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Pectin describes a family of polysaccharides, which give structure and strength to certain tissues in many land plants. In this form the pectins are often insoluble because of the high molecular weight, and due to the interaction with cellulosic material in and between the cell walls. It is only as the molecular weight decreases and the bonds break, - is seen by the tissue softening or fruit ripening-, that the pectin becomes soluble.
Like all natural materials, the individual molecules of pectin are not identical but are of similar composition. For convenience the following discussions take account of this by considering the overall or average characteristics of the pectin.
The major constituent of pectin is galacturonic acid, which is simply a sugar, galactose, which carries an acid group. Several hundred of these units are linked together to form a long chain molecule of poly galacturonic acid. A proportion of these individual galacturonic acid units are methoxylated and although it is not necessary to understand the chemistry of this, it is essential to understand that the amount of the methoxyl groups present strongly influences the performance of the pectin. This value is so important that it has been given a definition “Degree of methoxylation” (DM) is defined as the average number of methoxyl groups per 100 acid units, i.e., a simple ratio of methoxylated units per 100 units. An example of a pectin of 70% DM is where 7 out of every 10 units carry methoxyl group.
By convention, pectins are split into two groups. If the DM is greater than 50%, the pectin is referred to as a High Methoxyl Pectin or HM for short. Thus the previous example of 70% DM was an HM pectin. Pectins of less than 50% are called Low methoxyl Pectins or LMs. Thus a pectin of 40% DM would be a LM pectin. There are two forms in which LM pectins can be made, the first is conventional LM and the second is amidated LM, the difference being the second contains amide groups as well as methoxyl and acid groups. The “Degree of Amidation” or DA is also very important to the performance of a pectin and it has a similar definition to DM. DA is the average number of amidated units per 100 units. Thus we can define any pectin in terms of its percent DM for HM and convetional LMs, and percent DM and DA for amide LMs, and these values should help us identify the behaviour that we would expect from the pectin.
Although the major unit of pectin is galacturonic acid, other sugars or groups may also be present depending on the source of the pectin. Neutral sugars, such as rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and xylose may occur as side chains or on the backbone of the pectin. They may be present at up to 25% in certain pectins, such as that extracted from apple, while citrus pectins normally contain only low levels of these. The presence of these sugars modify the behaviour and the performance of the pectin, as can be seen with comparison of
apple and citrus pectins of the same DM. Typically apple pectins result in a more pasty, less smoothly gelled product. Apple pectin may also be contaminated by the presence of starch which unless specifically removed will also modify its performance. Again, this tends to cause pastiness or graininess and disrupts the gel structure.
Other groups may also affect the properties of pectin. For example, the acetyl groups present in pectins from sugar beet or sunflower disrupt the formation of the gel and as a result these pectins are not common and would not be suitable to replace citrus or apple pectins for gelation (unless modified to remove these groups).
Therefore, the major commercial sources of pectin are citrus peel and apple pomace, which are residues from the juice industry. The quantity and quality of the pectin in these raw materials depend on several factors. The type of fruit has a major influence on the final pectin quality, for example lime peel usually contains the highest obtainable quality and at the largest levels. This is followed by lemons, oranges, and other citrus fruits. Apple pomace contains lower levels of pectins than citrus fruit and due to the natural sugars and starch has slightly different properties.
Quality and quantity are also affected by any factor influencing the fruit or peel, such as growing conditions, stage of ripeness and picking, severity of peel drying etc. Unfortunately the fruit are chosen for juice production, which is close but not at the optimum for pectin production. The extraction procedures also affect the quality and quantity of pectin recovered and commercial extraction is in fact a compromise between the total amount of extracted pectin and its quality.
When peel is received at the factory, samples are taken for analysis of the extractable pectin, and the conditions for extraction optimized. The peel is washed in water to remove extraneous matter before the pectin is extracted in hot acidic water. The extraction is carried out by transporting the peel through a series of tanks, where the pH, temperature and time are controlled as determined previously. The pectin solution is then recovered from the peel residue by filtration, it is clarified and then concentrated. The liquid concentrate may then be hydrolysed at this stage if required to produce pectins of different DMs and thus different performances. The pectin is recovered from solution by precipitation. The precipitate is collected and washed in aqueous alcohol to remove impurities and then the pH is adjusted by the addition of sodium carbonate, to control the solution pH of the pectin. The washed pectin precipitate is then again recovered prior to drying, grinding and testing. The powdered pectin of known DM and performance is then blended as required and re-tested to confirm behaviour before dispatch to the customer.
Pectins are usually blended with sugars to a specified gel strength or gel grade. However, where required, other ingredients can also be included, or the pectin may be standardized by
some other parameter such as viscosity or protein powder. Amide pectins are prepared in a different way and are manufactured by the treatment of the recovered pectin in alcohol with aqueous ammonia. Once prepared the amide pectins are similarly dried, ground, tested, blended and then re-tested.
