Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Editor: Stephen A. Wurm Cartographer: Ian Heyward

UNESCO PUBLISHING

Contents

UNESCO wishes to acknowledge the assistance of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, through the UNESCO/Japan Trust Fund for the Preservation of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, in the publication of this Atlas. The Organization also expresses its gratitude to the Department of Linguistics of the Australian National University, Canberra, for its invaluable support to this undertaking. The authors are responsible for the choice and the presentation of the facts contained in this book and for the opinions expressed therein, which are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Published in 2001 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 7 place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP Typeset by Susanne Almeida-Klein ISBN 92-3-103798-6 © UNESCO 1996, 2001 (ISBN first edition: 92-3-103255-0 )

Contents

Preface and introduction to the second edition

In contrast to the first edition, the present edition has five parts: (1) an introduction detailing developments in the study of endangered languages since 1996; (2) a description of the phenomenon of language endangerment and the death of languages; (3) a short report on efforts undertaken by the scientific community, in part in co-operation with UNESCO, to describe and record endangered languages; (4) a fairly detailed overview of language endangerment and death in all major parts of the world; and (5) a small atlas of fourteen maps, some of which are new, and others of which have been revised, updated and expanded from the maps that appeared in the first edition. The period between the publication of the first edition of this Atlas (1996) and this second edition has been characterized by an unprecedented expansion in the study of languages in danger of disappearing in many places. This has, in part, been due to the appearance of a very popular, easily accessible Atlas addressed to the educated layman and of course to linguists. Its popularity in many parts of the world led to wide, unexpected media interest with press, telephone, radio and television interviews that were broadcast widely. Interested in supporting the study of languages in danger of disappearing since 1992, the UNESCO Sector for Culture welcomed an approach by a sister agency, the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (CIPSH), and agreed to provide funds. It also backed the publication of

Contents

relevant sources of information on languages in danger of disappearing, including the first edition of the present Atlas and a monumental three-volume publication on contact languages in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, many of which are under threat (Wurm, Mühlhäusler and Tryon, 1996). This essential activity is now gradually being taken in hand by other world and regional organizations interested in the study and maintenance of minority and other languages in danger of disappearing. These include the Permanent International Committee of Linguists (CIPL) and the UNESCO/Japan Trust Fund for the Preservation of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, which in 2000 made available five short-term grants for the immediate study of and work on seriously endangered languages in various parts of the world. The work was carried out in the context of a contract between the Intangible Heritage Section of UNESCO and CIPL; the Linguistic Circle of Copenhagen; the Volkswagen Stiftung in Germany, which gave five substantial grants for the purpose in 2000; the Foundation for Endangered Languages in Britain, which has been giving grants for such work in recent years; and the significant new Languages of the Pacific Rim project directed from Kyoto, Japan, among others. All concerned are fully aware of the fact that languages, in their great diversity, are the most important part of the intangible culture of humanity, each language reflecting as it does different thought patterns and philosophies. With each vanishing language, an irreplaceable element of our complete understanding of human thought in its multiform variations is lost for ever. Since 1997 an increasing number of research projects and studies of individual languages in danger of disappearing have been undertaken with a view to their maintenance or at least to the

preservation of knowledge of them for posterity. Conferences, symposia and other meetings of experts have taken place in many parts of the world, dealing with the subject of language endangerment and extinction, and the study, maintenance and reinvigoration of languages in danger of disappearing. Furthermore, the revival of recently or even long extinct languages is becoming a topical issue in many parts of the world, with the descendants of the last speakers clamouring for materials on their ancestral languages in order to gain an insight into how they sounded and functioned, and to relearn them at least in part so that they can use words and phrases as symbols of their reawakened ethnic identity. For instance, in Australia, several dying or extinct languages have now been revived and already have several dozen speakers, with more and more members of the respective ethnic communities learning their ancestral tongues. Recent conferences and symposia on language endangerment and the maintenance and reinvigoration of threatened languages have in a short space of time led to the publication of substantial volumes by major international houses. These convey their findings to the public, be they specialists or interested members of the educated general public concerned about the disappearance of languages and the consequent loss of the most precious part of humankind’s non-material culture. Mention may be made of a conference held at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia (1999) on the subject of language endangerment and maintenance, the conclusions of which were published by Curzon Press in 2001. A major symposium on seriously endangered and moribund languages everywhere took place near Bonn, Germany (February 2000). It was attended by leading experts from all parts of the

Contents

world, and its findings published under the title Language Diversity Endangered (Brenziger, 2001). In October 2000, a meeting of experts on threatened pidgin and creole languages took place in Manila, Philippines, the results of which were published there. In November 2000, a major Japanese research project for the longterm study of threatened languages of the entire Pacific Rim area was launched at a symposium in Kyoto, Japan, at which leading world experts on language endangerment gave lectures followed by discussions, the results of which are being published there. In addition to the ever more frequent conference and symposium activities on language endangerment, and the publication of their conclusions in book form, a number of monumental publications on threatened languages have appeared or will shortly appear, including a three-volume Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas (Wurm, Mühlhäusler and Tryon, 1996). Another major publication is the Encyclopedia of the Endangered Languages of the World, edited by Moseley (forthcoming). Other major atlases of threatened languages in certain parts of the world are in advanced preparation, including the Atlas of Endangered Languages in Latin America and Threatened Languages of the Pacific and Australia, both edited by S. A. Wurm, and similar atlases of the threatened languages of South-East Asia and Africa to follow. A further important event in the study of, and information on, language endangerment and individual threatened languages is the recent inclusion of a specific section on the subject in the distinguished Linguistic Bibliography published annually by CIPL and giving bibliographic information on over 20,000 linguistic

publications from all over the world. The inclusion of this section greatly facilitates the task of linguists, scholars and other parties in keeping abreast of publishing activity in regard to language endangerment and threatened languages in the world. Many relevant publications appear here and there in obscure journals and are difficult for scholars to trace. A conference to launch this initiative was held in November 2000 at the Royal National Library of the Netherlands in The Hague, and was attended by leading linguists and bibliographers. In another new development, serial and periodic publications on individual threatened languages and language endangerment in general have begun to appear. These include Materials on Endangered Languages in the Indo-Pacific, being issues of the more than 500-volume Pacific Linguistics series issued by the Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, Canberra. The first volume is devoted to endangered languages in Papua New Guinea, while others on languages in West Papua (Irian Jaya) and the Himalayas region are in preparation. Mouton de Gruyter Publishers plan to start a Journal of Language Endangerment in 2001. Such unprecedented activity and growing interest in the field of language endangerment and threatened languages would have been unthinkable a decade ago. Now, however, they are expected to increase and gather strength. It is hoped that this updated and enlarged edition of the Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing will contribute to this development. S. A. W., 2001

Contents

Preface to the first edition (1996)

The phenomenon of the death of languages has been known for a very long time. Some languages have disappeared without leaving any trace. Others jealously guard their own secrets because no one has succeeded in deciphering them. Finally, there are those which have evolved and given birth to new languages. We know that, like any living thing, a language placed in a specific context blossoms or fades away and dies. With the upsurge in means of communication, our own period seems to have created more situations of conflict between the languages of the world than ever before, by the same token causing more and more languages to disappear at an accelerating pace. Although the phenomenon of the disappearance of languages is well known, its systematic study at world level is very recent, and the task of describing and recording languages before they disappear is only just beginning.

This study pursues three aims which are set out in three chapters. The first chapter gives a brief description of the phenomenon of the death of languages. The second part reports on the efforts undertaken by the scientific community, in part in co-operation with UNESCO, to describe, record and introduce threatened languages into the data bank. The last part goes on to draw up an atlas of a selection of the very many threatened languages of the world that have been identified in the present state of research. This overview will enable researchers all over the world to fill in this outline as their studies progress. Professor Stephen A. Wurm Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies The Australian National University Canberra, Australia

Contents

Contents

7

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Preface and introduction to the second edition Preface to the first edition (1996) International collaboration in the field Endangered languages and language disappearance History and languages CIPL, CIPSH, UNESCO, and languages in danger Remarks on the present Atlas

Eurasia Europe Siberia Caucasus Asia China Himalayan Chain Indian subcontinent Central Asia: Pamir area South-East Asia

Africa America Arctic North America East Arctic North America West Canada United States Mexico Central and South America Select bibliography

Greater Pacific Are Japan Index Taiwan Philippines Malaysia Indonesia Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands (including the Santa Cruz Archipelago) Vanuatu New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands Fiji and Rotuma Micronesia Polynesia Australia

Maps

Contents

International collaboration in the field

In the past few years, there has been a surge of interest in and work on the many languages throughout the world that are in danger of disappearing. UNESCO has taken an interest in them, and in their study and maintenance. The International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (CIPSH), a non-governmental organization that works with UNESCO, and the Permanent International Committee of Linguists (CIPL), have both been very active in this field, with a growing number of linguists and relevant institutions in the world turning their attention to the increasing problem of languages that are in danger of disappearing. In this undertaking, it is heartening to see that a growing number of experts and others from regions where languages are in danger of disappearing, themselves sometimes speakers of these very languages, are entering dedicating their own work to the study and maintenance of dying languages. The following, non-exhaustivelist, gives the names of many individuals working in this field. Reginald Amenoo (Ghana and Zimbabwe), Ayo Bamgbose (Nigeria), Victor Atknine (Siberia [Khakas]), Nils Helander (Norway [Saami]), Kirikae Hideo (Japan [Ainu]), G. N. Kurilov (Yakutia, Siberia [Yukagir]), Dob (China [Mongol]), Suwilai Premsirat (South-East Asia [Thai]), Otto Nekitel (Papua New Guinea), Wangkanyi Ngurra Tjurta (Australia), Edna Ahgeak MacLean (Alaska [Inupiaq Eskimo]), Marie-Claude MattéiMuller (Venezuela), Jon Landaburu (Colombia), and many others,

Contents

among them Aryon Rodrigues (Brazil), Wang Jun (China), Michael Krauss (Alaska), Mei Lee-Smith (Australia, China), Juha Janhunen (Finland, Siberia, China), Tapani Salminen (Finland, Siberia), Hein v. d. Voort (Netherlands, Arctic America, Brazil), Peter Bakker (Netherlands, Denmark, Canada, Alaska), Willem Adelaar (Netherlands, South America), Matthias Brenzinger (Germany, Africa), Bernd Heine (Germany, Africa), David Bradley (Australia, China, South-East Asia), Stephen Wurm (Australia, the Pacific, Central Asia, Siberia, South America), Beatriz Garza Cuarm Adelaar (Netherlands, South America), Matthias Brenzinger (Germany, Africa), Bernd Heine (Germany, Africa), David Bradley (Australia, China, South-East Asnd North Africa), Bruce Connell (England, Central Africa), Barbara Grimes (United States, general), George van Driem (Netherlands, North and South Asia), Colette Grinewald (United States, Central America), Olga Kazakevitch (Russia, Siberia), Aleksandr E. Kibrik (Russia, Siberia), Denny Moore (Brazil, Lowland South America), Jonathan Owens (England, the Middle East), Akira Yamamoto (United States, North America), Mahendra K. Verma (England, India), Tasaku Tsunoda (Japan, Australia), Kazuto Matsumura (Japan [Finno-Ugrian]), Osamu Sakiyama (Japan, Pacific Rim), Ulrike Mosel (Germany, Polynesia), Hans-Jürgen Sasse (Germany, Africa), Nicholas Ostler (England, Foundation for Endangered Languages), Osahito Miyoka (Japan,

Pacific Rim), Alexandra Aikhenvald (Australia, Lowland South America, Siberia), Robert W. Dixon (Australia), Peter Mühlhäusler (Australia [Pidgin and Creole languages]), Maya Bradley (Australia, South-East Asia and China), Stephen Morey (Australia [Tai languages]), Christina Eira (Australia [Hmong]), John Bowden (Australia, Eastern Indonesia), John Hajek (Australia, Eastern Indonesia), Peter Austin (Australia), Luise Hercus (Australia), Barry J. Blake (Australia), Gavan Breen (Australia), Thomas Dutton (Australia, Papua New Guinea), C. L. Voorhoeve (Netherlands [West Papua, Halmahera]), Nikolaus P. Himmelmann (Germany [Sulawesi]), William McGregor (Australia), Otto Nekitel (Papua New Guinea), Ger P. Reesinck (Netherlands [Papuan languages]), Malcolm Ross (Australia, South Western Pacific), Wim A. L. Stockhof (Netherlands [Papuan languages of Timor area]), Nicholas Thieberger (Australia), Alexander Adelaar (Australia, Indonesia), Mark Donohue (Australia, West Papua), Charles Grimes (Australia, Eastern Indonesia), Paul Jen-Kuei Li (Taiwan), Eva Lindström (Sweden [East Papuan]), Theodorus Purba (West Papua), Victor Golla (United States, North America), Mily Crevels (Netherlands, South America), Yolanda Lastra (United States, Mexico), Ofelia Zepeda (United States), Jane Hill (United States), Doris Bartholomew (United States, Mexico), Gerrit Dimmendaal (Netherlands, Africa, Middle East), and hundreds more.

9

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Contents

10

Endangered languages and language disappearance

According to our estimate there are about 6,000 languages spoken in the world today, most of them in several dialects. We know of many languages that are no longer spoken, in other words, that have become extinct and are dead. Only a few of those, such as Latin, Ancient Greek and Sanskrit, have been kept alive artificially and are still widely known, and sometimes even spoken in certain special circumstances by quite a number of persons, as is the case with Latin and Sanskrit, and by a few persons in the case of Ancient Greek and Egyptian. Each language reflects a unique world-view and culture complex, mirroring the manner in which a speech community has resolved its problems in dealing with the world, and has formulated its thinking, its system of philosophy and understanding of the world around it. In this, each language is the means of expression of the intangible cultural heritage of a people, and it remains a reflection of this culture for some time even after the culture which underlies it decays and crumbles, often under the impact of an intrusive, powerful, usually metropolitan, different culture. However, with the death and disappearance of such a language, an irreplaceable unit in our knowledge and understanding of human thought and world-view is lost forever. The dying and disappearance of languages have been going on for thousands of years as a natural event in human society, but at a

Contents

slow rate, with a few languages here and there in the world disappearing slowly over the years. This trend sometimes increased locally for a short period of time, for instance when a powerful, conquering group of warriors attacked and killed off certain small groups of people speaking a variety of different languages, and whose languages died with them, or when natural disasters such as violent volcanic eruptions or great floods wiped out small tribes of people who spoke a number of local languages. However, such events did not bring about the disappearance of hundreds of languages at the same time and at a steady or increasing rate, and did not result in a drastic and catastrophic reduction in the number of languages spoken in the world. However, the past three hundred years or so have seen a dramatic increase in the death and disappearance of languages, at a steadily increasing rate in many parts of the world, leading to a situation today in which 3,000 or more languages that are still spoken are endangered, seriously endangered or dying, with many other still viable languages already showing signs of being potentially endangered and soon entering the phase where they will be endangered and will face disappearance. What exactly does it mean when a language is referred to as being ‘endangered’? Basically, the language of any community that is no longer learned by children, or at least by a large part of the children of that community (say, at least 30 per cent), should be regarded as ‘endangered’ or at least ‘potentially endangered’. If a large portion of the children switch to another language, then more and more children will act likewise until there are no child speakers left, and the language will eventually disappear with the death of its last speakers.

It is important to know that a language which is in danger of disappearing can still be saved, provided that an appropriate language policy is adopted: the case of Hebrew is a good example of the revival of a language that ceased to be a living community language thousands of years ago. A language can become ‘endangered’ for other reasons even if it has child speakers. The first of these reasons is the forceful splitting up and transplanting of the speech community that speaks a given language, putting small groups or even only individuals of the speech community into communities that use another language. This will inevitably kill the original language of the transplanted people in a short amount of time. A second situation in which a language becomes ‘endangered’ and threatens to disappear occurs when a particular speech community comes into faceto-face contact with carriers of a more aggressive culture, who speak another, usually metropolitan, language. The first culture is overwhelmed and threatened with disintegration, because mastery of the intrusive language offers economic advantages to the speakers of the language of the weaker culture. Parents of children in the weaker culture tend to encourage their children to use the language of the stronger culture in preference to their own, and will themselves tend to speak to their children in that preferred language. The young generation will soon learn to despise their traditional language and regard it as worthless and inferior, and cease to be interested in it. A third group of causes for the endangerment or even disappearance of local and minority languages can be indirectly attributed to the actions of people of a dominant culture that lead to the destruction of the environment, habitat and livelihood of the speakers of local languages, e.g. mining, oil

11

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Contents

12

drilling, excessive tree felling, damming of rivers, warfare, etc. These actions lead to the transplanting and scattering of the speakers of the local languages, with disastrous results for their languages. Other types of causes of the endangerment or disappearance of very small to moderately small, local languages include natural catastrophes such as volcanic eruptions, severe earthquakes, tsunamis (gigantic waves hitting shorelines after a seaquake), floods, wildfires, new devastating diseases and epidemics resulting from contacts between speakers of local languages and those of a dominant culture, where the former have no resistance to diseases such as influenza or tuberculosis, and in the past, to smallpox and the like. In our discussion of language endangerment, an important factor is the number of speakers of a given language. Languages spoken by a large group are less vulnerable to the danger of disappearing than others. However, the problem here is that the question of large or small numbers of speakers is quite relative and is determined by the number of the speakers of surrounding languages who are culturally aggressive. In Australia, very few of the many autochthonous languages ever had – or have even today – more than 1,000 speakers, but they are none the less regarded and referred to as large languages, because the average number of speakers of viable Australian languages with fewer speakers is a few hundred or even less. The situation is similar in New Guinea and adjacent islands, in parts of Melanesia, and some other parts of the world. On the other hand, in areas such as India where numerous languages have millions of speakers, a language with 10,000 or even more speakers is regarded as a small language, and will feel pressure from neighbouring languages with millions of speakers.

