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A. Demiroren and H. L. Zeynelgil Electrical Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey E-mail: aysen@elk.itu.edu.tr

Abstract This work describes a method which illustrates the beneﬁts of the visual aspects of MATLAB/SIMULINK for educational purposes. The method is specially developed for transient analysis of synchronous machines given by a simpliﬁed model. Details such as the exciter circuit, turbine and governor systems of a synchronous machine which is linked to an inﬁnitive bus through two equivalent lines are given and this system is implemented in SIMULINK. The considered synchronous machine has a rated power capacity of 160 MVA and rated voltage of 15 kV. Keywords MATLAB; modelling; SIMULINK; synchronous machine

List of symbols Pe : Electrical output power Vt : Generator terminal voltage Vtd : d axis component of terminal voltage Vtq : q axis component of terminal voltage Id : d axis armature current Iq : q axis armature current E¢ : d axis transient voltage d E¢ : q axis transient voltage q T¢ 0 : d axis open circuit time constant d T¢ 0 : q axis open circuit time constant q Efd : d axis ﬁeld voltage KE : Exciter gain TE : Exciter time constant Vs KF TFE TSR TSM TCH TRH KRH s : Stabilizing transformer voltage : Stabilizer circuit gain : Stabilizer circuit time constant : Speed relay time constant : Servomotor time constant : Steam chest time constant : Reheater time constant : Reheater gain : Laplace derivation operator

Pr : Speed relay output power Ph : Servomotor output power Pc : Steam chest output power Pm : Generator input power KG d w w0 wr D M Ra Re xe xd x¢ d xq V P Q D Vtr : Speed relay gain : Rotor angular position : Angular speed : Base angular speed : Governor reference angular speed : Damping coefﬁcient : Inertia constant of generator : Armature resistance : Equivalent resistance of transmission lines : Equivalent reactance of transmission lines : Synchronous reactance : Transient reactance : q axis reactance of generator : Inﬁnitive bus voltage : Real power : Reactive power : Change from nominal values : Reference value of the terminal voltage

International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education 39/4

Zeynelgil Simulation of synchronous machines can be done using various simulation tools. exciter loop. 1. Demiroren and H.3. Synchronous machine model constructed using SIMULINK A model of the synchronous machine with appropriate degrees is given in this work for a transient stability investigation. These sub-models are used in the calculation of various values related to the synchronous machine such as the steady state. The synchronous machine’s dynamic model equations in the Laplace domain can be created by connecting appropriate function blocks.Pe ) D + sM Transmission lines Infinitive bus (3) S. Electrical and mechanical sub-model of the synchronous machine For transient stability analysis.xd ¢ Id + 1 + sT d 0 ¢ 1 + sTd¢0 (1) (2) Mechanical part: Dw = 1 (Pm . International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education 39/4 .4 The considered single machine-inﬁnitive bus system is given in Fig. Machine ~ Vt Fig. one of which is electromagnetic transient programs (EMTP).2. addition of new sub-models is needed to model the operation of various control functions.1 In this work. 1 Re. L. The SIMULINK program in MATLAB is used to obtain a schematic model of a synchronous machine by means of basic function blocks. the synchronous machine model for generator operating is considered as a classical fourth-degree model given below: Electrical part: Ed = ¢ Eq = ¢ xd . This approach is pedagogically better than using a compilation of program code as in other software programs found in the literature.338 A.3 The library of SIMULINK software programs includes function blocks which can be linked and edited to model the dynamics of a system by using menu commands found on the keyboard.xq ¢ Iq ¢ 1 + sT q 0 E fd xd . xe V The considered single machine-inﬁnitive bus system. In order to simulate the detailed transient analysis of the synchronous machine. SIMULINK/MATLAB is favoured over other tools in modelling the dynamics of a synchronous machine. turbine governor model and the currents.

x d Iq = . respectively and one output Efd in per-unit values.Ra Iq + x d Id = V0 cosd + Re Iq . the sub-model of the mechanical part is represented by a dynamical model as in Fig.V0 sind + Re Id + x e Iq ¢ ¢ Vtq = Eq . Vtr and Vt. given in Fig.x e Id ¢ ¢ Pe = Ed Id + Eq Iq ¢ ¢ (10) (11) (12) The exciter is represented by a second-order dynamical model as in Fig. Moreover. The submodel has two inputs. includes a turbine and governor sub-system and the blocks of the relations among rotor angle d. deviation of angular speed Dw. and 1 Vtro 2 KE TE. 2. 3. 3.Vs ) 1 + sTE (8) (9) KG Dw 1 + sTSR 1 DPr 1 + sTSM 1 DPh 1 + sTCH sK RH TRH DPc 1 + sTRH (7) (5) (6) sK F E fd 1 + sTFE Terminal equations: Vtd = Ed . reference and instantaneous values of terminal voltage.s+1 1 Vt Efd Fig.Synchronous machine transient analysis using SIMULINK 339 d = w0 Dw s (4) Turbine and governor system: DPr = DPh = DPc = DPm = Exciter: E fd = Vs = KE (Vtr . 2 The sub-model of the exciter system.Ra Id .Vt . International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education 39/4 . The considered system.s+1 KFs TFE.