In principle, there are two types of pectin, HM and LM, which because of the different DMs (and DAs, where appropriate) have quite different properties.
HMs are pectins with DM greater than 50%, but in practice the DM varies from about 75 to 55%. LM pectins have a DM of less than 50% and the actual values are in the order of 30 to 50% for conventional LM and 20 to 40% for amidated pectins. However, it is important to remember that these values are averages and that a pectin of 50% DM may be made up of an equal mixture of two pectins having DMs of 25 and 75% respectively. As the DM is known the performance of the gel of this pectin “50% DM” may not perform exactly as expected! Further to this, although the cut-off for HM and LM pectins is 50%, the change in behaviour is gradual as the DM changes, and the characteristics do not suddenly alter at 49.9% to an LM pectin performance. Thus a pectin of 50% DM will exhibit a certain behaviour which due to that DM and will reflect some HM and some LM characteristics. When producing pectin, we do not normally mix pectins over radically different DMs, although during our blending operation we do blend together pectins of similar, but not exactly identical DMs.
HIGH METHOXYL PECTINS
High methoxyl pectins are defined as having a DM of greater than 50% and the exact value of the DM affects the performance of the pectin. HM pectins have several quite distinct functions in the food industry, the most important property being gelation. However, these pectins have other advantageous properties such as physiological, viscous, stabilizing and protein protecting properties.
Pectin is a water soluble fibre which may be used in food to provide viscosity in the stomach and deliberately slow down the absorption of nutrients. It is also used in wound and similar dressing to absorb weeping to keep the wound dry.
Due to the viscosity of HM pectins, they find use in ready-to-drink and dilutable beverages, providing mouth feel and body, especially in low juice and low calorie products. In acid milk systems, HM pectins protect the product from loss of texture due to the acidification or heat treatment. In this application the pectin reacts with the sensitive proteins limiting or preventing adverse reactions.
A pectin of very high DM. it will be necessary to use a rapid set so that the gel will form before the fruit pieces float to the top. Generally the higher DM of an HM pectin. A slow set pectin will not gel sufficiently quickly to stop the fruit from floating. 2. known as a slow set pectin. Normally an HM pectin will gel when the soluble solid content is greater than 55% and the pH is in the range of 2. which defines the power of that pectin to gel under very tightly controlled conditions of pH.) Typical values of HM pectins are:- Type of Pectin Rapid Set Medium Rapid Set Setting Temperature 80-95ºC 75-79ºC Setting Time Less than 90 seconds 110-135 Seconds . but rather in test method). not actual figures. in other countries the setting time may be used to indicate the behaviour of the pectin. Strength. In some countries the setting temperature is used to define the pectin under a standard laboratory test method and is used to measure this to ensure the pectin is correctly quantified and thus described. Pectin of intermediate DM will show intermediate properties and is known as a medium rapid set. for example 72%. when using HM pectins for gelation there are two main parameters. For this reason it is known as rapid set pectin. This is seen in the difference in the rate of set of pectins of different DM and it leads to the nomenclature of HM pectins. if whole fruit pieces are present in a jam. For example. and is therefore. (note: the results by this test do not indicate the performance in product.8. will gel at a lower temperature and take longer to set. or the temperature at which the gel starts are both measures of the rate of set.The most important property of HM pectin is gelation and these pectins gel when the condition sufficiently reduce the water activity (normally by the addition of sugars) and when the pH is sufficiently acidic. Thus our customers can rely on the quality of the pectin and can develop a standard recipe with a set addition rate. soluble solids content etc.0 to 3. exhibits gelation at a very high temperature and thus sets very quickly. Normally. HM pectins are blended with sugar to result in a SAG grade of 150 ± 5. The strength of HM pectins is usually standardized by the USA SAG grade. the easier the gel forms. for example 60%. However. The time the gel takes to develop. On the other hand a pectin of lower DM. Therefore. it is important to define the setting characteristics of a pectin under standard conditions to allow the correct use of a pectin in a recipe. (This technique is also a laboratory based test which gives comparative. Although many factors in a recipe may also influence the final setting temperature of a product. Setting rate. which should be defined: 1.