There are many examples of the three main reasons that we have given above for language endangerment. The paradox now comes to light: il would appear that the way to prevent a language from becoming ‘endangered’ – especially in the second, and to some extent the first, category – would be to promote bi- or multilingualism, which is already the norm in many parts of the world, with several thousand, especially smallish, languages spoken by bi- and multilinguals, be they a few members of a speech community, or very many, or the entire community. Bi- and multilingualism make it possible for speakers of languages under threat from languages spoken by bearers of aggressive cultures and civilizations to acquire a good knowledge of the latter for economic and other reasons, while maintaining a good knowledge of their original languages. This allows them to preserve their cultural and traditional identity and maintain their own self-respect and selfesteem. Bi- and multilinguals tend to be superior to monolinguals in having more flexible, more alert minds and a greater and quicker thinking capacity on the basis of a much greater volume of memory which they have for mastering two (or in the case of multilinguals more than two) different language systems with different vocabularies, grammars, sound structures and idiomatic expressions. Bi- and multilingualism from very early childhood onwards, to be maintained past the age of six years, is the most advantageous quality any person can possess. Unfortunately, it is not encouraged in most of the major cultures, the speakers of whose languages are overwhelmingly monolingual and wrongly regard monolingualism as the norm and the preferred state for human language.

Contents

History and languages

13

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Meetings between groups of people previously unknown to each other, and contact with unknown languages, are common events in everyday life and in human history. Over the past thousand years or so, the shifting of geographical centres of power and domination, as well as sheer demographic increase, has led to intensifying contacts between different cultures, and to increasing contact between groups of people speaking different and mutually incomprehensible languages on an increasing scale. For hundreds of years, these events remained relatively sporadic and, apart from a few exceptions, of relatively minor consequence from a linguistic point of view. Minority groups, usually smaller in population, often the bearers of complex, sophisticated, local traditional cultures, were frequently less culturally aggressive and politically powerful than the groups with whom they came into contact. Things took a turn for the worse in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, however, with the explorations, widening of economic interests and expansionist tendencies of a number of European peoples – Dutch, English, French, Portuguese, Spaniards and others, and including Russians moving into Siberia and the Far East. A devastating consequenceof these migrations was the introduction of new diseases into areas such as North America, Siberia and later Australia, where, for instance, smallpox epidemics took a terrible toll, decimating the local populations, disrupting societal

Contents

14

structure and, naturally, changing the situation from a language point of view since few people – or even none at all – now spoke certain languages. Some speech communities in North America, Siberia and Australia, for instance, were dramatically reduced in number through smallpox epidemics. However, the decrease in the numbers of speakers of languages and the disruption of societies through the introduction of epidemic diseases was merely one consequence of the meeting of two cultures. Encounters between local peoples with people from more aggressive cultures and civilizations frequently resulted in a clash between the two groups, on a cultural level at the very least. The influence of the dominant culture, economically and culturally speaking, upon the local traditional culture and their language ecology, were more pervasive and destructive in certain parts of the world. Overpowering and irresistible cultural and social pressure from outside often heavily influenced local languages, when it did not simply cause them to disappear. Traditional languages found themselves unsuited to function as vehicles of expression for the new culture. This situation was usually made worse by the negative, contemptuous, destructive and intolerant attitudes towards the languages of local populations by members of the dominant culture group. All of this had a tendency to adversely affect the attitudes of the speakers of the traditional languages towards their own languages, which they began to regard as inferior to the language of the intrusive dominant culture. Such an effect may be compounded by economic factors: knowledge of the language of the economically stronger culture by members of the economically weaker traditional language speech community tends to lead to economic advantages for the latter which are unobtain-

able by those who do not possess this knowledge. Such economic advantages usually include eligibility for jobs, with good monetary rewards, allowing access to coveted goods and services (something that gives the impression to the speakers of the traditional languages that their own languages are useless in the changing economic situation, and makes them forget other, social and intangible cultural and psychological values inherent in their traditional languages. Such impressions and attitudes mean that they have less and less regard for their traditional languages, and this leads to an increased use of the language of the dominant cultures and the eventual disappearance of the traditional languages. This scenario can worsen if, in addition, the representatives of the dominant cultures undertake deliberate acts to discourage the continued use of the traditional languages, and this sometimes in contradiction with an official position that would seem to encourage the continued existence of local cultures. Such actions were, in differing grades of intensity, carried out in the not-sodistant past in much of Aboriginal Australia; in England, with respect to the Welsh language; in North America and in the former USSR, where children were taken from their families and placed in boarding schools, where the languages of instruction became English or Russian, and children were often forbidden to speak their mother tongue at school. In addition, the inhabitants of settlements of different ethnic minorities were regrouped by means of forced relocations. This led to the total destruction of traditional cultures and values and the loss of traditional languages in many instances.

Contents

Dominated peoples cling to their language as the last rampart against foreign domination. Isolated from all the domains of public life (administration, politics, justice, etc.) and modern activities (trade and industry) and deprived of the major means of communication (press, radio and TV), the speakers of dominated languages are marginalized, and their language is condemned, sooner or later, to disappear. Circumstances like the ones described above, or similar to them, have led to the death and disappearance of hundreds of languages over the past 300 years and on an accelerating basis, especially in the past 100 years, above all in America and Australia. Hundreds more languages will very likely suffer the same fate in the foreseeable future. According to our estimates, about half (i.e. about 3,000) of the approximately 6,000 languages in the world are now endangered to some degree or another. Underlying many of the developments and problems mentioned above is a practical factor which, until very recently, has attracted little, if any, attention among linguists and others concerned with the problem of languages in danger of disappearing, and whose importance has probably not been properly understood. According to one ‘theory’ about language and the relationship between language and the material and non-material (i.e. spiritual and intangible) elements surrounding its speakers, the world is thought to consist of many parts, and each language provides a different set of labels for the same set of parts. This theory maintains that the differences between languages are only superficial, and that any one language can fully translate any other, because

they are ultimately saying the same thing in different guises. This theory implies that the disappearance of any one language is a minor occurrence – the disappearance of one among many of the same kind. Curiously enough, this theory has many followers, but anyone working seriously with translation between languages from two very different cultures immediately recognizes its fallacy and knows it to be wrong. A second theory about language argues that most perceptions of the world and parts of the world are brought into being and sustained by language itself. Therefore, different languages emphasize and filter various aspects of a multifaceted reality in a vast number of different ways. According to this theory, and as has already been said above, every language reflects a unique worldview and culture complex mirroring the manner in which a speech community has resolved its problems in dealing with the world, and has formulated its thinking, philosophy and understanding of the world around it. This theory explains why linguistic diversity is an invaluable asset and resource rather than an obstacle to progress, and why the disappearance of any one language constitutes an irretrievable and tragic loss to valuable and irreplaceable human knowledge. It seems remarkable and rather strange that, in contrast to the great concern shown by many people for animal and plant species threatened by extinction, there are, with relatively few exceptions, few organized groups concerned about the fact that about half of one of humanity’s most precious commodities – language diversity – is also threatened by extinction. This attitude is, curiously enough, shared by some linguists whose interests in human

15

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Contents

16

language do not include the role and function of language in culture. It has only been relatively recently that a fair number of linguists have begun to show any alarm at all at the rapidly progressing extinction and endangerment of languages. This change in attitude largely coincides with an increasing awareness of language as an intrinsic part of the culture and society of those who speak it. Frequently, when people are made aware of the problem, their reaction is simply to ask why there is any problem at all, and what value there could be in studying, or in trying to maintain, all of the world’s languages. But this reaction reflects ignorance of the complexity and high level of human thought inherent in each individual language, including the languages spoken by people regarded as ‘primitive’ by the speakers of languages with general or international ‘currency’. It also reflects their ignorance of the fact that each language is unique, in as much as each language has a different thought pattern and world-view underlying it, and that the loss of any one language means a contraction, reduction and impoverishment of the sum total of the reservoir of human thought and knowledge as expressible through language, the tool enabling cultures to exist through intercommunication. To give just a few examples, many highly effective medicinal plants are known only to people in traditional cultures; their languages possess specific names for these plants. When their languages and cultures are lost, the knowledge about these plants and their healing properties is lost too, unless a linguist or other interested person has recorded the names and a description of the properties before the disappearance. Curare and quinine are examples from

South America. Their medicinal properties were known to the local forest tribes long before they came into contact with Europeans. Another striking example was recently reported from northern Australia, where ailments such as severe skin ulcers, which failed to respond to European drugs, cleared up quickly when lotions derived from certain plants known to members of local Aboriginal tribes were applied at the local hospital. The Aborigines had developed a detailed knowledge of the use of medicinal plants. Fortunately, the nursing sister on hand had been in contact with Aboriginal people for twenty-two years, and took the Aboriginal people, their knowledge and their culture seriously. The success of this and similar traditional treatments has broken the ice with certain doctors trained according to rational principles, and a wide search for other effective medicinal plants in Australia has now begun with the help of Aboriginal people providing the words that they use (in their now seriously endangered languages) for these plants. Another, slightly different example, will illustrate the value of the study of traditional, and now endangered, languages for enhancing the thought patterns and perception abilities of speakers of metropolitan languages. In the Inuit languages, there are many different words for a concept that is expressed in just one word in the English language, namely, ‘snow’, and each of the Inuit words indicates a completely different type of snow. From this, English speakers could come to a new discovery about sharpening one’s perception of natural phenomena. There are thousands of similar examples from little-known languages that can enrich the entire perceptual field of those who speak only one general or international language. Thus there is considerable value and merit

Contents

in the study and proper understanding of local, and especially endangered, languages. It is probably high time for the message to be more widely disseminated. The effective spreading of a similar message concerning the dangers of the impoverishment of biodiversity in the world resulting from the extinction of animal and plant species has fallen on fertile ground – it is hoped that the message concerning the impoverishment of human thought resulting from the extinction and disappearance of languages may also be heard and understood. There is a strongly ingrained belief, especially among native speakers of what are considered to be major, dominating languages, that monolingualism and monoculturalism alone constitute the normal and acceptable state for human beings. Consequently, speakers of other languages that come within the political orbit of a nation or region ruled by speakers of one language, and who are to become members or at least associate members of such a nation, are faced with a hard choice: either they become full representatives of the culture of such a nation and speak – or at least pretend to speak – the dominant language monolingually, or they stay out. If circumstances have placed them by force within such a political orbit, they become underprivileged fringe members of the community. It rarely occurs to speakers of a dominant language that bi- and multilingualism is widespread and is becoming the norm in many continents or countries or regions (e.g. Finland, Switzerland, much of other parts of Europe, Africa, India, Indonesia, the south-western Pacific area, Paraguay, the Philippines – to name just a few).

We might mention here that in some places (e.g. New Guinea and New Caledonia, where small, indigenous speech communities, each of them speaking a different language, are in close contact with each other and have been for a long time), egalitarian multilingualism is the norm, with all languages having equal standing and prestige. This indeed constitutes a fitting example for other civilizations to follow! Australia is headed this way: a very large proportion of the population is foreign born; numerous cultural patterns exist peacefully side by side; multiculturalism is official government policy; and numerous European and Asian languages can be heard everywhere in the streets with bi- and multilingualism on the rise. The same holds in New Zealand, where Maori, the original Polynesian language of the country, holds official status along with English, and is now taught in many schools. Switzerland is a good European example: here, even the small, now standardized, Romansch language (about 67,000 speakers) enjoys official status and receives full government support. A similar situation exists in southern Finland for Finnish and Swedish, and there are other recent examples of similar positive developments and attitudes. What we have just outlined in the above paragraphs indicates that it is possible for minority and other small languages, together with at least some elements of their traditional cultures, to continue to exist in a context of stable bilingualism and biculturalism even after their speakers have acquired full knowledge and mastery of the dominant language and culture into whose orbit they have inescapably been drawn by historical events. Their traditional language and culture gives them something to be proud of, and provides a counterbalance to the often paternalistic,

17

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Contents

18

contemptuous or intolerant attitudes of certain monolingual speakers of the dominant language. The continued possession of a traditional language and aspects of their own culture gives the speakers of the minority and lesser-spoken languages the feeling that they are in possession of something that the speakers of the dominant language do not have. This, in addition to their bi- and perhaps multilingualism, and indeed biculturalism, is an intangible yet very real asset. It should also be pointed out here that, although it is not so widely known, bi- and multiculturalism are also quite possible in human society. An individual can be just as readily bicultural, ‘at home in two cultures’, as bilingual. Another culture, with its characteristic thought patterns and world-views, can be learned as other languages can be learned. In groups and nations, bi- and multiculturalism mean the peaceful, tolerant and conflict-free coexistence, side-by-side, of individuals belonging to different cultures. The question of the intellectual and emotional advantages of bi- or multilingualism and biculturalism gives rise, then, to the following considerations. 1) From a practical point of view, those concerned have access to a far greater volume of information and knowledge than monolinguals, possess a larger stock of knowledge (both linguistic and general) in their minds, grasp different semantic associations better, and, being used to switching languages and thought patterns, have more flexible minds. 2) They are less rigid

in their attitudes and have a tendency to be more tolerant of the unknown than monolinguals (i.e. they are less hostile and suspicious); they are more inclined to regard manifestations of other cultures by individuals as acceptable and respectable, even though different from their own cultures. 3) Their thought patterns and world-view are better balanced due to their familiarity with different, often somewhat contradictory concepts. They have greater ability than monolinguals to learn concepts, ideas and things that are entirely new, to fit into novel situations without trauma, and to understand the different facets of a problem. Bi- or multilingualism and biculturalism and understanding and tolerance of other cultures from early childhood onwards is an ideal to be attained by human beings. At the same time, languages and their associated thought patterns and world-views are given viability, even though they may be under subtle or heavy pressure from another language and culture, whose carriers regard monolingualism and monoculturalism as an ideal and are therefore less tolerant, more single-minded and culturally aggressive. Stable bilingualism can continue for centuries as long as the languages exist side by side as equals, and there is no pressure from one side or other in favour of its language. Such pressure can be withstood by awareness that one’s own language is not inferior to the other, that one can be fully at home in both, and that bi- or multilingualism, and not monolingualism, is essentially the norm in a large part of the world.

Contents

CIPL, CIPSH, UNESCO and languages in danger

19

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

The urgent world situation concerning languages in danger of disappearing prompted the Permanent International Committee of Linguists (CIPL) to focus its attention on endangered languages a number of years ago. At the 14th International Congress of Linguists in Berlin in 1987, the Committee was asked officially to make endangered languages a central topic for the 15th International Congress of Linguists in Quebec in 1992. At the 17th International Congress of Linguists, to be held in Oaxaca, Mexico, in 2002, a plenary session will be devoted to the subject of endangered languages as one of the four main themes of the event. This led to the appearance in 1991 of Endangered Languages, edited by R. H. Robins and E. M. Uhlenbeck, an important work published under the auspices of the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (CIPSH). This book included four contributions from the periodical Diogenes (Volume 143), published by CIPSH in parallel editions in several languages including English, French and Spanish. Endangered Languages has now been translated into Spanish with a view to publication in that language. To further what by then had become a combined CIPSH-CIPL project, S. A. Wurm, in his capacity as president of CIPSH at the time, contacted the Sector for Culture at UNESCO in this matter and proposed that steps be taken for: (i) identification of the

Contents

20

endangered languages in the world; (ii) establishment of a data bank and communication centre to receive, store and make available to interested scholars and other persons information on endangered and dying languages; and (iii) urgent study of languages threatened with extinction in the near or immediate future, especially of languages which have not been studied, or studied very little, and which are either isolated languages (i.e. are not related, or only very distantly related, to known languages) or are in some way special and unusual. At the 15th International Congress of Linguists held in Quebec (Canada) in 1992, endangered languages were one of the two main themes and gave rise to a plenary session. A resolution on endangered languages for the attention of UNESCO was unanimously adopted on that occasion, as follows:
As the disappearance of any one language constitutes an irretrievable loss to mankind, it is for UNESCO a task of great urgency to respond to this situation by promoting and, if possible, sponsoring programmes of linguistic organizations for the description – in the form of grammars, dictionaries and texts, including the recording of the oral literatures – of hitherto unstudied or inadequately documented endangered and dying languages.

mously adopted a resolution requesting that UNESCO negotiate with the Government of Japan for the establishment of a clearing house and data bank centre in Tokyo. The response of UNESCO through its Sector for Culture, and of the Japanese authorities, was very favourable, and following negotiations, the centre was established as part of the newly created Department of Asian and Pacific Linguistics, Institute of CrossCultural Studies, at the Faculty of Letters of the University of Tokyo, with three academic staff members. It had its official opening in November 1995 in the course of an International Symposium on Endangered Languages. It now possesses material on over 500 endangered languages, although it has not been very active. By 1994, CIPSH was beginning to receive applications for the study of endangered languages in various parts of the world, which it then vetted, suitable ones being forwarded to UNESCO for financing. Grants were handed out to successful applicants by CIPSH. The financing of endangered language study applications by UNESCO through CIPSH ceased in 1999. In 2000, other national and international organizations gradually took over the funding of similar studies and activities. In this connection, two urgent research projects undertaken in 1995 with financial assistance by CIPL involved the study of two unusual endangered languages in Papua New Guinea. Both of these studies were concluded with the preparation of grammatical descriptions, extensive vocabularies and texts with interlinear and free translations. The study of another dying Papua New Guinea language

The next step was taken at the 21st CIPSH General Assembly in 1992 in Harare (Zimbabwe), when a colloquium was held on the theme, ‘Life and Death of Languages, in Particular in Africa’, at which a number of Africanist linguists participated. The Assembly unanimously endorsed the resolution which had been adopted by the 15th International Congress of Linguists, and also unani-

Contents

which had only one fluent speaker left, was undertaken at the same time, with its results also being published. CIPL intends to support further studies of languages in danger of disappearing. The study of languages in danger of disappearing has two aims. Firstly, in the case of languages that are irrefutably on the way out and moribund, but have not been studied in detail, every effort should be made to carry out what could be described as a museal study for posterity to preserve as much as possible of the knowledge of their sound structure, grammar, vocabulary, texts with interlinear and free translations including specimens of discourse and oral literature, folklore, traditions and myths, together with sound recordings. This would make it possible for scholars and the descendants of the last speakers to know what the language was like, and enable these descendants to acquire a knowledge of the dead language again – something that is now increasingly occurring with the reawakening of ethnic identity feelings among many groups in various parts of the world. In the case of endangered languages with a number of speakers, but which have not been studied in detail, the same type of study is necessary, but with an additional aim: if there is a desire on the part of the speakers to maintain their language, perhaps in a bilingual situation, the results of such a study would, together with some advice on language maintenance, enable the speakers to induce and teach the children (and adolescents and young adults) in their community to learn this language or to relearn it if they have lost their previous knowledge of it. Such situations are occurring with increasing frequency as people whose languages are in danger of disappearing remember their ethnic identity and wish to

reinforce it through the powerful symbol of their traditional languages. The interest in languages in danger of disappearing extends to the maintenance and preservation of such languages. Different methods are used to maintain endangered languages and possibly revive those seriously endangered. Most importantly, the ethnic self-awareness of the speakers of such languages should be awakened and strengthened as they come to realize that they possess something that speakers of the dominant language around them do not have. Major efforts should be made to concentrate on helping their children acquire and maintain a knowledge of the endangered language. Special playing situations in which the endangered language is exclusively used might be developed, with rewards for children who respond positively. Additional reasons and circumstances should be envisaged to raise the interest of the speakers of an endangered language in preserving and maintaining that language. For instance, their language could be used as a secret language, unintelligible to the speakers of the dominant language, whom they may have reason to regard as their oppressors. As a background to the revival and maintenance of an endangered language, still-remembered aspects of the traditional culture and activities of its speakers should be reawakened. The percentage of the hitherto unstudied or only little studied endangered or dying languages that can still be studied before their extinction and irretrievable disappearance, and knowledge and information about them preserved for posterity, will depend on the amount of funding available for this purpose, the availability of scholars and local people with some linguistic training (a

21

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Contents

22

question closely connected with the amount of funding available) and in part on the co-operation and goodwill of the authorities in some countries, particularly in developing countries. An appreciable number of endangered and dying languages could accordingly be selected for study before their extinction, or at least material on them collected, so that they remain visible. It is hoped that activities will enable a number of endangered languages, whose adult speakers are anxious to maintain and preserve them, to continue as living languages. Also, it is hoped

that the results of work in various projects will be made available to the interested audience worldwide, which in turn may be expected to have beneficial results for the wider appreciation and recognition of the problem of endangered languages. Publications may make more people aware of the fact that many endangered languages exist and this may increasingly result in the realization among decision-makers and speakers of endangered languages themselves that the worldwide problem is very serious indeed.