s+1 delta Pc KRH. terminal voltage. reference value of angular speed. The sub-model in Fig. instantaneous value of electrical power. load angle. TRHs KRH. 9 which correspond to initial values of current. respectively. L. 1 w-wr -KG TSR. the difference between the reference value and instantaneous value of angular speed. s+1 delta Ph 1 TCH. Steady state values of the synchronous generator The steady state values are calculated separately according to the block diagram of Fig.5 The sub-model contains three inputs. w0. real International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education 39/4 . as given in equation (4). The initial values which will be used until a fault occurs are provided by four switches in the sub-model. The inputs of the sub-model are d. Pe. 9. in per-unit. steady state value of rotor angle in radian. 5 represents continuous operation of the electrical parts of the machine. Ed0¢. s+1 delta Pr 1 TSM. 4. in per-unit values. Eq0¢.340 A. Zeynelgil 1 rotor angleo w-wr w Pmo delta w 2 wr 3 Peo Pe turbine and governor 1 s 1 K2*pi*f rotor angle 4 Pe 5 wo Fig. the steady state value of mechanical power. Efd. The function blocks given in Fig. The sub-model of the turbine and governor system is represented in Fig. the deviation of angular speed in per-unit. Re. 3 The sub-model of the mechanical part. the steady state and instantaneous values of real electrical power and steady state value of angular speed. Pe0. Vt0. and the outputs are Vt. The sub-models for currents. s+1 delta Pc1 2 Pmo 3 Pe 1 1 M. Demiroren and H. xe. steady state value of angular speed. 4 Turbine and governor system conﬁguration. electromotor force in the machine. The sub-model includes ﬁve inputs. V0. It has one output rotor angle in radians. rotor angle. terminal voltage and real electrical power are given in Figs 6 to 8. s+D delta w Fig. and one output.

Vo 1 2 sin(delta) 4 Eq’ 6 Re 3 cos(delta) 5 Ed’ 7 xe 1 Mux Demux Id 2 Iq Fig.s+1 xd’-xq Tqo’.Synchronous machine transient analysis using SIMULINK 341 sin 1 rotor angle cos Vo sin(delta) Id cos(delta) Eq’ Ed’ Iq Re xe Currents xd’-xd Tdo’. exciter voltage.s+1 2 Edo’ Eq’ 5 Eqo’ L 6 Peo Ed’ Eq’ Pe Id Iq Pe1 7 Vo 8 Re 9 xe Fig. 6 The sub-model of current calculated. power.s+1 2 Pe 3 Efd Vo sin(delta) cos(delta) Id Iq Re xe 1 Vt 4 Vto Vt 1 Tdo’. and reference terminal voltage are calculated using the equations given below: I0 = 2 2 P 0 + Q0 V0 (13) International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education 39/4 . 5 The sub-model of continuous operation of the synchronous machine.

I0 (Ra + Re ) sin j 0 V0 + I0 (Ra + Re ) cos j 0 + I0 (x q + x e ) sin j 0 (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) Id 0 = .I0 sin (d 0 + j 0 ) Iq0 = I0 cos (d 0 + j 0 ) E fd 0 = V0 cosd 0 + (Ra + Re )Iq 0 .(x d + x e )Id 0 International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education 39/4 . Demiroren and H. 1 Po 2 Qo 3 Vo Mux f(u) lo f(u) load angleo Mux f(u) Mux f(u) lqo Mux f(u) lqo Efdo Efdo min/max f(u) Mux f(u) Mux f(u) 1 Peo 4 f(u) Edo’ 3 rotor angleo Mux Mux f(u) f(u) 6 2 Vtro Eqo’ 5 Vto Fig. L. 7 The sub-model for calculation of terminal voltage. Zeynelgil 1 2 si n(delta) 4 Id 6 Re Vo 3 M ux Vt cos( delta) 5 Iq 7 xe Fig. 8 The sub-model for calculation of electrical power. j 0 = arctan d 0 = arctan Q0 P0 I0 (x q + x e ) cos j 0 .342 A. 1 2 1 Pe f( u) M ux Eq ’ Ed’ 3 Id 4 Iq Fig. 9 The steady-state sub-model of the synchronous machine.

