaza (Uttar Pradesh): It is the Gateway of Fatehpur-Sikri built by Akbar. This is the highest and the greatest gateway in India. It was erected to commemorate the victorious campaign of Akbar in the Deccan in 1602 A.D. Bull Temple (Karnataka): It is situated near Bugle Hill, with a height of 6.2 m (20ft) high stone monolith Nandi Bull. The Bull is carved out of a single stone. Chandernagore (West Bengal): Situated on the river Hooghly. It was previously a French settlement. Now it has been merged with the Indian Union. Chennai (capital of Tamilnadu): It is the third largest city in India. Known for Fort St. George, Lighthouse, St Thomas Mount, and Integral Coach Factory. Chandigarh (Punjab & Haryana): Chadigarh the joint capital of the States of Punjab and Haryana is a planned and beautiful city. It is situated at the foot of the Himalayas. It was designed by Mont Corbusier. Cherrapunji (Meghalaya): It is the place of heaviest rainfall. It receives 426” of rain yearly. Chidambaram (Meghalaya): It is a town in South Arcot district of Tamil Nadu. It is famous for its great Hindu Siva Temple dedicated to Lord ‘Nataraja’, the cosmic dancer. It is the seat of ‘Annamalai University’ founded in 1929. The name of the town comes from Tamil ‘Chit’ plus ‘Ambalam’- the atmosphere of wisdom.

Chilka Lake (Orissa): It is the Queen of Natural Scenery in Orissa, though separated from the Bay of Bangal by a long strip of sandy ridge, exchanges water with the sea. It is an excellent place for fishing and duck shooting. Chittaranjan (West Bengal): It is famous for locomotive works. Railway engines are manufactured here. Chittorgarh (Rajasthan): It was once the capital of Udaipur. It is known for the Tower of Victory built by Rana Kumbha and Mira Bai Temple. Chowpathy Beach (Mumbai): A popular beach with Lokmanya Tilak and Vallabhbhai Patel statues where the political meetings for freedom struggle took place, now the coconut day celebration and Ganesh immersion take place. Chusul (Ladakh): It is situated in Ladakh at a height of about 14,000 feet. Chusul is perhaps the highest aerodrome in India. Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu): It is famous for Textile Industry. Government of India Forest College is situated here. Courtallam (Tamil Nadu): Adjoining Tenkasi and 3 miles south is a common man’s health resort. Famous for its waterfall and a good summer resort. Cuttack (Orissa): It is the oldest town and once upon a time the capital of Orissa during the medieval period to the end of the British rules. The city is noted for fine ornamental work of gold & silver. Dakshineswar (Kolkata): It is at a distance of about five miles from Calcutta where Swami Vivekananda was initiated into religious life by Swami Ramakrishna Paramhansa. Dalal Street: Stock exchange Market in Mumbai. Dalmianagar (Jharkhand): Cement manufacturing. Dandi (Gujarat): It is famous for Salt Satyagraha (Dandi March) staged by Mahatma Gandhi in 1930. Darjeeling (West Bengal): Famous for tea, orange and cinchona, fine hill station, famous for its scenic beauty. Daulatabad (Maharashtra): The fort previously called Devagiri is believed to have constructed by the Yadava Kings in 1338. The fort is very impregnable. Dayalbagh (Uttar Pradesh): Near Agra; known for Dayalbagh Industrial Institute, shoe manufacture. Religious and cultural seat of a section of the Hindus.

Dehu (Maharashtra): Dehu, a town on the banks of the river Indrayani is the birth place of the famous saint-poet Tukaram whose ‘Abhangas’ have a pride of place in Marathi literature. Dehradun (Uttarakhand): It is the gateway to the Garhwal Himachal such as Badrinath and Joshimath. The Forest Research Institute is situated here. Delhi: India’s capital. The Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, The Qutub Minar, the Rajghat (Mahatma Gandhi’s Samadhi), the Humayun’s tomb, Shanti Van (where Prime Minister Nehru was cremated), are located here. It established by Tomaras in 736 A.D. Dhanbad (Jharkhand): Famous for coal mines and the Indian School of Mines, National Fuel Research Institute. Dhariwal (Punjab): It is famous for woolen goods. Dibrugarh (Assam): It is a town in Assam and the Terminus of rail and river communications along the Brahmaputra from Calcutta. Digboi (Assam): It is known for its oil-fields and oil refinery. It is one of the oldest oil refineries which is still operative in the world. Dilwara Temples (Rajasthan): It is near Mt. Abu. There are five Hindu Temples constructed here between 11th and 13 Century A.D. Dindigul (Tamli Nadu): It is famous for cigar, tobacco and locks. Dum Dum (Kolkata): It is a famous Air Port and Government Arsenal. Durgapur: In West Bengal in known for a gigantic steel plant set up here with the help of British Engineers. Dwaraka (Gujarat): It is one of the seven most important places of Hindu pilgrimage. Krishna the eighth incarnation of Lord Vishnu made Dwaraka as his centre to recapture Mathura. This article provides information on Important Historical Places in India along with detailed information about those important historical places of India. List of Important Historical Places in India from Alphabet E – K Eagle’s Nest: It is the name given to the historic fort at Rajgarh in the Kolaba district of Maharashtra where, 3000 years ago, Chhatarpati Shivaji, the great warrior-statesman, was crowned. Elephanta Caves (Maharashtra): Situated in an island 15 miles from Mumbai famous for the statues of Shiva and Parvati. The most striking statue of Trimurti, Shiva in three moods as the Creator, the Destroyer and the Preserver.

Ellora and Ajanta (Maharashtra): It is in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra State. The Buddhist cave temples richly ornamented with sculpture and carved with paintings of exceptional skill attract many tourists. Ernakulam (Kerala): The back-waters in Ernakulam are a tourist attraction. The Central Institute of Fisheries Technology is situated here. Faridabad (Haryana): It is an industrial township situated at about 18 miles from Delhi. Fatehpur Sikri (Uttar Pradesh): It was once the capital of the Mughal Empire. This city was built by Emperor Akbar in 1569. It is now in a deserted condition. Ferozabad (Uttar Pradesh): Noted for glass bangle industry. Gateway of India (Mumbai): It is in Mumbai harbor erected in 1911 on King George V’s visit to India. Gangotri (Uttarakhand): This is the source of the holy Ganges. The tiny village has the temple of the Goddess Ganga on the banks of the Bhagirathi River, which eventually becomes the holy Ganges. Gaumuka (Uttarakhand): Guamukh the actual source of the river is at the base of the Bhagirathi peaks. The glaciers of Gangotri which is 24 km long, ends at Gaumukh where the Bhagirathi river finally appers. Gazipur (U.P.): Known for the government opium factory. Gaya (Bihar): It is the place where Lord Buddha got enlightenment. It is a pilgrimage centre not only for the Buddhists but also for the Hindus. Hindus from all over the country come here to make offerings and pray for the salvation of their ancestors. Gilgit (Kashmir): It is now under the illegal occupation of Pakistan. Ii is of great strategic importance. Golconda (Hyderabad): It is an ancient city of India situated about 7 miles west of Hyderabad. Formerly there was a diamond mine. Golconda Fort (Andhra Pradesh): The historical fort is well praised in the literature, prose and poetry. Golconda was the capital of Qutub Shahi Sultans who ruled Deccan from 1518 to 1687 A.D. Golden Temple (Punjab): It is a sacred place of the Sikhs in Amritsar. Gol Gumbaz (Karnataka): It is the biggest dome in India. Gomateswara (Karnataka): This is a 2,000 year old and very high statue of a Jain sage, carved out of a single stone.

Gorakhpur (Uttar Pradesh): The famous temple of Gorakhpur is here which specializes in publishing Hindu religious literature. Guntur (Andhra Pradesh): It is a centre of cotton and tobacco production in Andhra Pradesh. Gulbarga (Karnataka): It was the capital of Bahmani Kingdom. Its fort is a remarkable building with 15 towers, within the fort is a large mosque built on the model of the famous mosques of Cordoba in Spain. Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh): Situated in M.P. is famous for Rani Lakshmi Bai’s Chaatri and Tansen’s tomb. Haldighat (Uttar Pradesh): A famous mountain passes where rana Pratap fought Mughal forces led by Man Singh and Asaf Khan. Hampi (Karnataka): In Karnataka State is the location of ruins of Vijaynagar. The capital of famous Vijaynagar Empire. Hardwar (UttaraKhand): It is at the base of the Siwalik Hills, where the Ganges River coming down from the Himalayas passes and enters the plains. The Daksha Mahadev Temple, 4 km downstreams in Hardwar is the most important temple. Hirakud (Orissa): Twenty six kilometers from one end to the other on the river Mahanadi is Hirakud the longest mainstream dam in the world. Howrah Bridge (Kolkata): A cantilever spans bridge over river Hoogly connecting Howrah and Kolkata. Hyderabad-Secunderabad: Twin city capital of Andhra Pradesh. It is on the banks of the river ‘Musi’ and famous for Salarjung museum- one of the best in Asia. It is also a famous communication centre in India as it is centrally situated. Charminar built in 1591 is located here. Imphal (Manipur): Situated in the north-east frontier, is the capital of Manipur state on the border of India ans Myanmar (Burmah). Famous for handloom industry and the Manipuri dance. Ita Nagar (Arunachal Pradesh): The capital of Arunachal Pradesh is a tropical forest region in the foothills surrounded with wild mountain stream and placid lakes with abundant opportunities for river rafting, boating and trekking. India Gate (New Delhi): A memorial in New Delhi facing the Rashtrapathi Bhavan. Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh): Standing on the river Narmada, Jabalpur is a city in Madhya Pradesh famous for Marble Rocks and Dhunva Dhar waterfalls.

Jadugoda: In Bihar is famous for Uranium Ore Mill. Jagdish Temple: It is a fine Indo-Aryan temple built by Maharana Jagat Singh in 1651. A blackstone image of Lord Vishnu as Lord Jagdish is found here. Jaipur (Rajasthan): A historically important place and is famous for its handicrafts. Maharaja Jai Singh Observatory and Hawa Mahal are situated here. It is the capital of Rajasthan or called rose-pink city, a huge historic fort (Amber) is situated here. The city was founded by astrologer Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II. Jaisalmer (Rajasthan): The remote fortress city on the edge of Rajasthan’s Thar Desert. It is 287 km from Jodhpur. Jakrem (Tripura): It is 64 km from shilling and is known for its hot spring which is said to possess curative qualities. Jalandhar (Punjab): Situated in Punjab is the centre for surgical and sports goods industry. Jallianwala Bagh (Amritsar, Punjab): It was the scene of Indiscriminal shooting by General Dyer on 13th April 1919, when a meeting was being held. A Martyr’s memorial has been erected to commemorate those killed in the firing. Jama Masjid (Hyderabad, AP): The Masjid lies near the North-east point of the building of Charminar, built by Sultan Mohammed Qutub Shah the fifth King of the Qutub Shahi dynasty in 1594. Jamshedpur (Jharkhand): Centre of iron and steel industry. Tata Iron and Steel Factory is located here. Jantar Mantar (Delhi): Site of the famous observatory of Maharaja Jaswant Singh built in 1899 is found in Rajasthan. Jealgora: In Bihar is known for Central Fuel Research Institute. Jhansi (Uttar Pradesh): A key railway junction in Uttar Pradesh. It is noted for the played by Queen Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi in the War of Independence in 1857. Jharia: In Bihar is famous for coal-mining. Jog Falls (or) Gersoppa Falls (Karnataka): Formed by river Sharavati, falls through a height of 830 ft. Juma Masjid, Mandu: Is in Madhya Pradesh. It depicts a synthesis of Hindu and Muslim styles in architecture.

Junagadh (Gujarat): Located below Girnar Hill in Gujarat State is an ancient city in India. Gir Forest, a wildlife sanctuary famous for its lions is located here. Kailasha Temple (Maharashtra): A rock-cut temple in Ellora caves. Kalpakkam: Near Chennai in Tamil Nadu is known for Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). Kanchi or Conjeevaram (Tamil Nadu): This was the famous capital of Pallavas and is situated near Channai. Famous ancient temples here are well-known for its architecture. Kandala (Maharashtra): It is a popular mountain resort in Maharashtra. Nestling in the Western Ghats it is an ideal resort for a peaceful holiday. Kandla (Guajarat): The Kandla port is the main gateway for the trade of north-west India. Kanheri (Mumbai): Situated near Mumbai, the famous spot of the ancient Buddhist caves of 1stCentury A.D. Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh): An industrial city of U.P. famous for its sugar, cotton, woolen, soap, iron, leather, tent and hosiery industries situated on the banks of the Ganga. Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu): The southernmost tip of India where the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean meet. The sun-rising and sun-setting are picturesque scenes. Vevekananda rock memorial has also been constructed now. On the rock called Sripadaparai, a mammoth 133 ft. statue of the unmatched Poet-Saint thiruvalluvar was unveiled on 1 January 2000. Kapilavastu (Bihar): Ancient kingdom in north India connected with Lord Buddha. Kasauli (Himachal Pradesh): A hill station in Himachal Pradesh where the famous Pasteur Institute is located. Kaveripumpattinam (Tamil Nadu): The place where the river Cauvery mingles with the ocean. Two great epics of Tamil literature Manimegalai and Silappadhikaram vividly portray life scenes of this place during Chola and Pandya period. Kaziranga (Assam): In Assam is the sanctuary of the Indian one-horned rhinos. Kedarnath (Uttarakhand): The temple of Lord Kedar (Shiva), surrounded by snow-capped peaks in one of the Hindu pilgrimage centres. Khadakvasla (Pune): Near Pune. National Defence Academy is situated here. Khajuraho (Madhya Pradesh): Famous for its temples and erotic sculpture.

