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Patent Number: Date of Patent:
3/1983 8/1983 4/1985 8/1985 11/1985 10/1986 7/1987 11/1987 9/1988 11/1988 2/1989 4/1989 4/1989 5/1989
Jul. 23, 1991
424/34 149/2 502/8 149/3 149/21 149/2 149/2 149/2 71/54 149/2 149/2 149/2 149/2 149/2
 PRILL FOR EMULSION EXPLOSIVES        
3,447,978 3,640,697 3,715,247 3,765,964 3,770,522 4,097,316 4,111,727 4,141,767 4,181,546 4,294,633 4,357,184
Inventor: Assignee: Filed: Int. a.s U.S. Cl.
Catharine VanOmmeren, Tamaqua, Pa. Atlas Powder Company, Dallas, Tex. Jun. 14, 1990 C06G 45/34 149/7; 149/2;
149/21; 149/46 149/2,7,21,46
Appl. No.: 538,127
Field of Search References Cited
4,376,113 4,401,490 4,514,511 4,534,809 4,555,278 4,615,751 4,678,524 4,708,753 4,772,308 4,784,706 4,808,251 4,820,361 4,822,433 4,828,633
Suglia et al. Alexander et al, Jacques et al Takeuchi et a1. Cescon Smith Cranney et al Forsberg Zurimendiet al Ghosh et al Ghosh et al McKenzie Cooper et al, Forsberg
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
6/1969 2/1972 2/1973 10/1973 11/1973 6/1978 9/1978 2/1979 1/1980 10/1981 11/1982
Primary Examiner-Stephen J. Lechert, Jr. Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Richards, Medlock & Andrews
149/2 149/7 149/21 149/2
Bluhm Toops Wade Wade Tomic Mullay Clay Sudweekset al Clay Clay Binetet al
149/2 149/2 149/2 149/21 149/2
The invention is directed to a blended explosive composition containing an emulsifier which is a derivative of polyisobutylene succinic anhydride and a prill having an internal additive of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant and an external coating which makes the prill compatible with the emulsifier. 18 Claims, No Drawings
such an organic surfactant in the general chemical class of naphthalene sulfonates is sold under the trade name GALORYL AT 4045 by Lobeco Products.S.e.828. Pat..65 succinic anhydride as an emulsifier and an oxidizer salt ture resistance.S.357. Typical external coatings for prills are binary. Not only have prill coatings been apprill which is compatible with the emulsifier. S. However. Pat.e. 0 331 430. there is a need to provide a coating for prills having a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant as an internal additive which is compatible with blended explosive compositions utilizing derivatives of polyisobutylene succinic anhydride as an emulsifier. water-in-oil emulsions utilizing derivatives of polyisobutylene succinic anhydride ("PIBSA") as an emulsifier exhibit good stability and are disclosed in U. if not impossible. See U. one chemical is used to help a second chemical adhere 5 to the surface of the prill. Some known blends are difficult to handle. This is especially true for certain blended emulsions using prills having a particular type of internal additive. The present invention is directed to blended explosive compositions utilizing oxidizer salts in prill form. Pennsylvania.C. but prills have also been Another aspect of the invention relates to coated developed which include internal additives used during prills to be used in blended explosive compositions. 4. Further. See U. Nos. However. 4.822.706. 4. A prill having an internal additive of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant and an external coating of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant produces a prill of good quality having low moisture content and low fines con35 tent. Organic surfactants are known in the industry as coatings for prills so that clay or talc can adhere 15 thereto. 4.349 to Kaltenbach-Thuring. Due to the above qualities. i. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Water-in-oil emulsion explosive compositions utilizing solid particulate ammonium nitrate ("AN") are known in the explosives industry. Explosives consisting of a water-in-oil emulsion and oxidizer salt prills are known as "blended explosives" and have a high bulk density.111. Oxidizer salts are the most widely used source of readily deliverable oxygen for explosive compositions.708. the blend may not be detona50 ble .727.361 and E. More importantly. The the prilIing process to produce a high-quality prill.1 PRILL FOR EMULSION EXPLOSIVES TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION 5.546. Further. ammonium nitrate is a common oxidizer salt used in the industry. the blend's stability