it can be modified by other ingredients present in the recipe. Generally as the DM is increased. whether conventional or amide. the most important of these parameters are pH. or too much is added. the DM and DA of LM pectin also influence the setting characteristics. the aqueous phase gets squeezed out as syneresis. and where the air bubbles should rise to the surface before the gel sets. if too much calcium is present.. If excessively high levels of calcium are present a coherent gel may not occur at all but rather a soup of jelly lumps in a sloppy liquid is formed. slow set pectin would be chosen when producing a jelly where there is no fruit to suspend. the gel will not be strong but it will remain clear and bright. the pectin of 30 DM being more calcium sensitive. the pectin calcium interactions become excessive and the gel network becomes too tightly pulled together. soluble solid content. but there may be an increase in the viscosity observed. if the calcium content is reduced or limited. resulting in a clear bubble free jelly. the gel strength and setting rate will depend on the calcium level. the behaviour in product will be modified by other factors. for example from the fruit. As the DM of HM pectins affects the rate of set. a slow set pectin can be made to set faster if the pH is reduced or the soluble solid content is raised. strong. The DM (and DA) influences the actual value of calcium at which optimum gelation occurs and a range of LM pectins are available to ensure that required behaviour can be achieved. Thus a pectin of 30% DM will require less calcium than a pectin of 45 DM. This is because of the effect of these on the calcium requirements for optimum performance. free from syneresis. At very low levels a gel may not form at all. i. at which the gel is clear. the gel becomes cloudy and brittle and may become very grainy or sandy. There is an optimum value of calcium. Thus although the performance of a pectin can be defined in a controlled standard method. gel or thicken by interactions with calcium over a broad range of soluble solids contents. the calcium may be added specially but fruit and milk may have sufficient calcium naturally present to cause the interaction. For any LM pectin.Slow Set Less than 60ºC Greater than MRS Having now defined the gel strength and setting rate or behaviour. However.e. For example. As a result low methoxyl pectins can be used in a very much wider range of foods so long as there is sufficient calcium for the required interaction. type of soluble solids and cooling rate. and over a broad pH spectrum from 2. For example. As a result of the influence of these parameters it is essential that these should be set and held within the specification during production.6 to about 7. Although the choice of pectin will depend on the performance of that pectin in principle. the HM pectin is ready for use in a specific application. In addition. At lower levels of calcium. elastic. the amount of calcium necessary to achieve optimum gelation is also increased. . LOW METHOXYL PECTINS LM pectins. and they can be used independently or together to manipulate the performance of the chosen pectin. (or greater than 5% to about 85%). and like squeezing a sponge. These will be dealt with in each application section.
the other ingredients and processing parameters in a product can influence the performance of that pectin. forming anything from a gel or foam to a sheer thinning viscous product. The most important of these parameters are pH. available calcium as determined by the total calcium and the calcium sequestering ability and the method of production. the behaviour to heat can easily be modified to provide heat stable or reversible products.There is no international standard test for the gel strength or setting performance of LM pectins because they depend so heavily on the calcium content. . but specially prepared types (low methoxyl pectins) are widely used to set systems where the sugar content is too low for normal pectins to be effective. LMs are therefore very much more versatile than high methoxyl pectins and are showing large sales growth as even more uses become clear. LM pectins are therefore selected according to the required performance in product in the same way as HM pectins are selected. the textures can also be altered by the method of production. the heating in a solution will serve to extract the pectin in the fruit and when this combines with the naturally occurring sugar the pectin will thicken or gel the fruit system. This not only destroys the naturally occurring enzymes but also the water activity will be reduced to prevent the growth of spoilage organisms such as yeasts and moulds. In addition. soluble solid content. technology also plays a considerable role. a standard technique is used by Citrico to ensure that each pectin is correctly assessed for reactivity. For example. Whilst this process form s the basis of all present day large scale jam production. type of soluble solids. In addition to the influence of the ingredients the method of preparation of the product widens an already broad range of possible products. Jams and Preserves Early civilisations have preserved their seasonal fruits by either boiling on their own or together with some form of sugar. A the same time as effecting preservation. However. Not only are commercially produced pectins use to compensate for any deficiency from the fruit.
For HM pectins. In most situations they behave in a similar way to LM pectins. of which calcium is the only one used in the food industry. Naturally occurring pectins are almost always of the HM variety. AMIDATED PECTINS These are produced by the controlled treatment of HM pectin and ammonia. These require the presence of a controlled level of certain di.To appreciate the role and application of pectins in such products. SETTING TEMPERATURE AND SETTING TIME HM pectins can be classified either by setting temperature or by setting time.or polyvalent cat-ions. LM pectins are used under a much wider range of conditions and so there is less uniformity in the methods of grading which are applied. GRADE The grade of a pectin is a measure of the ability of that pectin to form a gel under standard laboratory conditions. although they do show certain differences which sometimes make their application preferred. LM pectins can also form low solids gels. with LM pectins normally being made from these by treatment under acidic conditions. The first of these is defined as the temperature at which setting occurs and the second as the time . HIGH METHOXYL (HM) AND LOW METHOXYL (LM) PECTINS Whilst HM pectins are capable of forming sugar gels only at a high soluble solids level (greater than about 55%). the USA-SAG or IFT method is most frequently used. it is useful to understand a few terms which are used to describe and characterise them. standardisation being achieved by dilution with sugar to 150 or 200 grade (150X SAG or 200X SAG).