Contents

Remarks on the present atlas

23

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

It was felt necessary, in order to attract public interest to the serious worldwide problem of endangered languages and language disappearance in a graphic and easily understandable manner, to republish this small Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing. It is well known that a few appropriate graphic representations of a problem will convey a message much more succinctly and convincingly than any number of pages of detailed explanation. The maps are intended to show the seriousness and widespread nature of the endangerment and disappearance of languages in many parts of the world. In a selective manner, they cover the entire globe. On each map, languages are shown by their names, with one of five symbols added. These symbols indicate whether languages are in danger of disappearing, moribund or already extinct. ‘In danger of disappearing’ indicates a progressive process that moves from potentially endangered to endangered, and on to seriously endangered, and eventually to moribund, and ultimately to extinct. The meanings of the terms used here are: potentially endangered, children are no longer learning the language; endangered, the youngest speakers are young adults; seriously endangered, the youngest speakers are moving into middle age and beyond in the more advanced stage of the process, and many no longer have a good knowledge of the language; moribund, only a handful of speakers are left, mostly very old; and finally, extinct,

Contents

24

no speakers are left. See the page before the maps for the relevant symbols. This small Atlas is not intended to give full coverage of the languages of the world which belong to the categories ranging from ‘in danger of disappearing’ to ‘moribund’, with some extinct languages added; however, by showing a number of such languages for a range of areas in all major parts of the world, it intends to convey a graphic, easily understood image of the extremely widespread nature of the problem of language endangerment. It is hoped that when the reader comes to the full realization that he or she is looking only at a sample of the problem, the full, grim truth will sink in fully. In many cases, especially with endangered languages that have almost disappeared and moribund languages, it is difficult, if not impossible, to indicate the present area of such languages, because quite often they are no longer spoken anywhere near their traditional areas. This is because the speakers have been removed far away to reservations or resettlement places by local authorities, or scattered far and wide by them into communities or settlements among speakers of other languages. Alternatively, the last speakers of a moribund language may have sought shelter with other speech communities on a voluntary basis wherever they met with a friendly reception or at least tolerance. On most of the maps, no borders of languages have been indicated, even in cases in which their surviving speakers are still living more or less inside their traditional area, but are now so few in number that indicating the area in which their language is spoken becomes meaningless. Often it is not known where all the scattered remaining

speakers of such languages (especially moribund), may be living. Only the language name with the appropriate symbol has been given. The symbol has been placed either in the approximate area where some speakers of the named language are known to be living, or, if the location of such an area is not well-known, after a given language name on the understanding that the name and symbol mark the approximate location of the language in question. With coastal languages, the combination of language name and symbol may well extend into the sea. The individual maps cover areas of quite different size, ranging from parts of countries such as the north-east of China to wider areas such as the northern and eastern, western and southern parts of Canada, Siberia, a part of East Africa and so forth, and continental areas such as Australia, Africa, much of Europe, and all of South America. The latter type of maps show the widespread, pervasive nature of the problem over vast geographical expanses, and are thus more impressive. The explanations given on the situation of endangered languages in the areas dealt with on maps in this Atlas reflect the present state of research, which at present is only preliminary.

Eurasia
Europe
The only languages in Europe that are generally known to be in danger of disappearing are the Celtic languages of Britain and Ireland, such as Scottish Gaelic, Irish Gaelic and Welsh. Manx is

Contents

already extinct, and Cornish died out at the end of the eighteenth century, but was artificially revived and now has a number of speakers. In French Brittany, Breton is spoken. In Scandinavia, several of the Saami (Lappish) languages are seriously endangered or moribund. Not far from Finland, on Russian territory, several small threatened Finno-Ugrian languages are spoken, such as Ingrian, Ludian, Olonetsian, Vepsian, Votian and the large Karelian. The Finno-Ugrian moribund Livonian is found in western Lithuania. The Finno-Ugrian languages also include the Estonian, Finnish and Hungarian languages which are not endangered. The Saami languages mentioned above also belong to the Finno-Ugrian group. In northern Germany, Frisian and Low German, as well as several small surviving Slavic languages such as Kashubian and Sorbian, are on the danger list. Further south in Switzerland and northern Italy, several Rhaeto-Romansh languages are in danger, i.e. Romansch, Ladin and Friulan, as are a number of other Romance languages in Italy (including Sardinia), Albania, Greece, southern France and Spain, such as Ligurian, Lombardian, Piemontese, the four forms of Sardinian, and also Corsican on French Corsica. All these are endangered to some extent, as are Franco-Provençal and Provençal which are endangered in Italy and seriously endangered in France. In the Balkans, the threatened Istriot and Istro-Rumanian in Croatia and Aromunian in Albania are also Romance languages (French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish too are important Romance languages). Meglenitic and Tsakonian in Greece are related to Greek. The threatened Gagauz in European Turkey, Bulgaria, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Moldavia is a Turkic language closely related to Turkish. Karaim in Lithuania, the Ukraine, and on the Crimean Peninsula in the northern part of the Black Sea is also Turkic, as

are Nogai and Crimean Tatar. In Belgium, France and Spain there are several further threatened Romance languages such as Walloon in Belgium, Franco-Provençal, Provençal (Occitan), Auvergnat, Limousin, Languedocien and Gascon (also in Spain) in France, also Aragonese, Asturian, Galician and Leonese in Spain. Mozarabic in southern Spain is extinct. The Basque language, which is endangered in Spain and seriously endangered in France, is not IndoEuropean like most of the other languages in Europe (except for the Finno-Ugrian languages mentioned above) and it is an isolate language, that is, it seems to be unrelated to any other known language. The only other remaining threatened language in Europe outside Russia is Scots in Scotland, which is becoming endangered. Romance Catalan in eastern Spain (and overlapping into France), regarded by some as potentially endangered, is now increasingly re-invigorated. In European Russia, apart from small Finno-Ugrian languages near Finland already mentioned above, several Finno-Ugrian languages in the north are in danger, such as Moksha and Erzya, Western and Eastern Mari, Udmurt, Permyak and Komi. There are also two endangered Turkic languages in north-eastern Russia, in addition to the threatened ones mentioned before in the south of European Russia. These northern ones are the highly aberrant Turkic language called Chuvash, and the Bashkir language which is closely related to Tatar of the same area and further east, which is not threatened. The Mongolian Kalmyk language, to the northeast of the Black Sea on the lower Volga River, is endangered. Finally, there are varieties of the Romani (Gypsy) language in most parts of Europe, most of them threatened to some extent at least.

25

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Contents

26

The plight of most of these languages is due to heavy pressure from the dominant languages of the countries where they are spoken; in some cases, especially in the past, this has been combined with deliberate policies aiming at their suppression. Some notable exceptions to this are countries such as Norway, Switzerland and a few others which have been actively furthering and supporting the use of minority languages. In recent years, there has been a strong upswing in interest for minority languages in many places in Europe, and a strengthening of the ethnic and linguistic awareness of their speakers.

and the so-called southern Samoyedic languages, of which Selkup is the only surviving member, is seriously endangered in parts of its territory and moribund in others. Kamas survived until the early 1990s, but Mator died long ago. Of the north-western Samoyedic languages Nenets, Enets and Nganasan, the Tundra Nenets dialect is only endangered, the others being seriously endangered or moribund. Nganasan is functioning well among the members of the old generation, but is not being passed on properly to the younger generation. The Mongolian, Tungusic and Turkic languages belong to the socalled Altaic group, to which some linguists also attach Japanese and Korean. The closely interrelated Turkic languages (with the exception of the Churash language mentioned under ‘Europe’) are found in Turkey, the Caucasus, eastern Europe and eastern European Russia (see the ‘Europe’ section), Central Asia, Siberia, northern Mongolia and northern and western China. In Siberia they are mostly small languages spoken in south-western Siberia, such as Siberian Tatar, Shor, Teleut, Altai, Khakas, Chulym and Tofa. Most of these are endangered or seriously endangered, with the last two moribund. In northern and north-eastern Siberia, the large Yakut and the Dolgan languages are Turkic, with Dolgan spoken by Turkicized Samoyeds. Both are well-functioning languages, though regarded by some linguists as potentially endangered. Yakut is now taking over from Russian as the interlanguage lingua franca, or contact language, in north-eastern Siberia. The speakers of most of the small south-western Siberian Turkic languages were originally speakers of southern Samoyedic languages, but became Turkicized. The closely interrelated Mongolian languages are spoken in Mongolia, southern Siberia and

Siberia
In western and southern Siberia, most local languages are in danger of disappearing: Finno-Ugrian, Samoyedic, Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic languages, and one Palaeo-Siberian language. The Finno-Ugrian languages in western Siberia belong to the Ugrian section of Finno-Ugrian, whereas all Finno-Ugrian languages mentioned under ‘Europe’ belong to the Finnic section of Finno-Ugrian, except for Hungarian, which is Ugrian, and include the western Siberian Mansi and Khanty languages, its nearest relatives. The ancestors of the present-day Hungarians lived in the same area as today’s Mansi and Khanty speakers, but left that area about 3,000–4,000 years ago. The Western Siberian Ugrian languages are seriously endangered and moribund. The Samoyedic languages are related to the Finno-Ugrian languages, and together with them constitute the Uralian languages group. The Samoyedic languages are located in north-western Siberia,

Contents

northern and western China. In Siberia, only the regionally potentially or seriously endangered Buryat language is spoken, as well as the regionally endangered or moribund Khamnigan Mongol language near the border of northern China. The closely interrelated Tungusic languages are very widespread in central, eastern and north-eastern Siberia, on the Kamchatka Peninsula, on Sakhalin Island, and in north-eastern and western China, but they have few speakers, with the exception of the Sibo dialect of the Manchu language, which was the language of the Manchu conquerers of China in the early seventeenth century AD, and the official language of the Manchu dynasty which ruled China until 1913. Their language has now almost vanished in China, there are only a few aged speakers left in north-east China (see the Northeast China map in this Atlas, p. 58), but a Manchu garrison was sent to Western China (Xinjiang) in the seventeenth century, and among their descendants there are still well over 20,000 speakers of a dialectal form of Manchu called Sibo. The largest ethnic Tungusic group today are the Ewenki, widespread in small communities from central to eastern and south-eastern Siberia, and into north-east China. In Siberia, there are 26,000 ethnic Ewenki, and close to 20,000 in China. Only 6,000 still speak the language in Siberia, whereas many of those in China still know their language. There are efforts for its revival in Siberia. Other important Tungusic languages are Even in north-eastern Siberia and on the Kamchatka Peninsula, and a number of small Tungusic languages in the Russian Far East and on Sakhalin Island, such as Nanay, Negidal, Olcha, Oroch, Orok and Udege. All of these are seriously endangered or moribund. The remaining languages of Siberia are Palaeo-Siberian languages

belonging to three different groups that are probably not related to each other, and there is one doubtful language. In western Siberia, along the middle and upper Yenisey River there is (in part was) the Ketic group of languages of which the seriously endangered Ket and the moribund Yug are the surviving members. Kot on the upper Yenisey has long been extinct. The Ketic languages do not seem to be related to any other known languages, though there have been attempts to link them with languages outside Siberia. A large Palaeo-Siberian group is the Chukchee-KoryakAlyutor-Kamchadal group in north-eastern Siberia and the Kamchatka Peninsula. The first three are individual languages, all of them seriously endangered. Kamchadal originally consisted of three languages, of which only Itelmen proper survives today as a moribund language. The other two are extinct. A moribund small language, Kerek, is closely related to Chukchee. Further, there is the Nivkh language on the lower Amur River in the Russian Far East and on northern Sakhalin Island. It seems unrelated to any other known language, though attempts have been made to link it with the Chukchee group. Finally, the doubtful Palaeo-Siberian language is Yukagir, spoken in two separate locations in northeastern Siberia. The extinct Chuvan language was also Yukagiric. Recent studies suggest strongly that the language is related to the Uralian languages (see above). It seems moribund, but attempts at reviving it are in progress. In addition to all these languages, there are several Asiatic Eskimo languages on the eastern shores of the Chukchee Peninsula, such as Central Siberian Yupik Eskimo, which is extinct in two locations and endangered in another, Naukanski Eskimo, which is seriously endangered, and Sirenitski Eskimo which became extinct in 1999

27

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Contents

28

with the death of its last speaker (see the Arctic North America West map, p. 74). All the threatened languages mentioned above have been under enormous pressure from Russian and, in the past, were the target of deliberate Soviet policies aiming at obliterating them, through methods such as the removal of children to distant boarding schools where they were forbidden to speak their language to one another, and forced resettling of members of speech communities among speakers of other languages including Russian. Only since the disintegration of the former Soviet Union have there been signs of a reawakening of ethnic identity awareness among some Siberian peoples, with simultaneous growing interest in the preservation, revival and furthering of their languages. A considerable amount of work on endangered and dying languages in Siberia has been carried out by Russian scholars, scholars from outside Russia (i.e. linguists from Europe, in particular from Finland, Hungary and some other countries), as well as by American scholars from Alaska. Increasingly, linguists from the local language areas have also been studying endangered Siberian languages. However, there is still much work to be done on them.

The forty Caucasian languages constitute a separate group of interrelated languages with four subgroups: north-western, northeastern (or Daghestan), and southern Caucasus languages, with a northern (or northern central) group geographically between the north-western and north-eastern groups. The language of the Chechens belongs to this northern group. Famous languages of the north-western group are Circassian and Abkhas, which are noted for having the largest number of consonants of any language in the world and very few vowels – this makes them sound so alien that outsiders doubt whether they are listening to a human language when they hear it. Georgian is a well-known member of the southern group, and the Caucasian language with the largest number of speakers, over 5,000,000. The twenty-seven northeastern languages are the most numerous; some of them have very few speakers. Some of the more familiar names of north-eastern languages are Andi, Archi, Avar, Hunzib, Lak, Lezgin, Tabassaran, Tsakhur and Udi. There are a number of Turkic and other non-Caucasian languages (Iranian Kurdish, Ossetic, Tat and Talysh) in the Caucasus area. The most important are the Turkic Azerbaijan language in the southeast, which exerts pressure on several north-eastern Caucasian languages, and the Indo-European Armenian language. The Turkic Nogai (already mentioned in the Europe section) and Kumyk languages are important as trade languages in the east of the Caucasus area, and they also put pressure on some north-eastern Caucasian languages. The one moribund Caucasus language is the northern Caucasus Bats (or Batsbi) in one village in northern Georgia, which is

Caucasus
The Caucasus area contains a number of languages in danger, especially in Daghestan and the Georgian Republic. Some of them are under pressure from large local languages, such as Turkic Azerbaijan, and from Russian. Their speakers are fiercely proud of their ethnic identity, and resist the demise of their languages strongly.

Contents

succumbing to Georgian. Some quite large languages of the northeastern group have lost whole villages to the Azerbaijan language and could perhaps be regarded as potentially endangered, e.g. the Lak and Tabassaran languages. Some of the north-eastern languages have quite substantial numbers of speakers: Tabassaran has today 78,000 speakers. There are some with far fewer speakers: Tsakhur has 5,200; Udi 6,100; Hunzib 5,000; Khinalug 1,000; Budukh 900; Kryz 1,300; Archi, Tindi and Godoberi have similar small numbers of speakers, and Hinukh even less. These languages are potentially endangered, as is Hinukh, under pressure from the large local languages, and from Russian, though the fierce pride of the speakers, mentioned above, acts as a bulwark against language loss. The situation is different in the southern Caucasus Group, where the speakers of the four small languages Adzhar, Laz, Mingrelian and Svan, which are closely related to Georgian and spoken within Georgia, are all bilingual in Georgia, with their languages being now gradually superseded by Georgian. They have to be regarded as endangered. Much work on Caucasus languages has been carried out by Russian and non-Russian scholars, but there is still room for work on these languages, especially the north-eastern ones.