Khindsey Talao (Mumbai): This beautiful lake is set like a gem in the green expanse at the foot of the Ramtek hill. Kodaikanal (Tamil Nadu): A hill station in Tamil Nadu situated near Madurai. Koderma (Bihar): In Bihar famous for mica mines. Kolar (Karnataka): It is known for its gold fields. Kolhapur (Maharashtra): Kolhapur posses’ historical as well as mythological importance. It is known as Dakshin Kashi on account of its deity Mahalakshmi or Ambabai built by Chalukya King Karnadev in 634 AD. Kolhapur was the capital of Chatrapati Shivaji in 1708. Kolkata (West Bengal): It is known as the commercial capital of India. It has a port of heavy traffic. Dum Dum airport, National Library,Diamond harbor, Victoria Memorial are well-known. Konark (Orissa): Town, north of Puri is famous for black pagodas and Sun Temple. Koyna (Maharashtra): Hydroelectri project in Maharashtra, supplies power to Mumbai and Pune. The place was hit by earthquake in December 1967. Kundanpur (Bihar): The birth place of the 24th Jain Tirthankar Mahaveer is well-known as a pilgrim centre. Kurukshetra (Haryana): The town near Ambala. Here the great battle Mahabharatha took place between Kauravas and Pandavas. List of Important Historical Places in India from Alphabet L – S Leh (Ladakh): Capital of Ladakh; once a caravan centre of central Asia. Lothal (Gujrat): Oil wells in Cambay Basin. Madurai (Tamil Nadu): Famous Meenakshi Temple dedicated to Lord Siva is located here. Mahabaleshwar (Maharashtra): Hill station in Maharashtra is situated at a height of 4500 ft. in the Western Ghats. Mahabalipuram (Tamil Nahu): Famous for the monumental architecture of Pallavas. An atomic power station is located near at Kalpakkam. Mahabodhi Temple (Bihar): It is a Buddha temple with the Jataka stories engraved on the walls. The famous Magadha University exists beside the temple.

Mahrangarh Fort (Rajasthan): Five km away from the centre town of Jodhpur. Commissioned by Roa Jodh in 1959, this fortran eyrie is a master piece of medieval defence. Mandore (Rajasthan): The ancient capital of the Rathore Marwars, the Rajputs of Rajasthan. Meerut (Uttar Pradesh): This was the first place where the 1857 Mutiny first broke out. The Suraj Khund is the most interesting temple and there is a Moghul Mausoleum, near the old Shapir Gate. Mirzapur (Uttar Pradesh): Place of Ram Ganga, famous for cutlery, brassware and mangoes. Mukteshwar (Uttar Pradesh): Veterinary Research Institute is located here. Murad (Maharashtra): Seaside holiday resort of Maharashtra. Mathura (Uttar Pradesh): It is a holy city and birth place of Lord Krishna. Meenakshi temple (Tamil Nadu): Famous Hindu temple in Madurai, Tamil Nadu. It is remarkable for its most picturesque 850 ft. high temple with its magnificent Gopurams. One of its principal structures is the hall of thousand pillars in which a group of figures are cerved out of a single stone. Mussoorie (Uttarakhand): A hilly resort has good rock climbing and mountaineering assets and has good fishing spots. Mumbai (Maharashtra): Called the gateway of India is the second biggest city and port in India. It is the capital of Maharashtra state. The Prince of Wales Museum, Aarey Milk Colony, film capital of the country, Centre of oil industry and Petrochemicals, etc. are noteworthy. Nagpur (Maharashtra): Former capital of Madhya Pradesh now in Maharashtra. Famous for textiles and oranges. Nagercoil (Tamil Nadu): There is a temple of snakes or Nagaraja-snake god. The temple is filled with images of snakes and the Dvarapalakas are the snakes guarding the temple. Nagarjuna Konda-Sagar (Andhra Pradesh): The reservoir is named after Buddhist Phillosopher Acharya Nagarjuna who propounded the Madhyamik school of Mahayana Buddhism. Naharkhatia (Assam): Place near Digboi in Assam where oil has been struck. Nainital (Uttarakhand): This lake dotted area of the Kumaon Hills, was the summer capital of Uttar Pradesh. The legend believed is that Goddess Shakti lost her eyes when Lord Shiva was curling her and the spot, where the eyes fell became a lake called ‘naina’ (eyes) Tal (lake) was thus given its name. Nalanda (Bihar): Here was the famous University and Educational centre of ancient’s times. The Chinese traveler Hieun Tsang visited India in 7th century had mentioned about this University.

Narsobachiwadi (Maharashtra): It is a prominent pilgrimage of Lord Shree Dattatreya, situated near the confluence Krishna and the Panchaganga Rivers. Nasik (Maharashtra): Site of Security Printing Press in Maharashtra. Nilgiris (Tamil Nadu): The Blue Mountains of Tamil Nadu. Famous for tea plantation. Nilokheri (Haryana): Place in Haryana, famous community development project of Dr. S. K. Dey. Pataliputra (Bihar): Ancient name or Patna, capital of Bihar State. Famous for Ashoka edicts inscribed on rocks and pillars. Palitana (Gujarat): Famous for its holy hills. Pali (Sudhagad, Maharashtra): One of the most sacred places known for the temple of Vithoba, an incarnation of Lord Vishnu, it is also called Dhakshina Kashi, a pilgrim centre. Panipati (Haryana): Historical place in Haryana, famous for the three battles in 1526, 1556 and 1761. Pawapur (Bihar): It is one of the holiest of Jain Pilgrim places. The Jal Mandir (water temple) in Kamal Sarover (Lotus pool) is most sacred. The big lake filled with lotus is a charming place and the white marble temple stands in the middle. Planetarium, Birla (Kolkata): It is a dome-shaped building where the exact panorama of the sky is depicted, and the position of various constellations is clearly shown. The second planetarium in India has been set up in Mumbai. The third planetarium was opened in New Delhi in 1984. Plassey (West Bengal): A village in West Bengal, famous for the Battle of Plassey where Clive beat Siraj-ud-Daulah. Puducherry : A Union Territory – formerly under French possession. Famous for Aurobindo Ashram and ‘Auroville’ International Township, built in the name of Aurobindo. Ponpadirkootam (Tamil Nadu): A village in Chingleput where a unique four hand Rama in gold is a feast for our eyes. Port Blair (Andaman): Capital of Andaman & Nicobar islands. Porbandar (Gujarat): The Birth Place of Mahatma Gandhi. It is identified with Sudamapur of the epic times and we can still see the old temple of Sudama, a friend of Lord Krishna. Pune (Maharashtra): Pune, capital of Maratha Empire during Shivaji’s rule, had turned to be an educational and cultural centre.

Puri (Orissa): Summer capital of Orissa famous for Jagannath Temple. Pusa (West Bengal): Famous for agricultural station. Qutub Minar (New Delhi): The tallest minaret in the world (990 ft. high) completed by Sultan Iltutmish in 1232 A. D. Rajghat (New Delhi): famous for the Samadhi of Mahtama Gandhi on the banks of the river Yamuna. Rajgir (Bihar): Rajgir was called Rajgriha or King’s home in olden days. Ajatashatru named it Giribraja. It was Jarasandha’s capital. Vardhaman Mahavir, who preached the Jain Religion and spent 14 years of his active life here, Mahaveer called his first Dharma Sabha or religious assembly on Bipul Parbat here. Rashtrapati Bhavan (New Delhi): The official residence of the President of India in Delhi, built by the British architect Edwin Lutyens. Ratnagiri (Maharashtra): British place of Lokmanya Tilak. It has a minor port Bhagvati and a fort belonging to the 15th century. Rameshwaram (Tamil Nadu): A pilgirimage spot in South India as equal to that of Benaras. There is the temple of Lord shiva. Red Fort (Delhi): It is a fort built of red stone by Shah Jahan in Delhi on the Banks of the river Yamuna. It consists of Diwan-i-Am, diwan-i-Khas and other wonderful crations. In 2007, UNESCO announced the Red Fort as one of the Heritage site in India. Rishikesh (Uttarakhand): It is a Hindu pilgrim centre. Rishikhesh is the starting point for treks to Himalayan pilgirimage centre like Badrinath, Kedarnath and Gangotri. Rourkela (Orissa): Rourkela is the first steel plant of India envisaged in the public sector and has been in operation since February 1959 which has set in a new era in the Steel Industry of India. Salar Jung Museum (Andhra Pradesh): It is the personnel collection of Mir Yusuf Ali Khan, better known as Salar Jung who had devoted his wealth and leisure to gather out treasures from every walk of life. Sambhar (Rajasthan): It is a salt lake in Rajasthan. Only lake of its kind in India. Sanganer (Rajasthan): It is the centre of hand block printing and handmade paper industry. Sabarmati (Guajarat): It is a place in Gujarat where Gandhiji established a Harijan Ashram. It is also the name of a river in Gujarat.

Sathanur Dam (Tamil Nadu): 22 miles from Tiruvannamalai a vast forest has been turned into a huge reservoir and a dam is a tourist spot. Satara (Maharashtra): It is a glorious historical city, was capital of Shivaji’s empire in 1699. Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh): Famous Buddhist stupa;, the diameter of which is 108 ft. was built in ancient times. It is the largest stupa in India. Sarnath (Madhya Pradesh): It is a Buddhist pilgrim centre. In the Deer Park, Buddha-delivered his first sermon. Famous Ashoka Pillar is located here. Srirangapattanam (Karnataka): It was the capital of Tipu Sultan during his time. The third mysore war was fought here and Tipu died in the battle in 1799 A.D. Sevagram (Maharashtra): It is near Wardha in Maharashtra State. It is well-known for Gandhiji’s Ashram where Gandhi lived and worked for many years. Shantiniketan (West Bengal): About 90 miles from Calcutta, seat of the famous Viswa Bharati University founded by poet Rabindernath Tagore. It is now a Central University. Shanti Van or Shanti Ghat (Delhi): The place where Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was crematd on 28thMay, 1964 on the banks of Yamuna about 300 hards from Rajghat, Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri has been cremated by the side of Shanti Van. Mrs. Indira Gandhi was cremated close to Shanti Van on November 3, 1984. This site is called ‘Shakti Sthal’. Shivneri (Maharashtra): It is the birth place of Chatrapati Shivaji. The hill has about 50 Buddhist caves bearing inscription of various donors. Sholapur (Maharashtra): ‘Sholapur Chaddan’s are the very famous bed-sheets. Handloom and power loom industry is flourishing in this town. Near the city a fort built by Hasan Gangu who was the founder of the Bahaman dynasty stands erect. Shree Kshetra Audumbar (Maharashtra): An important pilgrim place in Sangli district, Audumbar is famous for the temple of Shree Dattatreya. There is well-known “Brahmanand Swami Math”. Sasaram (Bihar): It is known for Shere Shah’s Tomb. Sher Shah was the famous Afghan king who drove away Humayun. Shivapur (Madhya Pradesh): It is well-known for its national park in Madhya Pradesh. Sibsagar (Assam): 56 km from Jorhat is most interesting historical city. It was the capital of Ahom Kings who ruled Assam for 600 years. The Shiva temple called the “Shivadol” is said to be the tallest Shiva Temple in India.

Sikandra (Uttar Pradesh): Situated near Agra, Akbar’s tomb stands here. It was commenced by Akbar and completed by his son Jahangir, after 14 year at a cost of Rs. 15 Lakhs. Singareni (Andhra Pradesh): It is well-known for coal mines in Andhra Pradesh. Sindri (JharKhand): The largest fertilizer factory in India and the whole of Asia is in Sindri, 77 km from Maithan. It is built on Ultra-modern lines and manufacturing ammonium sulphate fertilizer since 1956. The factory can be visited with prior permission. Somnath (Gujarat): It is historically famous for the temple which was destroyed by Mohammed of Ghazni in 1025 A. D. Somnath Patan (Gujarat): Wedged in between the two hills of Chadragiri and Indragiri, which rise abruptly from flat plains, Sravanabelagola 100 kms from Mysore is famous for Jain colossus (17 m height) Gomateswara which is said to be the tallest and most graceful monolithic statues in the world, erected in 10th century A.D. Sriharikota (Andhra Pradesh): India’s Satellite launching station is located here. It is on the Andhra coast, in Nellore District. Sriperumbudur (Tamil Nadu): Birth Place of Sri Ramanuja, the propounder of Vishistadvaita. It was here Rajiv Gandhi; former Prime Minister of India was assassinated. Srirangam (near Trichy, Tamil Nadu): The largest temple in South India dedicated to Lord Ranganath (Vishnu). Sundarbans (West Bangal): It is the largest delta in India, housing rich forests. Surat (Guajarat): It is popularly known as “Gate of Mecca”. The English got trading rights from the Mughal in 1612. Most of the population is engaged in diamond cutting and polishing gold and silver. Surat is equally known for its distinctive cuisine. List of Important Historical Places in India from Alphabet T – Z Taj Mahal (Agra, Uttar Pradesh): Erected by Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz. It has been estimated that the cost of it was about Rs. 3 crores at that time. It is tear drop on the cheek of eternity. It was designed by Shiraz (Iranian Architect). Over 20,000 men were employed for its construction for over twenty years. The environmentalists fear that the beauty of the Taj would be marred, with the Mathura Oil Refinery going into full operation. Tawang (Arunachal Pradesh): It has a monastery of the Mahayana sect of Buddhists built in 17th century. Still it is the centre of religious life and rituals in the region. It is a treasure home of old scriptures, priceless images and painted tapestries.

Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu): Popularly known as granary of South India. It was once the capital of the Cholas. Famous for Brihadeeswara temple, a Hindu temple. It was built by Rajaraja, the great. Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala): The Capital City of Kerala State. Padmanabha Temple is here. Thumba (Kerala): India’s first rocket launching station. Thiru Alangadu (Tamil Nadu): Thirty seven miles from Chennai to the west and very near to Arakonam is the holy place of Thiru Alangadu connected with Karaikkal Ammayar and the cosmic dancer Lord Nataraja. Thiruvalam (Tamil Nadu): Capital of ‘Banars’ during the early Pallava period is famous for Saivite temple with the Nandi not facing the deity but in the opposite direction. Thekkady (Tamil Nadu): The central spot of the Periar wildlife sanctuary is in between Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The Mysore Palace (Karnataka): Built in 1897, it was the residence of the Ex-ruler of Mysore state is an imposing structure. It is a good example for the Hoysala art and architectures. Tiruchi (Tamil Nadu): It is an Educational Centre in Tamil Nadu. Bharat Heavy Electricals limited is established here. Tiruparankundram (Tamil Nadu): A cave temple near Madurai is one of the famous shrines of Lord Muruga. Tirunelveli (Tamil Nadu): A famous early Chola Vaishnavaite shrine housing a huge stucco image of Varaha holding Bhudevi near Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu. Tipu’s Fort (Karnataka): The fort is built of mud by kempegowda in 1537; it was rebuilt in stone in 1761 by Hyder Ali. Inside the fort walls is Tipu Sultan’s wooden palace with enough elaborate paint work surviving on the walls, niches, and railing columns to give an idea of its former glory. Triveni (Uttar Pradesh): Here meet the rivers Ganges, the Yamuna and the mythical Saraswathi. Kumba Mela is celebrated here once in 12 years when the Sun is in Aquarius facing Jupiter in the zodiac sign Leo. Trithamukh (Tripura): It is a popular pilgrim centre for the Tribal people of Tripura. Thousands of people assemble here in January-February during the festival called Uttarayana Sankranti and have a holy bath in the river Gomati.