These are measured under precise laboratory conditions and must not be confused with production setting rates. Neither parameter is normally specified for any LM pectin. the Setting Temperature will drop and the Setting Time increase until Slow Set is reached.between the pouring of a hot jelly mix and the occurrence of setting. whilst on progressive acid treatment of these. Those exhibiting the highest Setting Temperature (and shortest setting time) are known as Rapid Set. VACUUM BOILING By processing ingredients under vacuum. Indirect steam heating is most frequently used with the following systems being commonly found: Pot or Kettle Batch . Heating is normally indirect by steam and the process is batch rather than continuous. This reduces degradation of the pectin (both added and naturally occurring from the fruit) and also gives better retention of both colour and flavour of the fruit. a lower boiling temperature is achieved. PRODUCTION METHODS Most preserves can be made in either of two general types of equipment although there are many variations which can be applied within each. RAPID SET AND SLOW SET PECTINS These terms are only used to describe HM pectins. OPEN PAN (ATMOSPHERIC) BOILING This is the traditional method of production where water is driven off by boiling ingredients in a heater pan.
Plate Evaporator Scarped Surface Evaporator Continuous Continuous Of these. On the basis of experience the following table gives an indication of levels required for jam of 6568% s/s using whole. Quantity of pectin As the pectin added is only needed to supplement that from the fruit itself. . the quantity required will largely depend upon the variety. the continuous systems are restricted to processes where large fruit pieces are absent. amount and quality of the fruit used. They have appreciable fruit content and are normally sold direct to the final consumer in containers up to about 500g (up to about 5kg for catering and food service use). most products can be placed in one of four main groups: Conventional/traditional Bakery/industrial Low/reduced sugar No added sugar Conventional/traditional These are essentially self preserving products of greater than 55% refractometer solids (soluble solids – s/s). PRODUCT TYPES Although certain novel systems are difficult to classify. sieved or pulped fruit (g 150X SAG pectin per 100kg of finished product).
Filling at lower than normal temperature. addition rates 25-50% higher than the above will be needed for fresh juice and even more for depectinised juice. length of boil. final soluble solids.Cherry Peach Pear Pineapple Raspberry Plum Apricot Blackberry Blackcurrant Loganberry Guava Quince Apple Damson Gooseberry Greengage Strawberry Redcurrant Fruit Content % 30 40 50 60 Marmalade 360-450 260-330 180-230 110-160 270-330 190-250 120-170 70-110 180-240 100-170 60-110 30-70 Weight of finished preserve For jellies made with fruit juice. Type of pectin Rapid or Medium Rapid Set pectins are normally used in conventional/traditional products except when: i) ii) Filling large containers. . Other factors affecting addition rate include: strength of set required. pH. size of containers being filled.
For a .iii) iv) v) vi) Making jelly rather than jam. soluble solids and of the precise sugars used. With acid being normally added at or near the end of the boil. Whilst there are many signs indicating an incorrect pH the commonest are pregelation. syneresis and floating of fruit. Processing Conditions: i) pH Inadequate pH control results in more substandard preserves than does any other parameter. To achieve optimum performance and consistency the pH must be correct both in the finished product and at all stages of production process. For vacuum boiling systems the choice of pectin will also depend upon the actual production technique used. The soluble solids content is greater than about 72%. In all these situations Slow Set pectin should normally be used for open pan boiling. Citrico Pectins available for use in conventional/traditional preserves are as follows: Medium Rapid Set Type 7010 Type 7016 Rapid Set Type 7020 Slow Set Type 7030 Type 7046 Pectins should always be added to a preserve as a solution and not as a dry powder. Sugars other than sucrose are used which may appreciably raise the setting temperature. The natural fruit pectin is very fast setting. the optimum product pH required is a function of pectin type. Methods and techniques for preparing such solutions are given in the Citrico bulletin “Storage and Dissolving”.
2-3. Medium Rapid or Slow Set 2. the first of these is strongly to be preferred.0-3.4 3. or directly from its boiling point. poor control of soluble solids can result in inconsistent texture and strength of set. Whilst the soluble solids content of the preserve during production can be measured either directly by refractometer.0 2.5 } Slow Set 3. When operating at other than normal soluble solids content of 65-68%. .% 75-85 72-75 68-75 64-68 60-64 55-60 pH 3.1-3.% 70 65-68 60 55 Change in pectin addition -5% +10 to +15% +25 to +40% These figures should only be taken as approximate.9-3.6-2.8-3.3 2.8 ii) Soluble Solids Apart from possible legal and direct cost penalty implications. the pectin addition rate will need to be adjusted thus: S/S .product made solely with sucrose the following should give acceptable results (measured at 20ºC on a 50% solution of the preserves): S/S .1 } Rapid.