relates directly to the explosive properties of the blend. Caking and clumping of prills before blending 10 with the emulsion is a common problem in the explosives industry and it occurs more frequently in the summer months during high humidity conditions. plied after the prill is formed. Inc. the naphthalene sulfonate surfactant of the prill interferes with the water-in-oil emulsion structure and causes the emulsion to break. The clay or talc acts as a "parting agent" and/or "anti-caking agent" to reduce caking and clumping of the prills. which include an internal additive of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant and an external coating of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant have caused stability 30 problems in blends of this particular prill and certain water-in-oil emulsions. prills").820. 4.278. Specifically. melting point. GALORYL 20 AT 4045 has a specific gravity of 1. as a result of the interference. it has been found that these prills which include a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant destabilize blended emulsions which utilize derivatives of polyisobutylene succinic anhydride ("PIBSA-type") as an 45 emulsifier. the use of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant during the prilling process not only provides a prill of high quality but reduces production costs substantially. good blasting energy and good water resistance.184.753. Atlas Powder of Tamaqua.. Pat. 4. For example. For example. usually an organic surfactant is used to help clay or talc adhere to the prill.749. No. 60 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 2 .349 ("KT . thus making the blend unpumpable and undetonable. For example. Further. of Beaufort. No. has a boiling point of 212" F. some blends must be handled immediately after blending because over a short period of time the emulsion destabilizes ("breaks") and becomes hard. and is produced in forms ranging from crystals to porous agglomerates known as prills.5 mmHg (at 20· C. 4. the present invention relates to a rent stream of air in a prilling tower. produces water-in-oil emulsions utilizing PIBSA derivatives as emulsifiers and sells them under the tradenames APEX ® and POWERMAX ®.2. Particles of the blended explosive composition comprising a water-inoxidizer salt are formed. S.071 The invention relates to blended exposed compositions utilizing a derivative of polyisobutylene succinic anhydride as an emulsifier. 4. thus making the emulsion difficult to handle.S. is soluble in water. and a vapor density of 0.034. 4. U. 25 The recent introduction ofprills made by the Kaltenbach-Thuring process. Specifically. 55 Therefore. To obtain sufficient detonation velocity. Generally.633.. Derivatives of polyisobutylene succinic anhydride are known in the art as good water-in-oil emulsifiers..). liquid freezes at 32· F. oxidizer salt prills used in blended explosives are made by spraying a solution of the salt against a countercurIn one aspect. a vapor pressure of 17.784.A. No. See EP 8900923. it is important to provide a readily deliverable oxygen source in the explosive composition. These particles are dried and oil emulsion utilizing a derivative of polyisobutylene then coated to improve flow characteristics and mois. to blend the prills with the water-in-oil emulsion.433. to help clay or talc adhere to prills. Nos. Specifically.181.555. to pump or auger. these prills represent 40 an advancement over other prills known in the art. disadvantages involved in the use of blended explosives having particulate oxidizer salt relate to the blend's pumpability and stability. Ammonium nitrate is made from anhydrous ammonium' and nitric acid.P.. Pat. prills having an internal additive of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant present stability problems when used with blended explosives utilizing a certain type of emulsifier.6 (air =1). and 4.749. the invention relates to a blended explosive composition utilizing a polyisobutylene succinic anhydrive as an emulsifier and an oxidizer salt prill which is compatible with the emulsifier. 4.110 (water = 1). that is. Specifically. While removing the external coating of the prill improves the stability of the blended emulsion it does not provide a practical solution since the uncoated prills cake making it difficult. i.S.