Tripolia Gate (Rajasthan): A gate with eight carved marble crunches under which the ruler was weighed on his birth day against money of equal weight distributed to the poor. The city was found in 1567 by Maharana, Udai Singh. Udaipur (Rajasthan): Popularly known as city of lakes. Pichola lake is a famous one. Udipi (Karnataka): This is the seat of Dvaita system of Hindu Philosophy propounded by Sri Madhva Changa. The beautiful Sri Krishna temple is very famous Hindu pilgrimage centre. Udayagiri-Khandagiri Caves (Orissa): These two hills are little far away from Bhubaneswar. This was a seat of a Jain saint who lived 2000 years ago. ‘Rani Gumpha’ and ‘Hathi Gumpha’ are the most famous; consist of the rock cut inscription in India which records chronologically the deeds of king Kharavela. Uttiramerur (Tamil Nadu): A city near Chingleput boasts of Sundara-varadaperumal temple of the period of Dandivarma Pallava is of complex design. Ujjain (Madhya Pradesh): Mahakaleeswar Temple is sacred for the Hindus. Vaishali (Bihar): Vaishali has withnessed the major parts of Gautama Buddha’s life. He gave his last message to his disciples at Kolhua village in the suburbs of Vaishali. On the eve of Buddha’s death centenary, the 2nd Buddhist council was held here. The 24th Jain Tirthankar Vardhaman Mahavir was born at Kundagram in the suburbs of Vaishali in 599 BC. Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh): ‘The Eternal City’ is an important pilgrimage of the Hindus. Lord Viswanatha’s temple is here. It was a learning place for over 2000 years. Kashi and Benaras are the other two names of Varanasi which means the city between two rivers – Varanama and Asi. It is the seat of Banaras Hindu University. Aurangzeb’s Mosque is here. Vedanthangal (Tamil Nadu): A bird sanctuary in the swamps of Madurantakam lake. Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh): It is a natural and protected harbor on the eastern coast in Andhra Pradesh. A shipbuilding yard in located here. Vivekananda Rock (Tamil Nadu): Mandapam of Vivekananda is in Cape Comerin. Victoria Memorial (Kolkata): Magnificent building having an art gallery depicting the history of the British rule in India. It was erected by voluntary collections in the memory of Queen Victoria. A well laid out garden adds to the beauty. Wardha (Maharashtra): It is a cotton producing centre in Maharashtra. It is on Chennai-Delhi rail route. Mahatma Gandhi was imprisoned here.

Warrangal (Andhra Pradesh): It has historical evidence about on the seat of the Kakatiya rulers. Its chief tourist attraction is the thousand pillared temple at Hanam-Konda built by King Rudra Deva in 12th century. Yamunotri (Uttarakhand): It is the source of the Yamuna River. It emerges from the frozen lake of ice and glaciers on the Kalinga Parvat. There is a temple of the goddess Yamunotri on the left banks of the river. Below the temple there are many hot springs where the water emerges at boiling point. Yarcaud (Tamil Nadu): It is a hill station 8 km away from Salem at an altitude of 5000 ft. It is a part of Servarayan hills. Zojila (Jammu & Kashmir): It is a pass on the way from Srinagar to Leh.

History of Ancient India
● The Harappan Fort in the shape of a parallel square is 460 yards in length (north-south) 215 yards in breadth (east-west) and 15-17 yards in height. ● The script of Indus civilization was pictorial in which there were more than 600 picture-letters and 60 original letters. ● The excavations of Chanhudaro were carried out in 1925 under the leadership of Earnest M’ckay. This town had no fort. ● Naal, Daburkot, Rakhi Garhi, Banawali, Rangpur, Lothal, Des Morasi, Kulli, Rana Ghundai, Anjira, Gumla, Amri, Ghundai, Mundigak, Diplabaga, Sahar-i-Sokhta, Bampur and Queta etc. are famous historical sites where the remains of Indus civilization and pre Indus civilization have been excavated. ● Daburkot, Periano, Ghundai, Kulli, Mehi, Chanhudaro, Amri, Lohumjodaro, Alimurad, Ropar, Rangpur, Sutkegender are the prominent (spots) places of Indus Valley civilization. ● The excavations of Kalibangan, a historical place in Rajasthan began in 1961 under the direction of B. K. Thapar and B. B. Lal. From the lower layer of the excavation, the remains of pre Indus civilization and from the upper layer of the Indus civilization are discernible. The fortress and the city both were surrounded with walls. ● The excavations at Rangpur—an Indus site in Gujarat were carried out in 1953-54 under the leadership of Rangnath Rao. Forts of raw bricks, drainage, terrecota utensils, weights and slabs of stone have been found but the idol of mother Goddess (Matridevi) and coins have not been found. ● Lothal was situated at that time near the ocean. In excavations the remains of a dockyard have been found which testify to the trade relations of Indus people with western Asia. ● In the district of Kutchh in Gujarat state, 12 kms north-east of Adesar is situated Surkotda which was explored and excavated in 1964 under the guidance of Jagatpati Joshi. ● In the excavation of Indus civilization, a very big building has been explored. It is 242 ft long and 112 ft broad. The walls are 5 ft thick. ● Some figurines on tables have been found in Indus civilization in the centre of which is a round shaped Sun and around it are the pictures of 6 gods arranged in a way that they appear as if they are the Sun beams. This testifies to the worship of Sun in the period. ● The proof of the existence of a Man-like being are 1 crore to 20 lacs years old. ● In the Indian population, there are four basic racial sub-difference. These are Negrito, Astro Australians, Kakeshisi and Mongoloids. ● In India, skeletons (human body in bones-kankal) have been found in Sarai Nahar Rai near Allahabad, Bataikhor and Lekhania. High in length, flat nose and broad mouth are their characteristics. These belong to Mesolithic age. ● The pre stone civiliation came to be knwon in the region of river Sohan a subsidiary of Sindhu. Hence it is called Sohan civilization. The Vatikapoom in the form of (Gandasa) axe and Khandak were its main implements. ● In Harappan culture, the worship of Earth as goddess was in vogue. This is indicated by the idol of a woman with a plant growing out of her womb. ● Along with the Elephants, Rhinoceros, Buffalos, Lions and Deers, the picture of Yogi engraved on a seal (Muhar) suggests the worship of Shiva in Harappan civilization. This god had three heads and he sat with crossed legs. ● The Talismans obtained in large numbers indicate that the people of Harappan culture believed in witchcraft or the dead souls. These talismans were made of bronze and copper in the form of plate. ● In Harappan culture the weight (for measuring) were 16 or of its multiplied numbers.

Important Facts of Indian History

● The dogs and cats were the domesticated animals and their foot prints confirm this fact. ● The remains of the horses have been found at Surkotda. The existence of the horse is not known from the upper layer of Mohanjodaro excavation. The terrecota small figurines provide knowledge about it. ● The people of Lothal used rice in 1800 B.C. ● As Sindh was one of the oldest region for cultivating cotton, the Greeks named it as Sedon. ● In Harappan culture, silver was obtained from Afghanistan, Iran, South India, Arabia and Baluchistan. Gold was imported from Afghanistan and Persia. ● The stone Lajward was brought from Badakshan, Feroza was brought from Iran. Jayumani was brought from Maharashtra, Moonga and redstone were brought from Saurashtra and Western India and the precious greenstone (Panna) was brought from Central Asia. ● The Ahar culture (Rajasthan) belonged to the Copper age. The houses were built of stone and a mixture of lime and soil. Paddy was cultivated and Metal Work in Bronze were in vogue. All these were the characteristics of this culture which existed about 2000 B.C. ● The remains of Malwa stone and Bronze culture have been found in Navdatoli where the houses were built of mud, bamboo and dry grass in a square and round shape. The terrecota utensils and agricultural products of wheat, oil seeds, pulses (Masur) and green and black gram are the characteristics of this culture. ● The Rishis (Sages) like Gritsamad, Vishwamitra, Bhardwaj, Atri and Vashishta composed the Suktas or the Vedic Mantras. ● The prominent female sages were Lopamudra, Ghosa, Shachi and Poulomi. ● Sam Ved is divided into three branches—(1) Kouthum, (2) Ranayaniya, (3) Jaminiya. ● Prominent among the Ayurvedacharyas were Acharya Ashwini Kumar, Dhanvantari, Banabhatt, Sushrut, Madhav, Jeevan and Lolimbaraja etc. ● Ayur Ved is an ‘Upaved’ of Rig Ved, Dhanur Ved is ‘Upaved’ of Yajur Ved, Gandharva Ved is the ‘Upaved’ of Sam Ved and Shilpa Ved is the ‘Upaved’ of Atharva Ved. ● Rig Ved has two Brahmans—(1) Aitereya, (2) Kaushitaki. ● Krishna Yajur Ved has the Brahman—Taitteriya and Shukla Yajur Ved has the Shatpath Brahman. ● The Brahmans of Sam Ved are Tandav, Panchvish, Sadvish and Chhandogya. ● The Aranyakas deal with life, death and other serious themes. These are written and studied in loneliness of the forests. ● Aitereya and Kaushitaki are the Aranyakas of Rig Ved. The author of Aitereya was Mahidas Aitereya. ● Taitteriya Aranyaka belongs to Krishna Yajur Veda. ● Sam Ved and Atharav Ved have no Aranyakas. ● Prominent among the Upanishads are Ish, Ken, Kath, Prashn, Mundak, Mandukya, Taitteriya, Aitereya, Chhandogya, Vrihadaranyak, Shwetashwara, Kaushitaki and Mahanarayana. ● During the Rigvedic period Nishk was an ornament for the neck; Karnashobhan was an ornament for the ear and Kumbh was the ornament for the head. ● In the Rigvedic age, the Aryans domesticated the cow, the buffalo, goat (ajaa), horse, elephant and camel etc. ● Bheeshaj was the person who treated the sick people. ● The Rigvedic Aryans worshipped the Sun as Savita, Mitra, Pooshan and Vishnu. Sun was called the ‘Eye of Gods’; and Agni the ‘Mouth of Gods’. Agni was considered to be the Purohit of the Aryans. They thought that the offering of the Yajna reaches to the gods through Agni. Varun was worshipped as a spatial god. ● In Rig Veda, Usha, Sita, Prithvi, Aranyani, Ratri, Vak are worshipped as goddesses. ● Besides Rig Ved, the reference of Sita as the goddess of agriculture is made in Gomil Grihya Sutra and Paraskar Grihya Sutra. ● The ancient idols of Ganesh show his main weapons as Paash and Ankush. ● In the Rigvedic age the traders were called ‘Pani’. They stole away the cattle of the Aryans. ● Das’ or Dasyas were more hated than the ‘Pani’. They have been referred as black complexioned inauspicious and opposed to Yajnas. They were the worshippers of Phallus (Shishnadev). ● In the Rigvedic age, the cow was the backbone of economy. It was called ‘Aghanya’—not to be killed, war has been referred as Gavisthi, the guest as Mohan and the daughter as Duhiti. One Rik refers to the domestication of sheep. ● Vashishtha who replaced Vishwamitra as Purohit of King Sudas, has been mentioned as adopted son of Urvashi, and born of the ‘Virya’ of Mitra and Varun on an earthen pot. ● Ballabh and Tarukshadas were chieftains who lavishly donated to the Purohits and through their grace obtained respect and high place in the Aryan society. ● Savitri is referred in the famous Gayatri Mantra. In Rig Ved the maximum reference is made of Indra. After him Varun is referred to. In the earlier Richas Varun and Marut have been mentioned as ‘Gan’. Twasta also was a Vedic God. ● Prajapati has been referred as the Adi Purush—the first human (male). The gods were his children. ● In Rig Ved, the king has been mentioned as the Protector of the clan or the Gopta Janasya. The reference to Sabha, Samiti, Gan, Vidath is made as the Tribal Councils. ● No bureaucracy developed in Rigvedic age. Yet the officer of Gochar land were called Vrajpati, the officer of the village was called Gramani. He was the commander. The chief of the family is referred as ‘Kulap’.