(ii) raise the optimum pH for gelation (iii) increase the setting temperature. where setting may occur until about 60ºC.. whilst at lower temperatures there are increased risks of pregelation and microbiological spoilage. and a higher pH a lower setting temperature. the partial or complete replacement of sucrose by other sugars is now widely established.g. 82-88ºC should be regarded as acceptable even for jellies. Note When high levels of glucose (corn) syrups and HFCS are included it is normal to use a Slow Set rather than a Rapid Set pectin. a lower pH will produce a higher setting temperature. changes resulting from the use of these and of HFCS can be quite pronounced and no simple guidelines can be defined. Within the range for acceptable gelation.iii) Filling temperature Control is essential over the temperature at which filling takes place. the most commonly used being high fructose corn syrup (HFCS – containing about 45% fructose) and 42 and 63 DE glucose (corn) syrups. Above this. iv) Use of sugars other than sucrose For reasons of cost and of product taste and texture. Further details relating to these and other sugars are available on request. Whilst the general effect of glucose (corn) syrups is to (i) weaken the set. As the setting temperature of a high methoxyl pectin is dependent upon the rate of cooling. TYPICAL RECIPE Ingredients Fruit 400g . For containers of up to about 1kg. when filling larger containers. very rapid cooling may be used to allow a lower product filling temperature e.
0-3. BAKERY/INDUSTRIAL There are four main types. fill into jars and seal at once. Stirring well. Mix in acid solution D. 2.2. Alter acid addition to maintain final pH of 3. After 1-2 minutes add sugar B and return to boil. all of which are normally filled into large containers.A Sugar Water 300g 60g 310g 60g 6ml B C D Sugar Pectin Type 105 or 601 4% w/w soln Citric Acid H2O 50% w/v soln Final Batch Weight pH (50% solution) Soluble Solids 1kg 3.0-3. Notes 1. cool to about 85ºC with stirring.2 65-66% Method Heat ingredients A and bring to boil. . Alter level of pectin to achieve required set. Note – certain specialised uses of LM pectin are not included here although details are available on request. boil down to required soluble solids and remove from heat. 3. Acid should always be added at the end of the boil. Boil for further 1-2 minutes and mix in pectin solution C.
LOW/REDUCED SUGAR For jams and jellies of less than about 55% s/s. iv) Very stiff jam or jelly of 75-85% s/s for use as a biscuit filling after baking. Slow Set pectin should be used together with an operating pH of 3. Such systems which include bakery glazes. Within each group. combined with a lower filling temperature of about 70ºC.6-0. make use of the heat reversibility and dilutability of gels based on buffered amidated LM pectins such at type 1300B. it is essential to use an LM pectin since HM types will not operate in this range. Type 115 Medium Rapid Set or Type 611 Bakery Pectin should be used in the same way as for conventional preserves except that a higher pectin level (0. Whilst national regulations for these products vary considerably there are certain basic principles which are common to all systems.5. 621 or 622 should be used together with a proportion of glucose (corn) syrup. The use of glucose (corn) syrup will also tend to improve the level of heat resistance.i) Product of 65-70% s/s for spreading or depositing onto pastry before baking and which will withstand oven temperatures without excessive melting or boiling out. Whilst normally containing only low levels of fruit or juice. Due to high solids level more glucose (corn) syrup is used than with other bakery jams or jellies. certain special syrups being used ot over 50% of the total sugars. ii) Product of 68-75% s/s for depositing onto pastry or cake after baking and will not soak into the base. amidated LM pectins are generally preferred to conventional types. cuttable jam or jelly. Slow Set pectin such as Type 121. Production conditions are similar to those described for conventional preserves in large containers.8% depending on fruit or juice content) and a higher pH (3. more calcium reactive types . TYPE OF PECTIN Due to their greater tolerance of variations in operating conditions.3) are essential. specific recommendations are available depending upon the exact requirements of use.2-3. iii) Product of 50-70% s/s to be deposited hot onto already baked base and which sets on cooling to give a gelled.2-3.
0% is normal for amidated pectins and slightly higher for conventional types. (vi) when more brittle and less elastic set is required. such as the lactate or chloride. As this cannot be measured analytically. particularly those with a high fruit content. PROCESSING CONDITIONS: i) Calcium Whilst it is essential to operate with the correct ratio of pectin to calcium. This is best carried out at high temperatures during the boil using solutions of a soluble calcium salt. Conversely. ii) pH . it must be noted that this is the available rather than the total calcium in the system. (iii) when a higher setting temperature is required. As a result neither the variety nor the amount of fruit used will have much effect on the quantity of LM pectin needed. the carrying out of preliminary trials is essential. In all situations the LM pectin is best added as a predissolved solution. Although the exact amount will depend upon the ingredients and on the nature of product required. Amidated Conventional More 900 1000 170 172 LM Pectin Types Reactive 2000 173 Less 30004000 174 QUANTITY OF PECTIN The natural pectin is present in the fruit is high methoxyl and will contribute little or nothing to the set of a low/reduced sugar jam. In some systems. an addition of 0. (ii) when higher pH values are specified. (v) when levels of available calcium are low and no more can be added.71.should be used (i) at the lower end of the soluble solids range. less reactive pectins should be used when these conditions are reversed. (iv) at lower fruit content. there will be sufficient available calcium whilst in others a separate addition will be needed.