20 Preferably the poly[alk(en)yl]moiety is derived from Immiscible organic fuel forms the continuous phase olefins containing from 2 to 8 carbon atoms and in particular from ethylene.e.2% to about 5%. upon the particular immiscible fuel(s) and upon the 40008/85. mineral oil. As is known in the art. for example. In said poly[alk(en)yl]succinic acid-based emulsifier it explosive compositions. and such liquids also function as a fuel for the emulsion component mayor may not contain density composition. those continuous phase of the emulsion and is generally comtaining up to 10 ethylene oxide units). and soybean oil. contain density reducing agents. the amount of pound. sorbitan). Particularly preferred in the practice of the present pentaerythritol. so long as they are polyolefin containing a terminal unsaturated group and liquid at the formulation temperature. prised of inorganic oxidizer salt in an amount from 45 Formation of emulsifiers for use in accordance with about 45% to about 95% by weight of the total compothe invention may be effected by conventional procesition and water. As known 40 diamine. the amount and type of water or water-miscible organic ene succinic anhydride. The actual amount used can be varied depending 25 disclosed in Australian Patent.S containing liquids. dures depending upon their chemical nature. imides amides. and/or water-miscible organic liquids. or the like. peanut oil. tetraethylene triamine and dimethylaminoin the art. Preferred fuels 30 maleic anhydride. and/or aromatic. but ammonium. optionally in the presence of a haloinclude tallow oil. and/or anhydride may include esters. Further. From about 10% to about as. immiscible organic fuel. As is known about 2% to about 30% by weight based on the total in the art. and can be saturated and/or unsaturated. and from heterocyclics such as oxazoline be used. dizer salts are selected from the group consisting of The emulsifiers may be of a non-ionic character. toluene. in the presence of a catalyst if desired. DETAILED DESCRIPTION and mixtures thereof. Suitable oligomeric groupings include The inorganic oxidizer salt solution forms the disconshort-chain poly(oxyethylene) groups (i. Aliphatic and thereof (e. The other oxisuitable solvent. paraffin oils. Emulsifiers used in the present invention are derivaThe prill of the present invention is a prill having an tives of polyisobutylene succinic anhydride ("PIBSAinternal additive of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant 10 type") and preferably are used in an amount of from about 0. or imidazoline. It is preferably employed in an amount of with other non-PIBSA-type emulsifiers may be emfrom about 10% to about 20%. can be caused to react with the hydroxyl or amino Preferably. The immiscible organic als which are made by an addition reaction between a fuels can be aliphatic. 60 anhydride derivatives and most preferably condensates Water generally is employed in an amount of from thereof with amines such as ethanolamine. where the hydrophilic moiety incorpo90% of the total oxidizer salt may be added in particle rates the residue of a polyamine or a heterocyclic comor prill form.g. alkali and alkaline earth metal nitrates. and mixtures thereof. parafployed. and an is preferred that the hydrocarbon chain is derived from polymerization of a mono-olefin and generally the polyemulsifier which is a derivative of polyisobutylene succinic anhydride ("PIBSA-type"). the emulsion may. polar groups derived from polyols such as glycerol. propylene. density reducing agents such as glass or resin microspheres.071 4 . bengen containing catalyst. and preferably in an amount )yl]succinic anhydride. i-butene and isobuof the emulsion and is present in an amount of from tene. said emulsifier has an The prill of the present invention is useful in blended 15 average molecular weight in the range 400 to 5000. if any. The emulsion can also contain liquid(s) used can vary according to desired properties. The In order to prepare a derivative ofpoly(alk(en)yl)sucoxidizer salt preferably is primarily ammonium nitrate. expanded perlite. condensation and a coating which is compatible with PIBSA-type products of an amine and poly[alk(en)yl]succinic acid emulsifiers. when the blend contains liquids reduce' the crystallization temperature of the less than about 40% emulsion. #2 diesel fuel oil. entrained gas. and sorbitol or an internal anhydride invention is low viscosity mineral oil. oxidizer salt present in prill form can vary depending Preferred emulsifiers are poly(isobutylene) succinic upon desired properties