chm2 | Chemical Compounds | Water

UITM PERLIS

Title of experiment: DETERMINATION OF PERCENT COMPOSITION IN HYDRATE COMPOUNDS Name: NUR HANIDA BT ABDUL HALIM Student no.: 2011416536 Group: ATD1Dm Date of experiment: 20 JUNE 2011

TITLE: DETERMINATION OF PERCENT COMPOSITION IN HYDRATE COMPOUNDS

OBJECTIVE: To observe the thermal decomposition of unknown hydrate and to calculate the mol of water in barium chloride hydrate using percent composition concept and the atomic mass.

LIST OF APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS: Crucible and lid, clay triangle, tripod stand, Bunsen Burner, crucible tongs and white tile

6M HNO3, 1 M HCL, Barium Chloride hydrate (BaCl2.xH2O), compound A.

PROCEDURE:

1) A crucible and lid were obtained, then cleaned and checked for any stress cracks,

fractures, or fissures before used.

2) An initial mass of the crucible and lid was recorded.

3) The crucible was heated gently with an intense flame for 5 minutes before heating. Then

the heating was continued for 2 to 3 minutes with an intense flame until the bottom of the crucible became red. The crucible was allowed to cool on the clay triangle before proceed the experiment.

4) The mass of the “fired” cool crucible and lid was recorded. Step 2 was repeated until get

mass readings of two crucible and two lid that differ by no more than 10 mg or 0.010g.

5) 1.5 and 2.0 grams of hydrated salt was added into the crucible and the combined mass

of crucible,lid and salt, was measured and recorded.

6) The crucible was placed with the sample of the clay triangle and lid was removed to

allow the evolving water molecules to escape during heating.

7) The sample was heated slowly and gradually by intensifying the heat. Then the sample

was heated drastically at a high temperature for 10 minutes. The crucible was covered once the heat was removed and allowed cooling at room temperature in dessicaator. The mass of the crucible, lid and anhydrous salt was recorded by using the same balance as used earlier.

8) The sample was heated for an additional

2 minutes with medium/high heat. The combined mass of the crucible, lid and anhydrous salt was weighted and continued repeating this process until two concurrent reading within 10 mg of each other were obtained.

9) This procedure was repeated and applied for a new sample of the original hydrated salt.

DATA/RESULTS AND CALCULATION:

a) Determination of percent water in barium chloride hydrate (BaCl2.xH2O)

Data table:

Mass of empty crucible + lid ( before heating) Mass of empty crucible + lid ( after heating 5 minutes ) AVERAGE Mass of compound+crucible+lid before heating Mass of compound+crucible+lid after heating i) After heated 10 minutes ii) After heated 2-3 minutes iii) After heated 2-3 minutes AVERAGE Determine:
1) Mass of BaCl2.xH2O

2) Mass of Barium Chloride anhydrous

3) Mass of water in BaCl2.xH2O

4) Percent composition of water in BaCl2.xH2O

5) Formula of Barium Chloride hydrate.

b) Determination of water composition and molecular formula of Compound A. Data table:

Mass of empty crucible + lid ( before heating) Mass of empty crucible + lid ( after heating 5 minutes ) AVERAGE Mass of compound+crucible+lid before heating Mass of compound+crucible+lid after heating
i) After heated 10 minutes ii) After heated 2-3 minutes iii) After heated 2-3 minutes

AVERAGE Determine:
1) Mass of Compound A

2) Mass of Compound A anhydrous

3) Mass of water in Compound A

4) Percent composition of water in Compound A

5) Identify Compound A (compare your results to the nearest percent composition of water in the hydrates listed)

DISCUSSION: Make sure we clean the crucible and check for any stress cracks. We also must obey the time given when heating and cooling crucible. When reading the temperature, the eye must be perpendicular to the scale. We also must use the analytical balance to get more accuracy of mass. Then, repeat the experiment to get average of mass and reading.

CONCLUSION: Based on the experiment, we can calculate the mol of water in barium chloride hydrate using present composition concept and the atomic mass.

QUESTION AND ANSWER:

a) Give the reason why the empty crucible should br heated before starting the experiment? To make sure no cracks at the crucible and also to remove any moisture present in the crucible by the process of heating which is it absorb any water from crucible.

b) Why the process of heating hydrate compound should be started slowly first? To make sure the salt at crucible will not burned and to avoid the water from the salt be dehydrate faster.

c) What is the important of percent composition of water in the hydrate compounds? To calculate the mol of water use in the composition.

d) Give comments on your results. Discuss from the accuracy aspect of your results compare to the theory. Based on experiment, that I have made, have different of the result from theory. Maybe the change result from the theory is while during heating and cooling. To get move accuracy of my results compared to be theory, repeat the experiment to get a average weight.

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