● The words like Vrat, Gan, Gram and Shardh have also been used for indicating the group of Soldiers. ● In Rig Ved Jan is used 275 times, Vish is used 170 times. Sangram is the word which indicates war between the villages. ● The God of Vegetation. It was also an intoxicating drink and the method of its preparation is referred in the Rig Ved. ● The later Vedic literature was written during 1100 to 600 B.C. The painted grey ware—bowls and plates were used and the tools which they used were made of iron. ● The main crop of the later Vedic age was wheat and paddy instead of barley. ● In the later Vedic age, the Vidath were extinct but the Sabha and the Samiti existed. ● In this period, the King performed the rites of Rajsuya Yajna with a desire to obtain divine power, Ashwamedha Yajna to expand the empire and the Vajpeya Yajna for chariot racing with friends and relatives of his Gotra. ● The Gotra system began in the later Vedic age. The custom of marrying outside the Gotra also started. ● In the literature of later Vedic age, the first three Ashrams are mentioned—(1) Brahmcharya, (2) Grihastha, (3) Banprastha. The Sanyas Ashram is not mentioned. ● In later Vedic period the plant Som could not be obtained easily. As such other drinks were also used. ● Gold and Silver were mainly used for making ornaments and utensils. Other metals were used for making many other implements in the later Vedic era. ● In later Vedic period, the commercial classes (Traders) organized themselves in ‘Sangh’. The Aryans conducted sea trade. Nisk, Satman and Krishal were usded as coins for trade purposes. ● In comparison to the religion of Rigvedic period, the later Vedic religion had become very complex. Purohits, Yajna and sacrifice were considered important. Many types of Yajnas were performed. ● The Shatpath Brahman refers to the various steps in progress of cultivation—Jutai (ploughing), Buwai (planting), Lawani (weaning), Mandai (cutting) are the various processes mentioned in it. ● Sangam literature is compiled in 8 books. They are—(1) Narune, (2) Kuruntoge, (3) Aigunuru, (4) Padirupyuttu, (5) Paripadal, (6) Karlittorga, (7) Nedultoge, (8) Purnanuru. ● In the Sangam age, the Tamil Grammar was written in a detailed book, ‘Tolakappiyam’. ● With the songs of the musicians, the dancers known as Panar and Widelier used to dance. ● Pedinekilkanku is a famous composition of Sangam literature. ● Sangam is a Sanskrit word meaning a Congregation and a Council. ● The main theme of the Sangam literature is ‘Romance’ (Shringar) and heroism (Veergatha). Shringar is called as ‘Aham’ and Veergatha has been called as ‘Puram’. ● The first Sangam was organized at Madurai under the chairmanship of Rishi Agastya. ● The second Sangam was organized at Kapatpuram again under the chairmanship of Rishi Agastya. ● The third Sangam was organized at Madurai and it was chaired by ‘Nakkirar’. ● Avey was the family of Sangam age which meant Sabha (assembly). ● Panchvaram was the assembly of the advisors of the King of Sangam age. ● Ur was the institution which looked after the city administration. ● The excavation of Arikmedu, provide enough evidence to prove that once opon a time, the cantonements of the Roman traders resided there. ● The teachers in the Sangam age were called as Kanakkaters. ● The students in the Sangam age were called Bhanwan or Pillai. ● Parshvanath arranged for fourfold vows (Chaturvrata) for the Bhikshus (monks)—(1) I shall not kill the living beings, (2) I shall always speak the truth, (3) I shall not steal, (4) I shall not keep any property. ● Mahavir Swami has been called Nigashtha, Naatputra and Nirgranth Saatputra. ● Mahavir Swami left his mortal frame and attained Nirvana at Pawapuri near Patna in Bihar. ● The Triratna in Jainism are described as Samyak Shraddha (veneration), Samyak Gyan (knowledge) and Samyak Acharana (conduct). ● According to Jainism, Nirvana (redemption) to free the soul from the physical bondage. ● Mahavir Swami has described five vows for the common people which are called as Panchmaha-vrat. These are—Truth, Non-violence, No stealing, No collection of wealth or anything and celibacy (Satya, Ahimsa, Astey, Aparigrah and Brahamacharya). To these was later added, ‘Not to eat at Night’. ● Kaivalya is total knowledge which the Nirgranthget. ● Buddha was born in the Lumbini forest, 14 km beyond Kapilvastu in Nepal Tarai. ● Kaundinya, a Brahmin astrologer, was contemporary of Buddha. ● Gautam obtained knowledge at Gaya. Hence the place is called Bodh Gaya. ● The first sermon of Buddha is known as ‘Dharma Chakra Pravartan’. ● Mahatma Buddha delivered his first sermon at Rishipattan (Sarnath). ● The followers of Buddha were divided into four sections—(1) Bhikshu or the monks, (2) Bhik-shuni or lady monks, (3) Upasaks or devotees, (4) Upasikas or lady devotees. ● After delivering his teachings for constant 45 years, Mahatma Buddha attained Mahaparinirvan at the age of 80 at Kushinara (Kushinagar). ● Tripitaks are—(1) Vinay Pitak, (2) Suttpitak, (3) Abhidhamma Pitak. ● Vinay Pitak is divided into 3 sections—(1) Sutta Vibhag, (2) Khandhak, (3) Pariwar. ● Suttpitak contains—Diggh Nikay, Majjhim Nikay, Anguttar Nikay and Khuddak Nikay. ● In Abhidhamma Pitak, philosophical and spiritual thoughts are contained. ● There are seven treatises of Abhidhamma Pitak —(1) Dhamma Sangeeti, (2) Vibhang, (3) Dhatu

Katha, (4) Puggal Panjati, (5) Katha Vastu, (6) Yamak, (7) Patthan. ● The eightfold paths are—(1) Right belief, (2) Right thought, (3) Right speech, (4) Right action, (5) Right means of livelihood, (6) Right execution, (7) Right remembrance, (8) Right meditation. ● In Buddhism, the Astangikmarg (eight fold path) is classified as—(1) Praja Skandh, (2) Sheel Skandh, (3) Samadhi Skandh. ● Under Praja Skandh come—Samyak Drishti, Samyak Sankalp and Samyak Vani (speech). ● Under Sheel Skandh come—Samyak Karmant, Samyak Aajeev. ● Under Samadhi Skandh come—Samyak Vyayam, Samyak Smriti and Samyak Samadhi. ● Mahatma Buddha was silent on the existence of God or otherwise but he did not believe in the existence of soul. ● The first Buddhist Council was convened after a few years of Buddha’s death under the chairmanship of Mahakassap in Saptparna caves near Rajgrih. ● The second Buddhist Council was organized at Vaisali. ● The third Buddhist Council was convened at Patliputra during the regime of Asoka. ● The fourth Buddhist Council was convened at Kashmir during the regime of Kanishka. ● Purans are said to be 18 in number of which Bhagwat Puran is very renowned. ● Bhagwatism is mentioned for the first time in the Bhishm Parva of Mahabarat. ● The Dravida Vaishnav devotees are known as the Alwars. ● A Brahman named Kautilya or Chanakya played a significant role in the establishment of the Mauryan empire. ● In the Greek writings, Chandra Gupta Maurya is called Sandrocottus. ● Arien and Plutarch have called him Androcottus. ● In the Mudra Rakshas written by Vishakhdutt, Chandra Gupta Maurya is called Chandragiri Chandrashree. ● In Buddhist literature, Mahavansh Tika is the book which throws ample light on the life of Chandra Gupta Maurya. ● ‘Indika’ was written by Megasthenese. ● In the book Mahavansh, Chandra Gupta Maurya is said to be Kshatriya by caste. ● After being defeated in war with Chandra Gupta, Selukose offered him Gadrosia (Baluchistan), Acrosia (Kandahar), Aria (Herat) and a part of Hindukush. ● Sudarshan Lake at Junagarh was built by Chandra Gupta Maurya. ● The Mahasthan inscription points out Chandra Gupta’s ascendancy over Bengal. ● The Rudradaman inscription of Girnar testifies to the suzerainty of Chandra Gupta over Saurashtra. ● According to Jain Texts, Chandra Gupta in the last years of his life, accepted Jainism and went to Mysore with the Jain monk Bhadrabahu. ● The empire of Chandra Gupta spread from Himalaya in the north to Mysore in the south; and from Bengal in the east to Baluchistan in the west. It covered Punjab, Sindh, Kashmir, Doab of Ganga and Yamuna, Magadh, Bengal, Malwa, Saurashtra and the region of Mysore. ● The administrative system of Chandra Gupta Maurya was Monarchy. In order to administer well, Chandra Gupta Maurya appointed a Council of Ministers. ● In the Mauryan age, the officer who collected the trade taxes was called Shulkadhyaksha. ● The Chairman of the Government services was known as Sutradhyaksha in the Mauryan age. ● The officer-in-charge of Weight and Measures was known as Peetadhyaksha in the Mauryan age. ● In Mauryan age, the officer who controlled the manufacture of wine, its sale and purchase and its consumption was Suradhyaksha. ● The chairman of the agricultural department was called Seetadhyaksha in Mauryan age. ● There were many officers such as Ganikadhyaksha,` Mudradhyaksha, Navadhyaksha, Ashwadhyaksha and Devtadhyaksha etc. in the Mauryan Age. ● The officer who kept the details of total income and expenditure of the State and decided the economic policy was called Sannidhata. Under him, worked officers like Treasurer and Shulkadhyaksha. ● In Mauryan age, the minister of factories and mines was called Karmantirak. His main task was to excavate different metals from the mines and look after the factories. ● In Mauryan age the Amatya of Fauzdari (Criminal) Court was called Pradeshta. ● The Amatya of the Civil Court was known as Vyavaharik. ● The Greek scholars have described the Amatyas as the seventh caste. ● The successor of Chandra Gupta Maurya is called name Bindusara in majority of the Puranas. Ceylonese works, Buddhist textsand in Deepvansh and Mahavansh. In Vayu Puran, his name is given as Bhadrasaar. In some of the Purans he is called as Varisaar. In the Chinese text—Fa-Uen-Chu-Lin, he is called as Bindupal. In another book Rajabalikatha, the successor and son of Chandra Gupta is called as Sinhasen. ● Ptolemy, the ruler of Egypt sent Dioniyas as his ambassador to the Court of Bindusaar. ● In Chandra Gupta Maurya’s time, the chief of the city was called Nagaradhyaksha who worked like the modern District Magistrate. ● The smallest unit of the administration was the village. Its chief officer was called Gramik or Gramani. ● Gramani was elected by the people of the village. ● In every village, there was an officer who was called Gram Bhojak. ● In the administration of Chandra Gupta Maurya the department of espionage was well organized.

According to Kautilya, there were two sections of the secret service—(1) Sansthan, (2) Sancharan. ● In the inscriptions, Asoka is called Devanampriya and Priyadarshi. ● The Ceylonese sources and Deepvansh, call him, Priyadarshan and Priyadarshi. Scholars think that these were his titles. ● Asoka appointed an officer called Mahamatras in every city and district. ● In the 13th year of his reign, he appointed Dharma Mahamatra and Dharmayukta for the first time for the happiness and peace of his people. ● Upagupta was a Bauddhist monk of Mathura under his influence, Asoka changed his religion and accepted Buddhism. ● Asoka sent his daughter Sanghmitra and son Mahendra to spread Buddhism in Sri Lanka. ● In the mini edicts Asoka calls himself a Buddha Shakya. ● Asoka sent Majjhantik to propogate Buddhism in Kashmir. ● In 1750, it was Teffenthaler who first explored the Asokan pillars. ● Asoka’s last edict was found by Beadon in 1915 at Maski. ● The small edicts of Asoka are of two types. According to Smith, they were written in 259-232 B.C. ● The first kind of Asokan small pillar edicts are available at Roopnath in Jabalpur district, Sahasaram in Shahabad district of Bihar, Maski, in Raichoor district, and Vairat in Rajasthan. ● The second type of Asokan edicts have been found at Siddhpur (Chitralahug, Mysore) Jatig, Rameshwar and Brahmagiri. ● The Bhabru edict was found at Bairath near Jaipur in Rajasthan. In this edict seven precepts of Buddhism have been given which Asoka liked most and he desired that the people should read them and make their conduct accordingly. This edict is preserved in Kolkata Museum. ● Two edicts about Kalinga have been found at Dhauli and Jaugarh. In these, the principles of behaviour with he people of Kalinga and with the frontier people have been outlined. ● Asokan small edicts have been found at about 15 places. ● The Erangudi edict was found in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh at a place known as Erangudi. ● The Maski small edict was found from Maski village of Raichoor district of Andhra Pradesh. It contains the name of Asoka. ● The Rajul Mandgiri edict was found on a mound 20 miles beyond Erangudi in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh. ● The Gurjara edict has been found from a village named Gurjara in Datia district of Madhya Pradesh. It also mentions the name of Asoka. ● Ahraura edict was found from a hill of the village Ahraura in Mirzapur district of U.P. ● Palgoraria edict was found in 1975. ● The Sannati inscription (edict) has been found in the village Sannati in the district of Gulbarga of Karnatic State. ● The cave inscription are three in number which have been found in the Barabar hills of Gaya city in Bihar. These refer to the charity performed by the King to the Ajivaks. ● The language of the Kandahar edict is Greek and Aramaic. ● The Topara pillar edict has been found from a village named Topara in Haryana. In the course of time Firoz Tughlaq brought it to Delhi where it is kept at Feroz Shah Kotla ground. ● Rumindei small pillar edict was found from the Tarai of Nepal. ● Most of Asokan edicts are written in Prakrit language. ● In Gupta age ships and boats were manufactured in large numbers. Gujarat, Bengal and Tamil Nadu were the main centres of cotton industry. ● Trade between India and China was carried on before Gupta age, in 2nd century. ● India had trade relations with eastern, countries. They were called Swarnabhumi (land of gold). ● Peshawar, Bharaunch, Ujjaini, Varanasi, Prayag, Patliputra, Mathura, Vaishali and Tamralipti were trade centres. ● In west Bharaunch and in east, Tamralipti were prominent ports. ● Gold, silver, bronze, tin, campher, dates and horses were imported. ● The collective unit of the people who worked in various industries, were known as ‘Kuliks’. ● ‘Kulik Nigam’ and ‘Shreshthi Nigam were the unions of wealthy traders. The Kulik Nigam had its own seal which was used in commercial correspondence and the trade-goods. ● In the Gupta age, India maintained trade relations with Arabia. Horses were imported from Arabia and Iran. ● The Seals of Kulik have been excavated from the town Meeta near Allahabad. ● From Vaishali 274 Seals of Sarthwah Kulik Nigam have been excavated prove that it was a great institution of the Gupta age. ● Trade with China, Japan and Sumatra was carried from the port of Tamralipti. ● In Gupta age the land tax was known as ‘Udrang’. ● Kadur and Charpal were the ports situated in Andhra Pradesh. ● Kaveripattanam and Tondai were the ports of Chola State. ● Kokai and Saliyur were the ports of Pandya State. ● Kottayam and Mujris were the ports of Malwa State. ● Sindhu, Orhoth, Kalyan and Mibor were other main ports for trade. ● Hiranya was the tax realized in cash. Bhutavat Pratyaya was the tax levied upon the imports from

other countries. ● Haldand was the tax charged on the ploughed land. ● A definite portion of the produce from agricultural land was charged as the land tax by the State. It was called Bhag tax. Generally it was charged in kind. ● In the Gupta age, the land was donated only to the Brahmans. ● The land donated to Brahmans was called Brahmdeya. ● The tax free villages of the Brahmans were called Agrahara. ● In the Gupta age, the Gram Parishads (village councils) were autonomous and free from the State control. ● The uncultivated land was the property of the king. ● The women who remained unmarried throughout their life and passed their time in studies were called Brahmavadinis. ● Taxila, Varanasi and Ujjaini were prominent centres of education. ● In the Gupta society, intercaste marriages were performed. ● The slave system was practised in the Gupta age. ● The joint family system was in vogue in Gupta society. ● In the women though not as much respected as in Vedic period, yet enjoyed important position in the society of Gupta age. ● Sheelbhattarika was an educated and worthy woman of the Gupta age. ● Widow remarriages were performed in the Gupta age, But some works of the age speak against it. Chandra Gupta II married the widow of Ramgupta, his brother. Her name was Dhruva Swamini. ● Prostitutes, expert in music and dance, and perfect in sexology were called ‘Ganikas’. ● The traders and commercial professionals had their ‘Shrenis’ in Gupta age. The Patkar, Tailik (oil traders), Pashan Kottak (stone cutters) were important Shrenis. ● The author of ‘Swapnavasavaduttam’ was an eminent prose writer. ● The author of Bhattikavya or Ravan Vadh, was Bhatti, an eminent poet of Gupta age. ● Bhartahari worte ‘Niti Shatak’, Shringar Shatak and Vairagya Shatak which became very famous. Some scholars believe that Bhartahari is another name for Bhatti. ● ‘Kuntleshwar Daityam’ is a drama that testifies to the fact that Kalidas belonged to the Gupta age. ● ‘Abhigyanshakuntalam’ ‘Meghdoot’ ‘Ritusanhar’ are some of the major works of Kalidas. ● Kamsutra is a famous book on Sexology written by Vatsyayan. ● Vaibhashik and Sanghbhadra were the two Acharyas (teachers) of the Gupta age who wrote the literature of the Vaibhashik sect.