cleaning post f. International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education 39/4 .Re I0 sin j 0 )2 Ed 0 = . 10 The complete model of the system in SIMULINK. 10.496 Qo Qo Edo’ Vto 1 Vo Vo Eqo’ Steady state delta values -KRotor angleo wr Peo rotor angle Pe wo Turbine and Governor radian/degree rotor angle Edo’ Efd Vto Eqo’ Peo Vo Re Pe Vt Vt 1 wr 1 wo xe Electrical Part fault f.8 Po Po Vtro rotor angleo Vtro Efd Vt exciter . cleaning-post fault 0.Synchronous machine transient analysis using SIMULINK 343 Vt 0 = (V0 + Re I0 cos j 0 + xe I0 sin j 0 )2 + (xe I0 cos j 0 .6-0. o.78-0. Peo 0.78s.6 s.cleaning f.x d )Id 0 ¢ ¢ Pe 0 = Ed 0 Id 0 + Eq 0 Iq 0 ¢ ¢ Pm 0 = Pe 0 (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) Vtr = E fd 0 + Vt 0 KE The reference value of the terminal voltage of the synchronous machine is given in the last equation above. fault-f.x d ) I q 0 ¢ ¢ Eq 0 = E fd 0 + (x d .( x q .87s Fig. Simulation model of the synchronous generator The complete model of the synchronous machine used in the simulation is given in Fig. Demux prefault-fault 0-0.

11 (a) The switch conﬁguration. After a period which is determined by adjusting the clock.001096 : 0. Demiroren and H.5 : 4.78 s.2 s :1 P0 Q0 V0 Ra Re xd xq : 0. Zeynelgil For transient stability analysis of a synchronous machine.075s : 400 : -4.05 s : 0.344 A. 10.01 Clock Mux Mux Out2 3 Re1 0. 11(a) and (b) is explicitly given as an example conﬁguration. The simulation results are given in Figs 12–15.3 :1 TRH TCH TSR KG TSM wr :8s : 0.245 : 0.1 s : 3.05 s : 0. the switch changes and new parameter values are collected from out 1. Fig. The sub-system in Fig. The simulation lasts 10 s. The parameters of the system are given in the Table 1.496 :1 : 0.2 Out3 xe1 (b) Fig.78 and 0. These cases are represented by switch blocks in the model given in Fig. 12 represents the deviation Out1 Out2 Out3 Switch 1 fault 0 V 0 (a) Subsystem Mux Mux4 1 Re 0 1 Out1 xe 2 V1 0. TABLE 1 The parameter values of the synchronous machine have a capacity of 160 MVA rated power. L.2 : 5.9 s : 0.025 :1s :0 : 4. The fault is cleared by switching the faulted line between 0. it is assumed that a three-phase short-circuit at the sending terminal of one of the parallel lines has occurred at 0.6 s and the fault has continued until 0.87 s and then the system is returned to the pre-fault conﬁguration.7 : 1. 15 kV rated voltage xd¢ xe Td0¢ Tq0¢ KE Efdmin Efdmax : 0.8 : 0. (b) inner details of the considered switch. Only one of the switch blocks given in Fig.64 International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education 39/4 . 11(a) initially gives ﬁrst operation values to the system via out 3.5 : 0.01 : 1. The switch conﬁguration is similar for other operating conditions.5 TE KF TFE D M KRH w0 : 0.74 : 0.

Pe(p. International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education 39/4 . 13 The deviation of the electrical power. 12 The deviation of the terminal voltage.) 4 t (s) Fig.u.Synchronous machine transient analysis using SIMULINK 345 Vt(p. δ (degree) t (s) Fig.u.) t (s) Fig. 14 The deviation of the rotor angle.

Conclusion SIMULINK uses the groups of block diagrams to represent dynamic systems. in Proc.) 4 t (s) Fig. 1992). 4 H... EC. 2 J. Zeynelgil. For transient analysis.346 A. IEEE Trans. IEEE-PES. Fig. M. Zeynelgil and A. References F. As shown in this study. Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP) Workbook (EPRI. Lasseter and W. H. R. User’s Guide (MathWorks Inc. H. SIMULINK provides a powerful tool for investigating power systems including synchronous machines for research and educational purposes.u. A. 1 International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education 39/4 . Electric Components and Power Systems (Electric Machines and Power Systems). Demirören. ‘The application of self-tuning control to power systems with SMES’. L. In this work. 5 A. the synchronous machineinﬁnitive bus system is investigated using SIMULINK. 1999. Grace et al. Alvarado. A Program for Simulating Dynamic Systems. F. 3 A. 13 represents the deviation of the electrical power. respectively. L. A. 274–278. ELECO’99. pp. 9 (4) (1994). L. Figs 14 and 15 represent the deviation of the rotor angle and the deviation of angular speed. Zeynelgil ∆ω (p. Demirören and H. ‘The transient stability enhancement of synchronous machines with SMES by using adaptive control’. SIMULINK. 30 (2) (2001). a model for simulation of the synchronous machine is constructed by using properly selected sub-blocks. 15 The deviation of the angular speed. M. ‘Improvement of synchronous generator damping through superconducting magnetic energy storage systems’. 1986). Hicklin. Long. of the terminal voltage of the synchronous machine. Rahim and A. L. Mohammead. Demiroren and H.

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