Artificial turf is a surface manufactured from synthetic fibres made to look like natural grass. It is most often used in arenas for sports that were originally or are normally played on grass. The main reason is maintenance — artificial turf resists heavy use, such as in sports, better, and requires no irrigation or trimming. Domed, covered, and partially covered stadiums may require artificial turf because of the difficulty of getting grass enough sunlight to stay healthy. A common misconception is that the new synthetic grass is similar to the household carpet. In fact this intricate system involves properly constructing a porous sub base, and using turf with holes in the back, then the product is filled with sand/rubber granule mix which we call infill. Artificial turf, also known as synthetic turf, has found a prominent place in sports today. Manufactured from synthetic materials, this man-made surface looks like natural grass. With the international sports associations and governing bodies approving the use of artificial surfaces, sports like football and hockey, which were originally played on natural grass, have moved to these artificial sports pitches. So, next time, you find players playing on an artificial hockey pitch, do not be surprised. Artificial turf has been manufactured since the early 1960s, and was originally produced by Chemstrand Company (later renamed Monsanto Textiles Company). It is produced using manufacturing processes similar to those used in the carpet industry. Since the 1960s, the product has been improved through new designs and better materials. The newest synthetic turf products have been chemically treated to be resistant to ultraviolet rays, and the materials have been improved to be more wearresistant, less abrasive, and, for some applications, more similar to natural grass.


( Ref: Natural Grass and Artificial Turf :Separating Myths and Fact)

The playing surfaces where artificial turf is installed tend to remain consistent. They require no sunlight or constant watering. It needs no seeding or fertilizers or pesticides and you do not need to mow it down. Such low-maintenance has made is an extremely viable option. Initially, it was mostly clubs and stadiums that were investing in artificial turfs, but increasingly individuals with a large backyards have also started to choose synthetic turfs for the sake of convenience. Also, in environments as big cities possess, where soil is scarce and pollution rampant, natural grass finds it hard to grow. If it does grow, it might be uneven, patchy and not as attractive as we would like it to be.



Some water will run off the top under heavy rains just the same as natural grass. RAWMATERIALS The quality of the raw materials is crucial to the performance of turf systems. Rubber tires are sometimes used in the composition of the rubber base.e.3.4 GEOMEMBRANE 3 . and some of the materials used in backing can come from plastic or rubber recycling programs.2 BACKING MATERIAL Almost anything used as a carpet backing has been used for the backing material.3 INFILL The infill holds and absorbs water which eventually drains through the holes to the sub base system. from jute to plastic to polyester. The blades may have different length depending upon the type of field. The extruded product results in blades that feel and act more like a biological grass. Correctly installed synthetic grass will drain quicker than natural grass. The nylon blades can be produced in thin sheets that are cut into strips or extruded through molds to produce fibers with a round or oval cross-section. is given below: TYPE OF GAME FOOTBALL HOCKEY FIBER HEIGHT 40MM-60MM 10MM-25MM GAUGE LENGTH 5/8 INCHES 5/32-3/16INCHES TABLE (1) FIBER SPECIFICATIONS 3. blades used for football will be different from that of in hockey and tennis and so on. 3. The detail of the type of games. The raw materials used in the construction of artificial turf are as follows: 3. fiber height. Cushioning systems are made from rubber compounds or from polyester foam. 3. High quality artificial turf uses polyester tire cord for the backing. gauge length.1 THE GRASS FIBER The fibers that make up the blades of "grass" are made of nylon or polypropylene and can be manufactured in different ways. i.

and durability as the rest of the system. Its property of draining the water through the top surface without any infiltration towards the bottom layers is utilised for the drainage process. They are also used in between the sub base layer in order to provide a backing for the drainage system.6 OTHER MATERIALS The thread used to sew the pads together and also the top fabric panels has to meet the same criteria of strength. 3.It is used in the drainage system. Fine aggregates or sand is used to fill the top layer. Care and experience must also be applied to the selection of the adhesives used to bond all the components together.5 AGGREGATES Coarse aggregates or pebbles passing through 3/4” and retaining at 3/8” are used to fill the sub base layer. color retention. 3. Fig (2) MATERIAL DETAIL 4 .