Asia
China
In China, the main areas where languages are in danger of disappearing are in north-east and north-western China and western Xinjiang, and Yunnan in the far south. These languages are in part under heavy pressure from Chinese. In some areas, ethnic identity is strengthening, with a positive influence on language maintenance. The present Atlas contains a map of the threatened languages of north-east China. All of them belong to the Altaic group (see ‘Siberia’ under ‘Eurasia’), i.e. the Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic parts of it. The only Turkic language is the moribund Manchurian Kirghiz (Fuyu). The Mongolian languages are Eastern Buriat in China, Khamnigan Mongol, Old and New Bargut and Dagur; and the Tungusic ones are Ewenki proper, Khamnigan Ewenki, Orochen, Manchu, and Solon. With the exception of Eastern Buriat in China, and Dagur and Solon in western locations where they are only potentially endangered, these languages are all endangered, seriously endangered, or moribund, although the number of speakers of Ewenki proper and Khamnigan Ewenki are still considerable. Elsewhere in China, there are threatened languages in the northwest and in western Xinjiang, the westernmost province of China. The local languages here are mainly Turkic and Mongolian; the main Turkic language, Uyghur, has 6,000,000 speakers. Of other Turkic languages, Kazak is also strongly represented with 1,000,000 speakers. Kirghiz has 100,000 speakers in Xinjiang. The very large Turkic languages, Uzbek and Tatar, are only slightly

29

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Contents

30

represented in Xinjiang and elsewhere in China. The small local Turkic language, Western Yugur, is spoken in Kansu Province in north-west China by less than 5,000 speakers in the neighbourhood of Mongolian languages; it is potentially endangered. Next to it is the small Mongolian Eastern or Yellow Yugur language with even fewer speakers, also potentially endangered. In the westernmost part of Xinjiang Province, several Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic languages are spoken. Most of the local people, but not the Chinese living there, are multilingual in their own language, a Turkic (Uyghur) and a Mongolian language (Oirat dialect), as well as in Chinese. The Tungusic Sibo-Manchu language is spoken only by the Sibo themselves, but they also speak every one of the languages known by the other non-Chinese-mother tongue speakers there. The number of speakers of the small, moribund Tungusic Orochen language is dwindling. In southern parts of China such as Yunnan Province, there are a large number of smallish, mainly Tibeto-Burman languages which are related to Tibetan and Burman, and ultimately also to Chinese, because all these languages belong to the vast Chino-Tibetan group of languages. In the same areas, there are also other, often smallish, languages not related to the Tibeto-Burman languages, such as the so-called Miao-Yao languages, spoken mostly by people living in the mountains, also the so-called Kam-Tai languages related to the Thai language of Thailand, and to the Austronesian languages of the Pacific area (see the text of the Pacific survey map), and also some of the so-called Austroasiatic languages which are spoken mainly outside China in South-East Asia and India. Some of these languages, especially small ones, are threatened, e.g. the (Miao-) Yao language Bunu which has only 1,400

speakers, the She language, also Miao-Yao, spoken by only 1,000 of the 300,000 ethnic She, and others (see also the text of the map of South-East Asia). The level of endangerment in southern China is not yet well known, in spite of ongoing research work. For instance, the large Yi nationality, which was until very recently believed to have four different languages, was found last year to have a much larger number of small to very small languages, many of them probably threatened. A considerable amount of work on endangered languages in Yunnan has been carried out through the Nationality Languages Department of the Yunnan Institute of Nationalities, and by scholars from outside China; still, a great deal of work remains to be done on these languages. Similarly, scholars from inside and outside China have undertaken extensive work on endangered languages in north-east and north-west China and in Xinjiang, but much remains to be done on certain languages.

Himalayan Chain
The threatened languages on the map of the Himalayan Chain belong to the family of Tibeto-Burman, or its various branches. For the term ‘Tibeto-Burman’, see the text on China. Tibeto-Burman languages are very widespread, and as can be seen from the inset map of India and Myanmar (former Burma), they occur (or occurred) in those countries as well. One remarkable fact is that all Tibeto-Burman languages show inflections, i.e. grammatical changes in the words, whereas the related Chinese has virtually no such inflections. It is believed that thousands of years ago, Chinese had such inflections, but lost them long ago, perhaps

Contents

through simplification as a trade and contact language with speakers of other languages, possibly ancestors of today’s Thai languages, in the small area of ancient China. Of the languages shown on the map, Darmiya, Rangkhas, Tolcha and Chaudangsi/Byangsi in the west, on Indian territory, belong to the West Himalayish branch of Tibeto-Burman. Of the languages on Nepalese territory, Dura, Rohani, Chantel and Bhrahmu in the west belong to the so-called Bodish branch, and Hayu, Dumi, Tilung, Bungla, Saam, Lumba and Chintang in central and eastern Nepal to the so-called Kiranti/Rai branch. Dhimal in eastern Nepal, Lepcha, Toto and Tahom on Indian territory and Pyu and Danan in Myanmar belong to other branches of Tibeto-Burman. The potentially endangered, endangered, seriously endangered, moribund or extinct status of the Himalayan Chain languages on the map is the result of pressure from dominant languages: in Nepal especially from Nepali, on Indian territory from relevant languages in northern and north-western India, and in Myanmar from Myanmar languages in the central and eastern parts of the country. A large amount of work has been done in endangered languages of the Himalayan Chain and in Tibeto-Burman languages in general, mainly by linguists from Europe, especially the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States, but much further work remains to be done.

Indian subcontinent
On the Indian subcontinent, relatively few languages are in danger of disappearing in spite of the multiplicity of languages. Their vitality may be explained by means of widespread egalitarian biand multilingualism. The languages which do appear to be in danger of disappearing are tribal and other relatively small languages, which are losing speakers to the various larger languages in the Indian subcontinent. The extremely large number of languages on the Indian subcontinent are Indo-Aryan in the centre and to some extent in the north, Iranian languages in the north-west and especially in Pakistan, Dravidian languages in the southern part of India, Austroasiatic languages in the central eastern part, and TibetoBurman in the north. In addition, there are other languages in the far central north of India such as the isolate language Burushaski and languages of the Andaman isolated group on the Andaman Islands Chain to the east of India, to name but a few. Threatened languages on the Indian subcontinent are essentially in the north-west, north, north-east, east and southern centre. Those in the north-west are Indo-Aryan and Iranian, such as Dardi and the seriously endangered Kohistani. Those in the north and north-west are largely Tibeto-Burman languages of which a few have already been mentioned in the text on the Himalayan Chain. There are also threatened Romany (Gypsy) languages in the far north. Those in the southern centre are Dravidian, such as the seriously endangered Kota and Toda languages. Kuvi is extinct there. Those in the east are essentially Austroasiatic languages, such as the seriously endangered Birhor and Parenga, and the

31

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Contents

32

endangered Nahali. Several are extinct, such as Gorum, Bonda and Gata. Among the threatened Tibeto-Burman languages several are moribund, e.g. Kami, Khowar, Khami, Kawri and Tlangtlang; seriously endangered, such as Aimol, Aka (Hrusso), Gurung, Kagate, Mru and Purum; or endangered, including Chin, Jad, Kanashi, Khampti, Khoirao, Langrong, Ralte and Tat. Of the ten languages of the Greater Andaman Islands, nine are extinct and one is moribund. On the Little Andaman Island, Önge still has over 100 speakers, and the Shompen language, on another island, about 70. A very large amount of work on the languages of the Indian subcontinent has been done over the years by Indian, British and other scholars, however, relatively little attention was paid to the small threatened languages, except for Tibeto-Burman languages, in which outside linguists have long been interested (see the text on the Himalayan Chain). A great deal of work remains to be done on the numerous languages of the Indian subcontinent.

(the border river between Tajikistan and Afghanistan) and its tributaries in Tajikistan and Afghanistan. The languages are Shugni, with 50,000 speakers, formerly the lingua franca in the Pamir area. It has lost this role to Russian and Tajik by now. Closely related to it are Rushan (16,000 speakers), Bartangi (2,000 speakers) and Oroshori (1,500 speakers). Pamir languages less closely related to Shugni are Yazgulami (2,000 speakers) and Ishkashim (2,100 speakers). Further south-east and east of those languages, another Pamir language, Wakhi, is spoken by 10,000 speakers in Afghanistan, 20,000 in Pakistan. A small number of its speakers overlap into China, where to the north, in the easternmost part of Xinjiang Province, another small Pamir language, Sarikoli, is spoken. In China, both Sarikoli and Wakhi are wrongly called Tajik, which is an Iranian language very close to Persian, and the official language of Tajikistan. It is only distantly related to the Pamir languages. The small Pamir languages Bartangi, Ishkashim, Oroshori and Yazgulami are becoming potentially endangered, if not actually endangered under pressure from Russian and Tajik. Sarikoli in China is under pressure from Wakhi, the Turkic Uyghur, which is the main local contact language in Xinjiang, and from Chinese. The moribund Mongol language in Afghanistan is called Moghol. Much work has been done in the Pamir languages by Russian and outside linguists, and on Sarikoli (‘Tajik’) by Chinese scholars, but more remains to be done.

Central Asia: Pamir area
Another area in Asia with a number of endangered and moribund languages is the Pamir Mountains area in Central Asia with the adjacent regions in Afghanistan and China. The languages in danger are Pamir Iranian languages; one Mongolian language in Afghanistan is moribund. The threatened Pamir languages belong to the Iranian language group. They are spoken mainly in the valleys of the Pyandzh River

Contents

South-East Asia
On the Malaccan Peninsula in Malaysia and the Nicobar and Andaman Islands in India, a number of languages are in danger of disappearing, largely under pressure from the major languages of those countries. There are some signs of ethnic and linguistic revivalism. Linguistically, South-East Asia extends northward well into southern China. It contains all the language types typical of those found in South-East Asian countries, namely, Tibeto-Burman languages, languages of various branches of Austroasiatic, and TaiKadai to which the varieties of the Thai language belong. Other sections of Tai-Kadai include the very large group of Austronesian languages in the Greater Pacific Area, which contains about 1,200 languages. Austronesian languages (of the so-called Chamic family) are found in China on Hainan Island, and in Viet Nam. The mix of language types and languages is different in the various South-East Asian countries, but the presence of many, mostly small to very small languages of several kinds is typical everywhere. The map of South-East Asia given in the Atlas comprises parts of Viet Nam, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Thailand, Myanmar, China and India. Further south, in Cambodia and Malaysia, outside the area covered by the map, the situation found is comparable to that shown in a sampling manner in the parts of the countries appearing on the map: one (or several in the case of India) large official, and dominant language(s) in each country, with usually many, smaller languages belonging to type(s) of languages different from the dominant language(s) even if they may be distantly related to it (or them). So, for instance, of the threat-

ened and extinct languages shown in the eastern part of India appearing on the map, all are Tibeto-Burman in the close cluster on both sides of the India-Myanmar border. Further north, Tai-Kadai languages occur. The threatened languages appearing in the section of Myanmar shown on the map are all Tibeto-Burman, some of them sections of Tibeto-Burman that are different from that to which Burmese, the dominant language of Myanmar, belongs. The threatened languages shown on the Thailand part of the map are also Tibeto-Burman and are unrelated to the dominant Thai language of Thailand (Tai-Kadai). The threatened languages appearing on the Lao People’s Democratic Republic section of the map are Mon-Khmer Austroasiatic languages. However, the dominant language of Lao P.D.R., Laotian, is a Tai-Kadai language closely related to Thai, and therefore unrelated to, and very different from, these threatened languages of Lao P.D.R. In Viet Nam, the dominant language, Vietnamese, is a Mon-Khmer Austroasiatic language, and therefore related to most of the languages appearing in the southern part of Viet Nam on the map and which are also Austroasiatic. Mang in the northern part of Viet Nam is also Mon-Khmer, but the other threatened languages in the north of Viet Nam are Tai-Kadai. Most of the threatened languages in China shown on the map are Tibeto-Burman. The endangerment and extinction of many small languages in South-East Asia results from pressure on them from larger and/or dominant languages. Many of the small local languages still manage to resist these pressures, especially in the light of re-awakening feelings of ethnic identity among speakers of small languages.

33

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Contents

34

Linguists from Australia, Europe, the United States and universities in South-East Asia have been carrying out a considerable amount of work on the endangered languages of South-East Asia. However, especially in view of the large number of small languages in the area, quite a few of which are endangered, much more remains to be done.

of the Solomon Islands and all of Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Micronesia and Polynesia. They are all interrelated and form the largest group of related languages in the world, in terms of multitude of languages. They are subdivided into four subgroups in Taiwan, and one huge group, called Malayo-Polynesian, that occupies all of the other Austronesian language areas. The second largest group, comprising about 800 languages, is the so-called family of Papuan languages, which occupy most of Irian Jaya (West Papua) and Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the northern part of the Halmahera Islands, some parts of West Timor and some large islands to the west of Timor. There are also a few Papuan languages in the Solomon Islands and in the Santa Cruz Archipelago, which lies to the east of the Solomon Islands. The Papuan languages do not form a single group of interrelated languages, but there is one very large group of nearly 500 related languages that occupies much of the island of New Guinea and the Timor area; a group of about 100 related languages is located in north-eastern Papua New Guinea; a group of about 50 languages is located in northern Papua New Guinea; a group of about 30 languages is found in the northern three-quarters of the Bird’s Head Peninsula of Irian Jaya and in northern Halmahera; and another one of 34 languages is situated in eastern non-peninsular Irian Jaya. The remaining Papuan languages belong to a number of small, unrelated groups. The third group includes the interrelated Australian Aboriginal languages, which belong to a very large family occupying the southern seven-eighths of Australia, with about 20 small related families in Arnhem Land (the northern

Greater Pacific Area
The Greater Pacific Area comprises Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, Insular Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australia. Over two thousand living languages, about a third of the languages in the world, are located in this area. At the same time, until recently, the Greater Pacific Area has been the area least affected by language endangerment in the world, with the exception of Australia, New Caledonia and Taiwan. This situation has deteriorated during the last two decades, but it is still better than in most other parts of the world. Details will be given for the various regions discussed below, but in general it may be pointed out that the total number of threatened languages in the Greater Pacific Area excluding Australia is 304, with 49 languages recently extinct. The indigenous languages of the Greater Pacific Area belong almost exclusively to three quite different kinds. The largest category is the group of approximately 1,200 Austronesian languages that extend from Taiwan, across the Philippines, Insular Malaysia, most of Indonesia, many coastal areas of Papua New Guinea, most

Contents

Australian peninsula area), and in areas to the south-east of it. The long-extinct languages of Tasmania may or may not be related to Australian languages: the evidence is inconclusive. Other languages in the Greater Pacific Area are Japanese and Ainu on Japan, and a southern Chinese (Min) and Mandarin Chinese on Taiwan – the result of Min and Mandarin immigration.

Taiwan
Of the twenty-three local languages spoken originally on Taiwan, seven are threatened, six are in a moribund state, and only one is endangered. Three languages have become extinct recently, eight are still fully functioning, and five became extinct a long time ago. The reason for the extinction and endangerment of Austronesian languages in Taiwan was pressure from the dominant Chinese speakers and their language. Until a few years ago, attitudes and policies towards the Austronesian languages were negative and discouraging. However, less than a decade ago, these attitudes suddenly shifted completely, and now the languages are supported by the authorities.

35

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Japan
The Japanese language of Japan is one of the Altaic languages (see Siberia), but with a very large number of loanwords from Ancient Chinese, and some influence from Austronesian languages (see above). The Ainu language is generally regarded as a PaleoSiberian isolate language, but some linguists have tried to link it with the Altaic languages. It was spoken on northern Hokkaido Island of Japan, on Sakhalin Island to north of it, and on the Kuril Islands chain which links Sakhalin with the Kamchatka Peninsula to the north. It became extinct on the Kuril Islands around the early years of the twentieth century, and on Sakhalin Island in the late twentieth century. On Hokkaido it was officially neglected until the late 1980s, when there were only eight elderly speakers left. Then there was a sudden turnabout in attitude. The language received strong support, teaching facilities were established, and a most impressive Ainu museum built on Hokkaido with language teaching facilities. A considerable number of semi-speakers who had feared to use the language were found, and encouraged to use it again. A number of young Ainu have since learned the language, which seems to show signs of reviving.

Philippines
Of the 165 languages on the Philippines, 13 are threatened and 4 became extinct recently. There is great tolerance towards small languages, and there are no monolingual speakers of dominant European languages or other comparable aggressive monolingual speakers there today – hence little language endangerment. The speakers of very large Philippine languages, such as Tagalog (10 million first-language and 30–40 million second-language speakers) are mostly monolingual, but usually bi- and multilingual speakers of small Philippine languages simply add the knowledge of Tagalog to their repertory of languages, without losing their own languages in the process.

Contents

36

Malaysia
There are about 130 languages in insular Malaysia, i.e. Sarawak and Sabah on Borneo, all of them Malayo-Polynesian. Only three of them are regarded as endangered, although there are very likely quite a few more, and one is extinct.

Sumatra: of the thirteen languages on Sumatra, only two are threatened, and one of them is perhaps extinct. The other languages are all large and functioning well. Java: there is no language endangerment in the Java area. Sulawesi: of the over 110 languages of Sulawesi, 36 are threatened and one is extinct. Maluku: of the over 80 languages of the Maluku area, 22 are threatened and 11 are extinct. Timor-Flores and Bima-Sumba area: of the 50 or so MalayoPolynesian languages of this area, eight are threatened, none extinct. Of the 18 Papuan languages there, at least three are threatened. The now independent East Timor area is geographically included in this region, with at least one of the Papuan languages there seriously endangered or moribund. West Papua and Halmahera Island area: of the over 50 MalayoPolynesian languages of this area, eleven are threatened, and one extinct. Of the about 250 Papuan languages, 56 are threatened.