for particular applications. liquids can partially replace water as a solvent for the 65 Depending upon the ratio of prills to emulsion. The emulsifier may be derived from poly[alk(enabout 3% to about 12%. glycols such as ethylene glyganic fuel as a continuous phase. the other oxidizer salts are present in an group by heating the two components together in a amount of up to about 20% by weight. perchlorates and the like. The succinic acid or anhydride zene. the acid group or anhydride thereof may be used in amounts of up to about 40% by weight. mixtures of liquid hydrocarbons residue in the above compounds may be reacted to generally referred to as petroleum distillates such as introduce a polar group. and 55 they may alternatively be anionic or cationic in nature. the salts. and analogous nitrogen inorganic oxidizer salt solution as a discontinuous phase. For example. The emulsion can also mer chain will contain from 40 to 500 carbon atoms. cottonseed oil. As is well known in the art. cinic acid comprising a polar group derived from an but other salts may be used. Preferably. Water-miscible organic ployed in the practice of the present invention. in an amount of from about 2%' to about 30%. ingestible oils such is monomeric although oligomeric groupings containas com oil. For example. xylenes. which are typically comprised of: an oxidizer solution.oxidizer salts in solution. certain water-miscible organic reducing agents. kerosene and diesel fuels. microcrystalline waxes. Generally the said polar group gasoline. Such emulsifiers derivatives are from about 4% to about 8% by weight of the composition. alicyclic. mixtures of two or more of the above can also propylamine. Miscible organic liquids useful prill of the invention is compatible with a water-in-oil in the practice of the present invention include alcohols emulsion which is made from a water-immiscible orsuch as methyl alcohol.034. from amines such as ethylene aromatic nitro compounds can also be used. waxes. Such derivatives are commercially-available materipresence of other fuels. The other oxidizer salts 50 alcohol or amine. and an emulsifier which is a derivative of polyisobutyl. an emulsified aqueous cols. Examples of suitable polar groups may include fin waxes. but 3 5. mixtures of the above PIBSA-type emulsifier composition. Patent Application No. amides such as formamide. 35 ing not more than about 10 repeat units may be emPreferred fuels are mineral oil.
0 glcc to about 1. Prior to returning the samples to the elevated temperature. The prills of the present invention contain an internal 40 additive and an external coating. a vapor pressure (mm Hg) of 50. To form the blended emulsion of the present invention. Lilamine AC-59L consists of a hydrogenated tallow amine neutralized with organic acid. 0. 30 The formulation process can also be performed in a continuous manner as known in the art. Lilamine AC-59L has a specific gravity. it is by no way meant to limit the application of the present invention to only AN prills.12% Lilamine AC-59L external 2 3 4 6 7 "alkyl naphthalene sulfonate sold by p.5% Span 80 external GALORYL ® AT725 internal. Sorbitan monooleate is a nonionic surfactant which is known in the art as a water-in-oil emulsifier. organic acid and mineral oil.5%. Illinois under the tradename Armono ® 66 Specifically. The internal additive of the prill of the present invention isa alkyl naphthalene sulfonate surfactant. no external GALORYL ® AT725 internal. Preferably.65 drotreated mineral oil. the following ammonium nitrate prills were tested: Number Designation 6 Prill Description GALQRYL ® AT725 internal.troch.o. GALORYL ® AT4045 and clay external aluminum sulfate internal. as stated. to about 90° C. Sorbitan monooleate is sold by ret Americas. a vapor density greater than 1 (air = 1). the above-described emulsion is blended with an oxidizer salt in prill form. the coating of the prill of the present invention is characterized 50 by making the prill compatible with the blended emulsions utilizing PIBSA-type emulsifiers. density reducing agents can be added if desired.5%. which decomposes chemically in the composition to produce gas bubbles. The neutralized saturated lipid amine is then mixed with mineral oil and is ready 55 for use.5% Armoflo ® 66h external GALORYL ® AT725 internal. The emulsion used in the test was prepared as discussed above and contained the following: ammonium nitrate 75. 