Important Facts of Indian History

History of Medieval India
● Made in the times of Bhoj, an idol of ‘Vakdevi’ is at present preserved in the British Museum. ● The Jain temples of Dilwara were constructed during the period of Parmars. ● In Udaipur Prashasti, Munj is entitled ‘Kavi Vrish’ due to his literary attainments. ● Qutubuddin was purchased as a slave in his childhood by Qazi Fakruddin Abdul Aziz Koofi. ● Qutubuddin did not issue coins or got ‘Khutba’ read in his name after accession to Delhi throne. ● Qutubuddin Aibak was buried at Lahore after his death. ● Iltutmish established the Shamsi dynasty. ● Iltutmish organized the group of his 40 slaves which is famous in history as Turkan-i-Chahalgami. ● Yalduz and Nasiruddin Qubacha were prominent rivals of Iltutmish. ● Iltutmish organized the ‘Iqta army’. ● Iltutmish issued the coins—‘Taka’ of silver and ‘Jeetal’ of copper. ● Iltutmish was the first Sultan who issued pure Arabic coins. ● On 18th February, 1229, the representatives of the Caliph of Baghdad came to Delhi and they gave the Investiture of the Caliph to Iltutmish. The Caliph thus accepted him as the Sultan of Delhi. Now Delhi became a free state legitimately. ● According to Barni, Balban organized his Court on the Iranian pattern. ● Balban started the system of ‘Sijda’ and ‘Paibos’ during his reign. ● Balban’s theory of kingship was based upon—Power, Prestige and Justice. His main objective was to maintain his control upon the administrative officials. ● The Mongol leader Changez Khan was known as the ‘Curse of God’. ● The coronation of Jalaluddin Feroz Shah was done in 1290 at the Kilokhari Apurna Palace built by Kaikubad. ● At the time of his accession on the Delhi Sultanate, Alauddin Khalji assumed the title of Abul Mujaffar Sultan Alauddinia and Deen Mohammad Shah Khalji. ● Jalaluddin Feroz Shah Khalji granted to Alauddin Khalji, the post of Amir-i-Tujuk. ● During Alauddin’s time approximately 75 to 80 per cent of the peasant’s produce was charged as tax. ● The main tasks of Diwan-i-Ariz were to recruit the soldiers, to disburse the salary, to well equip the army, to make arrangements for inspection and to proceed with the Commander-in-Chief in times of

war. ● The main tasks of the Diwan-i-Insha was to draft royal orders and letters and to maintain the govt. records. He also conducted correspondence with the local officers. ● Alauddin Khalji introduced market reforms and fixed the prices of various items and goods. ● Munhiyan or detectives were appointed to keep a watch over the market and report the Sultan of the same. ● Barid-i-Mandi was an employee who informed the Sultan of the quality of the material sold in the market. ● ‘Khams’ was the war booty. The 4/5 of the loot was submitted to the royal treasury. Only 1/5 was distributed among the soldiers. ● Alauddin Khalji established a new department Diwan-i-Mustakharaj in order to check the corruption of Revenue department and to maintain control on the concerned officers. ● Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah rejected the rigid rules of Alauddin Khalji and pursued the policy of forgive and forget. ● Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq Ghazi was a Qaruna turk. ● Mohammad Tughlaq has been called, an unfortunate idealist ● Due to shortage of money in the treasury and to meet the expenses of Imperialist policy, Mohammadbin-Tughlaq issued token currency. ● Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq planned invasion of Khurasan and Iraq but did not carry it out. ● Diwan-i-Kohi was the name of agriculture department organized by Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq. ● Elphinston was the first historian who believed that there was some signs of madness in Mohammad Tughlaq. ● Feroz Shah abolished 24 taxes disliked by people. ● Feroz Shah Tughlaq following dictum of Quran. levied only 4 taxes named Kharaj, Khums, Zazia and Zakat. ● Feroz Shah brought the two Asokan pillars from Khijrabad and Meerut to Delhi. ● During the period of Feroz Shah Tughlaq, the two books Fatwa-i-Jahandari and Tarikh-i-Feroz Shahi were written by Barni. ● Feroz Shah Tughlaq wrote his autobiography entitled Futuhat-i-Firoz Shahi. ● Feroz Shah Tughlaq established a new department of charity at Delhi known as Diwan-i-Khairat. ● Feroz Shah’s book ‘Dalayat-i-Feroz Shahi’ was a work translated into Persian. ● Taimur invaded India in 1398. ● Sikandar Lodhi was the greatest of the Lodhi kings. ● In the Sultanate period, the Wazir was the Prime Minister of the Sultan. ● The department of the Wazir was known as the Diwan-i-Wizarat. ● In the Sultanate period, the Mushrif-i-Mumaliq maintained the account of the income and expenditure of the provinces. ● In the Sultanate period, the Chief Auditor of Accounts was called Mustafa-i-Mamaliq. His main work was to inspect the accounts prepared by Mushraf-i-Mamaliq. ● The Chief of military department was called, Ariz-i-Mamaliq who was not the Commander-in-Chief of the army. ● Dabir-i-Khas was the chairman of the correspondence department. ● Department of Diwan-i-Insha worked under Dabir-i-Khas who issued the royal Firmans (orders). ● The Treasurer was called Khajij and the Chief Justice was called Qazi-i-Mamaliq. ● The Chief of the Construction department was called Mir-i-Imarat. ● The Public Hall of the Sultan was called Durbar-i-Azam. ● The Sultan divided the empire into Iqtas orprovinces. ● Iqta was divided into samll shiks or districts. ● Jakat was the tax which covered the taxes of ‘Sadpa’ and ‘Tith’. ● Qutubuddin Aibak had built the mosque known as Quwwattul-Islam near the Delhi Fort of Rai Pithora. ● The famous mosque at Ajmer known as Dhai Din Ka Jhopra was constructed by Qutubuddin Aibak. ● Dhai Din Ka Jhopra was earlier a Sanskrit school which was built by Vigrahraj Bisaldeo. ● Alai Darwaza which is considered to be the most precious jewel of Islamic architecture was built by Alauddin Khalji. ● The new city of Siri and the Hazaar Situn palace in this city were built by Alauddin Khalji. ● In the period of Sikander Lodhi, his Wazir built the Moth mosque. ● The mosque of Attala is one of the best buildings of Sharqi style. ● The Jhajhanri mosque at Jaunpur was built by Ibrahim Sharqi in about 1430. ● The most important mosque at Jaunpur known as Jami mosque was built by Hussain Shah Sharqi. ● The mosque of Lal Darwaza at Jaunpur, was built in the middle of the 15th century. ● The Vijay Nagar kingdom was divided into 6 provinces. The chief of the province was known as Prantpati or Nayak. ● The province was divided into Nadu or districts. ● The provincial rulers were allowed to issue their coins. ● In the Vijay Nagar empire Brahmans were the most respected. The criminal Brahman was exempled from capital punishment. ● Women enjoyed honourable status. Many of them learnt the art of warfare. They were appointed as

bodyguards. ● Krishnadeo Ray is designated as the Andhra Pitamah. ● Gold coins were used and they were called ‘Barah’. ● Mixed metal coins were called Partab. ● Kabir who adopted the Gyanashrayi branch of the Nirgun sect, was the disciple of Ramanand. ● Namdeo was born in a small village of Satara district in 1220. ● Sabad refer to the composition related to Yog Sadhana. ● Guru Nanak was born in a small village Talwandi near Lahor. ● To reform a society ridden with ritualism and superstitious, he preached the Nirguna sect. ● The fifth Sikh Guru Arjundeo systematized the composition of Guru Nanak in ‘Guru Granth Sahib’. ● Malik Mohammad Jayasi earned great name and fame for his work Padmavat. ● The first invasion of Babar on India was conducted in 1519. During this invasion, he conquered Bajaur and Bhera. He went back from here. When he left these two places were lost to the Moghuls. ● Babar again invaded India in 1526, for the fifth time and he did not go back this time. He founded the Moghul empire in India. ● He defeated Ibrahim Lodhi by adopting his trusted war tactics of Tulughma. ● Babar used Artillery for the first time in the battle of Panipat. ● Babar defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar in the battle of Khanva in 1527. He scored a victory over Afghans in battle of ‘Ghaghara’ in 1529. ● Babar declared the Chanderi war as Jehad and he constructed a minarate of the heads of the dead Rajputs. ● Babar wrote his autobiography Tujuk-i-Babri in Turkish language. ● Mirza Haider Speaks about numerous qualities of Babar in his book—Tarikh-i-Rashidi. ● Babar’s daughter Gulbadan Begum enumerated the qualities of Babar in her book, Humayun Nama. ● Babar in his reign abolished the tax Tamagha. ● Babar wrote Risala-i-Validiya in Turkish poetry which was orginally the work of Khwaja Obei-dullah. ● Babar learnt the use of artillery from Ustad Ali and Mustafa—his two Turkish officers. ● The name of Humayun’s mother was Maham Sultana. ● In 1544 Humayun took shelter with Shah Tahmasp, the ruler of Iran. ● In July 1555, Humayun again occupied the throne of Delhi. ● Humayun died on 27 January, 1556 as a result of a sudden fall from the stairs of the Din-Panah Library. ● Shershah was a great conqueror. He fought and won a grim battle against Maldeo of Marwar. ● Shershah introduced currency reform, extanded transport system by building, roads, most famous being present day G. T. Road and reformed revenue system by classifying agricultural land and introducing measurement of land. ● During the administration of Shershah, the Diwan-i-Vizarat looked after the tax system and economy and maintained the accounts of the income and expenditure of the State. ● The duty of Diwan-i-Ariz was to recruit the army, supply the food and look after education. ● The duty of Diwan-i-Rasalat was to conduct correspondence with other States and to maintain contact with them. ● The duty of the Diwan-i-Insha was to write emperor’s orders and records of accounts. ● The credit to solve the early difficulties of Akbar and to safeguard the Mughal empire goes to Bairam Khan. ● From 1556 to 1560 the reins of Mughal administration remained in the hands to Bairam Khan. ● At Tilwara, a war was fought between Bairam Khan and the army of Akbar. Bairam Khan was defeated. ● In early days of his rule Akbar was under the influence of Harem particularly his foster another Maham Anga. This is why some historian call the early years of Akbar as ‘Purda-rule’ or Petticoat government. ● When Maham Anga died, the so-called short Petticoat government of Akbar’s time ended. ● In 1562 Akbar abolished the slavery system. ● Akbar was the first muslim ruler who got maximum success in Rajasthan. ● Akbar’s second attack on Gujarat is considered to be not only the fastest invasion of Akbar’s time but the fastest in the history of the world of that age. ● In 1595 during Akbar’s time. Muzaffar Hussain was the Persian Governor of Qandahar. ● Akbar’s mother Hamida Bano Begum was a religious lady of a Sufi Shia family. ● Raja Birbal died fighting on the royal side in the Afghan-Baluchi rebellion during Akbar’s time. ● In 1571 was built an Ibadatkhana at Fatehpur Sikri where every Thrusday, religious deliberation were held. ● Akbar was also impressed by Jainism. He invited the eminent Jain scholar Heer Vijay Suri from Tam Gachh in Gujarat to know about this religion. ● Impressed by Zorastrianism, the holy fire was kept burning in Akbar’s palace. ● Following the tradition of Hindu kings, Akbar started appearing for Darshan of his people from the Jharokha of his palace. ● In Akbar’s time, the Prime Minister was known Wazir or Vakil-i-Mutlaq. ● In Akbar’s time, the Finance Minister was called Wazir or Deewan. ● Mujaffar Khan was the first to be appointed as Wazir during Akbar’s time.