Indonesia
There are large numbers of languages in Indonesia – well over 400 Malayo-Polynesian and about 240 Papuan languages, a total of over 640 local languages. The only language used for all official and public purposes, all educational pursuits, and all the media, is Indonesian. There is no direct oppression of any other language, as has been practised by monolingual speakers of dominant metropolitan, especially European, languages in Australia, the Americas, etc. but there is some discouragement of speakers of local languages in several parts of Indonesia. Because education is solely in Indonesian, children are conditioned to regard it as superior to their own mother tongues, and use it at home and with other family members in preference to their own languages, thus precipitating the potential endangerment of these latter languages, which then progressively become endangered. The endangerment situation in the various parts of Indonesia is as follows:

Papua New Guinea
Kalimantan (southern Borneo): of some fifty languages in Kalimantan, only one is believed to be endangered, but the endangerment situation there is very little known; a much larger number of languages may be in danger. Papua New Guinea has about 820 or more local languages – the highest number of languages in any area of comparable size in the whole world. Very few languages have tens of thousands of speakers, but a very great number of languages are small to very

Contents

small, with a few hundred speakers or far less. Until two decades ago or so, Papua New Guinea was the area least affected by language endangerment in the world. The speakers of each language were, and still are, fiercely proud of their language, which they regard as the main symbol of their ethnic identity. However, there has been a very great increase in speaker mobility since the late 1970s, resulting in a steadily increasing number of marriages between speakers of different languages, many of them outside the range of the very widespread traditional multilingualism in the country. In such cases, the family language has usually become the national language Tok Pisin, an interindiginous contact language and lingua franca spoken by over 80 per cent of all Papua New Guineans as a language of wider intercommunication. It has a complicated Austronesian-type grammar and many English-derived words. The children are beginning to learn it as their first language, starting the chain of potential endangerment. Also, only about 30 major languages are used in education and by the media, thereby reducing the importance of many other, especially small, languages in the eyes of the locals. The attitude of the government and authorities towards all local languages is positive, but that does not help very much under these circumstances. Of the estimated 240 MalayoPolynesian languages of Papua New Guinea, about 35 are threatened and 3 extinct. Of about 580 Papuan languages there, over 40 are threatened, and 13 extinct.

rather negative attitude towards local languages, which is an obstacle for their maintenance. Large missionary and church languages exercise a dominant influence over small local languages. The English-based lingua franca Tok Pijin also puts pressure on small local languages. Of the 44 Malayo-Polynesian languages in the Solomon Islands, 12 are threatened and 2 extinct. Of the 10 Papuan languages there, 1 is threatened and 3 are extinct.

37

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Vanuatu
Many years of English-French condominium status as the former New Hebridies did not help the many small languages of Vanuatu, and since independence, the English-based lingua franca Bislama, which is similar to the Tok Pisin of Papua New Guinea, has brought increasing pressure to bear on them. All of the about 110 languages on Vanuatu are Malayo-Polynesian. Some 33 are threatened, and 3 recently became extinct.

New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands
In New Caledonia, the French language, as a dominant metropolitan language spoken by monolinguals, has had a devastating influence on the maintenance of the local languages. Of the 60,000 indiginous people, today, only some 20,000 or so still have a knowledge of one or several local languages. Since the strong awakening of ethnic-identity feeling among the local population a couple of decades ago, the language situation has been improving; also, the attitudes of the French authorities have softened, and they have granted some concessions regarding other languages. Of

Solomon Islands (including the Santa Cruz Archipelago)
In the Solomon Islands, the government and senior authorities, who are largely members of an English-educated élite, have a

Contents

38

the 33 Malayo-Polynesian languages there, 13 are threatened and 2 recently became extinct, with one of these two being revived.

Australia
Australia has one of the worst records on language endangerment and extinction in the world. Until about 1970, very harsh assimilation policies were in vogue, especially the concentration of speakers of different Aboriginal language backgrounds in camps where they could not continue to use their own languages. Children receiving education in standard Australian schools and dormitories were forbidden to use their languages. Long before this, Aborigines were dislocated through pastoral and agricultural activities by immigrant settlers, mining activities, and so on. Since the 1970s, there has been a complete turnabout towards Aborigines and their languages. In the north of Australia, where some languages were still functioning well, bilingual education was introduced (though this came under threat recently because of the attitude of the Northern Territory government), Aborigines have been encouraged to maintain and reinvigorate their language, and a few extinct or near extinct languages have been revived. However, most of this has come too late. In the Language Atlas of the Pacific Area (Wurm and Hattori, 1981–83), well over a hundred Australian languages were indicated as having one to ten surviving speakers, but almost all are now extinct. The original number of Australian languages is unclear. About 600 different forms of Aboriginal languages have been identified for the past and present, many of these, especially those known only through scanty records from the past, are likely to be different dialects of one language. It seems fair to suggest that there may have been around 400 or more Australian languages of which a hundred or so became extinct over half a century, if not a century or more ago. About 180 are known to have become recently or

Fiji and Rotuma
There are 2 Malayo-Polynesian languages here, both fully functioning.

Micronesia
There are 22 Malayo-Polynesian Micronesian languages: 3 are threatened, and 1 is extinct.

Polynesia
Of the Polynesian languages, Maori in New Zealand, Hawaiian on Hawaii, and Rapanui on Easter Island became almost extinct some time ago. All 3 have been revived and are functioning quite well, but their long-term future is not certain. The Tahitian language in the Society Islands had been receding rapidly before French, especially in the town of Papeete, the capital of French Polynesia, but has recovered very strongly during the last decade, and is now in turn threatening other Polynesian languages in French Polynesia, especially Tuamotuan, and two languages in the Austral Islands, and is beginning to put pressure on Marquesan. There are 37 Malayo-Polynesian Polynesian languages, of which seven to nine are regarded as threatened.

Contents

relatively recently extinct, about 120 are threatened at present – many of these are in a moribund state, and only about 25 are still more or less fully functioning. A very large amount of work has been carried out on languages of the Greater Pacific Area, including threatened and now extinct ones, in the respective countries, including Indonesia, but especially at the Australian National University in Canberra and other Australian institutions. However, considering the enormous number of languages in this vast area, much work remains to be done.

Africa
The approximately 1,400 (or more) languages of Africa have been classified in various ways. One fairly generally accepted classification defines four major groups of interrelated languages. Afro-Asiatic: This group of about 200 or more languages with about 175 million speakers occupies the greater part of northern Africa, including the eastern ‘horn’ of the continent, except for the central Sahara, and areas on the upper Nile. The well-known Semitic languages belong to this group, of which Arabic, found on the Arabian Peninsula as well, and ancient Egyptian. The southernmost extension of the group is around Lake Chad. Wellknown members of this group are Arabic (over 100 million speakers), Hausa in West Africa, Amharic, and Somali, both in East Africa.

Niger-Kordofanian: This very vast group covers most of the southern two-thirds of Africa except for a large area in the southwest. Its main branch is the Niger-Congo branch which contains more than 1,000 languages with some 200 million speakers. The well-known Bantu languages of central, eastern and southern Africa constitute a sub-group of the Niger-Congo branch. They number about 500 and comprise more than 100 million speakers. Well-known Bantu languages are Swahili in East Africa and Shona, and Xhosa and Zulu in South Africa. The Niger-Kordofanian group has that name because another, though very small, main branch is constituted by the Kordofanian languages. This group includes about 30 languages with 300,000 speakers, spoken in the Sudan, isolated from the other main branch, the Niger-Congo, by languages of the Afro-Asiatic group, and the Nilo-Saharan group mentioned below. Nilo-Saharan: This group of about 140 or more languages, with perhaps 11 million speakers in widely scattered parts of Central and East Africa, had been difficult to recognize because of the considerable differences between its members and their scattered locations. They are surrounded by either Afro-Asiatic or NigerCongo languges. Well-known members of this group are Masai and Nubian in East Africa. Khoisan: This group of about 30 languages, with over 100,000 speakers, is located in a large part of south-west Africa. Khoisan languages are likely to have originally been spoken throughout most of southern Africa. However, the southward expansion of Bantu speakers occupied much of their original area, and the immigration of Dutch settlers from the south narrowed it down

39

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Contents

40

further. Two related languages are spoken in northern Tanzania – obviously remnant languages in mountainous country, from the earlier, much more widespread Khoisan language area. Today, most Khoisan languages are found in South Africa, Namibia, Botswana and Angola. The Hottentot and Bushman languages are wellknown members of the Khoisan group. One renowned feature of the Khoisan languages is their use of ‘click’ sounds instead of ordinary stop consonants p, t and k. Many of the Khoisan languages have become endangered by pressure from the large Bantu languages – the speakers of some of which borrowed a few click sounds into their own languages from Khoisan languages, so for instance the Xhosa (Nelson Mandela’s language) language speakers (the Xh indicates a so-called lateral click articulation of the side of the tongue against the inner right side back molars, with an h-sound aspiration following). The endangerment of African languages, especially small ones, results from the pressure exerted by large African languages. The governments of most African countries favour large African languages, and have negative attitudes and language policies against small ones. Some governments even favour the excolonial languages, especially English and Friench, and are against the use of any African language of their countries for official purposes. The language endangerment and extinction situation in Africa is only imperfectly and patchily known, because for quite a long time, linguistic fieldworkers have been unable to make surveys in quite a few parts of Africa because of continuing warfare and unsafe conditions. This factor also adds significantly to language

endangerment and extinction of languages in some areas, as also do extended droughts and resulting famines in some areas. The survey map of African language endangerment and extinction in the Atlas is evidence of this patchiness of our knowledge. It gives the location and status of 124 threatened languages (excluding potentially endangered ones) and a selection of 48 extinct languages in Africa. Taking into account the number of languages in areas not surveyed recently to establish the number of threatened and extinct languages, more than twice these figures may have to be assumed for them, i.e. about 250 threatened and 50 extinct, giving a total of well over 400. If potentially endangered languages were included, a total of at least 500–600 would not be an unrealistic estimate. A large amount of work on endangered African languages has been carried out by linguists from outside Africa, mainly from Europe (e.g. from Germany), and also by linguists from institutions in African countries. With the multiplicity of endangered languages on the African continent, a very extensive amount of work remains to be done.

America
Arctic North America East
This map in the Atlas gives information on the location and status of the four threatened (and one extinct) forms of Inuit Eskimo in north-eastern Arctic Canada, and also on the seven now extinct Eskimo Pidgin languages in that area. The Eskimo languages

Contents

belong to two different types: one very widespread type comprises the forms spoken in western, eastern and northern Greenland, and all the forms of Eskimo spoken in northern Canada, as well as those in northern Alaska. From Greenland to the Mackenzie Delta in far north-western Canada, this form is known as Inuit Eskimo, and in northern Alaska as Inupiaq Eskimo. The local variations in these areas are so closely related that Inuit Eskimos from one of them can understand much of what speakers of other local variations say, especially when they speak about matters of everyday occurrence. The other type is that of several Yupik Eskimo languages in southern and western Alaska, in the Bering Strait and in the extreme western part of the Chukchi Peninsula. They are not mutually intelligible, nor are they mutually intelligible with Inuit Eskimo. They are shown on the Arctic North America West map. There are still several fully functioning forms of Inuit Eskimo in northern Canada. Attitudes and language policies in Canada were, until recently, negative for the Eskimo (and Amerindian). However, they have now changed for the better here and in other parts of the world. Endangerment and extinction of Eskimo languages in Canada were the result of pressure from English and French, and of adverse attitudes and policies in the past. The Pidgin languages simply fell into disuse and became extinct as a consequence.

Peninsula across the Bering Strait. The Yupik Eskimo languages include two closely related forms of Pacific Yupik in the south (Chugach and Koniag Eskimo), Central Alaskan Yupik, Bering Strait Eskimo in the Nome area (Kotzebue Sound Eskimo further north is Inuit), and Asiatic Eskimo on the Chukchi Peninsula. Central Siberian Yupik in the south had two languages, the Provideniya language and the Sirennitski language (which became extinct in 1999 with the death of the last speaker). The northern language of Asiatic Eskimo is Naukanski. The map also gives information on the location and status of Eastern and Western Aleut on the Aleut Islands. Aleut is related to the Eskimo languages. The map also gives information on the location and status of Amerindian languages in the interior of Alaska and a portion of north-western Canada. All of these belong to the widespread Athabaskan languages, some of which, like Apache, are found as far south as the United States and northern Mexico. The map also gives information on the location of former Eskimo Pidgins and trade languages in the area which it covers. All of these are now extinct. Reasons and circumstances for the endangerment of Eskimo, Aleut and American Indian languages in the Canadian part of the map are similar to those given for the Arctic North America East. For the Alaskan and Russian parts of the map, the reasons are similar too, except that attitudes and policies of the United States relative to indigenous languages have not improved much, save that they were less harsh in Alaska than elsewhere in the country. Russian policies in the Chukchi Peninsula, and in Alaska under former Tsarist Russian rule, have also left their mark.

41

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Arctic North America West
This map gives information on the distribution and status of the threatened Inuit Eskimo and Yupik Eskimo languages in western Canada, Alaska and the extreme eastern part of the Chukchi

Contents

42

The Pidgin and trade languages on the map fell into disuse and eventually became extinct. Work on some of the languages in danger has been carried out by Alaskan and Canadian linguists, and also by linguists from Europe (especially Denmark and the Netherlands), but much additional work is still needed.

United States
Before the arrival of the Europeans, about 200 or more languages are believed to have been spoken in what is now the United States, but many more may have disappeared without a trace. Today less than 150 remain, with all of them endangered to a varying extent, and many of them moribund. Even languages with many thousands of speakers, such as Navajo, have hardly any children speakers, and it is believed that almost half the Navajos do not speak their own language. As far as the family membership of Amerindian languages in the United States is concerned, quite a few of the families mentioned in the text of Canada extend into, or have their largest part in, the United States, such as Algonquian f. (referred to as Algic family when including the Ritwan languages in California), Athabaskan f., Iroquoian f., Siouan f., Salishan f., Wakashan f. and so on. Other families in the United States are Muskogean f., Caddoan f., Chimakuan f., Kiowa-Tanoan f., and Uto-Aztecan f. Some are quite small; for instance the Chimakuan family contains only two languages. There are also family-level isolates, i.e. single languages constituting a family, for instance Zukogean f., Caddoan f., Chimakuan f., Kiowa-Tanoan f., and UtoAztecan f. Some are quite small; for instance the Chimakuat of the Rocky Mountains, there are many more. Reasons for the endangerment and extinction of languages in the United States are the same as those mentioned for Arctic North America and Canada, except that for a long time, the treatment of the Indians and their languages was much harsher in mainland United States than in Canada and Alaska, leading to the extinction of a larger number of languages there. Although some reversals of negative attitudes and policies involving Indian languages were

Canada
Of the 121 Amerindian languages in Canada, only 6 (Naskapi, Attikamek or Tête-de-Boule-Cree, James Bay Cree or East Cree, Northern Plains Cree, Severn Ojibwe, and Montagnais) are still fully functioning. Some 10 are extinct (their family membership is given in parentheses): Huron, Petun, Neutral, Erie, St. Laurence, Wenro or Wyandot (all Iroquoian), Beothuk (isolate), Pentlach, Tsetsaut (Salishan), and Nicola (Athabaskan). Of the mixed languages, Cree-Assiniboine is extinct. All the other Indian languages in Canada, a total of 104, are threatened to varying degrees, with 19 of these moribund, and 28 seriously endangered. Indian language families represented in Canada are the following (quite a few of them also present in the United States): Beothuk family-level Isolate, Algonquian f., Iroquoian f., Siouan f., Athabaskan (Na-Dene) f., Tlingit f.-Isolate, Kootenay f.-Isolate, Salishan f., Wakashan f., Tsimshian f., and Haida f.-Isolate. The reasons for the extinction and endangerment of the Indian languages in Canada are the same as those given for Arctic North America East and West, but it should be pointed out again that attitudes and policies towards indigenous languages in Canada changed from negative to positive a few years ago.

Contents

observed in the 1970s in the United States, there was a backlash of conservatism and a strengthening of the ‘English only’ policies in the 1980s that exacerbated the situation of the ongoing extinction of Amerindian languages (Zepeda and Hill, 1991), and it is still continuing unchecked. Canadian and United States linguists, as well as linguists from outside America (especially the Netherlands and Denmark), have worked very hard to study the dying languages in Canada and the United States, often with the last few speakers, but there are still languages which have not been documented and are in urgent need of study before they disappear completely.

Work by Lastra has produced a list of 54 extinct languages which cannot as yet be classified. In addition, another 65 extinct languages have been classified, giving a total of over 110 known extinct languages. The extinction of languages continues today. At least two languages, Chiapanec (a member of the large Otomanguean stock) and Cuitlatec have become extinct in Mexico since the middle of the twentieth century, along with Mangue in Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica, a relative of Chiapanec. The slightly less than 100 living or recently extinct languages in Mexico belong to 15 different groups. Some of them are very large, with several subgroups and sections such as Uto-Aztecan to which Nahuatl, the important language of the Aztec, belongs. Other very large groups are the Otomanguean, to which the important Mixtec and Zapotekan languages belong, and the Mayan, to which the Yucatán Maya and many other languages belong. Other groups are small to very small, some containing only one language each, such as the Tarascan and Huave groups. Quite a few Mexican languages are threatened, all because of heavy pressure from other languages, mainly Spanish, which accompanies oppressive domination of a speech community by speakers of another language. At least 14 small languages are known to be seriously endangered or moribund, and four or five languages with substantial numbers of speakers are also in danger of disappearing. Official attempts have been made to stem the tide of disappearing languages. Mexican linguists and others from the United States have carried out studies on many Mexican languages, mainly large ones, and

43

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Mexico
The history and situation of Amerindian languages in Mexico is characterized by a particularly high level of extinction. It is not known how many languages existed here in the sixteenth century in the period before the conquest of what is now Mexico, and in the area of the Mesoamerican culture which excludes a part of northern Mexico and includes the areas of present-day Guatemala, Belize and El Salvador, and parts of Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica in Central America. However, it is certain that the conquest of much of Mexico by the Aztecs preceding the invasion by the Spaniards, and the Spanish conquest itself, must have had a catastrophic effect on the language situation. Considering that between 1519 and 1605, the Indian population of Mexico dropped from 25.3 million to 1 million (Garza Cuarón and Lastra, 1991), it is clear that this must have meant the death of many languages.

Contents

44

there is still an urgent need for work on endangered small languages and those that are dying.