0. This example of the prill coating is made by neutralizing the saturated lipid amine with organic acid. Ill.. A particularly preferred embodiment of the coating for the prill of the present invention is the surfactant sold under 60 the trade name of Lilamine AC-59L. as known in the art the density of the emulsion can be varied depending upon the desired properties for a particular application. clay only external aluminum sulfate internal.4 glcc..need not contain density reducing agents. 15 Other density reducing agents that can be used alone or in combination include perlite and chemical gassing agents.. The two phases are mixed using high-shear mixing to form an emulsion. the compatiblity test used involved making a laboratory blend of emulsion (60% by weight) with 40% by weight prill that contained 4% #2 diesel fuel oil. Further. is insoluble in water (soluble in ethanol). an evaporation rate less than 1 (butyl acetate =1). under the tredename Petro ® AI Special Powder b. i.39 lb/gal at 158 F. water-in-oil emulsions used in the explosives industry. cc. a melting point of 126 F. Preferably.mica1s/DeSoIO of Fort Worth." It has been discovered that the use of the coating of the present invention to coat prills having an internal additive of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant to be used in blended explosives utilizing a PIBSA-type emulsifier produces a blended emulsion that can be readily pumped or augered and that remains detonable for at least 12 weeks. The 60% emulsion blends were split up into two four-ounce samples in containers with securable airtight lids. These values are represented in millimeters. a coating has been discovered for prills containing an internal additive of naphthalene sulfonate surfactant which is compatible with PIBSAtype emulsifiers. The 25 discontinuous phase is then mixed with a continuous phase which is comprised of immiscible organic fuel and an emulsifier(s). density of 7. GALORYL ® AT 4045 external GALORYL ® AT725 internal. Thus. it is generally preferred 5 to use a density reducing agent to achieve the desired performance. The values of softness of each sample are set forth in the chart below.071 0 660 F. and 24 hours at room temperature (approximately 72· F. Inc. The neutralized hydrogenated tallow amine is diluted with hy. Petro ® AgQ and talc external GALORYL ® AT725 internal. the' coating is comprised of about 25% by weight neutralized saturated lipid amine and about 75% by weight hydrotreated mineral oil. mechanical aeration and/or other means of entraining 20 density reducing agents. Another example of the prill coating of the present invention is sorbitan monooleate. low viscosity mineral oil 7%. The larger the value. The smaller the value illustrates a less soft or . Of course. fatty amine sold by Akzo of Chica. To this emulsion. and has a flash point (amount used) of over 300· F. in this case ammonium nitrate prills. One example of the external coating of the prill of the present invention is comprised of a saturated lipid amine. The emulsion components useful in the practice of the present invention can be reduced from their natural densities by addition of density reducing agents such as 10 glass microspheres in an amount sufficient to preferably reduce the density to within the range of from about 1. One cycle consists of 24 hours at 110° F. the softness of the sample was checked using a cone penetyrometer made by Precision. to form a discontinuous phase.e. While the examples are in terms of ammonium nitrate ("AN") prills.. Using the above emulsion formulation. T . water 15. the prill of the present invention contains a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant sold by CFPI of France under the tradename of 45 GALORYL AT725. was conducted to determine the specific prill's compatibility with an emulsion utilizing a PIBSA-type emulsifier. the salt 35 is ammonium nitrate.. the softer the sample and thus representing a more stable emulsion. such as sodium nitrite. Chicago. AB of Stockholm. a boiling point of over 0 0 5 5.).034. which is produced and sold by Berol Nobel Nacka.1 at 212" F. the emulsion component should generally contain a density reducing agent to attain proper performance. are prepared by dissolving ammonium nitrate in water at elevated temperatures from about 25° C. PIBSA-type emulsifier 1%. Compatibility tests are set forth below. (water = 1). Preferably. Sweden. A compatibility test of eight different prills. and microspheres 1%.. For blends containing over about 55% emulsion. Generally. 0. under the tradename "Span 80. For blends having between 40% to 55% emulsion.. One sample was retained at room temperature and the other sample was cycled between room temperature and 110· F..