● The assistants of Deewan, known as Sahib-i-Taujeeh looked after the accounts of the Army. ● Another assistant of Deewan, Deewan-i-Bayutoot, looked after the Industries of different kinds. ● The officer who managed the royal treasury was known as Mushrif-i-Khazana. ● Meer Saman in Akbar’s time, managed the affairs of the royal palace, Haram and kitchen. ● In Akbar’s time, Amal Guzar was the officer who collected the revenue from the districts. ● Bitikchi prepared the data about the quality of land and its produce. On the same basis, the Amal Guzar fixed the revenue. Bitikchi was the second important officer in the Revenue department. ● Amil collected the revenue from the Pargana. ● In Akbar’s time, the clerk was called Karkun. His main task was to record the cultivable land in the Pargana and keep an account of the realized and unrealized revenue. ● Akabar introduced Mansabdari system with its ranks of Jat and Sawar based on decimal system. ● According to Blochman, Zat was the definite number of soldiers, the Mansabdars had to keep with them. ● According to Blochman the Sawar meant the definite number of cavalry. ● In Akbar’s time, there were four kinds of land—Polaj, Chacher, Parauti and Banjar. ● In Akbar’s time, Ibrahim Sarhindi translated the Sanskrit text of Atharva Ved in Persian. ● Mulla Shah Mohammad translated in Persian Raj Tarangini of Kalhan. ● Maulana Sherry translated Hari Vansh Puran in Persian. ● Abul Fazal translated Panch Tantra in Persian. ● Faizi translated the story of Nal Damayanti in Persian. ● The history of Islam was compiled in Tarikh-i-Alfi. It is a famous book. ● Akbar established a separate department of Painting, the chairman of this department was the famous painter Khwaja Abdus Samad. ● Abdussamad was an inhabitant of Persia who came to India from Shiraz. He was adorned with the title of Shirin Qalam for his attainments. ● Mohammad Hussain, the famous author of Akbar’s Court was adorned with the title of Zari Qalam. ● Akbar built the Fort of Allahabad. ● The first building of Akbar’s time was Humayun’s tomb at Delhi built under the guidance of his step mother Haji Begum. ● The main mason who built Humayun’s tomb belonged to Iran and his name was Mirza Meerak Ghyas. ● Akbar was born on Sunday. Hence Jahangir declared Sunday as a pious day. ● Nur Jahan was an educated lady. She was specially interested in music, painting and poetry. She composed poetry in Persian. ● The first Englishman to come to the Mughal Court was captain Hawkins. ● Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khana was the guardian and tutor of Jahangir. ● The English ambassador Sir Thomas Roe came to India during Jahangir’s time. ● The Jahangir’s autobiography is Tujuk-i-Jahangiri. ● Shahjahan was born on 5 January, 1592 at Lahore. The name of his mother was Jagat Gosain. ● Two big rebellions broke out during Shahjahan’s time. One was the revolt of the ruler of Bundelkhand named Jujhar Singh and the other was the revolt in south under the leadership of Khan-i-Jahan Lodhi. ● The title of Malika-i-Zamani was conferred upon Arjumand Bano Begum. ● The first coronation of Aurangzeb was performed on 31 July, 1658 and the second coronation took place on 15 June, 1659. ● Aurangzeb passed an order and prohibited the repairs of the temples by the Hindus. ● Aurangzeb appointed Subedars and Muhatsibs to check the spread of education and Hinduism. ● Aurangzeb again levied Zazia upon Hindus. ● Under Aurangzeb, the Hindu traders paid 5% tax on goods while the Muslim traders were free from this tax. ● Aurangzeb issued orders to prohibit the celebration of Holi, Diwali and Basant etc. in the Mughal Court. ● Gokul and Raja Ram were the leaders of Jat revolt against Aurangzeb. After the death of Rajaram, his brother’s son named Churaman continued the revolt. The Jat rebellion went on till the death of Aurangzeb and the Jats succeeded in establishing a free Jat state of Bharatpur near Mathura. ● In 1681, Akbar, the son of Aurangzeb revolted against him. ● The 9th Guru of the Sikh order, Guru Tegh Bahadur openly protested against the religious policy of Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb called him to Delhi and asked him to accept Islam. When he refused, he was beheaded. ● Shivaji was the founder of Maratha State. He fought against the state of Deccan, as well as the mughal empire. He was a great administrator. ● Shivaji was succeeded by Sambhaji who was captured and put to death by Aurangzeb. ● Rajaram ruled only as the representative of Shahu—the son of Shambhaji who was imprisoned by Aurangzeb. Rajaram never occupied the Maratha throne. ● After the death of Raja Ram Maratha war of independence was carried on by his wife Tarabai. ● VascodeGama came to India as the representative of the ruler of Portugal. He met Zamorin of Calicut and obtained trade facilities. ● In 1492 Pope Alexander VI granted the Portuguese the monopoly to trade with the east. ● From 1505 to 1509, Almeda remained in India as the first Portuguese Governor.

● Albukirk was the successor of Almeda in India. His objective was to establish a Portuguese colony in India by intermarrying with Indians. ● After coming to India, the Dutch established their trade centres at Surat, Bharaunch, Cambay, Ahmedabad, Chinsura, Kasim Bazar, Patna, Balasore, Nagapattanam, Kochin, Masulipattanam and Agra. ● The main aim of the Dutch was to trade with the Islands of south-east Asia. India was just a passage for them. This is why the Dutch faced no rivalry with other European companies. ● In 1608, under the leadership of Captain Hawkins, the English fleet reached India. ● In 1717 the Mughal King Farrukh Siyar granted a Firman to the British giving them the trade rights. ● In 1692, the Nawab of Bengal issued an order to the French Company and they established a commercial Factory at Chandranagar.

Important Facts of Indian History

History of Modern India
● Muazzam occupied the Mughal throne as Bahadur Shah after his success in the war of succession. ● Muazzam, the son of Aurangzeb was called as the ‘Shah Bekhabar’. ● The Mughal King Farrukh Siyar gratned concession to the English men to trade in Bengal, Gujarat and Hyderabad. ● In 1759 Ali Mohar, the son of Alamgir sat upon the Mughal throne as Shah Alam II. ● After the death of Maratha ruler Shahu, the real power of the State came in the hands of Peshwas. ● Nawab Murshid Quli Khan of Bengal transferred his capital to Murshidabad from Dacca. ● Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal transferred his capital to Moongher from Murshidabad. ● In the middle of the 18th century, the nominal ruler of Mysore was Chika Krishnaraj. The real power of the State lied with the two brothers—Nand Raj and Dev Raj. ● In 1761 Hyder Ali captured Nandraj and became the master of Mysore. ● In the first Anglo-Mysore war, Hyder Ali badly defeated the English army. ● In 1781 Hyder Ali conqurered Arcot but in 1781 at Porn Novo Sir Eyerkoot defeated him. ● Ali Muhammad Khan established the State of Rohilkhand. ● The early capital of Rohilkhand was ‘Awala’ which later shifted to Rampur. ● Guru Har Gobind Singh constructed the Akaal Takht at Amritsar. ● Guru Gobind Singh converted the Sikhs into a warring and military group. ● In 1721, the two sects of Sikhism ‘Bandai’ and ‘Tatkhalsa’ merged in one sect ‘Khalsa’. This sect became a headache for the Mughals. ● The Sikhs were organized in 12 unions or misls which grew in political significance. Later Ranjeet Singh conquered these misls and organized them into Punjab State. ● The ruler of the Afghanistan conferred the title of Raja upon Ranjeet Singh and appointed him the Subedar of Lahore. ● The treaty of Amritsar was signed between the English and Ranjeet Singh in 1809. As a result the English checked the expansion of Ranjeet Singh towards the region of Sutluj. ● According to the treaty of Amritsar, the English accepted Ranjeet Singh as an independent ruler. ● During first Anglo-Sikh war, the Governor-General of India was Lord Hardinge. ● Punjab was ruled by Maharaja Dalip Singh when the Lahore Treaty was signed in 1846 between the Sikhs and the English after the defeat of Sikhs in the first Anglo Sikh war. ● During Sirajudaulla’s time, the English settlement at Calcutta became a resort for the enemies of Nawab and the traitors. ● On 4th June, 1756 Sirajudaulla invaded and captured the Qasim Bazar factory of English near Murshidabad. ● The Black hole tragedy as it is known in history, came to light through the letter of Holvell. Some of the historians consider it imaginery. ● In the contemporary historical works like Sher-a-Mutkherin and Royas-us-Salatin, there is no reference to the Black hole tragedy. ● On 9th February, 1757, the Ali Nagar Treaty was signed between the English and the Nawab. ● After the war of Plassey, when Sirajudaulla was running away from Murshidabad towards Patna he was captured and killed. ● On 28 June, 1757, the English declared Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal. ● After victory in Plassey war, the English Company obtained concessions to trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. ● On 25 November, 1759, the Bedara war was fought between the English and the Dutch and the Dutch were defeated. The victory helped the English in consolidating their hold on Bengal. ● Mir Qasim planned friendship with Vansittart to become the Nawab of Bengal. ● Mir Qasim gave to East India Company, the districts of Vardhman, Midnapur and Chittgaon for the expenditure of the English army. ● In 1764 the joint army of Mir Qasim, Shujauddaulla and Shah Alam fought with the English—the war of Buxar, the English were victorious in this war. ● After the Buxar War, the Allahabad treaty was signed between English and the Mughal King Shah Alam

in 1765 AD. ● According to Allahabad Treaty, the districts of Kara and Allahabad were taken away from the Nawab of Oudh and given to Mughal King. The East India Company agreed to pay to the king a pension of Rs. 26 lacs. In lieu the English got Diwani rights in Bengal. ● After the death of Mir Jafar, his son Nizamuddaula was enthroned as Nawab of Bengal. ● K. M. Panikkar holds that from 1765 to 1772, the rule of East India Company in Bengal was the ‘rule of dacoits’. ● During Warren Hastings period, the Treasury was transferred by the East India Company to Calcutta from Murshidabad and Calcutta was made the capital. ● During the Governorship of Warren Hastings, in every district of subjugated India one Civil and one Criminal Court was opened. ● The cases upto to Rs. 500 were referred to the Civil Court and alone it, the appeal could be made to the Sadar Diwani Adalat. ● The District Criminal Court was put in charge of an Indian Officer. ● The Regulating Act of 1773 established a Supreme Court at Calcutta. ● The Permanent settlement introduced by Cornwallis brought changes in the land system. Most of the land came in the hands of commercial and rich classes of Calcutta. ● The Permanent settlement ensured the income of the Government. Besides the cooperation of the new Zamindars was obtained. ● In the Mahalwari system, land revenues was fixed either through the local Zamindars or their hereditary tax collectors or the Zamindars of the Mahal. Mahal was the collection of villages. The Mahalwari system was known in Punjab as the village system. ● The Raiyyatwari system was introduced during early 19th century in some regions of Madras and Bombay. The Govt. directly obtained a fixed amount from the peasants. ● In the Raiyyatwari system, the revenue rate was fixed 45% to 50% of the total produce separately. ● The Raiyyatwari system had many defects which the Govt. official accepted at the time of a parliamentary inspection for the renewal of the Company’s Charter. ● In the Fifth and Sixth decades of 19 century, the English invested in large amount to control Indian economy. ● The English invested their capital on roads and communications, Railway, Post and Telegraph, Banks and tea gardens. ● In 1830 the Ahoms again rebelled against the English. This time, the English Company adopted a peaceful policy and granted north Assam and some other region to King Purandar Singh. ● Raja Teerath Singh of Nanakkalo rebelled against the English with the help of Garo, Khampati and Sinhopo tribes. Soon it took the shape of a mass-movement. In 1833, the English could crust it with superior military force. ● In 1825, the Assam Rifles rebelled against the English. ● In 1838, the Indian troops stationed at Sholapur rebelled due to non-payment of the full allowances. ● In 1850 the Gobind Garh regiment rebelled. ● On 1 January, 1857, the use of British made Enfield Rifles was started in India. In the cartridges of this Rifle, the fat of cows and pigs were used. ● In March 1857, the soldiers of Bairakpur Cantt refused to use the fat cartridges. ● On 2 May, 1857, the Oudh Regiment of Lucknow too refused to use these cartridges. As a result, the Oudh regiment was disbanded. ● To the soldiers of Meerut who had refused to use the fat cartridges, an English military officer—Carr Michael Smith issued the jail punishment of 5 years. ● On 10 May, 1857, a section of the infantry and cavalry of Merrut rebelled at about 5 P.M. ● The rebels marched to Delhi, captured the city and declared Bahadurshah the emperor of India. Bahadurshah assumed the leadership of revolt in Delhi. ● During this rebellion, Nana Saheb established his suzeranity over Kanpur and declared himself the Peshwa. ● In Bundelkhand Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi assumed the leadership of the revolt. ● In Bihar, the zamindar of Jagdishpur, named Kunwar Singh led the revolt. ● On 28 May, 1857, the soldiers of Nasirabad Cantt in Rajasthan, rebelled. ● Kota and Adva were the main centres of revolt in Rajasthan. ● The Central India, Tantya Tope led the revolt. ● In U.P. the importnat centres of revolution were Jhansi, Kanpur, Bareilly, Meerut, Lucknow, Aligarh, Mathura and Agra. ● The Bareilly rebellion was led by Batakhs Khan. ● The Commissioner of Oudh, Henry Laurrence died of a blast on 4th July, 1857. ● While suppressing the revolt, the English officer Neil buried the dead Brahmans and burnt the dead Muslims. ● In March 1858, under the leadership of Kunwar Singh, the rebels captured Azamgarh. ● While marching towards Benaras from Azamgarh, there was an encounter between Kunwar Singh and the English officer Lord Mark in which Lord Mark had to run away to save his life. ● Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur was the only leader to have died under the banner of freedom. ● On 14 December, 1857, the English army blasted Kashmiri Gate of Delhi.

● In November 1857 the rebels defeated the English General Windaham near Kanpur. ● Vinayak Damodar Saverker was the first to name the rebellion of 1857 as the first war of Indian independence. ● According to Sir Seeley, the rebellion of 1857 was fully a national revolt conducted by selfish soldiers. ● Sir John Lawrence, P. E. Roberts and V. A. Smith have called it a Sepoy Mutiny. ● According to V. A. Smith, the rebellion of 1857 was purely a sepoy mutiny which fully reflected the indiscipline of Indian soldiers and the foolishness of English military officers. ● According to Sir James Outtram, the revolt of 1857 was the result of a conspiracy of the Muslims who desired to fulfill their self-interest on the strength of the Hindus. ● Ashok Mehta in his book, ‘The Great Revolt’, has attempted to prove that it was a national revolt. ● Pattabhi Sita Ramaiyya takes it to be the first war of Indian independence. ● After crushing the revolt of 1857, they constituted an India Council and abolished the Board of Directors. There were 15 members in the India Council and a Secretary of State for India. ● After the revolt, Lord Canning announced the Declaration of the Queen at a Durbar held at Allahabad. He called it, ‘the Magna Carta of Indian people’. ● In the Declaration of the Queen, the policy of expansion of the political limits came to an end. ● The rebels responsible for the murder of Englishmen were punished. All others were pardoned. ● The objective of Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Ramkirshna Mission and the Theosophical society etc. was to herald a renaissance in India. ● Brahmo Samaj was founded in Calcutta by Raja Ram Mohan Roy on 20 August, 1828. ● Raja Ram Mohan Roy always advocated the appointment of Indians on high govt. posts. He played a major role in the abolition of Sati system. ● After the death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy on 20 August, 1833, Devendara Nath Tagore assumed the leadership of the Brahmo Samaj. ● Aadi Brahmo Samaj was established by Devendra Nath Thakur. ● Bhartiya Brahmo Samaj was founded by Keshav Chandra Sen. ● The principles of Brahmo Samaj helped immensely in the birth and Spread Indian nationalism. ● Raja Ram Mohan Roy established Vedant College, English School and Hindu College at Calcutta. ● Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the advocate of English Education and he thought English to be the vehicle of progress. ● It was due to the effort of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, that the restriction upon the newspapers were lifted. ● In 1819, at Maharashtra, Prarthna Sabha was founded. It came to an end due to its limited scope. ● In 1867 Atma Ram Pandurang established Prarthna Samaj. M. G. Ranade, R. G. Bhandarkar and Narayan Chandrawarkar were the prominent members of this Samaj. ● Dayanand Saraswati left his house at the age of 21. As a Brahmachari Sadhu, he travelled to different places in India. ● Dayanand Saraswati started the propagation of his religion from Agra. ● In 1874, he wrote his famous book Satyarth Prakash. ● On 10 April, 1875 he founded Arya Samaj at Bombay. ● Totapuri, a Vedantic sadhu taught Vedant Sadhna to Dayananda. ● Ramkrishna Paramhans was born in 1836 in a poor Brahman family of Hoogly district of Bengal. ● Swami Vivekanand was the most devoted disciple of Swami Ramkrishna Paramhans. ● Ramkrishna Pramhans did not establish any Ashram or sect. ● In 1893 in the All Religion Conference at Chicago Vivekanand impressed everyone, and started a Vedant Samaj there. ● In 1896 Vivekanand established Ramkrishna Mission. ● In the last years of the third decade of the 19th century, the young Bengal movement was led by an Englishman named Henry William Derozio. ● On 7 September, 1875 in New York, U.S.A. Madame H.P. Blatavesky (Russian) and Col. H. S. Alcott (American) founded the Theosophical Society. ● Mrs. Annie Besant, an Irish lady was a very active member of Theosophical Society in India. ● Due to the efforts of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, in 1856, the Widow Remarriage Act was legislated. ● The slogan of ‘Inkalab Zindabad’ was given by Mohammad Iqbal. ● Sir Saiyyad Ahmad Khan founded the Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh in 1877 which later became known as Aligarh Muslim University. ● Haji Shariatullah was the initiator of Faryaz movement. ● In Maharashtra the Bharat Sewak Samaj was started by Gopal Krishna Gokhale. ● In 1922 Amrit Lal Viththal Das established the Bheel Sewa Mandal. ● Jyoti Ba Phule was the champion of widowremarriage in Maharashtra. ● In 1911 Narayan Maltar Joshi organised the Social Service League, a society to solve the social problems. He was assisted by some educated Indians. ● Avanindra Nath Thakur founded the society known as—The Indian Society of Oriental Art. ● In the 19th century, the famous Bengali author Bankim Chandra Chatterjee composed the song— Vande Matram. ● In 1875, Sisir Kumar Ghose founded the India League. ● The Indian Association founded by Surendra Nath Banerjee was replaced by the Indian League in 1876.