i.. Whilst most products are made within range 3. other parameters such as pectin and calcium addition rates will need more precise control. Specific details are available on request.0-4.0. Due to the lower sugar concentrations a boiling point technique cannot be applied and use of a refractometer is essential. TYPICAL RECIPE Ingredients . away from the optimum range. v) Use of preservative Since this type of product is not inherently self preserving once the container has been opened. no overall recommendations can be given. Note Systems based on amidated pectin can often melt and reset on repeated heating and cooling. Unlike that of an HM the setting temperature of an LM pectin based system is independent of the rate of cooling. it is only the temperature and not temperature/time dependent. iii) Soluble solids As with conventional preserves. With all LM pectins the actual setting temperature is a function of the system in which it is used and not an absolute property of the pectin itself. without significant loss in strength. iv) Filling temperature To prevent separation of the fruit. This property is often referred to as heat or thermo-reversibility.e. addition of a suitable permitted preservative may be advisable. control is important. containers must be filled only just above the setting temperature of the system.A wider pH range is possible than with HM based products although.
should be added at the very end of the process. Notes 1. NO ADDED SUGAR .1-3. Add C followed by D and reduce to required soluble solids. Cool with stirring to 80ºC. if used. Alter acid addition to maintain final pH of 3.1-3.3 45% METHOD Heat ingredients A together until sugar has dissolved.3. 2.Strawberries A Sugar 405g Water 100ml B 450g Amidated pectin type 2000 Water 200ml 7g C D Calcium lactate 5H2O 3% w/v soln Citric acid H2O 50% w/v soln 7ml 0-10ml Final batch weight pH Soluble solids 1kg 3. and heat to boiling. Add amidated pectin B. fill into jars and seal at once. Set can be varied between soft and firm by altering calcium lactate within quoted range. Preservative. previously dissolved in water at 55-70ºC using a suitable high speed mixer. 3.
These are mostly of below 55% s/s and require an LM pectin to achieve sufficient set. Fill into jars and seal at once. In all other respects these products are similar to low/reduced sugar jams and jellies.5ml Final Batch Weight pH Soluble Sodium 1kg approx.0 45% METHOD Heat ingredients A and add amidated pectin B. Due to the high level of fruit acids present from the concentrate. To overcome this one you can either use a pectin which is more calcium reactive or include extra calcium in the form of a soluble salt such as lactate or chloride. . Bring to boil and reduce to required Soluble Solids. Add sodium benzoate and cool to 65ºC. TYPICAL RECIPE Ingredients A Concentrated Apple Juice (70% s/s) Strawberries 450g 570g B Amidated Pectin Types 2200 5. much of the natural calcium present will be sequestered and therefore not available for gelation.Products are now made in which the sugar has been replaced by concentrated fruit juice (normally apple or grape). previously dissolved in water using a suitable high speed mixer. 3.5g Water 200ml C Sodium Benzoate 20% w/v soln 2.
the possession and regular application of three particular measuring instruments is strongly recommended. 4. either use a more calcium sensitive amidated pectin (Type 1200) or add a quantity of suitable calcium salt (lactate or chloride – as solution).1 pH unit or better. The concentrated fruit juice used should be kept consistent on order to minimise changes in sequestering power which would otherwise make formulation changes necessary. 3. iii) A pH meter capable of being read to the nearest 0. Mixture of conventional and amidated LM pectins will have a higher setting temperature and reduce the need for added preservative. Preservative is necessary in recipe due to the low setting/filling temperature of the system. For this type of product. . If set is too weak. 2. TRADITIONAL JAMS FAULTS AND FAILURES In order to maintain sufficiently high quality standards when producing traditional jams and preserves.Notes 1. the amidated pectin is one in which contains no standardising sugar (Type 2200 is the unstandardised version of Type 2000). These are:- i) An accurate thermometer up to at least 120ºC (248ºF) ii) A refractometer calibrated directly in percent sugar solids and covering at least the range 55-70%. values are normally measured on a 50% solution (by weight). As this is a “no added sugar” product.
May leading to breakdown also result in excessive sugar . or cooled to 40ºC or below as soon as possible. Use of pectin which has been stored too long Check stock rotation. Check operating procedures doubt 2. (Open Pan Boiling only) Check recipe formulation for the amount Excessive boiling time of water to be removed by boiling. Results from insufficient boiling (note: compositional and labelling regulations). Difficult to detect visually in the finished product unless severe. Refer to pectin manufacturer if in Store cool or dry. Check final product with refractometer. Use of pectin which has been stored under bad conditions 3. Thermal degradation of pectin solution If prepared hot. Low 7. 5. soluble solids content. 6. Pectin enzymes can act very quickly. Use of stale pectin solution Solution is best used on day of preparation. Refer to pectin manufacturer if in doubt Solution should be smooth dissolved before use with no grittiness.Various problems which can occur in the manufacture of jams and their remedies are discussed below:- Possible cause Analysis/comments A WEAK OR SLACK SET 1. pectin solution should either be used immediately. Unlikely to cause setting problems unless very severe. Powder pectin not fully 4.