5 6 28.6 7. (c) from about 0. and (ii) an external coating compatible with the polyisobutylene succinic anhydride-type emulsifier comprised of: (1) a saturated tallow amine.harder emulsion which has to some extent broken and thus become destabilized.7 5. (b) from about 3% to about 12% by weight organic fuel.9 5.9 16. A blended explosive composition comprising: (a) a discontinuous phase consisting of ammonium nitrate and water.3 13. and (g) said ammonium nitrate prill having an internal additive of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant and an external coating compatible with the emulsifier.4 8. #7 and #8 demonstrate that different coatings for the prills affect the compatibility of the prill with the PIBSAtype emulsifier.2% to about 5% by weight of a polyisobutylene succinic anhydride type-emulsifier.5% to about 10% by weight density reducing agents.5 23.5 18.3 19.3 14.5 9. and (c) ammonium nitrate prills consisting of: (i) an internal additive of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant.3 18. (d) from about 0.0 18. No. and (3) mineral oil.4 20.9 13.8 7 24. As shown.8 4. (b) from about 3% to about 12% by weight oil.9 17. I claim: 1. The blended explosive composition of claim 1 wherein the external coating is comprised of sorbitan monooleate.7 4 27. 4.4 18. of Cycles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Field Test 25.9 1.7 7. (2) an organic acid. and 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 fier. Sample #3 becomes hard within five cycles.0 19. 5. Sample #3 illustrates that the use of only clay externally does not produce a prill which is compatible with PIBSA-type emulsifiers. and (c) ammonium nitrate prills consisting of: .4 25.9 17.6 6.034.2 19.3 13. (f) from about 10% to about 90% of said aminonium nitrate being in prill form. However.6 12.5 14.4 21. and (iii) mineral oil. A blended explosive composition comprising: (a) from about 2% to about 30% by weight water.4 3.9 6.7 17. said coating comprising: (i) a saturated lipid amine.to about 10% by weight density reducing agents. A blended explosive composition comprising: (a) a discontinuous phase consisting of ammonium nitrate and water. The uncoated prills of Sample #2 cake making it difficult if not impossible to blend the prill with the emulsion. 6.5% to about 10% by weight density reducing agents.8 15.3 22. As set forth in the test results. (b) from about 2% to about 12% by weight organic fuel.5 25.8 16. 15 The above chart illustrates that the prill having an internal additive and an external coating of naphthalene sulfonate surfactant (Sample #1) is incompatible with the PIBSA-type emulsifier because the emulsion broke and became rock hard within three cycles.4 22. (b) a continuous phase consisting of a organic fuel and a polyisobutylene succinic anhydride the emulsifier.2% to about 5% by weight of a polyisobutylene succinic anhydride type-emulsifier.6 7 5.7 8 26. Sample #5.8 22.1 12.3 20.4 4.8 2 24.9 10. The blended explosive composition of claim 1 wherein the external coating is comprised of a neutralized saturated lipid amine diluted with mineral oil 3.6 6. which is compatible with the PIBSA-type emulsifier and does not become hard until seven or eight cycles.9 26.6 8. A blended explosive composition comprising: (a) from about 2% to about 30% by weight water. (d) from about 0. Samples #6 and #8 illustrate the coating of the present invention.5 10.071 (ii) an external coating compatible with the emulsi- 8 1· 23. and (e) from about 45% to about 95% by weight ammonium nitrate.2 3. Sample #2 illustrates that the removal of the external naphthalene sulfonate surfactant from Sample # 1 solves the compatibility problem with the PIBSA-type emulsifier to some extent.1 2. Sample #5 illustrates the performance of a prill which is sufficient in terms of field handling to be used in emulsions utilizing a PIBSA-type emulsifiers.9 7.3 3.8 3. and (e) from about 45% to about 95% by weight ammonium nitrate. Sample #2 is not commercially suitable due to the absence of an external coating to retard caking. Samples #6.2% to about 5% by weight of a polyisobutylene succinic anhydride type-emulsifier. and (g) said ammonium nitrate prill comprising: (i) an internal additive consisting of a napthalene sulfonate surfactant. (f) from about 10% to about 90% of said ammonium nitrate being in prill form.2 23.4 8. however.5 21. (ii) an organic acid. (d) from about 0.4 25. (c) from about 0. 7. (c) from about 0.5 S 10 ·Sample I values represent the average of three samples tested.3 15. (f) from about 10% to about 90% of said ammonium nitrate being in prill form. is a prill with an internal additive of aluminum sulfate not a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant.1 6.5%. and (e) from about 45% to about 95% by weight ammonium nitrate.6 14. 2. and (g) said ammonium nitrate prill having an internal additive of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant and an external coating of sorbitan mono oleate compatible with the emulsifier. (b) a continuous phase consisting of a organic fuel and a polyisobutylene succinic anhydride-type emulsifier. "compatible with the PIBSA-type emulsifier" means a coating for a prill having an internal additive of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant wherein a blend of the coated prill and an emulsion utilizing a PIBSA-type emulsifier yields a blended emulsion explosive composition having a softness measured by a penetrometer of at least 10 after 6 cycles.8 11.6 12.5 15.2 15.3 23. A blended emulsion explosive composition comprising: (a) from about 2% to about 30% by weight water.3 19.4 7.
said (b) an external coating compatible with the polyisocoating comprised of: butylene succinic anhydride-type emulsifier. and prised of: (g) said oxidizer salt prill having an internal additive 60 (a) an internal additive consisting of a naphthalene of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant and an extersulfonate surfactant. and wherein the external coating is a neutralized saturated (ii) an external coating compatible with the polylipid amine diluted in mineral oil. (b) an external coating comprised of sorbitan mono(b) a continuous phase consisting of a organic fuel and a polyisobutylene succinic anhydride-type emulsioleate compatible with the polyisobutylene suefieri and cinic anhydride-type emulsifier. said prill com(b) from about 3% to about 12% by weight organic prised of: fuel. isobutylene succinic anhydride-type emulsifier (b) from about 3% to about 12% by weight organic comprised of sorbitan monooleate.c· 18. butylene succinic anhydride-type emulsifier and (f) from about 10% to about 90% of said oxidizer salt comprised of: (i) a saturated lipid amine.40 (c) oxidizer salt prills consisting of: fier. and (iii) mineral oil.5% 'to about 10% by weight density (2) an organic acid. (i) an internal additive of a naphthalene sulfonate 11. said prill comprised of: 15. A blended explosive composition comprising: (ii) an external coating compatible with the poly(a) from about 2% to about 30% by weight water.5% to about 10% by weight density coating comprised of: (i) saturated lipid amine.2% to about 5% by weight of a sulfonate surfactant. wherein the external coating is sorbitan monooleate. and (3) mineral oil (e) from about 45% to about 95% by weight oxidizer 16. and and water. and 55 an organic acid. A blended explosive composition comprising: (f) from about 10% to about 90% of said oxidizer salt 35 (a) a discontinuous phase consisting of oxidizer salt being in prill form. 17. said blended compositions having a polyisobutyl(a) from about 2% to about 30% by weight water. (d) from about 0. fier. said blended compositions hav-polyisobutylene succinic anhydride type-ernuling a polyisobutylene succinic anhydride-type emulsisifier. butylene succinic anhydride-type emulsifier. 8. said prill comprised of: (d) from about 0. surfactant. said prill combeing in prill form. A blended explosive composition comprising: (i) an internal additive of a naphthalene sulfonate (a) from about 2% to about 30% by weight water. and polyisobutylene succinic anhydride type-ernul(b) an external coating compatible with the polyisosifier. and 14.034. A blended explosive composition comprising: (a) an internal additive consisting of a naphthalene 20 (a) a discontinuous phase consisting of oxidizer salt sulfonate surfactant. (1) a saturated tallow amine.2% to about 5% by weight of a isobutylene succinic anhydride-type emulsifier polyisobutylene succinic anhydride type-ernul.5% to about 10% by weight density (a) an internal additive consisting of a naphthalene 10 reducing agents. An ammonium nitrate prill to be used in blended (c) from about 0. and reducing agents. and sulfonate surfactant.2% to about 5% by weight of a explosive compositions. ene succinic anhydride-type emulsifier. (ii) an being in prill form. (g) said oxidizer salt prill comprising: (b) a continuous phase consisting of a organic fuel and (i) an internal additive consisting of a naphthalene a polyisobutylene succinic anhydride-type emulsisulfonate surfactant. and fieri and (ii) an external coating compatible with the emulsi.30 comprised of: sifier. said blended compositions having a polyisobutyl(f) from about 10% to about 90% of said oxidizer salt ene succinic anhydride-type emulsifier. and 6S ••••• 9 5.071 10 . said blended compositions havnal coating compatible with the emulsifier. and (e) from about 45% to about 95% by weight oxidizer (b) an external coating compatible with the polyisosalt. and and water. A blended explosive composition comprising: tions. An ammonium nitrate prill to be used in blended of a naphthalene sulfonate surfactant and an exterexplosive compositions. tions. 25 (c) oxidizer salt priUs consisting of: 10.(i) an internal additive of a naphthalene sulfonate (iii) mineral oil. said (i) a saturated lipid amine. coating comprised of sor monooleate. A prill to be used in blended explosive composisalt. said (d) from about 0. (e) from about 45% to about 95% by weight oxidizer . surfactant. said ing a polyisobutylene succinic anhydride-type emulsicoating comprised of sorbitan monooleate. (ii) an organic acid. isobutylene succinic anhydride-type emulsifier 12. 5 fuel. 15 (g) said oxidizer salt prill having an internal additive 9. and (iii) mineral oil. and organic acid. The blended explosive composition of claim 10 surfactant. 50 (a) an internal additive consisting of a naphthalene (c) from about 0. A prill to be used in blended explosive composi13. and nal coating compatible with the emulsifier. and (b) from about 2% to about 12% by weight organic (ii) an external coating compatible with the poly(c) from about 0. fier. The blended explosive composition of claim 10 45 comprised of sorbitan monooleate. (ii) reducing agents.
Column 10. delete "i-butene" and insert and insert and insert and Column 6. therefore --l-butene--. KUNIN Attesting Officer Acting Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks . line 27. Column 9. line 63.071 July 23. after "organic" insert --fueli--. line 51. delete "anhydrive" therefore --anhydride--. - Signed and Sealed this Twenty-third Day of March. insert ---type--. line 22. line 64. 1991 INVENTOR(S): catharine VanOmmeren It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said letters Patent is hereby corrected as shown below: Column 1. delete "the" after anhydride Column 9. delete "sor" and insert therefore -sorbitan--. 1993 Attest: STEPHEN G. Column 8. delete "anhydride type-emulsifieri" and insert --anhydride-type emulsifieri--. DATED OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION 5. line 29.034. line 10. line 33. Column 4.UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK PATENTNO. delete "penetyrometer" therefore --penetrometer--. after "oxidizer" insert --salti--. Column 9.