Central and South America
The linguistic situation here is similar to that in the rest of the Americas. Many of the surviving languages have heavily reduced numbers of speakers. Others, which have large numbers of speakers, function well in some of their area, but are threatened in others. Adverse economic and social conditions play a part in this, as well as pressure from Portuguese, Spanish and some large indigenous languages. In some areas local Indians have developed a strong sense of local identity, which may contribute to the preservation of their languages. The two maps in this Atlas give a balanced sampling of the threatened and recently extinct languages in most of Central America, and in South America. A large Atlas of these languages in South America is in an advanced stage of preparation as these lines are written (Wurm (ed.), Adelaar and Crevels, forthcoming). South America is unusual in having a very large number of language families and isolates (estimated to be just below 120), and a relatively small number of languages (Adelaar, 1991). Many former languages have disappeared with only their names remaining, and whole populations were eliminated in eastern Brazil, most of Argentina and in all of Uruguay. Epidemic diseases, violent acts of the European colonizers, slavery expeditions in Brazil, and racial and cultural intermixture favouring the European element have greatly reduced the number of languages.

Until the 1970s, South American governments and societies were indifferent or hostile to Indian languages in their countries. Only since 1970 has there been a growing awareness at the national levels of the importance of indigenous cultural and linguistic heritage. In Peru and Bolivia the Indian languages were officially recognized, bilingual education was attempted, and academic interest and concern increased markedly. Most of the languages still spoken today in South America, except in remote parts of the Amazon region, have received some scientific attention. The Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) has carried out a series of studies of individual languages. In Argentina, Indian languages survive today only in the northwest, north-east, south and south-west. There are none left in the central areas. In the north-west, there are forms of the large Quechua language, in the north-east other language families, and in the south and south-west the Mapuches or Araucanians who immigrated from Chile. There are a few seriously endangered or moribund languages. Surviving languages number about 14. In Bolivia, the Quechua and Aymara languages dominate the highlands. The situation in the lowlands is complicated, with a considerable number of isolates, and languages of other families, among them the large Tupi-Guaraní family. Indian languages in Bolivia number about 35. Brazil has the largest number of surviving Indian languages, i.e. about 170, with a total of about 155,000 speakers. Somewhat more than this figure probably became extinct over the past five

Contents

centuries. The large groups of languages are the Tupi-Guaraní, Macro-Jê, Carib and Arawak, plus nine other, smaller families. In addition, there are ten language isolates. Chile has one major language, Mapuche or Araucanian, with about 200,000–300,000 speakers. Aymara is spoken in the north, while in the south some small languages survive, such as Alakaluf or Qawesqar in the south-west and Yahgan on the islands south of Tierra del Fuego. There are probably still six languages spoken in Chile. In Colombia, many languages have now disappeared, leaving behind not much more than their names. Today the SIL is very active in Columbia, and the University of Los Andes in Bogotá has established a research institute and project for producing descriptions of all indigenous languages in Colombia. The Indians of the Colombian Andes have strong feelings of ethnicity and support language studies. In the south of Colombia, and in the forests extending along its Pacific coast, there are quite a few Indian languages. In the north, Chibchan languages prevail. These are related to those in Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Quite a few Indian languages are located in the eastern lowlands of Colombia. The large Arawak family is represented, as are others. The Columbian Amazon region shows a complex linguistic picture. Many of the languages belong to the Tucanoan family. The total number of languages in Colombia is around 65. Ecuador has one of the highest percentages of Indian population in South America. Most of these speak Quichua, a form of the large Quechua language found in the Andean countries south of

Ecuador. It has expanded and replaced many local languages. In eastern Ecuador, there are languages of several different families. In the southern part, the languages of the Jivaroan family are found. The number of Indian languages in Ecuador is 12. French Guiana has six languages. They belong to the Cariban, Arawakan and Tupian groups. Guyana has ten living languages, belonging to the Arawakan and Cariban groups. In Paraguay, the Paraguayan Guaraní language is spoken by most Paraguayans. In eastern Paraguay, all minority groups speak a Tupi-Guaraní language or a dialect of Guaraní. In the Gran Chaco region of Paraguay, there are four different language groups, and also two Tupi-Guaraní languages. There are 14 Indian languages in Paraguay. Peru, like Bolivia and Ecuador, has an Indian population of several million, mainly in the Andean highlands. The eastern lowlands of Peru and the foothills have the largest tribal population of any South American country (200,000–221,000). Quechua and Aymara are the largest languages in the Andean highlands. Quechua consists of two languages, central Peruvian and non-central Peruvian; these are not simply dialects. The number of Quechua speakers in Peru is about 4,400,000. The centre and south of the Peruvian eastern lowland is inhabited mainly by speakers of the Arawakan and Panoan language families. In the northern half of the Peruvian lowland, there are several language isolates and small families. Along the Colombian border, there are speakers of

45

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Contents

46

the Tucanoan and a few other language groups. The number of Indian languages in Peru is between 50 and 60. In Surinam, the coastal languages are Arawakan or Cariban. In the interior, the languages are Cariban. There are five Indian languages in Surinam. In Venezuela, Indian languages have mainly been preserved in the south, the Amacuro Delta of the Orinoco River, and in the area to the west of Lake Maracaibo. In the south, there are Cariban languages, and those of other groups. In the Amazonas area, four languages of the Yamomami family are located. Several language isolates are also found in the south. In the Amacuro Delta, there is mainly a large isolate language. To the west of Lake Maracaibo, there are Arawakan and Cariban languages. The number of Indian

languages in Venezuela is 38. Many Central American languages belong to the Chibchan group. There are several isolate languages. The original languages of the Caribbean Islands are now all extinct. The total number of surviving languages in South America is 375, many of which are threatened, and a good proportion of them are moribund. As pointed out above, extensive studies have been made of South American Indian languages by South American, American and European (e.g. Dutch and French) linguists. However, much still remains to be done, especially concerning moribund isolate languages.

Contents

Select bibliography

47

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

ADELAAR, W. F. H. 1991. The Endangered Languages Problem: South America. In: R. H. Robins and E. M. Uhlenbeck (eds.), Endangered Languages, pp. 45–91. Oxford, Berg Publishers. BRADLEY, D. (ed.). 2001. Language Endangerment and Language Maintenance: An Active Approach. London, Curzon Press. BRENZINGER, M. (ed.). 2001. Language Diversity Endangered. Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter. Comité International Permanent des Linguistes (CIPL), under auspices of the Conseil International de la Philosophie et Sciences Humaines (CIPSH). Linguistic Bibliography for Year/Bibliographie linguistique de l’année. M. Janse and S. (eds.). Martinus Nijhoff. (Annual publication.) the des the Tol

GARZA CUARÓN, B.; LASTRA, Y. 1991. Endangered Languages in Mexico. In: R. H. Robins and E. M. Uhlenbeck (eds.), Endangered Languages, pp. 93–134. MATZUMURA, K. (ed.). 1998. Studies in Endangered Languages. Tokyo, Hituzi Syobo. (ICHEL Linguistic Studies, Vol. 1.) Materials on Languages in Danger of Disappearing in the Asia-Pacific Region, 1. 1997. S. A. Wurm (ed.), Some Endangered Languages of

Contents

48

Papua New Guinea: Kaki Ae, Musom, and Aribwatsa. Canberra. (Pacific Linguistics, Series D-89.) MOSELEY, C. (ed.). Encyclopedia of the Endangered Languages of the World. London, Curzon Press. (Forthcoming.) ROBINS, R. H.; UHLENBECK, E. M. (eds.). 1991. Endangered Languages. Oxford, Berg Publishers. (Diogenes Library, No. 1.) SCHMIDT, A. 1990. The Loss of Australia’s Aboriginal Language Heritage. Canberra, Aboriginal Studies Press. SHOJI, H.; JANHUNEN, J. (eds.). 1997. Northern Minority Languages: Problems of Survival. Suita, Osaka, National Museum of Ethnology. (Senri Ethnological Studies, No. 44.) WURM, S. A. 1997. Prospects of Language Preservation in the North. In: H. Shoji and J. Janhunen (eds.), Northern Minority Languages, op. cit., pp. 35–53.

——. Atlas of Endangered Languages in the Greater Pacific Area.(Forthcoming.) WURM, S. A.; HATTORI, S. 1981-83. Language Atlas of the Pacific Area. Canberra. Australian Academy of the Humanities in collaboration with the Japan Academy. (Also as Pacific Linguistics, Series C-66, 67.) WURM, S. A.; MÜHLHÄUSLER, P.; TRYON, D. T. (eds.). 1996. Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas. 3 vols. Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter. WURM, S. A. (ed.); ADELAAR, W.; CREVELS, M. Atlas of Endangered Languages in Latin America. London, Curzon Press. (Forthcoming.) ZEPEDA, O.; HILL, J. H. 1991. The Condition of Native American Languages in the United States. In: R. H. Robin and E. M. Uhlenbeck (eds.), Endangered Languages, pp. 135–55. Oxford, Berg Publishers.

Contents

49

Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing

Symbols used on the maps to indicate the degree of endangerment of language
∆ Potentially endangered language: decreasing numbers of children learn the language (green) Endangered language: the youngest speakers are young adults (red) Seriously endangered language: the youngest speakers have reached or passed middle age (red) Moribund language: only a few elderly speakers are left (blue) Extinct language: no speakers are left (black)

°

+

Contents

50

Europe
Potentially endangered language Belorussian, Catalan, Tatar Endangered language It. Alpine Provençal, Aragonese, Aromanian, Asturian, Bashkir, Sp. Basque, Campidanese, Chuvash, Corsican, Eastern Mari, Emilian, Erzya, Faetar, It. Francoprovençal, Friulian, Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic, Galician, Gallurese, Sp. Gascon, Kalmyk, Karelian, Komi, Ladin, Ligurian, Logudorese, Lombard, Low Saxon, Lower Sorbian, Moksha, Moldavian Gagauz, Nogai, North Sámi, Olonetsian, Permyak, Piedmontese, Romagnol, Romansch, Romani, Rusyn, Sardinian, Sassarese, Scots, Udmurt, Upper Sorbian, Voivodena Rusyn, Walloon, Welsh, Western Frisian Seriously endangered language Fr. Alpine Provençal, Auvergnat, Fr. Basque, Breton, Channel Islands French, Crimean Tatar, Cypriot Arabic, Eastern Frisian, Fr. Francoprovençal, Gagauz, Gallo, Gardiol, Fr. Gascon, Inari Sámi, Ingrian, Istriot, Istroromanian, Lithuanian Karaim, Kashubian, Kildin Sámi, Languedocian, Leonese, Limousin, Ludian, Lule Sámi, Meglenoromanian, Norman, Northern Frisian, Picard, Plautdeitsch, Poitevin-Saintongeais, Provençal, Skolt Sámi, South Sámi, Tsakonian, Vepsian, Western Mari, Yiddish Moribund language Akkala Sámi, Livonian, Pite Sámi, Ter Sámi, Ume Sámi, Votian Probably extinct language Italkian, Eastern Ukranian Karaim Extinct language Cornish, Dalmatian, Gothic, Inorn, Crimean (Uk.) Karaim, Kemi Sámi, Manx, Mozarabic, Old Prussian, Polabian, Slovincian (Not shown on map) Endangerment status unclear Dalecarlian, Extremaduran, Latgalian, Scanian, Vöru Estonian Languages that are varieties of larger, non-endangered or potentially endangered languages Albanian, Angloromani, Croatian, Algherese Catalan, Csángó Hungarian, Oïl languages (Champenois, Lorrain), Germanic-Italian (Cimbrian, Mócheno, Walser), Resian Slovene, Trukhmen Extinct or nearly-extinct Jewish languages Krimchak, Shuadit, Yevancic, Zarphatic

Click here to view map

Contents

51

Siberia
Potentially endangered language Dolgan, Eastern Buryat, Yakut Endangered language Khakas, Siberian Tatar, Tundra Nenets, Mongol [south-western Khamnigan] Seriously endangered language Altai, Alyutor, Chuckchee Proper, Ewen, Ewenki, Forest Nenets, Hokkaido Ainu, Kamchatka Ewen, Ket, Khanty, Koryak, Nanay, Nganasan, Sakhalin Evenki, Sakhalin Nivkh, Selkup, Shor, Teleut, Tundra Nenets, Western Buryat Moribund language Amur Nivkh, Chulym, Forest Enets, Forest Yukagir, Hejen, Hokkaido Ainu, Itelmen Proper, Kerek, Khamnigan Mongol, Khanty, Mansi, Negidal, Oroch, Orok, Selkup, Tofa, Tundra Enets, Tundra Yukagir, Udege, Ulcha, Yug Extinct language Arman, Chuvan, Eastern Kamchadal, Kamas, Khamnigan Mongol, Kott, Kuril Ainu, Mator, Sakhalin Ainu, Southern Kamchadal, Tundra Nenets, Yurats

Click here to view map

Contents

52

North-east China
Potentially endangered language Dagur (Hailar), Eastern Chinese Buryat or Buriat, western Solon Endangered language Dagur (Nonni), Dagur (Qiqihar), Khamnigan Ewenki, Khamnigan Mongol Seriously endangered language New Bargut, Ewenki Proper, eastern Solon, Old Bargut Moribund language Dagur (Amur), Manchu, Manchu (Amur), Manchurian Kirghiz (Fu Yü), Manchurian Ölöt, Orochen, Orochen Extinct language Manchu, Udege (Qiakala)

Click here to view map

Contents

53

Himalayan Chain
Potentially endangered language Ahom, Chantel, Chaudangsi/Byangsi, Darmiya, Lumba, Rohani Endangered language Dhimal, Dumi, Dura, Lepcha, Tilung, Toto Seriously endangered language Chintang, Hayu Moribund language Bungla, Rangkhas, Saam Extinct language Bhramu, Tolcha

Click here to view map

Contents

54

South East Asia
Potentially endangered language Arem, Bana, Bit, Chawte, Gazhuo, Hung, Kathu, Lachi, Laha, Lalo, Lamgang, Langrong, Lavua, Mang, May, Mayol, Mlabri, Mpi, Pakatan, Phonsung, Ruc, Sach, Sak, Sila, Tanglang, Tha Vung, Zaozou Endangered language Bisu, Lai, Pupeo, Laomian, Kadu, Ganan, Taman, Aiton, Phake Seriously endangered language Gelao, Ayizi, Samei, Samatau, Sanyi, Idu, Khamyang, Lamu Moribund language Danan, Hpun, Phalok, Purum Extinct language Kolhreng, Sengmai/Sekmai, Andro/Phayeng, Tarao, Chairel/Chakpa, Aimol, Pyu, Malin, Ahom

Click here to view map

Contents

55

Pacific, General Overview Click here to view map

Contents

56

Australia Potentially endangered
language Anindilyakwa, Arrente, Dhangu Dialects, Djinang, Gunwinggu, Gupapuyngu, Gurindji, Iwaidja, Kala Lagaw Ya, Kuku Yalanji, Maung, Meriam Mir, Ngankikurungkurr, Ngarinman, Nunggubuyu, Nyangumarta, Ritarungo, Tiwi, Warlpiri, Western Desert, E., Western Desert, W., Wik Mungkan Endangered language Adnyamathanha, Baadi, Bunaba, Garawa, Guguyimidjir, Kitja, Kuuku Ya'u, Marithiel, Nakara, Narluma, Ngarinman, Ngarinyin, Nyamal, Rembarrunga, Walmajarri, Wardaman, Warumungu, Wik Ngathana, Yanyuwa, Yeidji Seriously endangered language Alawa, Antakarinya, Boodi, Bunaba, Djamindjung, Gugubera, Gunian, Guragone, Jawony, Kunbarlang, Kunjen, Kurrama, Mangarayi, Maringarr, Miriwoong, Mudbura, Ngalkbun, Nyamal, Nyigina, Panytyima, Umpila, Wageman, Wanman, Wardaman, Watjarri, Wik Ngenchera, Worrorra, Yeidji, Yir Yoront Moribund language Antakarinya, Badala, Banjalang, Dhargari, Djingili, Duungidjawu, Dyirbal, Gadjerawang, Gagadu, Gangalida (Yukulta), Guragone, Gurdjar, Karajarri, Kayardild, Lardil, Madngele, Mangarla, Maridjabin, Marrgu, Miriwoong, Mullukmulluk, Ngalakan, Ngaliwuru, Ngandi, Ngardi, Ngarla, Ngarla, Waanyi, Wambaya, Wangaaybuwan-Nyiya, Wiradhuri, Wunambal

Click here to view map

Contents

57

Africa
Endangered language Ahlo, Alagwa, Amba, Baga, Baga Fore, Baiso, Binari, Bondei, Boni, Bowili, Burunge, Dahalo, Dimme, El Hugeirat, Gana, Ganjule, Gats'ame, Hadza, Haro, Kamdang, Karko, Kumam, Kupto, Laro, Logba, Nayi (Na'o), Ndungo, Nyango-Tafi, Obulom, Pajade (Badiar), Phuthi, Poko, Rugungu, Santrokofi, Sarwa, So, Suba, Viri, Yahuma, Zaramo, Zay (Zway) Seriously endangered language Aceron (Guärme), Animere, Aougila, Arzew, B. Snous, Birri, Bongo, Bong'om, Buga, Dahlik, Defaka, Deleny (Dilling), Dongo-Ko, Duli, Ebang, Eliri, Fyam, Homa, Ilue, Jala, Jeri, Ju, Kamdang, Kanga, Katcha, Kazibati, Keiga, Kidie Lafafa, Kiong, Kotoko De Koosseri, Kubi, Kufa, Kwegu-Mugudi, Lere Cluster (Gana, Simiri, Takaya), Lumun/Lomon, Luri, Maslam (Maltam), Mbara, Mmani (Bul(l)on), Muuke, Nagumi, Nalu, Ngbinda, Ngwaba, Njerep, Okorogbana, 'Ongota (Birale), Pana, Qemant, Shabo, Shiki, Siwa, Somyer, Tenet, Terik, Thuri, Twendi (Cambap) Moribund language Akei, Argobba, Bati, Baldamu, Beeke, Bete, Birgid, Bubbure, Buy, Camo, Deti, Fali of Baissa, Fam, Fumu, Gri, Gule, Gweno, Holma, I'anni, Kaande, +Khomani, Korana, Kudu, Kwadi, Kwisi, Li-Ngbee, Mbaru, Ndai, Nyang'i, Odut, Omo Murle, Omotik, Ongamo, !Ora, Shan, Sheni, Sogoo, Undu Rishi, Yangkam, Ziriya Extinct language Aasax, Ajawa, Anfillo, Anyokawa, Baga Tsitemu, Basa-Gumna, Basa-Kontagora, Boro, Bung, Cena, Coptic, Elmolo, Gafat, Gey, Guanchen, Gwara, Hamba, Iing, Iixegwi, Isuwu, Ixam, Jebel Haraza, Kalum (ex) Sorbane?, Kasabe (Luo), Kinare, Kore, Kw'adza, Kwankwa, Lorkoti, Mindari (dialect of Timme), Mo'e, Napore, Ngong, Njanga, Oropom, Qwarenya (emigration to Israel in 1991), Ruhu, Segeju, Shiranci, Tonjon (dialect of Jeri), Yaaku, Zumaya