Actual pectin . Optimum pH values for gelation are higher for fast setting pectins than for slow setting. May be due to either a deficiency or the low grade of the natural pectin extracted from the fruit during cooking. grainy or broken set together with possible syneresis. 10. 12. Movement of filled containers before setting is completed May result in a broken set and syneresis. Slow cooling at centre of container can (large container only) lead to thermal degradation of the pectin together with possible caramelisation and high levels of sugar inversion. whilst even slightly above it little or no set will be obtained. may result in a lumpy. sucrose is used. Incorrect pH: inversion when a high proportion of (a) During boil Too low pH can lead to increased breakdown of pectin and in extreme cases to pregelation in the boil. 11. Below this range pregelation (possibly even in boil) and syneresis may occur. (b) In the final product Within the pH range of satisfactory gelation (which is determined both by pectin type used and composition of sugars present) a lowering of pH will produce a faster and slightly stronger set. Can also occur if a number of smaller containers are packed together whilst still too hot (“stack burn”). 8. Filling at too high a temperature. 9. Cannot be determined by direct analysis of the fruit itself. Filling at too low a temperature Partial setting before or during filling. Insufficient pectin added Should be considered only when other factors are checked. Check by observation whilst filling.of pectin. A slower setting pectin may be required.
Difficult to detect visually in finished product unless severe. Refer to pectin manufacturer if in doubt. Store cool and dry. Within the pH range for gelation. Results from over boiling. Check operating procedures.requirements can best be determined by preparation of trial production batch. Preparation of trial batch is recommended. Refer to manufacturer if in doubt. Use of pectin which has been stored under bad conditions. with no 2. Check final Incorrect pH in final product. Powder pectin not fully dissolved before use. High soluble solids content. 4. 2. Too much added pectin In extreme cases may lead to premature setting. Correct addition cannot be determined by direct analysis of the fruit itself. a raising of pH will result in a slower and slightly weaker set. 3. grittiness. Unlikely to cause syneresis unless very severe. 3. Should be detected in trial batch. product with refractometer. . C SYNERSIS 1. In systems containing high level of good quality fruit. B TOO FIRM SET 1. Use of pectin which has been stored for too long Check store rotation. Problem is rare and the best remedy will depend upon exact circumstances. Solution should be smooth. the fruit itself can provide too much pectin even without any being added. Too much natural fruit pectin.
4. Thermal breakdown of pectin solution. Should be detected in trail batch. (b) too high gelation. 5. Insufficient added pectin Weak setting can be associated with syneresis. If prepared hot. Movement of filling containers before setting is complete 12. or cooled to 40ºC or 6. Check by observation whilst filling. If pH is above range for satisfactory setting can be associated (a) too low 10. 8. Filling at too low a temperature Partial setting before or during filling can result in syneresis together with lumpy grainy or broken set. Difference in solids content between fruit and the Fruit pieces having the lower solids content will slowly exude moisture to try May also result in broken set. Results from insufficient boiling. A slower setting pectin may be required. 11. If pH is below range satisfactory gelation. Solution is best used on day of preparation. below as soon as possible. pregelation can result in syneresis even without significant loss in strength of set. pectin solution should be used immediately. Maybe due to either a deficiency or the low grade of the natural pectin extracted from fruit during cooking. Excessive boiling time leading to breakdown of pectin (Open Pan Boiling only) 9. Use of stale pectin solution. Low soluble solids content. weak with syneresis. . Pectin enzymes can act very quickly. Incorrect pH in final product Check recipe formulation for the amount of water to be removed by boiling. 7. Check final product with refractometer.
Unlikely to produce separation by itself but will magnify the effect due to any of the other causes listed. 2. Normally will only result from faulty technique in not allowing penetration sugar into the fruit. and should be detected in a trial batch.surrounding gel and reach equilibrium with the gel. Differences in solids content between fruit and surrounding Fruit pieces having the lower solids content may tend to float. soluble solids content of fruit and surrounding gel. Use of pectin which is too slow setting Should be detected in trial batch. Considered use of faster setting pectin. using refractometer. Check. Check possible causes of weak set as per section A. Consider use of faster setting pectin. Filling at too high a temperature Check filling conditions. Weak set due to low a setting temperature 4. excessive lowering of filling temperatures can lead to microbiological problems. 13. 3. D FRUIT SEPARATION (FLOATING OR SINKING) 1. 5. 6. Unless containers are heat treated after filling and sealing. Normally Incorrect pH . Normally will only result from faulty technique. Check hardness of water and calcium content of ingredients. Fruit pieces having lower solids content may tend to float. High calcium levels Unlikely to occur except with poor quality fruit when using slow setting pectin. Use of fruit with high content Unlikely to be found except with of slow setting pectin poor quality fruit or sulphited fruit which has been stored for too long.