● The credit for founding the Indian National Congress in 1885 goes to an English officer, Allen Octavian Hume. ● The first Conference of the Indian National Congress was held at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College, Bombay under the chairmanship of W. C. Banerjee. ● Bal Gangadhar Tilak started Ganesh Mahotsav in 1893 and Shivaji Samaroh in 1895. ● Pandit Jugal Kishore published the first newspaper of India—Udant Martand. It was a paper which gave top priority to Indian interests. ● During Lord Curzon’s time in 1905, Bengal was divided. ● In 1911, in Lord Hardinge’s time, the partition of Bengal was cancelled. ● Lala Lajpat Rai and Ajeet Singh were exiled to Burma in 1907. ● In 1911 the capital of India was shifted to Delhi from Calcutta. ● On Nov. 1913, the Ghadar Party was founded at Sanfransisco city of America by the great revolutionary of Punjab named Lala Hardayal. ● Kashi Ram and Hardayal were the active members of the Ghadar Party. ● In 1906, Agha Khan founded the All India Muslim League. ● In 1916, a pact was signed between Muslim League and Congress which is known in history as the Lucknow Pact. ● In 1916 Bal Gangadhar Tilak established the Home Rule League of India. ● After Lucknow Pact, Congress and League presented the plan of political reforms based on separate electoral regions. This pact led to an increase in communalism. ● In 1914 Annie Besant brought out a newspaper in English named ‘New India’. ● Gandhiji established the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad. ● On 30 March, 1919, Satyagraha Day was observed in whole of India. The Satyagraha was peaceful at all places except Punjab and Delhi. ● Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Saifuddin, the leaders of the Punjab Satyagraha were imprisoned. In protest, a meeting was organized at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar . The people who assembled here were gunned down. This is known as ‘Jalhianwalla bagh Massacre’ of April 1919. ● After the world war I, the Indian Muslims were excited due to the treatment meted out to Caliph by the British in Turkey. In 1919 they started the Khilafat movement under the leadership of Maulana Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali. ● The Congress joined the Muslims in Khilafat movement. On 31 August, 1919, the Khilafat Day was observed. ● Mahatma Gandhi launched the Non-cooperation Mass Movement in 1920-21. But violence broke out at Chauri Chaura then in Gorakhpur district which saddened Gandhiji. In February 1922 he announced the closure of the movement. ● In March 1922 Motilal Nehru and Deshbandhu Chitranjan Das established the Swaraj Party. ● In the elections of 1923 the Swaraj Party scored 40 seats out of 148. ● In 1927 the Bardoli Satyagraha was conducted by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel. ● In 1928 under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon a Commission came to India to inspect the administrative work. The Indians boycotted it as no Indian was a member of the Commission. In March 1928 the Commission went back. ● In the 1929 Lahore Congress session held under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru, the meaning of Swaraj was declared as total independence. ● In 1930 Gandhiji broke the Salt laws by his Dandi March and he started the Civil Disobedience movement. ● In 1930, the Congress boycotted the first Round Table Conference. ● In 1931, after Gandhi-Irwin pact Gandhiji went to attend the second Round Table Conference along with the members of Muslim League. ● In the third Round table conference in 1932, Congress did not send any representative. Only 46 members went to participate under different categories. ● The meeting of the Executive of Congress held on 1 January, 1932 decided to again start the Civil Disobedience Movement due to the completely negative attitude of the Government. ● The British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald declared the communal award on 16 August, 1932. ● On 25 September, 1932, the Poona Pact was signed. Common agreement was made on two conditions for preparing the electoral regions. The representative of the Depressed classes was B.R. Ambedkar. ● In 1932 Gandhiji founded the Harijan Sewak Sangh for the uplift of the Harijans. ● On 8 May, 1933 Gandhiji declared the programme of 21 days fast for his self-purification. ● Gandhiji began ‘Individual Satyagraha and Civil Disobedience on 1 August, 1933. ● The Government of India Act of 1935 had 312 articles and 19 enclosures. ● In 1935, the British provinces were 11 e.g., Madras, Bombay, Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Orissa, Central Provinces, Assam, North West Frontier Provinces, United Provinces and Sindh. ● The Government of India Act of 1935, the subjects were divided into three departments—Federal, Provincial and Concurrent. ● This Act divided the British provinces of India in two categories. 11 were the provinces under the Governor and 5 provinces were under Lieutenant Commissioners. ● The Govt. of India Act, 1935, proposed Federal system and Provincial autonomy. The plan of Federal system could not be implemented. The elections for the Provincial legislative Councils were held in the

January-February of 1937. ● The Congress won majority in 5 provinces—Madras, United Provinces, Central Provinces, Bihar and Orissa in the general election of 1937. ● In Punjab, the Unionist Party and Muslim League jointly formed the Government. This Government worked without any obstruction till 1947. ● In Bengal the Krishak Praja Party and the Muslim League jointly formed the Government. Its Cabinet worked till 14 August, 1947. Sikandar Hayaat Khan was the head of this Government. ● The Congress Cabinets worked from 1937 to 1939. ● In 1934, the members of Congress Executive, Acharya Narendra Dev, Jai Prakash and Achyut Patvardhan organized the Congress Socialist Party. ● In the Haripura session of the Congress (1938), S. C. Bose was unanimously elected the President. ● Subhash Chandra Bose organized a National Planning Committee. ● In 1939 Bose was relected Congress President defeating Gandhi’s candidate P. Sitaramayya. ● In April 1939, Subhash Chandra Bose resigned from the post of the President and started a militant party known as Forward Block. ● In 1939, Jawaharlal Nehru became the President of the Tribal Conference of Indian States. ● In 1933, a Muslim student named Choudhary Rahmat Ali studying in England proposed the formation of a separate Muslim State and called it Pakistan. ● On 24th March, 1940, in the Lahore Conference of the Muslim League, the Pakistan proposal was passed. ● Lord Linlithgo presented the August proposal before the Congress on 8 August, 1940 for getting cooperation during the war. ● The Individual Satyagraha was started from 17 October, 1940. Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first Satyagrahi. Gandhiji postponed it on 17 December, 1940. ● It was restarted on 5 January, 1941. During this period more than 20 thousand people were arrested. ● Cripps Mission visited India in 1942. It was onemember Commission and only Sir Strafford Cripps was the member. ● The Congress and the League, both rejected the Cripps Proposals. ● The Quit India movement resolution was passed on 14 July, 1942 in the Executive of the Congress Session held at Wardha. It was reaffirmed on 8 August, 1942. ● The interim government of free India was organized on 21 October, 1943 by Subhash Chandra Bose in Singapore. ● 21 Indian political leaders were invited to attend a Conference at Simla in June 1945. It ended in failure. ● In December 1945, the General Elections were held in India. The Congress received the majority in 6 provinces. ● On 18 February, 1946, the non Commissioned officers and Naval soldiers of the Royal Indian Navy who were called Rattings, began a militant revolt at Bombay. ● In order to remove the Constitutional crisis the British Government sent the Cabinet Mission to India. ● It came on 29 March, 1946 to New Delhi and it declared its proposals. ● Muslim League observed the Direct Action Day on 16 August 1946. ● The Interim Government of India was organized under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. The Cabinet took oath on 2nd September, 1946. ● The Constituent Assembly first met under the chairmanship of Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 6th December, 1946. ● Atlee declared on 20 February, 1947 that the English would leave India after transferring the power to responsible people before June 1948. ● The Mountbatten Plan of 3 June, 1947 was mainly the Plan of partition. It was agreed upon by the Executive of the Indian National Congress on 14-15 June in a meeting at Delhi. ● In July 1947, the Indian Independence Act was passed by the British Parliament. ● India became independent on 15 August, 1947. ● On 26 January, 1950, the state of Hyderabad merged in the Indian Federation. ● On 20 April 1954, the Panchsheel Pact was signed between India and China. ● On 20 October, 1962 China invaded upon India. Soon it occupied Assam Valley and Laddakh. On 21 November, 1962, China declared one sided ceasefire.

Important Dynasties of India

Maurya Dynasty (300 B.C.–184 B.C.)

Chandragupta Maurya (324–300 B.C.)—He founded the Maurya Empire in India with the help of Kautilya. He was a military genius and an eminent statesman. Ashoka the great (273–236 B.C.)—Coronation in 269 B.C. He was the son of Bindusara. He conquered; Kalinga in 261 B.C. This was killed the soldier in him and he embraced Buddhism. Kushan Dynasty (40–176 A.D.) Kanishka (78–101 or 102 A.D.)—He is known as a great empire builder. Like Ashoka he patronized Buddhism. He patronized the Gandhara School of Art. The famous Indian physician Charak and Bhuddhist lawyer Nagarjuna lived during his reign. Ashwaghosh a Buddhist monk also lived in his time. Gupta Dynasty (320–550 A.D.) The great rulers in this dynasty are : Chandra Gupta I. (2) Samudra Gupta, (330 –375 A.D.). Also known as Napoleon of India, (3) Chandra Gupta II. (375–413 A.D.) (Vikramaditya), and (4) Skanda Gupta (455–477 A.D.). The Gupta period is described as the golden period in the history of ancient India. Among the great personalities of the period mention may be made of Kalidas. The famous dramatist, Arya Bhatta, the famous astronomer and mathematician. Varahamihir and Brahmagupta also belonged to this age. Vardhana or Pushyabhuti Dynasty (560–647 A.D.) The greatest king of this dynasty was Harsha Varadhan (606–647 A.D.). He was a great patron of art and literature. He himself was a man of letters having written two great books ‘Naga Nandin’ and ‘Ratnavali’. He was the last great Hindu ruler of India. Huen Tsang a Chinnese pilgrim, visited India during his reign. Ghazni Dynasty (962–1116 A.D.) Mahmud Ghazni (997–1030)—He was a great conqueror. He invaded India 17 times. His invasions weakened the Indian rulers and paved the way for Muslim rule in India. The famous Persian poet Firdausi, the writer of ‘Shahnama’ lived in his court. Ghori (1186–1206 A.D.) Mohammed Ghori (1186–1206)—He was defeated by Prithviraj, the ruler of Ajmer and Delhi at the first Battle of Tarain. He however, defeated Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192. This marked the beginning of permanent Muslim rule in India. Slave Dynasty (1206–1290 A.D.) Qutubuddin Aibak (1206–1210 A.D.)—He was the founder of the Slave Dynasty. He commenced the building of the Qutub Minar which was later completed by Altamash (1211–1236) who was succeeded by Razia Begum, (1236–1239 A.D.) his daughter. Khilji Dynasty (1290–1320 A.D.) Ala-ud-din Khilji (1296–1316 A.D.)—He was the most distinguished ruler of this dynasty. He was a great conqueror and his empire extended to the far south. He was famous for control of markets. Tughlaq Dynasty (1320–1414 A.D.) Mohammed Tughlaq (1325–1351 A.D.)—He was the most distinguished ruler of this dynasty. He was known for his learning and also for mixture of sagacity and madness. His transfer of capital from Delhi to Daulatabad has been described by historians as an act of madness. Lodhi Dynasty (1451–1526 A.D.) Ibrahim Lodhi (1517–1526 A.D.)—He made some mark in extending his dominions. He was a cruel ruler. He was defeated by Babur in 1526 at the First Battle of Panipat, and the foundations of Mughal rule in India were laid. Mughal Rulers (1526–1857)