Click here to view map

Contents

58

East Africa
Potentially endangered language Alagwa, Bondei, Boni, Burunge, Kumam, Zaramo Endangered language Amba, Burji, Dahalo, Hadza, Omo-Murle, Rugungu, Tenet Seriously endangered language Bong'om, Kwegu, Omo-Murle, So, Suba, Terik Moribund language Akie, Gweno, Nyang'i, Ongamo, Sogoo, Suba Extinct language Aasax, Elmolo, Hamba, Kinare, Kore, Kw'adza, Lorkoti, Napore, Omotik, Oropom, Segeju, Suba, Yaaku

Click here to view map

Contents

59

Arctic North America East
Potentially endangered language Arctic Quebec Inuit, Baffin Land Inuit, Caribou Eskimos, East Greenlanders (2 locations), Iglulik Eskimos, Netsilik Eskimos, Polar Eskimos, West Greelanders Endangered language Copper Eskimos, East Greenlanders, Labrador Inuit, Mackenzie Delta Eskimos, Netsilik Eskimos, Polar Eskimos Seriously endangered language Mac. Delta Eskimos Extinct language Eskimo – Danish Pidgin, Eskimo Pidgin used by the Netsilik Eskimos, Eskimo-Cree/ Montagnais Indian/EskimoEnglish Contact Pidgin, Eskimo-English of Northern Quebec, Eskimo-French Pidgin in Labrador, Eskimo-Gwich'in (Loucheux) Indian Contact Pidgin, Northeast Greenlandic, Sallirmuit, West Greelandic Eskimo – Germanic Pidgin

Click here to view map

Contents

60

Arctic North America West
Potentially endangered language Kotzebue Sound Eskimo, Central Alaskan Yupik Endangered language Aleut, Asiatic Eskimo, Bering Strait Eskimo including Qawiaraq, Central Alaskan Yupik, Central Siberian Yupik, Chugach Eskimo, Eastern Aleut, Gwich'in, Kodiak Eskimo, Kotzebue Sound Eskimo including Malimiut, Mackenzie Delta Inuit, North Slope Inupiaq Seriously endangered language Aleut, Ahtna, Bering Strait Eskimo including Qawiaraq, Eastern Aleut, Holikachuk, Ingalik, Kolchan or Upper Kuskokwim, Kodiak Eskimo, Koyukon, Mackenzie Delta Inuit, Naukanski, Pacific Yupik, Tanacross, Tanaina, Tanana, Upper Tanana Moribund language Aleut, Eyak, Han, Western Aleut Extinct language Central Siberian Yupik Pidgin, Eskimo-Athabaskan Sign Language, Eskimo-Athabaskan Trade Language also Indian Russian Contacts, EskimoChukchi-English Contact Pidgin, Eskimo-English Herschel Is. Trade Jargon, Eskimo-English Trade Jargon (Yukon Delta), EskimoGwich'in (Loucheux) Indian Contact Pidgin, Indian-Rusian Contacts, Kotzebue Eskimo Pidgin, Sirenikski

Click here to view map

Contents

61

Canada and part of USA
Potentially endangered language Algonquin, Chipewyan, East Swampy Cree, Malliseet, Micmac, Moose Cree, Northern Plains Cree, Northwestern Ojibwe, West Swampy Cree, Woods Cree/Rock Cree Endangered language Blackfoot, Carrier, Central Ojibwe, Chilcotin, Coast Tsimshian, Dogrib, Eastern Ojibwe, Halkomelem, Heiltsuk, Kwakiutl, Mohawk, Mountain, Nass-Gitksan, Nootka, North Slavey, Northern Tutchone, Ottawa Ojibwe, Saulteaux, Shuswap, South Slavey, Southern Tutchone, Tlingit Seriously endangered language Assiniboine, Beaver, Bella Coola, Cayuga, Comox, Dakota, Hare, Haisla, Inland Tlingit, Kaskar, Kutenai, Lillooet, Okanagan, Oneida, Onondaga, Potawatomi, Sekani, Sliammon Comox, Southeastern Plains Cree, Stoney, Tahltan, Thompson Moribund language Bungee, Chinook Jargon, Haida, Lakota, Michif, Munsee Delaware, Nitinaht, Sarcee, Sechelt, Seneca, Southern Tsimshian, Squamish, Straits Salish, Tagish, Tuscarora, Western Abnaki Extinct language Beothuk, Cree-Assiniboine, Eastern Abenaki, Erie, Huron, Neutral, Nicola, Nooksack, Pentlatch, Plateau Sign Language, St Lawrence Iroquoian, Tsetsaut, Unami Delaware, Wenro

Click here to view map

Contents

62

Central America
Potentially endangered language Aruaco, Cogui, Cuna, Embera, Garífuna, Guajiro, Guaymi, Hiwi, Hodi, Miskito, Oayana, Patamona, Pume, Sumo, Trio, Waiwai, Wapishana, Waunana, Yukpa Endangered language Bari, Bribri, Jicaque, Kurripako, Piapoko, Tunebo, Yanomamï Seriously endangered language Achagua, Akawaio, Baniwa, Carijona, Chimila, Emerillon, Guatuso, Kari'ña, Lokono, Palikur, Paya, Pipil, Rama, Yeral Moribund language Añu, Baré, Boruca, Kuiva, Mako, Opon-Carare, Puinave, Saliba, Sape, Tinigua, Uruak, Warekena, Xinca, Yawarana Extinct language Island Carib, Matagalpa, Muysca, Wanai, Duit, Lenca

Click here to view map

Contents

63

South America
Endangered language Achuar, Andoke, Camsá, Candoshi-Shapra, Cayapa, Chipaya, Chiquitano, Chiriguano, Chorote, Cinta Larga, Colorado, Cuaiquer, Fulniô, Gavião, Guambiano, Harakmbut, Huitoto, Jaqaru, Kiangang, Maká, Mapuche, Maxakali, Mocoví, Mosetén, Páez, Pilagá, Secoya, ShipiboConibo, Suruí, Toba, Wari, Yuracaré Seriously endangered language Aikana, Arabela, Arikapu, Arua, Aweti, Ayuru, Barasána, Carijona, Cocama-Cocamilla, Galibi De Oiapoque, Huilliche, Jebero, Jurití, Karapanã, Kararaô, Karitiana, Katukina, Krenjê, Kwaza, Latundê, Lengua, Makurap, Matipu, Mekens, Mirití, Movima, Ofayé, Panará, Qawasqar, Shikuyana, Tapayuna, Trumai, Yuki Moribund language Akutsu, Arikapu, Atacameño, Awakê, Baré, Botocudo, Callahuaya, Canichana, Cayuvava, Chamicuro, Diahói, Guató, Itonama, Kanoê, Karipuna, Katawixi, Juma, Leco, Máku, Munichi, Omagua, Oro Win, Puruborá, Resígaro, Salamãi, Suriána, Taushiro, Tehuelche, Tinigua, Xetá, Yahgan, Záparo Extinct language Atacameño, Apolista, Choló, Culle, Gününa Küne, Mochica, Ona, Pataxo, Pijao, Puquina, Uru, Vilela

Click here to view map

Contents

64

Index Alphabetical list of the languages represented on the maps

The languages mentioned from pp. 54–81 are listed here in alphabetical order. They are followed by the symbol indicating their degree of endangerment and the page number(s) of the corresponding map(s). Certain European languages, not represented on a map, are followed simply by a page number; their endangerment status is explained briefly on p. 54. Examples: Dahalo, , 69; 71 Dahlik, , 69 Dakota, , 77 Dalecarlian, 54

° •

Dahalo appears on two different maps; Dalecarlian is not shown on a map, but is listed on p. 54.

Aasax, +, 57; 58 Abenaki, Eastern, +, 61 Abenaki, Western, ⊕, 61 Aceron (Guärme), , 57 Achagua, , 62 Achuar, , 63 Adnyamathanha, / , 56 Ahlo, , 57

°

°

°•

Ahom, ∆, 53; +, 54 Ahtna, , 75 Aikana, , 63 Aimol, +, 54 Ainu, eastern Hokkaido, ⊕, 51 Ainu, Kuril, +, 51 Ainu, Sakhalin, +, 51 Ainu, western Hokkaido, , 51

• •

Aiton, , 54 Ajawa, +, 57 Akawaio, , 62 Akei, ⊕, 57; 58 Akutsu, ⊕, 63 Alagwa, , 57; ∆, 58 Alawa, , 56 Albanian, 50 Aleut, Eastern, / , 75 Aleut, / , 75 Aleut, Western, ⊕, 75 Algonquin, ∆, 61 Alpine Provençal, French, , 50 Alpine Provençal, Italian, , 50 Altai, , 51 Alyutor, , 51 Amba, , 57; 58 Andoke, , 63 Andro/Phayeng, +, 54 Anfillo, +, 57 Angloromani, 50 Animere, , 57 Anindilyakwa, ∆, 56 Antakarinya, ⊕/ , 56 Añu, ⊕, 62

°

°

°• °•

°

° °

Anyokawa, +, 57 Aougila, , 57 Apolista, +, 63 Arabela, , 63 Arabic, Cypriot, , 50 Aragonese, , 50 Arem, ∆, 54 Argobba, ⊕, 57 Arikapu, /⊕, 63 Arman, +, 51 Aromanian, , 50 Arrente, ∆, 56 Arua, , 63 Aruaco, ∆, 62 Arzew, , 57 Assiniboine, , 61 Asturian, , 50 Atacameño, +, 63 Auvergnat, , 50 Awakê, ⊕, 63 Aweti, , 63 Ayizi, , 54 Ayuru, , 63 B. Snous, , 57 Baadi, / , 56

°

°

°

• • •

• °•

Contents

65

Badala, ⊕/+, 56 Baga Fore, , 57 Baga Tsitemu, +, 57 Baga, , 57 Baiso, , 57 Baldamu, ⊕, 57 Bana, ∆, 54 Baniwa, , 62 Banjalang, ⊕, 56 Barasána, , 63 Baré, ⊕, 62; 63 Bari, , 62 Basa-Gumna, +, 57 Basa-Kontagora, +, 57 Bashkir, , 50 Basque, French, , 50 Basque, Spanish, , 50 Bati, ⊕, 57 Beaver, , 61 Beeke, ⊕, 57 Bella Coola, , 61 Belorussian, ∆, 50 Beothuk, +, 61 Bete, ⊕, 57 Bhramu, +, 53 Binari, , 57 Birgid, ⊕, 57 Birri, , 57 Bisu, , 54 Bit, ∆, 54

°

° °

°

°

°

°

°

Blackfoot, , 61 Bondei, , 57; ∆, 58 Bongo, , 57 Bong'om, , 57; 58 Boni, , 57; ∆, 58 Boro, +, 57 Boruca, ⊕, 62 Botocudo, ⊕, 63 Bowili, , 57 Breton, , 50 Bribri, , 62 Bubbure, ⊕, 57 Buga, , 57 Bunaba, / , 56 Bung, +, 57 Bungee, ⊕, 61 Bungla, ⊕, 53 Buriat (also Buryat), Eastern, in China, ∆, 52 Burji, , 58 Burunge, , 57; ∆, 58 Buryat (also Buriat), Eastern, ∆, 51 Buryat (also Buriat), Western, , 51 Buy, ⊕, 57 Callahuaya, ⊕, 63 Camo, ⊕, 57 Campidanese, , 50 Camsá, , 63

°

°

°

° • °

°•

°

°

°

°

Candoshi-Shapra, , 63 Canichana, ⊕, 63 Carijona, , 62; 63 Carrier, , 61 Catalan, ∆, 50 Catalan, Algherese, 50 Cayapa, , 63 Cayuga, , 61 Cayuvava, ⊕, 63 Cena, +, 57 Chairel/Chakpa, +, 54 Chamicuro, ⊕, 63 Chantel, ∆, 53 Chaudangsi/Byangsi, ∆, 53 Chawte, ∆, 54 Chilcotin, , 61 Chimila, , 62 Chintang, , 53 Chipaya, , 63 Chipewyan, ∆, 61 Chiquitano, , 63 Chiriguano, , 63 Choló, +, 63 Chorote, , 63 Chuckchee Proper, , 51 Chulym, ⊕, 51 Chuvan, +, 51 Chuvash, , 50 Cinta Larga, , 63 Cocama-Cocamilla, , 63

°

°

° •

• •

°

°

° °

°

°

° •

Cogui, ∆, 62 Colorado, , 63 Comox, , 61 Comox, Sliammon, , 61 Coptic, +, 57 Cornish, +, 50 Corsican, , 50 Cree, East Swampy, ∆, 61 Cree, Moose, ∆, 61 Cree, Northern Plains, ∆, 61 Cree, Southeastern Plains, ,61 Cree, Southeastern Plains, ,61 Cree, West Swampy, ∆, 61 Cree, Woods/Rock, ∆, 61 Cree-Assiniboine, +, 61 Croatian, 50 Cuaiquer, , 63 Culle, +, 63 Cuna, ∆, 62 Dagur, Amur, ⊕, 52 Dagur, Hailar, ∆, 52 Dagur, Nonni, , 52 Dagur, Qiqihar, , 52 Dahalo, , 57; 58 Dahlik, , 57 Dakota, , 61 Dalecarlian, 50 Dalmatian, +, 50 Danan, ⊕, 54 Darmiya, ∆, 53

°

°

• •

°

• •

°

° °

Contents

66

Defaka, , 57 Delaware, Munsee, ⊕, 61 Delaware, Unami, +, 61 Deleny (Dilling), , 57 Deti, ⊕, 57 Dhangu Dialects, ∆, 56 Dhargari, ⊕, 56 Dhimal, , 53 Diahói, ⊕, 63 Dimme, , 57 Djamindjung, , 56 Djinang, ∆, 56 Djingili, ⊕, 56 Dogrib, , 61 Dongo-Ko, , 57 Duit, +, 62 Duli, , 57 Dumi, , 53 Dura, , 53 Duungidjawu, ⊕/+, 56 Dyirbal, ⊕, 56 Ebang, , 57 El Hugeirat, , 57 Eliri, , 57 Elmolo, +, 57; 58 Embera, ∆, 62 Emerillon, , 62 Emilian, , 50 Enets, Forest, ⊕, 51 Enets, Tundra, ⊕, 51

° ° •

°•

° °

°

°

Erie, +, 61 Erzya, , 50 Eskimo Pidgin used by the Netsilik Eskimos, +, 59 Eskimo, Asiatic, , 75 Eskimo, Bering Strait including Qawiaraq, / , 75 Eskimo, Caribou, ∆, 59 Eskimo, Chugach, , 75 Eskimo, Copper, , 59 Eskimo, Iglulik, ∆, 59 Eskimo, Kodiak, / , 75 Eskimo, Kotzebue Sound, including Malimiut, ∆/ , 75 Eskimo, Mackenzie Delta, / , 59 Eskimo, Polar, ∆/ , 59 Eskimo-Athabaskan Sign Language, +, 75 Eskimo-Athabaskan Trade Language, also Indian-Russian Contacts, +, 75 Eskimo-English Herschel Is. Trade Jargon, +, 75 Eskimo-English of Northern Quebec, +, 59 Eskimo-English Trade Jargon (Yukon Delta), +, 75

°

°

°•

° ° °•

°

°•

°

Estonian, Vöru, 50 Ewen, , 51 Ewen, Kamchatka, , 51 Ewenki Proper, , 52 Ewenki, , 51 Ewenki, Khamnigan, , 52 Ewenki, Sakhalin, , 51 Extremaduran, 50 Eyak, ⊕, 75 Faetar, , 50 Fali of Baissa, ⊕, 57 Fam, ⊕, 57 Francoprovençal, French, , 50 Francoprovençal, Italian, , 50 French, Channel Islands, , 50 Frisian, Eastern, , 50 Frisian, Northern, , 50 Frisian, Western, , 50 Friulian, , 50 Fulniô, , 63 Fumu, ⊕, 57 Fyam, , 57 Gadjerawang, ⊕, 56 Gaelic, Irish, , 50 Gaelic, Scottish, , 50 Gafat, +, 57 Gagadu, ⊕, 56 Gagauz,Eastern Bulgarian, ,50 Gagauz, Macedonian, , 50 Gagauz, Turkish, , 50

°

°

• •

° •

° °

°

°

°

Gagauz, Western Bulgarian, , 50 Gaguaz, Moldavian, , 50 Galibi De , 63 Galician, , 50 Gallo, , 50 Gallurese, , 50 Gana (Lere Cluster), , 57 Gana, , 57 Ganan, , 54 Gangalida (Yukulta), ⊕, 56 Ganjule, , 57 Garawa, , 56 Gardiol, , 50 Garífuna, ∆, 62 Gascon, French, , 50 Gascon, Spanish, , 50 Gats'ame, , 57 Gavião, , 63 Gazhuo, ∆, 54 Gelao, , 54 Germanic-Italian (Cimbrian, Mócheno, Walser), 50 Gey, +, 57 Gothic, +, 50 Greenlanders, East, ∆/ , 59 Greenlanders, West, ∆, 59 Greenlandic, North Slope, +, 59 Gri, ⊕, 57 Guajiro, ∆, 62