will only result from faulty technique in not allowing penetration of sugar into the fruit. Unlikely to produce separation by itself but will magnify the effect due to any of the other causes listed. Check by observation whilst filling. Possible causes are: (a) too low pH. E INCLUSION OF FOAM AND/OR BUBBLES 1. (c) too long standing before filling and cooling. May take some time to be initiated but is likely to become more pronounced with length of storage. (b) excessive boiling time. use a slow setting pectin. Check reduced sugar content. F CRYSTALLISATION 1. Any of the above may prevent the release of any air bubbles or foam trapped in the product. Check pH Check using refractometer. (e) (large container only). (d) Too low pH. filling at too high a temperature also produces a poor set and . (d) too much invert sugar added. (e) High solids content due to overboiling. Too much inversion resulting in the formation of dextrose crystals.gel. These are not the only possible causes as faulty technique. Set will be too firm. particularly during filling can often be responsible. (c) Filling at too low a temperature leading to premature setting. (b) Use of too much pectin. Excessive rapid setting produced by: (a) Use of too fast setting pectin.
Check recipe formulation. 2. (b) too short a boiling time. Due to (a) too high pH. Excessive boiling time Check recipe formulation for the leading to caramelisation amount of water to be removed by boiling. Too little inversion resulting Check reducing sugar content. (Large containers only) Incorrect filling technique Check centre for high invert sugar content. 4. Formation of dextrose crystals due to use of added dextrose monohydrate Check recipe formulation. The centre may also show . 3. but may also occur with fruit of low acidity under fast boiling.darkening at centre of the container. G COLOUR DEFECTS 1. open pan conditions. Is in the formation of sucrose likely to become more pronounced crystals. Over inversion is also likely to produce a somewhat cooked or syrupy flavour. (c) addition of too little inverted sugar or glucose syrup normally only found under vacuum boiling conditions. with length of storage. 2. Grape jelly only Crystals of tartar (potassium hydrogen tartrate). May also lead to pectin breakdown or the formation of too much invert sugar.
may discoloration. Strawberries are very susceptible to this. 2. a weak set. Discoloured pulp. Various metals including tin. May also delay or prevent setting. Poor quality fruit Check fruit pulp visually. Blackcurrants and the peel of all citrus fruits will not absorb sugar unless pre-boiled in water without sugar for 10-15 minutes. Hard water will toughen skins and peel rather than soften them. colour is May be masked by Sulphur dioxide. Most noticeable in jellies and jelly marmalade. Cooking of certain fruits in syrup without pre-boiling.resulting in darkening at centre of container. Excessive buffer salts (either natural or added). 7. copper. True not apparent until the preservative has been removed by boiling. 4. zinc. oxalates or other insoluble salts of calcium or magnesium. H TOUGH FRUIT 1. . Check ingredients and recipe. Cloudiness due to phosphates. Hard water may be partly responsible. Metallic contamination of product either from the fruit or from the processing equipment quantities. if present in excessive cause considerable haze or 5. Chemical analysis necessary. Use of hard water for pre-boiling. Many types of fruit show browning when over-ripe or bruised. Chemical analysis necessary. 6. 3.
I MICROBIOLOGICAL FAULTS 1. 68% if not hermetically sealed. under the microscopic examination. staining. (a) certain moulds can grow even though the solids content is greater than 68%. (b) Any condensation under the closure locally lowers the solids content and permits the growth of any yeast or mould spores already present. etc. 4. 2.g. For hermetically sealed containers danger level below 65% soluble solids particularly if contaminated before or during sealing. 3. In general. those with non-vacuum closures and most of those made from plastic) have a much shorter shelf life. Microbiological tests necessary. culturing. (Hermetically sealed containers only): (a) absence of vacuum (a) faulty containers . Low Solids Content due to below insufficient Check soluble solids content with Danger level boiling refractometer. non-hermetically sealed containers (ie. (c) Too low a filling temperature may allow contamination to occur. (Non-hermetically sealed containers only) Storage under conditions of too high relative humidity or temperature. e. Microbiological test necessary. Contamination of container or closure before or during seal.
Flavour loss on storage. 2. (a) Contamination before or during sealing (b) (plastic containers only) pick up of chemicals in the preparation of the plastic-solvents. Check processing temperatures. e. Microbiological tests necessary. faulty techniques.under closure (b) faulty closure (c) preserves on lip of container. etc) due to their porosity. Frequently experienced with plastic containers (polystyrene polypropylene. quantity of 5. J OTHER FAULTS 1. plasticisers. etc) (c) Salty taste due to high concentration of buffer salts.g. (vacuum boiling only) Insufficient sterilisation. Off-flavours. .
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