Babur (1526–1530 A.D.) founded the Mughal rule in India in 1526 by defeating Ibrahim Lodhi—He however, did not live long was and succeeded by his son Humayun (1530–1540 and 1555– 1556 A.D.) in 1530. Akbar (1556–1605 A.D.) was the most capable and distinguished ruler of the Mughal dynasty. His son Jahangir (1605–1627 A.D.) followed in his foot steps to some extent. Jahangir was succeeded by Shahjahan (1627–1659 A.D.) whose reign is described as the golden period in Mughal history. His son Aurangzeb (1659–1707 A.D.) was the last great Mughal emperor. But with him began the downfall of the Mughal empire on account of his policy of intolerance which alienated the Hindus especially the Rajputs. Causes of the Downfall of the Mughal Empire (1) The Empire had become too unwieldy to be managed. (2) Aurangzeb’s policy of religious intolerance antagonized the Hindus. (3) The successors of Aurangzeb were not competent rulers. (4) The rivalry, intrigues and corruption led to administrative chaos. (5) Attacks of Nadir Shah and Ahmed Shah Abdali reduced it to a small size. (6) It had not struck deep roots in the Indian soil. Suri Dynasty (1540–1555 A.D.) Sher Shah Suri (1540–1545 A.D.)—Rule provides an interragnum between two phases of Mughal rule in India. Sher Shah defeated Humayun and forced him into exile. He carried out notable reforms in administration. The Marahattas (1649–1818 A.D.)—The Marahatta power rose in the latter half of the 17th century. The Marahattas organised their power under the leadership of Shivaji (1627-80). He was an able ruler and commander. During the Peshwa period, the Marahatta power spread through the major part of India. But at a time when the Marahatta power was at its zenith and promised to establish its sway over the whole of India, the forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali badly defeated the Peshwa forces in 1761 at the Battle of Panipat. Though the Marahattas were defeated at the hands of Ahmad Shah Abdali, neither of the two parties could maintain its sovereignty over India. On the contrary this battle made the field clear for the establishment of British East India Company’s rule in India. The Peshwas (1708–1818)—After the death of Shivaji, Peshwas continued their struggle. They did succeed to a great extent in their struggle. A major portion of Indian peninsula came under their control at the outset of British hold. But due to internal conflict and subsequent weakening of power they succumbed to British power which had been gaining momentum. Important Dynasties in the South Chalukyas— Pulkeshin I was the founder of this dynasty. He made Kanchi or Modern Badami his capital. His grandson Pulkeshin II (609–642) was the most distinguished ruler of this dynasty. He measured swords with king Harsha and defeated him on the bank of the Narmada. Cholas—Parantoka I was the founder of this dynasty in 947. Chola rule reached its high water mark of glory under Raja Rajadeva, the Great and his son Rajendra Choladeva I. The Cholas established their supremacy even outside India. Bahmani Muslim Kingdom (1346–1526 A.D.)—The Muslim Kingdom was established in the Deccan during the reign of Mohammed Tughlaq and founded in 1347 by a brave soldier, named Zafar Khan. The most illustrious person of this kingdom was Mahmud Gawan, a persian who was a minister for a long time. He was killed and after that the kingdom was split into five independent states : (1) Bedar, (2) Berar, (3) Ahmednagar, (4) Bijapur, (5) Golkunda. Vijayanagar Empire (1336–1565 A.D.)—Harihar and Bukka were the founders of this dynasty in 1336. The greatest rulers of this dynasty were Deva Raya II and Krishna Deva Raya. The glory of Vijayanagar empire was smashed at the Battle of Talikota in 1565 when the Deccan Sultanates fought and defeated Ramraja and killed him.

Quick Information & History of Rajasthan
State Profile Rajasthan is a vibrant, exotic state where tradition and royal glory meet in a riot of colors against the vast backdrop of sand and desert. It has an unusual diversity in its entire forms- people, customs, culture, costumes, music, manners, dialects, cuisine and physiography. The land is endowed with invincible forts, magnificent palace havelis, rich culture and heritage, beauty and natural resources. It is a land rich in music, Dance, Art & Craft and Adventure, a land that never ceases to intrigue & enchant.There is a haunting air of romance, about the state, which is palpable in its every nook and corner. This abode of kings is one of the most exotic locales for tourist world over. The state has not only survived in all its ethnicity but owes its charisma and color to its enduring traditional way of life. It is one of the 28 states that, along with seven union territories, form the republic of India. So rich is the history of the land that every roadside village has its own tales of valour and sacrifice, the winds sing them and the sands shift to spread them. Rajasthan is Spicy, but then, what is life after all without little bit of spice, Rajasthan provides abundant scope to explore it. The panoramic outlook of the state is simply mesmerizing, with lofty hills of Aravali’s – one of the oldest mountain ranges of the world and the golden sand dunes of the Great Indian Desert – the only desert of the sub-continent. No other region in the country is a conglomeration of so many paradoxes. It is a land of superlatives, everything over here is breathtakingly beautiful, impressive and fascinating! The state is well connected with other parts of the country and can be easily approached from Delhi and Bombay. Fast trains, direct bus and air connections make travel easy and comfortable. A visit to this wonderland will leave a lasting spell on your mind. In fact, one visit is not enough to capture the real essence of this magical land. You will, we assure you, keep coming back for more. Quick History of Rajasthan Ancient Period, upto 1200 AD Rajput clans emerged and held their sway over different parts of Rajasthan from about 700 AD. Before that, Rajasthan was a part of several republics. It was a part of the Mauryan Empire. Other major republics that dominated this region include the Malavas, Arjunyas, Yaudhyas, Kushans, Saka Satraps, Guptas and Hunas. The Rajput clans ascendancy in Indian history was during the period from the eighth to the twelfth century AD. The Pratihars ruled Rajasthan and most of northern India during 750-1000 AD. Between 1000-1200 AD, Rajasthan witnessed the struggle for supremacy between Chalukyas, Parmars and Chauhans.

Medieval Period, 1201 – 1707 Around 1200 AD a part of Rajasthan came under Muslim rulers. The principal centers of their powers were Nagaur and Ajmer. Ranthanbhor was also under their suzerainty. At the beginning of the 13th century AD, the most prominent and powerful state of Rajasthan was Mewar. Modern Period, 1707 – 1947 Rajasthan had never been united politically until its domination by Mughal Emperor – Akbar. Akbar created a unified province of Rajasthan. Mughal power started to decline after 1707. The political disintegration of Rajasthan was caused by the dismemberment of the Mughal Empire. The Marathas penetrated Rajasthan upon the decline of the Mughal Empire. In 1755 they occupied Ajmer. The beginning of the 19th Century was marked by the onslaught of the Pindaris. In 1817-18 the British Government concluded treaties of alliance with almost all the states of Rajputana. Thus began the British rule over Rajasthan, then called Rajputana. Post Independence The erstwhile Rajputana comprised 19 princely states and two chiefships of Lava and Kushalgarh and a British administered territory of Ajmer-Merwara. Rajasthan State was heterogeneous conglomeration of separate political entities with different administrative systems prevailing in different places. The present State of Rajasthan was formed after a long process of integration which began on March 17, 1948 and ended on November 1, 1956. Before integration it was called Rajputana; after integration it came to be known as Rajasthan. At present there are 33 districts (including the new district of Pratapgarh) in the State. District Information All Districts of Rajasthan

AJMER ALWAR BANSWARA BARAN BARMER BHARATPUR BHILWARA BIKANER

DAUSA DHOLPUR DUNGARPUR

KOTA NAGAUR PALI

HANUMANGARH RAJSAMAND JAIPUR JAISALMER JALORE JHALAWAR SAWAI MADOHPUR SIKAR SIROHI SRI GANGANAGAR

BUNDI

JHUNJHUNU

TONK UDAIPUR PRATAPGARH

CHITTORGARH JODHPUR CHURU KARAULI

Tourism
Places to Visit Sisodia Rani Garden has tiered multilevel gardens with fountains, water channel and painted pavilions and suites of living rooms. Amongst others, Vidhyadhar-ka-Bagh is the best preserved one, with shady trees, flowing water, an open pavilion. It was built by the planner of the city,Vidhyadhar. Parks and Sancturies Rajasthan is a haven for a wide spectrum of wildlife. The topography of Rajasthan ranges from the barren desert, scrub-thorn arid forests,rocks and ravines to wetlands and lush, green forests. And each of these areas houses a large variety of animal and bird life. Some of them rare while some endangered. Rajasthan is the home of the tigers, black bucks,chinkara, the rare desert fox,the endangered caracal, the great Indian bustard,gavial, monitor lizard,wild boars,porcupine. Migratory birds like the common crane, ducks,coots, pelicans and the rare Siberian cranes,imperial sandgrouse, falcons, buzzards flocks to this state during the winter months. Typical areas representing each of the ecosystems have been earmarked as special areas wildlife. Rajasthan boasts of two National Parks,over a dozen Sanctuaries and two Closed Areas. Most of these areas are open to visitors round the year but are closed briefly during the monsoon. . Adventure Tourism The joy of being aloft in the wind and the thrill of defying the elements is what parasailing and ballooning are all about. Unlike other aerosports, in these, once off the ground, the sportsman is on his own. Since the skies are an element foreign to us, it would be judicious to take all precautions before indulging in the joy afforded by the sports. Responsibility for the safety for the sportsman depends to a large extent on the team helping out in this sport. Ballooning on other hand,permits the balloonist to soar high in the sky and drift over the picturesque terrain. . Heritage Hotels

In a class by themselves, these heritage hotels extend their own unique services to the tourist. Dressed almost always in traditional turbans and dhotis,the old family retainers cater to the same kind of care and hospitality to the tourists as they do to their personal guests.In most of these havelies,the host himself is always around to ensure that the guest is comfortable and well looked after. What these palaces lack by way of five-star facilities they more than make up by the personalized service that they extend. The Department of Tourism takes active interest in promoting these heritage hotels. Some are listed below. A more detailed list is available with the Department of Tourism,Government of Rajasthan. . Distance Chart

To find out : Distance between two cities, trace down the vertical column of one city to its intersection with the column of the other city. The total road mileage in Rajasthan is 2521 kms. of national highway and around 54,000 kms. of state roads and rural link roads. Roads provide most convenient modes of transport between Delhi and various locations in eastern Rajasthan, most of which are 1-5 hours of comfortable road journey from Delhi.

Art & Culture
Paintings of Rajasthan Rajasthan’s role in the development of Indian art has been very important. The decoration of dwellings and other household objects was but one aspect of the creative genius of the Rajasthani – the world of miniature paintings is perhaps the most fascinating and the distinctive styles that have existed here are renowned the world over. From the 16th century onwards there flourished different schools of paintings like the Mewar school, the Bundi-Kota kalam, the Jaipur, Bikaner, Kishengarh and Marwar schools. Jewellery & Gems Rajasthan, men and women traditionally wore necklaces, armlets, anklets, earrings and rings. With the advent of the Mughal Empire, Rajasthan became a major centre for production of the finest kind of jewellery. It was a true blend of the Mughal with the Rajasthani craftsmanship. The Mughals brought sophisticated design & technical know-how of the Persians with them. Art Galleries & Museums RAJASTHAN - the land of massive forts, sprawling palaces and intricately carved temples ofcolourful tribes and brave warriors, of unrivalledform of arts and crafts, unique dance and music traditions, is changing at rapid pace. Its vast network of Museums in large and small towns, archaeological sites and

the recently opened museums and art galleries in the palaces of erstwhile rulers of old states help to preserve this great heritage for posterity. Folk Dance and Music There is a great tradition of popular poetry, which is written under the rival banners of Turru and Kalangi. This is a sung in groups in Jikri, Kanhaiyya or Geet(of the Meenas), Hele-ke-Khyal and Bam Rasiya of Eastern Rajasthan. Group singing of classical bandishes, called the Dangal or taalbandi is also unique to this region. Bhopas are singing priests of various deities or warrior saints.The Bhopas of Mataji wear costumes and play the Mashak. Fairs & Festivals The Rajasthani’s love for colour and joyous celebrations is proved by the elaborate rituals and the gay abandon with which he surrenders himself to the numerous fairs and festivals of the region. In addition to the festivals celebrated by the Hindus,Muslims and others,there are also the traditional fairs.

People of Rajasthan
People In olden days, the profession of the people decided their caste. This system has now been broken. Today, individuals have the freedom to opt for any profession irrespective of caste. The profession based caste system has now been transformed into birth-based caste system. People of various castes and sub-castes reside in Rajasthan. The Rajputs, who were the rulers of most of the erstwhile princely states of Rajasthan, form a major group of residents of Rajasthan. Rajputs are generally stoutly built people of good height. The Rajputs generally worshipped the Sun, Shiva, and Vishnu. Vedic religion is still followed by the Rajputs. All the auspicious and inauspicious activities are done in accordance to the Vedic traditions. The other castes found in Rajasthan are as follows: Brahmins : Their main occupation was worshipping and performance of religious rites. Vaishya : These people generally took up business as their source of livelihood. These days they are settled in every nook and corner of the country. There is a large group of agricultural castes to be found in Rajasthan. These people depend on Agriculture for thier livelihood. Some of these castes are Jat, Gurjar, Mali, Kalvi etc. Irrespective of the birth-based caste system, each individual is free to follow the profession / occupation as per choice, in modern Rajasthan.

Many tribes are also found in different parts of Rajasthan. These tribes have their own social systems and customs. Some of the commonly known tribs are Meena, Bhil, Garasia, Kanjar. Religions The religion and costumes of the tribes vary. They each have their own religion, costumes and profession. The religion followed by Rajasthanis, in general, is the Hindu religion. Various other religions are also prevalent. Some of these religions are: Jain Religion: the Jains follow the teachings of Lord Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara. Mahavira stressed on the practice Non-violence. Sikh Religion :Over time,there has been a considarable increase in the number of followers of Sikh religion. The sikhs belive in formless God and worship their holy book ‘Guru Granth Sahib’. Some other major religions that are followed are Buddishm, Islam, Chirstianity, Parsi religion. Costumes

The study of the people of Rajasthan is incomplete without the knowledge of costumes and ornaments. The costumes of the present have the reflections of the costumes of the past. . Both males and females dress in the customary dresses fully influenced by climate, economy, status and the profession, they are engaged. The traditional dresses being Potia, Dhoti, Banda, Angrakhi, Bugatari, Pachewara, Khol, Dhabla, amongst Hindus; and Tilak, Burga, Achkan amongst Muslims which fast changing now with Bushirt, Salwar and Skirts, Saris and Pants accordingly. Turbans the head dress of Rajasthan is a differential pattern of each geographical region designed to its terrain and climatic influence. Clothes express ones personality and tell people which village and caste they belong. All over Rajasthan the bandhni, tie-dye sari and turban reign supreme.

The common dress of the women constitutes (i) Sari or Odhani, (ii) Kanchli or Kunchuki or Choli (iii) Ghaghra or Ghaghri or Lahanga Besides, the women of high status and ranks wear dupatta and patka. The use of chappals or sandals or jutees is also common but ladies of high families use coloured sandals

studded with gold threads and stars.Thus, it is concluded that the costumes of women are very colourful and fascinating. Ornaments

He use of ornaments dates back to the prehistoric times with the passage of time new designs and varieties replace the old ones but still there are ornaments which were used in the past and are still used in the present. Both men and women wear ornaments but with the passage of time, men are giving up their use. The ornaments of gold and silver are more prevalent in Rajasthan. There are certain ornaments which are used by men. In daily use the ladies wear normal ornaments of neck, hand, nose and ear but on special occasions and social functions women wear all the ornaments of to look beautiful and attractive.For its exquisite designs and delicacy of art Rajasthan jewelry is a rage not only for ladies in India but also for women of foreign countires.