° °

°

° ° ° ° •

°

°

°

°

Contents

67

Guambiano, , 63 Guanchen (Guanchi), +, 57 Guató, ⊕, 63 Guatuso, , 62 Guaymi, ∆, 62 Gugubera, , 56 Guguyimidjir, , 56 Gule, ⊕, 57 Gunian, , 56 Gününa Küne, +, 63 Gunwinggu, ∆, 56 Gupapuyngu, ∆, 56 Guragone, ⊕/ , 56 Gurdjar, ⊕, 56 Gurindji, ∆, 56 Gwara, +, 57 Gweno, ⊕, 57; 58 Gwich'in, , 75 Hadza, , 57; 58 Haida, ⊕, 61 Haisla, , 61 Halkomelem, , 61 Hamba, +, 57; 58 Han, ⊕, 75 Harakmbut, , 63 Hare, , 61 Haro, , 57 Hayu, , 53 Heiltsuk, , 61 Hejen, ⊕, 51

°

°

°

°

°

° • ° • °

Hiwi, ∆, 62 Hodi, ∆, 62 Holikachuk, , 75 Holma, ⊕, 57 Homa, , 57 Hpun, ⊕, 54 Huilliche, , 63 Huitoto, , 63 Hung, ∆, 54 Hungarian, Csángó, 50 Huron, +, 61 I'anni, ⊕, 57 Idu, , 54 Iing, +, 57 Iixegwi, +, 57 Ilue, , 57 Ingalik, , 75 Ingrian, , 50 Inuit, Arctic Quebec, ∆, 59 Inuit, Baffin Land, ∆, 59 Inuit, Labrador, , 59 Inuit, Mackenzie Delta, / , 75 Inupiaq, North Slope, , 75 Iroquoian, St Lawrence, +, 61 Island Carib, +, 62 Istriot, , 50 Istroromanian, , 50 Isuwu, +, 57 Italkian, ⊕/+, 50

°

• •

°

°•

°

Itelmen Proper, ⊕, 51 Itonama, ⊕, 63 Iwaidja, ∆, 56 Ixam, +, 57 Jala, , 57 Jaqaru, , 63 Jargon, Chinook, ⊕, 61 Jawony, , 56 Jebel Haraza, +, 57 Jebero, , 63 Jeri, , 57 Jicaque, , 62 Ju, , 57 Juma, ⊕, 63 Jurití, , 63 Kaande, ⊕, 57 Kadu, , 54 Kala Lagaw Ya, ∆, 56 Kalmyk, , 50 Kalum (ex) Sorbane?, +, 57 Kamas, +, 51 Kamchadal, Eastern, +, 51 Kamchadal, Southern, +, 51 Kamdang, , 57 Kanga, , 57 Kanoê, ⊕, 63 Karaim, Crimean, Ukranian, ⊕/+, 50 Karaim, Eastern Ukranian, ⊕, 50

°

° •

°

°

°

Karaim, Lithuanian, , 50 Karajarri, ⊕, 56 Karapanã, , 63 Kararaô, , 63 Karelian, , 50 Kari'ña, , 62 Karipuna, ⊕, 63 Karitiana, , 63 Karko, , 57 Kasabe (Luo), +, 57 Kashubian, , 50 Kaskar, , 61 Katawixi, ⊕, 63 Katcha, , 57 Kathu, ∆, 54 Katukina, , 63 Kayardild, ⊕, 56 Kazibati, , 57 Keiga, , 57 Kerek, ⊕, 51 Ket, , 51 Khakas, o, 51 Khamyang, , 54 Khanty, eastern and central, , 51 Khanty, western, ⊕, 51 +Khomani, ⊕, 57 Kiangang, , 63 Kidie Lafafa, , 57 Kinare, +, 57; 58

• •

°

°

°•

Contents

68

Kiong, , 57 Kitja, , 56 Kolchan or Upper Kuskokwim, , 75 Kolhreng, +, 54 Komi, , 50 Korana, ⊕, 57 Kore, +, 57; 58 Koryak, , 51 Kotoko De Koosseri, , 57 Kott, +, 51 Koyukon, , 75 Krenjê, , 63 Krimchak, 50 Kubi, , 57 Kudu, ⊕, 57 Kufa, , 57 Kuiva, ⊕, 62 Kuku Yalanji, ∆, 56 Kumam, , 57; ∆, 58 Kunbarlang, , 56 Kunjen, , 56 Kupto, , 57 Kurrama, , 56 Kurripako, , 62 Kutenai, , 61 Kuuku Ya'u, , 56 Kwadi, ⊕, 57 Kw'adza, +, 57; 58 Kwakiutl, , 61

°

°

°• ° • ° °

° •

Kwankwa, +, 57 Kwaza, , 63 Kwegu, , 58 Kwegu-Mugudi, , 57 Kwisi, ⊕, 57 Lachi, ∆, 54 Ladin, , 50 Laha, ∆, 54 Lai, , 54 Lakota, ⊕, 61 Lalo, ∆, 54 Lamgang, ∆, 54 Lamu, , 54 Langrong, ∆, 54 Languedocian, , 50 Laomian, , 54 Lardil, ⊕, 56 Laro, , 57 Latgalian, 50 Latundê, , 63 Lavua, ∆, 54 Leco, ⊕, 63 Lenca, +, 62 Lengua, , 63 Leonese, , 50 Lepcha, , 53 Lere Cluster (Gana, Si, Takaya), , 57 Ligurian, , 50 Lillooet, , 61

• •

°

°

°

°

°

• •

°

Limousin, , 50 Li-Ngbee, ⊕, 57 Livonian, ⊕, 50 Logba, , 57 Logudorese, , 50 Lokono, , 62 Lombard, , 50 Lorkoti, +, 57; 58 Ludian, , 50 Lumba, ∆, 53 Lumun/Lomon, , 57 Luri, , 57 Madngele, ⊕, 56 Maká, , 63 Mako, ⊕, 62 Máku, ⊕, 63 Makurap, , 63 Malin, +, 54 Malliseet, ∆, 61 Manchu, ⊕/+, 52 Manchu, Amur, ⊕, 52 Manchurian Kirghiz (Fu Yü), ⊕, 52 Mang, ∆, 54 Mangarayi, , 56 Mangarla, ⊕, 56 Mansi, ⊕, 51 Manx, +, 50 Mapuche, , 63 Mari, Eastern, , 50

°

°

°

°

°

°

Mari, Western, , 50 Maridjabin, ⊕, 56 Maringarr, , 56 Marithiel, , 56 Marrgu, ⊕, 56 Maslam (Maltam), , 57 Matagalpa, +, 62 Matipu, , 63 Mator, +, 51 Maung, ∆, 56 Maxakali, , 63 May, ∆, 54 Mayol, ∆, 54 Mbara, /⊕, 57 Meglenoromanian, , 50 Mekens, , 63 Meriam Mir, ∆, 56 Michif, ⊕, 61 Micmac, ∆, 61 Mindari (dialect of Timme), +, 57 Miri, , 57 Mirití, , 63 Miriwoong, ⊕/ , 56 Miskito, ∆, 62 Mlabri, ∆, 54 Mmani (Bul(l)on), , 57 Mochica, +, 63 Mocoví, , 63 Mo'e, +, 57

°

°

• •

°

Contents

69

Mohawk, , 61 Moksha, , 50 Mongol, eastern Khamnigan, , 51 Mongol, Khamnigan, , 52 Mongol, north-western Khamnigan, ⊕, 51 Mongol, southern Khamnigan, +, 51 Mosetén, , 63 Mountain, , 61 Movima, , 63 Mozarabic, +, 50 Mpi, ∆, 54 Mudbura, , 56 Mullukmulluk, ⊕, 56 Munichi, ⊕, 63 Muuke, , 57 Muysca, +, 62 Nagumi, , 57 Nakara, , 56 Nalu, , 57 Nanay, , 51 Napore, +, 57; 58 Narluma, , 56 Nass-Gitksan, , 61 Naukanski, , 75 Nayi (Na'o), , 57 Ndai, ⊕, 57 Ndungo, , 57

° °

°

°

° ° •

° •

°

° • °

°

Negidal, ⊕, 51 Nenets, central Tundra, +, 51 Nenets, eastern Tundra, , 51 Nenets, Forest, , 51 Nenets, western Tundra, , 51 Netsilik Eskimos, ∆/ , 59 Neutral, +, 61 New Bargut, , 52 Ngalakan, ⊕, 56 Ngaliwuru, ⊕, 56 Ngalkbun, , 56 Nganasan, , 51 Ngandi, ⊕, 56 Ngankikurungkurr, ∆, 56 Ngardi, ⊕, 56 Ngarinman, ∆/ , 56 Ngarinyin, , 56 Ngarla, ⊕, 56 Ngbinda, , 57 Ngong, +, 57 Ngwaba, , 57 Nicola, +, 61 Nitinaht, ⊕, 61 Nivkh, Amur, ⊕, 51 Nivkh, Sakhalin, , 51 Njanga, +, 57 Njerep, , 57 Nogai, , 50 Nooksack, +, 61 Nootka, , 61

°

°

• •

°

°

° °

Norman, , 50 Norn, +, 50 Nunggubuyu, ∆, 56 Nyamal, / , 56 Nyang'i, ⊕, 57; 58 Nyango-Tafi, , 57 Nyangumarta, ∆, 56 Nyigina, , 56 Oayana, ∆, 62 Obulom, , 57 Odut, ⊕, 57 Ofayé, , 63 Oiapoque, , 63 Oïl (Champenois, Lorrain), 50 Ojibwe, Central, , 61 Ojibwe, Eastern, , 61 Ojibwe, Northwestern, ∆, 61 Ojibwe, Ottawa, , 61 Okanagan, , 61 Okorogbana, , 57 Old Bargut, , 52 Old Prussian, +, 50 Olonetsian, , 50 Ölöt, Manchurian, ⊕, 52 Omagua, ⊕, 63 Omo Murle, ⊕, 57; (?)/ , 58 Omotik, ⊕, 57; ⊕(?)/+, 58 Ona, +, 63 Oneida, , 61 Ongamo, ⊕, 57; 58

°• °

°

° ° ° •
• •

°

° •

'Ongota (Birale), , 57 Onondaga, , 61 Opon-Carare, ⊕, 62 !Ora, ⊕, 57 Oro Win, ⊕, 63 Oroch, ⊕, 51 Orochen, ⊕, 52 Orok, ⊕, 51 Oropom, +, 57; 58 Pacific languages, 55 Páez, , 63 Pajade (Badiar), , 57 Pakatan, ∆, 54 Palikur, , 62 Pana, , 57 Panará, , 63 Panytyima, , 56 Patamona, ∆, 62 Pataxo, +, 63 Paya, , 62 Pentlatch, +, 61 Permyak, , 50 Phake, , 54 Phalok, ⊕, 54 Phonsung, ∆, 54 Phuthi, , 57 Piapoko, , 62 Picard, , 50 Pidgin, Central Siberian Yupik, +, 75

°

°

• • •

°

°

° ° •

Contents

70

Pidgin, Eskimo-ChukchiEnglish Contact, +, 75 Pidgin, Eskimo-Cree, EskimoEnglish Contact, also Montagnais Indian, +, 59 Pidgin, Eskimo–Danish, +, 59 Pidgin, Eskimo-French in Labrador, +, 59 Pidgin, Eskimo-Gwich'in (Loucheux) Indian Contact, +, 59 Pidgin, Eskimo-Gwich'in (Loucheux) Indian Contact, +, 75 Pidgin, Kotzebue Eskimo, +, 75 Pidgin, West Greenlandic Eskimo–Germanic, +, 59 Piedmontese, , 50 Pijao, +, 63 Pilagá, , 63 Pipil, , 62 Pite Sámi, ⊕, 50 Plateau Sign Language, +, 61 Plautdeitsch, , 50 Poitevin-Saintongeais, , 50 Poko, , 57 Polabian, +, 50 Potawatomi, , 61 Provençal, , 50 Puinave, ⊕, 62

°

°

°

Pume, ∆, 62 Pupeo, , 54 Puquina, +, 63 Puruborá, ⊕, 63 Purum, in India, ⊕, 54 Purum, in Myanmar, ⊕, 54 Pyu, +, 54 Qawasqar, , 63 Qemant, , 57 Qwarenya (emigration to Israel in 1991), +, 57 Rama, , 62 Rangkhas, ⊕, 53 Rembarrunga, , 56 Resígaro, ⊕, 63 Ritarungo, ∆, 56 Rohani, ∆, 53 Romagnol, , 50 Romani, , 50 Romansch, , 50 Ruc, ∆, 54 Rugungu, , 57; 58 Ruhu, +, 57 Rusyn, , 50 Rusyn, Voivodena, , 50 Saam, ⊕, 53 Sach, ∆, 54 Sak, ∆, 54 Salamãi, ⊕, 63 Saliba, ⊕, 62

°

• •

°

° ° ° ° °

°

Salish, Straits, ⊕, 61 Sallirmuit, +, 59 Samatau, , 54 Samei, , 54 Sámi, Akkala, ⊕, 50 Sámi, Inari, , 50 Sámi, Kemi, +, 50 Sámi, Kildin, , 50 Sámi, Lule, , 50 Sámi, North, , 50 Sámi, Skolt, , 50 Sámi, South, , 50 Sámi, Ter, ⊕, 50 Sámi, Ume, ⊕, 50 Santrokofi, , 57 Sanyi, , 54 Sape, ⊕, 62 Sarcee, ⊕, 61 Sardinian, , 50 Sarwa, , 57 Sassarese, , 50 Saulteaux, , 61 Saxon, Low, , 50 Scanian, 50 Scots, , 50 Sechelt, ⊕, 61 Secoya, , 63 Segeju, +, 57; 58 Sekani, , 61 Selkup, northern, , 51

• •

• •

°

°

° ° ° ° ° ° °

Selkup, southern, ⊕, 51 Seneca, ⊕, 61 Sengmai/Sekmai, +, 54 Shabo, , 57 Shan, ⊕, 57 Sheni, ⊕, 57 Shiki, , 57 Shikuyana, , 63 Shipibo-Conibo, , 63 Shiranci, +, 57 Shor, , 51 Shuadit, 50 Shuswap, , 61 Si (Lere Cluster), , 57 Sila, ∆, 54 Sirenikski, +, 60 Siwa, , 57 Slavey, North, , 61 Slavey, South, , 61 Slovene, Resian, 50 Slovincian, +, 50 So, , 57; , 58 Sogoo, ⊕, 57; 58 Solon, eastern, , 52 Solon, western, ∆, 52 Somyer, , 57 Sorbian, Lower, , 50 Sorbian, Upper, , 50 Squamish, ⊕, 61 Stoney, , 61

°

°

° °

°

° °

Contents

71

Suba, , 57; /+, 58 Sumo, ∆, 62 Suriána, ⊕, 63 Suruí, , 63 Tagish, ⊕, 61 Tahltan, , 61 Takaya (Lere Cluster), , 57 Taman, , 54 Tanacross, , 60 Tanaina, , 60 Tanana, , 60 Tanglang, ∆, 54 Tapayuna, , 63 Tarao, +, 54 Tatar, ∆, 50 Tatar, Crimean, , 50 Tatar, Siberian, , 51 Taushiro, ⊕, 63 Tehuelche, ⊕, 63 Teleut, , 51 Tenet, , 57; , 58 Terik, , 57; 58 Tha Vung, ∆, 54 Thompson, , 61 Thuri, , 57 Tilung, , 53 Tinigua, ⊕, 62; 63 Tiwi, ∆, 56 Tlingit, Inland, , 61 Tlingit, , 61

°

°

°•
• • •

°

• • • •

°

°

°

Toba, , 63 Tofa, ⊕, 51 Tolcha, +, 53 Tonjon (dialect of Jeri), +, 57 Toto, , 53 Trio, ∆, 62 Trukhmen, 50 Trumai, , 63 Tsakonian, , 50 Tsetsaut, +, 61 Tsimshian, Coast, , 61 Tsimshian, Southern, ⊕, 61 Tunebo, , 62 Tuscarora, ⊕, 61 Tutchone, Northern, , 61 Tutchone, Southern, , 61 Twendi (Cambap), , 57 Udege (Qiakala), +, 52 Udege, ⊕, 51 Udmurt, , 50 Ulcha, ⊕, 51 Umpila, , 56 Undu Rishi, ⊕, 57 Upper Tanana, , 60 Uru, +, 63 Uruak, ⊕, 62 Vepsian, , 50 Vilela, +, 63 Viri, , 57 Votian, ⊕, 50

°

°

°

°

° ° •

°

°

Waanyi, ⊕, 56 Wageman, , 56 Waiwai, ∆, 62 Walloon, , 50 Walmajarri, , 56 Wambaya, ⊕, 56 Wanai, +, 62 Wangaaybuwan-Nyiya, ⊕, 56 Wanman, , 56 Wapishana, ∆, 62 Wardaman, / , 56 Warekena, ⊕, 62 Wari, , 63 Warlpiri, ∆, 56 Warumungu, , 56 Watjarri, , 56 Waunana, ∆, 62 Welsh, , 50 Wenro, +, 61 Western Desert, E., ∆, 56 Western Desert, W., ∆, 56 Wik Mungkan, ∆, 56 Wik Ngathana, , 56 Wik Ngenchera, , 56 Wiradhuri, ⊕, 56 Worrorra, , 56 Wunambal, ⊕, 56 Xetá, ⊕, 63 Xinca, ⊕, 62 Yaaku, +, 57; 58

°

°

°• °

°

°

°•

Yahgan, ⊕, 63 Yahuma, , 57 Yakut, ∆, 51 Yangkam, ⊕, 57 Yanomamï, , 62 Yanyuwa, , 56 Yawarana, ⊕, 62 Yeidji, / , 56 Yeral, , 62 Yevanric, 50 Yiddish, , 50 Yir Yoront, , 56 Yug, ⊕, 51 Yukagir, Forest, ⊕, 51 Yukagir, Tundra, ⊕, 51 Yuki, , 63 Yukpa, ∆, 62 Yupik, Central Alaskan , ∆/ , 60 Yupik, Central Siberian, Yupik, Pacific, , 60 Yuracaré, , 63 Yurats, +, 51 Zaozou, ∆, 54 Záparo, ⊕, 63 Zaramo, , 57; ∆, 58 Zarphatic, 50 Zay (Zway), , 57 Ziriya, ⊕, 57 Zumaya, +, 57

°

° °

°• •

°

°

°, 60

°

°

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful