# Introduction

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The analysis of I-Beam is done in this report. The I-Beam is used to lift big marble and granite blocks of 1 ton by mass from stockyard to put on the machine for cutting it down to slabs. The I-Beam rests on two rollers in a simply supported way. The rollers which are geared by electric motors can move in the direction perpendicular to the length of the I-Beam. The rollers move on two tracks. Since the I-beam rests simply supported on support rollers, so one end of I-beam is fixed and the other end the I-Beam can move in the longitudinal direction. So the other end roller has rollers on it which allows the beam to translate in longitudinal direction. The bending moment at the ends is zero as the beam is simply supported. The analysis is done only for I-Beam. The reaction forces by rollers at the ends are taken as pressure forces on the beam. The load is carried by the beam with the help of steel ropes. The end of the steel rope which is attached to the I-Beam is assumed to be located at the centre of beam and the load is represented by the uniform pressure distribution acting on the beam. So the I-Beam is subjected to the following forces: y y Uniform pressure distribution force at two ends. Uniform pressure distribution force at the middle of the beam due to load.

Fillets are made between the flange and web in order to avoid stress concentration at the corners. Mild Steel is chosen as the material of I-Beam. The material is chosen to be isotropic so that the properties of the material are assumed same in all the directions. The effect of weight on the analysis of I-Beam is very small as compared to the effect of load acting on it. So weight is neglected in our analysis.

Procedure:
We will start with standard/explicit model as we are doing static analysis of a solid body. Then we will double click on ³Parts´ in the model tree and fill the options as under y Modelling Space: 3D

the cross-section of the I Beam is made on the 2D plane and is then extruded in the third dimension.01m Cross-sectional view with dimensions of the I-Beam After that.y y y y y y y y y Type: Deformable Shape: Solid After that.2m Beam height = 100mm = 0.1m Flange thickness = 10 mm = 0.01m Fillet radius = 10mm = 0.1m Flange width = 100mm = 0. . The dimensions of the I Beam are detailed below.01m Web thickness = 10 mm = 0. material properties of I Beam are defined in the ³Materials´ subsection in the model tree which are as follows y y y Type: Mechanical. Isotropic Modulus of elasticity = 210 × 109 Pa Poisson¶s ratio = 0.303 The section is defined as solid and homogeneous in the ³Section´ subsection of the model tree. Length of I-Beam = 2. Elastic.

The history output requests are deleted in the ³History Output Requests Manager´ dialog box. In the ³Field Output Requests Manager´ dialog box. To improve the mesh quality. Translations and rotations.81) = (1000 kg) × (9.981 × 106 Pa To apply the load on the I Beam.1m at the centre of the I Beam.1m×0.81 m/s2) = 9810 N If the surface area on which the rope is distributed in longitudinal direction is 0. The maximum uniform pressure of 0. In the ³Create Instances´ dialog box in ³Instances´ subsection. dependent mesh is defined on the I Beam.1m × 0. the desired field output variables are checked which are as under y y y y Stress components and invariants. general.1m × 0.1m) = 0. procedure type is taken as static. Also we have to partition it at the ends so that boundary conditions can be applied. The contact surface between roller and I-Beam at both ends is assumed to be 0. Reaction forces and moments. The area on which this pressure will act is 0. To partition the I-Beam. .1m. Nodal forces due to element stresses.In the ³Section Assignment´ container. Calculation of pressure on the I-Beam: The maximum load the beam is to be subjected is calculated as follows.1m × 0. the I-Beam is assigned the section. This is shown in the figure below. we have to partition it so that we can apply pressure load in the middle of the I Beam.981 MPa is applied on the I-Beam at its centre.1 m then the pressure load on the beam is Pmax = Lmax / (0. ³Partition Cell: Define Cutting plane´ icon is selected and the beam is partitioned. In the ³Step´ subsection. Lmax = mass of stone × (9.1m) = 9810 N / (0. the beam is partitioned in the longitudinal direction as well.

select step and then select ³Mechanical-Pressure´. y Left End BCs: U1 = U2 = U3 = UR2 = UR3 = 0 . select the approximate global size equal to 0. Select the ³Mechanical-Displacement/Rotation´. This is done by clicking at the ³BCs´ in the model tree. I-Beam cross-section .981 × 106 Pa. In the ³Seed Edges´ container. seed the cross section of the I Beam so that the number of elements in the cross section area is increased.The boundary conditions are applied at both ends of the I Beam. Select the surface on which the pressure load will act and then enter uniform pressure value of 0. U3  0 . UR1  0 In the ³Loads´ subsection. In the ³Seed Part´ container. Select the step in the ³Create Boundary Condition´ dialog box.05. This cross-section is shown below. then select the region for boundary condition and then enter the following values for both ends. UR1  0 y Right End BCs: U1 = U2 = UR2 = UR3 = 0 .

and select ³Reduced Integration´. . The model is submitted in the ³Job´ container in the model tree. In the ³Mesh Part´ container mesh the entire structure as is shown below. The element type is quadratic hexahedral C3D20R. Each of these elements has 20 nodes.In the ³Mesh-Element Type´ select element library as ³Standard´. geometric order as ³Quadratic´. Meshed I-Beam The number of elements in this I Beam is 2816 and the number of nodes is 16369 which is less than the maximum limit of the academic licensed version of ABAQUS. So our job can be submitted. family as ³3D Stress´.

Results: .

16 MPa to 89 MPa over the entire beam. Since the yield stress of the mild steel is 100 MPa so the IBeam will not deform plastically in any of its region.N o.07 0.38 89. The von Mises stress converges to 89.05 Number of Elements 1152 1600 2176 2816 Maximum von Mises Stress (MPa) Maximum Displacement (mm) 0. The most stressed regions are the bottom of the web at both ends and the maximum von Mises stress equal to 89 MPa occurs at these two points.2 MPa (upto 3 significant figures).7753 0. The maximum displacement diverges and its convergence by increasing number of elements cannot be found because of the limitation of the educational version of ABAQUS available.7754 0.24 89. The higher values of stress are at the middle of the I Beam and at both ends. S. Global Seed Size (m) 0.7755 0.The von Mises stresses varies from 0. So the material will not fail at any point.7758 1 2 3 4 89.10 0.23 References: http://en.html .88 89. Mesh Convergence: The graph and table below shows the variation of the maximum von Mises Stress and Displacement as the global seed size is decreased (hence number of elements is increased) in longitudinal direction of the beam.org/wiki/Carbon_steel http://www.15 0.engineeringtoolbox. These are the regions where reaction forces and load are applied. The factor of safety considered in this analysis is 1.com/poissons-ratio-d_1224.wikipedia.