5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Introduction

Keys, Cotter and Knuckle Joints

Key Types of Key Gib Head Key Cotter and Cotter Joint Sleeve Cotter Joint Socket and Spigot Cotter Joint Joining of Rods Knuckle Joint

5.10 Summary 5.11 Answers to SAQs

There are many situations where two parts of machines are required to be restrained. For example two rods may be joined coaxially and when they are pulled apart they should not separate i.e. should not have relative motion and continue to transmit force. Similarly if a cylindrical part is fitted on another cylinder (the internal surface of one contacting the external surface of the other) then there should be no slip along the circle of contact. Such situations of no slip or no displacements are achieved through placing a third part or two parts at the jointing regions. Such parts create positive interference with the jointing parts and thus prevent any relative motion and thus help transmit the force. You will remember that the rivets in a riveted joint had exactly the same role as they prevented the slipping of one plate over the other (in lap joint) and moving away of one plate from there (in butt joint). The rivets provided positive interference against the relative motion of the plate. Knuckle joint is yet another to join rods to carry axial force. It is named so because of its freedom to move or rotate around the pin which joins two rods, a motion which naturally exists at finger joints or knee. A knuckle joint is understood to be a hinged joint in which projection in one part enters the recess is the other part and two are held together by passing a pin through coaxial holes in two parts. This joint can not sustain compressive force because of possible rotation about the pin. In this unit we will study other interfering parts for geometrically different jointing parts.

After studying this unit, you should be able to understand • • • • • • what is a key, what are the types of key, how to draw a key, the parts that are joined by key, how are the keys made, what is a cotter, 85

Either for transmission of light torque or holding the mating part in position during assembly such saddle key is used. No keyway in the staff is required and frictional force between the seat of key and surface of the shaft is responsible for transmission of the torque. Key on Flat is similar to saddle key on three sides except at the bottom where it is flat. The hub and the shaft are provided with a positive interfering part which is called a key. In these figures 1 is shaft and 2 is surrounding hub of the mating part and 3 is the key. Since the cylindrical holes do not have sharp corners they still represent a better choice. Shaft is much longer. 5. It will of course require a flat narrow surface machined on the shaft. It is used when load is low and shaft diameter is small. Taper round keys produce tighter joint.Machine Drawing • • • • • what are the types of cotter.1(b).1 : Types of Key Round key is a cylinder and requires a hole to pass.1. and how is a knuckle joint drawn. When placed in position the shaft and mating part rotate as a single unit without any slipping. The length of the key is perpendicular to the plane of the paper and often is equal to the length of the hub. Figure 5.2 KEY A shaft rotates in its bearings and transmits torque. Half of the hole is in the shaft and other half in the hub. The taper may be as gentle as 1 : 100. how is a knuckle joint constructed. how to make a pin joint. The torque then can pass from shaft to mating part and vice versa. Such flat region machined on the surface of the shaft does not affect the strength because much material is not removed no corners are created as will happen if keyway is machined.3 TYPES OF KEY Several of the keys used in practice are shown in Figure 5. It sits on the curved surface of shaft and fits in the rectangular slot of hub. It may be tapered or of uniform cross section. Saddle key is shown in Figure 5. 5. 86 . how to draw cotter joint. Making of hole is not easy and costly if made separately in two halves in two parts. Apparently if the key is to pass through one or both the mating parts a proper groove. That part of the gear or pulley which sits on the shaft by surrounding the shaft on all its circumference is called the hub. A shaft always carry upon at some other part like gear or pulley. while it fits into the keyway made in the hub. called keyway must be made. The key is a prismatic bar inserted between the shaft and the hub so that it passes through both or one of them.

Draw the necessary views connecting the shaft with different keys. The key is cut from a disc of radius R = 0. Hence. 87 .17d and 0. The keyways can also be made with discutters which can not be used with rounded end keys.Flat key or rectangular key Figure 5. The shafts are weakened by creating keyways whose depth could be as large as 1/4 of diameter of the shaft. The diameter of the hub is 300 mm while its length is 200 mm.4 D. triangular or involute. Its total depth is 95% of radius and radius is 0. The keys are normally prismatic with either rounded or flat ends. splines are created on the shaft surface fit into the grooves made in the mating part. The key provides the advantage of easy assembly and disassembly but weakens the shaft due to deep groove. No doubt it can also have flat ends as shown in Figure 5.1(d) and square key Figure 5. The flange is 500 mm diameter with a width of 50 mm.1(e) can be regarded as keys integral with the shaft. It is inserted in the keyslot and head helps both in insertion and extraction of the key.2(c). A spline normally has larger width (w) and smaller height (h) as shown in Figure 5. being a projection on the shaft. Woodruff key as shown in Figure 5. presents a hazard of collecting loose garments or cottonwaste.1(g) is in fact a rectangular cross section prismatic bar with taper (1 : 100) along the length and having a jib head at largest cross section. Keys. hence should be protected. Three fourths of depth is in shaft. six or 10 splines and both w and h reduce with increasing number of splines. It may be pointed out here that a taper key is not preferred in precise machines because it causes varying information of the moting hub. Cotter and Knuckle Joints (a) (b) Figure 5. The keyways for flat or square keys are made with end mill. Very large torque or power can be transmitted by both but square key is often preferred for equal strength in shear and crushing.28d and 0. Examples are change gear boxed in automobile. The jibhead. Splines Figure 5.1(e).05d for 10 splines.2(b). For sliding the dimensions increase.1(h) is a segment of a disc whose rounded part enters the corresponding shape cut in the shaft. The flat key with rounded ends is shown in Figure 5. Splines are routinely used when mating parts are required to slide on the shaft.4 D with w = 0. which will end in semicircular ends. w and h for permanent splined connections are respectively 0.278d and 0.2 (c) The jib headed key as shown in Figure 5. The shaft and flanged hub are shown in Figures 5.3(a) and (b).1(f) are essentially same and used universally between shaft and any mating part like gear and pulley. 0.2 D. There may be four. SAQ 1 On a shaft of diameter 200 mm a flanged-hub is to be placed. The rounded end keyways are shown in Figure 5. The cross section of the splines may be rectangular.056d for six splines and 0.09d for four splines.2(a).

Machine Drawing Figure 5. like heavy pulleys.8(b) shows it fitted with the shaft.4 (b) SAQ 2 On a 35 mm diameter shaft carries a pulley of 900 mm diameter whose hub tapers from 75 mm at the arm to 70 mm at the edge and is 80mm long. Such keys normally have taper in height but have uniform thickness. 88 . The keys are provided with heavy rotating mass for which accuracy of outer surface does not matter much.4(a) shows a gib key and Figure 5. elliptic in section taper from a1 = 26 mm to a = 20 mm and b1 = 12 mm to b = 30 mm. The width of the pulley is 100 mm with a crown of 3 mm.3D and 0. (a) Figure 5. Rim thickness at edges. 8 mm. The taper is generally 1 : 100.25D. The depth of the key at the end is taken as D/6 and width as D/4.4 GIB HEAD KEY For convenience of insertion and extraction one end of a sunk rectangular flat key is sometimes provided with a jib head. Figure 5. Four arms. Show the assembly of pulley with gib headed key and with part of the shaft whose diameter increases to 45 mm from 35 mm suddenly with a radius of 5 mm at the corner.3 5. only in the upper surface. The height and the length of the gib head are respectively 0. D in this case is the diameter of the shaft.

Two slots are made in the sleeve.5 shows a cotter. Cotter and Knuckle Joints 5. The internal diameter of the sleeve match with the external diameter of the rod and the slot matches with the cotter. Figure 5.6 Figure 5. The cotter can pass through two specially made ends of two coaxial bars which may be circular in section or rectangular or it may pass through sleeve put on the plain ends of rod (two cotters will be needed).5 Figure 5. a rod with enlarged end and a sleeve. Figure 5.6 SLEEVE COTTER JOINT Two plain cylindrical ends are made to butt each other and a single sleeve covers both. The cotter passes through slots made in two coaxial parts and thus prevent the relative motion between them. Two cotters are need to join two rods.7 : Two Views of Sleeve Cotter Joint 89 . The two views of sleeve cotter joint are drawn in Figure 5. The rod end may be enlarged to compensate for the slot. We shall now see both types of joints.5.5 COTTER AND COTTER JOINT A cotter is a metallic strip of uniform thickness but tapers in width. The cotter joints are used only to transmit axial pull between two rods and they are not made to rotate. Keys.6 shows two rod ends pushed in a sleeve with a slight clearance at butting ends to accommodate cotters.7. Figure 5. each coinciding with the slot in the rod end. The taper may be very small like 1 : 100 but may be as large as 1 : 30.

Machine Drawing 5.8 : Cotter.8. The socket also has a collar. SAQ 4 A rectangular fork ahead of a square section bar carries slot for a cotter and a gib as shown in Figure 5.10 . Figure 5. Assemble the four parts and draw elevation. plan and side view of the assembly. The spigot the socket and the cotter are shown in Figure 5.10. The socket is a hollow and spigot a solid cylinder with a collar.9 : Socket and Spigot Assembled SAQ 3 Draw the elevation and side view of cotter joint from three parts shown in Figure 5. 90 Figure 5. Figure 5.9 shows the spigot inserted into socket with their slots for receiving the cotter aligned. A square bar carries a slot at its end similar to that in the fork and also shown in the above Figure.7 SOCKET AND SPIGOT COTTER JOINT One end of a rod carries a socket while other end of another rod carries a spigot. Socket and Spigot Figure 5.8.

The ends are finished flat through half the diameter to match to form a perfect cylinder when flats are placed in contact.11 : A Pin-Joint between Two Circular Section Rods Figure 5.13 : Another Pin-Joint between Two Plates Figure 5. Figure 5.11 shows how two rods can be joined with the help of a pin which passes through holes. Some are shown in Figure here.5.14 : A Knuckle Joint Joining Two Rods 91 . Keys. Draw this joint in two views by taking diameter of rod as 25 mm and diameter of pin as 10 mm.8 JOINING OF RODS If a problem is put before us to create a joint between two round bars to carry axial load and use a pin to join them then a number of solution may come up.12 : A Pin Joint between Two Plates Figure 5. Cotter and Knuckle Joints Figure 5.

13. The parts that create the joint are made integral with the rods. It is also suggested that the plate ends can be cut along broken lines. i. The pin diameter is 10 mm.1 Draw the joint shown in Figure 5. Some restrictions like head in the pin and a stopper at the other end must be provided. Note how the changes are introduced from Figures 5. The width of the plate is 25 mm and length can be any thing.e.16 : Two Views of Modified Joint of Figure 5. These five parts are shown separately in Figure 5. Redraw the two views of above drawing by cutting along broken lines producing plates 15 mm wide. One is called fork which provides the recess and other is called eye which fits into the recess.16 there is nothing to stop the pin from sliding.12 to 5. 92 . The ends are shaped properly to avoid sharp corners or sharp changes in the radii.13 for plate 10 mm thick and two parts 1 (a) and (b) each is 10 mm thick in plate1.17. That is a joint which connects two rods. The collar is marked 4 and taper pin as 5.15 : Two View of the Joint of Figure 5.13 5.14 in which pin is marked 3. Figure 5.13. Altogether there are five parts in a knuckle joint.13 Figure 5. A collar with a hole through which a taper pin or a split pin is pressed is used as a stopper. they become the rod ends. These can be seen in Figure 5. show the joints between the plates.15 and 5.9 KNUCLE JOINT In earlier figures we developed a knuckle joint.Machine Drawing Figures 5. Example 5. You must have noticed that in Figures 5.12 and 5.

Figure 5. Show partial section of elevation. Cotter and Knuckle Joints Figure 5. These rotations are shown in Figure 5.18.18 in which the five parts are assembled to form the join.19 : Elevation and Plan of a Knuckle Joint 93 .17 are assembled to make a knuckle joint in Figure 5. Figure 5.17 : Five Parts of a Knuckle Joint It is interesting to note that all dimension in a knuckle joint are related to diameter ‘d’ of the rod. You must draw the top view and side view.18 : A Knuckle Joint All Dimensions in Terms of Rod Diameter d Example 5.Keys. Parts of Figure 5.2 For two rods of diameter 25 mm draw elevation and plan of a knuckle joint. For inside and outside surfaces of fork take respective radii of 14 and 32 mm.

The reader should reproduce each drawing.10 SUMMARY Various types of keys are used in practice out of which the square key is most common for gears and pulleys. Saddle key – w = 60 mm. Radius of key = 80 mm.e. 5. h = 18 mm Woodruff – w = 40 mm. Key on flat – w = 60 mm. By drawings it has been shown how do the keys fit in the assembly. i. Different types of cotter joints and their elements have been shown in drawing. Depth of the key = 76 mm Round key – diameter = 50 mm All the keys except woodruff will be equal to hub in length. Keyway depth = 57 mm.21 : Shaft and Hub Assembly with a Woodruff Key . Figure 5.Machine Drawing 5. 250 mm.11 ANSWERS TO SAQs SAQ 1 Assume : Square key – w = 50 mm.20 : Three Views of Shaft and Hub Assembly with a Square Key 94 Figure 5. The cotter is another element that produces temporary joints. w = 56 mm. h = 50 mm h = 25 mm h = 25 mm Splines – 4 rectangular.

4 4 H = 0.22 : Shaft and hub assembly with round key. Figure 5.23 : Shaft and hub assembly for splines.6 × 35 = 21 mm B= D 35 = = 12 mm 3 3 (a) A Rectangular Key with Gib Head (b) Rectangular Key with Gib Head Fitted between a Shaft and a Pulley (Third Angle Projection) Figure 5. You are advised to draw similar assemblies for saddle key and key on flat.24 95 . Figure 5.6 D = 0.21 : Shaft and hub assembly with woodruff key. Figure 5. 6 6 D 35 = = 9 mm.22 : Shaft and Hub Assembly with Round Key Figure 5. Cotter and Knuckle Joints Figure 5. SAQ 2 Gib key dimensions h= w= D 35 = = 6 mm.20 : Shaft and hub assembly with square key.23 : Splined Shaft and Hub Assembly The shaft and hub assembly has been drawn for following four cases : Figure 5.Keys.

Figure 5.Machine Drawing SAQ 3 The two views are drawn in Figure 5.26 shows three views of assembled gib and cotter joint.25.25 : Spigot Socket Cotter Joint Assembly Square SAQ 4 Figure 5. Figure 5.26 : Gib and Cotter Joint with Fork End 96 .

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