It can be confused with unfilled fields.myths and facts) The artificial turfs used in play grounds are of three types. The sand makes the field rough and harder. They are favoured by most sports since they offer more protection for players by minimising the abrasive effect created by the sand. often via prolonged showering with fieldside water cannon prior to their use and occasionally during half-time Unfilled intervals depending on the prevailing atmospherics. hence the name "water-based". ball speed across the surface is often noticeably slower. Installation Types Category Description Often called "water-based". The fields require wetting.4. TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL TURFS (Ref: Artificial turfs. the pile is unfilled. The sand cannot be seen. The type of turf that is to be installed depends upon the game that is going to be played in the ground. The pile of the carpet is filled to within 5–8 cm of the tips of the fibre with fine sand. The pile of the carpet is filled almost to the top with sand. The type of raw materials used and the installation procedure depends upon it. In comparison to water-based fields or minimal sand-dressed fields. The description of commonly installed three types is given below. TABLE (2) INSTALLATION TYPES 5 . These fields form the majority of the Sanddressed Sand filled elite level field hockey fields in use today.


INSTALLATION ( Ref: Artificial turfs) Fig (5) PROFILE OF TURF 1. It is usually laid at a depth of 20cm -30cm from base. you will need to remove approximately 120cm to 150cm of soil. Remove sod. Consider the dimensions of your Turf to try to get as few seams as possible with your layout. Ideally.5. must be leveled by a bulldozer and then smoothed by a steam roller. which is either concrete or compacted soil. Uneven surfaces will still be evident once the turf is supplied. the sub base will be pitched slightly towards the best direction to allow for water drainage to run-off. 2. The base of the installation. 7 . Mark off the area that you will install with an outdoor spray can marker. 3.

25cm –50cm of base is usually enough. since the underlying surface can absorb little. Spread and then compact the sub base material twice. Once you confirm that the sub-base is dry. Use the vibrating compactor again. You may also use a water-filled sod roller for an even more level surface. you will also need to increase the amount of soil removal. intricate drainage systems must be installed. The purpose is to firm and level your base. 8 . 7. if any. 5. 6. Spread a fine layer of sand (approx. 2-5cm using just an ordinary seed drop spreader) on the surface to make it more level. although in some areas of the country where soil is especially unstable you may need up to 75cm of base material. Please note if more than 50cm of base material is used.Fig (6) GROUND LEVELLING 4. Finishing Sand layer (not always required if crushed rock is adequately smooth). It is very important to ensure the sub-base is completely dry before laying any crushed rock to reduce settling and ensure proper compaction for the surface. For outdoor applications. Sub-Base: The sub-base is filled with corse aggregates or pebbles at a depth of 2575 cm. rainwater. add a top layer of crusher dust or a 2cm-5cm crushed rock (these types are best so you don't feel any protruding rocks when you walk on your Turf).

it is still advisable to give the subbase a slight slope. Fig (8) UN ROLLING TURF 9 . 9. Try to avoid dragging the turf as this may dislodge some crushed rock or sand. to avoid any pools of water.Fig (7) FINISHED GROUND 8. Roll out Turf. Check surface for depressions. Any depression areas 1cm-2cm or deeper should be filled-in and re-levelled. be accurate (so you don't cut off turf you actually need). Although the turf also drains vertically through the drainage holes that are manufactured in the turf. Position the turf where it goes.

The following procedures can be administered during the drying time. The turf is to be laid seam to seam the way that it should look to ensure it fits tightly together before it is glued. At the joining seam. Cut off excess material so it's easier to work with. and will match up perfectly. Now. Before adhering both pieces ensure that both edges have been properly trimmed. The seams are simply glued together with outdoor turf adhesive and 300mm wide seaming tape. Place one side of the turf in the middle of the tape (approximately 150mm) to the centre of the tape. 10 . It's really not that difficult as the Turf is fairly high and seams are generally less noticeable than that of thin pile carpet. make sure the turf is installed exactly over the prepared based. 11. but turf may shift and require repositioning. The pattern of turf stitching on the under side must run in the same direction before the two pieces are adhered. For optimal performance and beauty. Seaming. Both sides of the turf at the seam must be pulled back in order to install the seam tape. trim turf more exactly with straight lines. Lay the other side of the turf over the middle of the seam tape to match up exactly to the turf that has just been adhered to the tape. Apply gluing compound to the entire piece of seam tape with a notched trowel. Where two pieces of turf come together you will need to make a seam. straight. Lay the seam tape down on the base directly between the two pieces of turf that are to be joined. Always use a sharp blade in your utility knife! Make sure turf is still positioned where it goes. Mesh the fibres together with fingers or brush.10. Cut the turf. a 300mm wide piece of seaming tape should be cut to the length of the seam. Allow 24 hours for glue to properly dry.

In order to prepare to infill the turf.75 of a kilogram of sand equals around 10mm of in fill height. 11 . although it is advisable to have at least the top half in rubber infill. trim off turf so your lawn fits as desired. Next. repeating the process until all of your infill has been spread. Infill Preparation. Once glue has dried. so choose what you can afford and prefer. it is a good idea to nail the perimeter every 500mm-800mm with nails (80120mm length). as you will want to leave around 15mm of grass blade exposed. For a crumb rubber infill. The infill helps to weigh the turf down. Spread the infill in several passes. As a general rule of thumb. The infill process will now commence using a standard seed drop spreader with either sand or crumb rubber as an infill. use approximately 5 kilograms of rubber per sq metre for every 10mm of in fill height. This will allow the infill material to infiltrate the turf rapidly and prevent turf blades from getting trapped in the in fill. rake or power broom the turf in the opposite direction that the turf is laying on the roll. As you spread the infill you should make one entire pass on the surface then sweep it down into the fibres. and stabilize the fibres so as to help avoid "matting". Of course rubber is more shock absorbent than sand. approximately . You want to calculate the amount of infill in advance. Most use sand infill as it is the least expensive compared to rubber infill.Fig (9) SEAMING PROCESS 12.

Fig (10) INFILL INSTALLATION 13. Depending on your yard. Optional Edging. metal edging. Fig (11) BEFORE INSTALLATION Fig (12) AFTER INSTALLATION 12 . plastic edging and timber edging are popular. brick. rock borders. you may want to install some type of edging material around your new lawn. Examples are natural stone.

DRAINAGE SYSTEM Synthetic turf is an evolving industry and is frequently used as an alternative to natural grass. Lack of proper drainage creates surface run-off issues and reduces playing time. The draining system of the present invention prevents water from accumulating on the turf surface. extensive site excavation and high transportation cost to haul stone to the site and to remove excavated soil from the site. which could cause the top-dressing layer to “float” and be moved by inundation.6. A drainage system is provided for a synthetic grass turf assembly having a flexible and water permeable sheet backing for installation on a supporting soil substrate to provide a game playing surface. rough surface that provide poor footing. Drainage is a critical design element for any synthetic field. Correctly installed synthetic grass will drain quicker than natural grass. Fig (13) PLAN 13 . resulting in potential injuries to players. The infill holds and absorbs water which eventually drains through the holes to the sub base system. Stone bases are hard. Typical stone drains require from 6-8 inches of aggregate. Stone base drainage designs are expensive and have performance limitations. Some water will run off the top under heavy rains just the same as natural grass.

Fig (14) DRAINAGE SYSTEM As mentioned above in the installation process. The pipe leads out of the stadium. The diameter of the pipe varies from 10-20 cm and it has aslope of 1/500 to 1/750 along the length of the ground. The remaining sub base is filled with coarse aggregate or pebbles and the base corse is filled with sand and above the prepared ground the turf is fixed. It is installed at a depth of 50-75 cm from the surface of turf. The water from the grass fibre passes through the infill and then through the base corse to the sub base collected through the aspirator geo membrane to the filter geo membrane. At middle above the sand layer a long pipe is installed. The sub base layer is filled in two phases. the drainage system is fixed on the sub base layer. The geo membrane is laid at a slope of in 1/20. The lower portion of sub base is filled in inclination with the pebbles. then it flows out through the pipe. Above the sand layer separator geo membrane and above the pipe filter-geo membrane is installed. In order to make the pipe in position a sand layer is provided on the top. 14 .

15 . The recommend weekly servicing includes: brushing and clearing the turf of any dirt – scraps. you will have times when you will want to clean the artificial turf fibres or need to clear off fallen leaves in the fall. if required. pollen and airborne pollutants in a way that is difficult to duplicate in any other fashion. especially that which may decay into the infill. Rain is your best cleanser. a special servicing team should check the condition of the surface and. This procedure is recommended for all turf systems. conduct all the works necessary for increasing its quality and life-span. Once a year. There are simple procedures to be followed in order to maintain your artificial turf in an optimal condition. In areas where rainfall is scarce--or during prolonged periods of drought--an occasional water flush is beneficial to soak and thus cleanse the turf system ( only if water restrictions allow ). Routine maintenance generally includes keeping the surface clean of debris. and occasionally sweeping the fibres up to revitalize the appearance of the lawn. However. garbage or leaves. Thus any chance of water logging conditions is avoided 7.Fig (15) SECTIONAL VIEW In addition to this the drainage facility provided on the periphery is also present at the ground. MAINTAINANCE (Ref: Lawn maintenance) With our synthetic turfs you will never have to mow. irrigate or fertilise your surface ever again. Rainfall gently cleans the turf fibres of dust.

1) Water Reel system and 2) Underground sprinkler system. will allow you to irrigate the whole field in one unattended pass.1WATER REEL SYSTEM Fig (16) WATER REEL When you are watering a synthetic turf Water-Reel is the perfect tool for the job. in some cases. and baseball is important and requires lots of work. which. sizes and lengths to choose from. football. It is done by two ways. you can pick the best reel for your application. With many models. 7. Fig (17) LAY OUT 16 . Watering or irrigating the surface is done for it.Keeping a beautiful green playing field for sports like soccer.

At the most basic level. The valves are tied directly into your water system and are normally found in buried plastic boxes with removable lids for access. which can cost up to four times as much Little or no risk of damage to the synthetic turf from broken in ground lines Improves recovery of damaged turf in high traffic areas Improves playing conditions and appearance of fields Irrigates sports fields in a single pass • • • • 7. This is an electronic. a sprinkler system contains a few main components. computerized unit that normally hangs on the wall of your garage. It is the "brains" behind the sprinkler system. The first is the controller. and for how long. which 17 . The controller is connected to a set of valves that regulate the flow of water into a specific "zone" in your sprinkler system. with a timer that tells your system which set of sprinkler heads should turn on when.Water-Reel Benefits • More affordable than in ground irrigation systems. The valves act like faucets that turn off and on when told to by the controller. The valves then feed water into the rest of the sprinkler system.2SPRINKLER SYSTEM Fig (18) SPRINKLER SYSTEM One of the few improvement projects that is done is installing a sprinkler or irrigation system for your yard.

Keep extra sand or rubber infill as after a minor settling period. can damage your Turf by abrading the fibres and/or contaminating the fill. Always brush the Turf in opposite directions. For a 2500 square foot lawn. how many physical sprinkler heads are needed) and the components you choose to build your system. If 18 . locate the spot and apply several thin layers of infill to the area and brush into the fibres with a stiff street broom or small hand held fibre scrub brush (such as is used to hand scrub floors). At times. it should be repaired soon as quickly as possible to prevent the situation from deteriorating. but it depends mainly on 2 factors . Snow removal: Generally snow and ice should be left to melt and drain off the system without assistance. brush your Turf on a semi regular basis.3 ADDITIONAL TIPS IN MAINTAINANCE (Ref: Lawn maintenance) Do not use any tools that may damage the surface and do not use solvents like acetone or cleaning materials containing alcohol. The cost of an automatic sprinkler system can vary region to region. however. it may be desirable to remove snow or ice. take a bucket of infill. 12 inches underground. To keep the infill from compacting and to limit the fibres from “matting down”. you may wish to fill-in any minor “low spots”. Brush in several directions. Pay special attention to the most heavily used areas. 7.the size of your lawn or yard to be irrigated (ie. If you encounter a low spot.is composed of plastic PVC pipes that lead to the actual sprinkler heads. as continuous brushing in one single direction will produce unacceptable pile lean. paper and any other waste items on a regular basis. twigs. Every loose foreign object. The pipes are all buried approx. you could expect a figure of around $2000-$2500 for an underground sprinkler system. how much pipe needs to be laid. Remove all leaves. In case of seams opening. no matter how small. and then they pop-up when the water pressure fills the pipes below them. The sprinkler heads are set normally at about ground level when not in use.

Never change or add fluids to maintenance equipment while on the Turf surface. most stains on Turf are not true stains but rather residues of foreign matter that must be promptly and thoroughly removed. fires and chewing gum. The first rule is promptness. transmission fluids. 19 . grease. and discourage the use of fireworks. Most stains can be removed with water or soap and water. Hence. Prevent lubricating oil.you elect to plough the snow. Remove any solid or putty-like deposit promptly using a dull knife or spatula-like tool. The loading of a pneumatic-tired vehicle is approximately equal to the air pressure in its tires. You also do not want direct.. etc. it is good practice to eliminate any unnecessary long-term parking and loading and to keep the necessary ones as low and brief as possible. The final layer of snow can be removed by brushing. nor any transient or dynamic load of more than 35 psi should be allowed on the surface. hot engine exhaust to be discharged onto the Turf for extended periods. Such spills can discolour the Turf. Neither long-term static load of more than 2 psi. Battery acid and other such fluids should not be allowed on the Turf. leave a layer of snow of 1 inch as to protect your Turf from mechanical damage. The Turf fibres are highly stain resistant because most stains are moisture borne and the polyolefin-based fibres tend not to absorb moisture. It is much easier to clean up a fresh spill before it has time to dry and harden. Do not park vehicles on the Turf. if possible. Enforce a smoke-free environment. Hence. from dripping or spilling on your Turf surface during sweepings.



It was undertaken by Fieldturf Tarkett India from Hydrabad who also laid the artificial turf at Luzhniki Olympic Stadium in Moscow.40 acres. 5 Crores (50 Million) on installing an artificial turf pitch at the Saltlake Stadium.2 OTHER ARTIFICIAL TURF INSTALLED STADIUMS  North Harbour Hockey Stadium. the pitch was accorded one-star status for a four-year period till March 23. 8.000 square feet. Last year the Government of West Bengal spend around Rs. It is the home ground for Mohanbagan F C and East Bengal F C At present it is the only football stadium in India with artificial turf .The turf installation was for 90. 2014.Salt Lake stadium is situated in Kolkatta and it was built in 1984 and holds 120.Fig (20) SALT LAKE STADIUM AFTER It is also known as Yuba Bharati Krirangan. The main football arena measures 105m x 70m.000 people. It is the second largest stadium in the world (first in Asia) and the stadium covers an area of 76. NEWZEALAND –TIGER TURFS 22 .

This allows sports ground owners to generate more income from their facilities. Workington Cricket Club (Synthetic Turf)  Major Dhyan Chand National Stadium. It is also a solution for elderly homeowners who find the upkeep of lawns too much hard work. NAVI MUMBAI It was done by Green Fields BV. They are:  Soccer City Stadium. Johannesburg  Free State Stadium. The 103m by 65m field which costs Rs 3 cr with floodlights. This would allow for lighting or advertisements to be directly 23 . C. Delhi  G. Bloemfontein Vashi school sets up India's first multi-sport artificial turf ground in. Some artificial turf systems allow for the integration of fibre-optic fibres into the turf. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES ( Ref :Natural Grass and Artificial Turf :Separating Myths and Fact) 9. two were installed with artificial turfs.1 ADVANTAGES • Artificial turf can be a better solution when the environment is particularly hostile to natural grass. • Artificial turf can withstand significantly more use than natural grass and can therefore be used much more frequently. An arid environment or one where there is little natural light are examples. 9. Balayogi Athletic Stadium. the Dutch manufacturer of the artificial turf. Hyderabad WORLD CUP STADIUMS Among the world cup stadiums in South Africa . • • Suitable for roof gardens and swimming pool surrounds. M. • Ideal for holiday homes when maintenance of lawns is not practical.

• Covered and Shadey areas. Does not require seasonal fertilization. 24 . mowing. Although upfront costs of synthetic turf are greater than natural turf over its life cycle synthetic turf is cost-effective when one factors in reduced maintenance (including chemicals) and reduced usage of water. football in which sliding manoeuvres are common and clothing does not fully cover the limbs. • Cost. Despite this. However. trimming and aeration as natural turf does. • Climate. or runway lighting to be embedded in artificial landing surfaces for aircraft. this is almost completely eliminated by the use of polyethylene yarn. This is an issue for some sports: for example. • Reduced Maintenance. Some areas may not enjoy a climate conducive for growing natural turf on a year-round basis because of either severe summers or severe winters. recent studies suggest certain microbial life is less active. Limit natural sunlight making cultivation of natural turf more difficult. This material may carry heavy metals which can leach into the water table. Synthetic turf provides a magnificent alternative. • • Periodic disinfection is required as pathogens are not broken down by natural processes in the same manner as natural turf. 9.2 DISADVANTAGES • Abrasion injuries caused by artificial turf have been linked to a higher incidence of MRSA infections Some artificial turf requires infill such as silicon sand and/or granulated rubber made from recycled car tires. • Friction between skin and artificial turf causes abrasions and/or burns to a much greater extent than natural grass.embedded in a playing surface. with some third-generation artificial grasses.

Recent installations of artificial turf have included new advancements that serve both economic and environmental needs. it is filled not with rubber or sand. The water that runs off the surface is held in the tanks. and comfort of 25 . Another recent development has been a hybrid of filled turf and biological grass.• Artificial turf tends to be much hotter than natural grass when exposed to the sun. the owners and architects strive to give a more old-fashioned feel to the structures. Large holding tanks are built beneath outdoor installations. and used later for watering practice fields or nearby lawns. As new stadiums are built. Grass seed is then planted in the soil. FUTURE (Ref: Artificial turfs) The engineering and design of both artificial and biological turf systems are constantly improving. Once artificial turf is installed. nurtured and grown to a height above that of the artificial turf. but with soil. The resulting combination combines the feel. which usually means no dome or a dome that allows the use of biological turf. 10. look.

California’s largest water district has been issuing rebates to residents who have installed synthetic lawns. Many clubs have installed the new synthetic grass surfaces. Fake turfs can withstand intense heat. snow and ice and generally last for about 10 years or so. Of course. In the early 21st century. Although installing synthetic grass is expensive. Supporters of artificial grass will argue that a synthetic lawn can save thousands of gallons of water. With football clubs in Europe looking to reduce both the maintenance costs and the number of winter matches that are cancelled due to the playing surface being frozen. especially in the UK and the United States. the issue has also been re-visited by that sport's governing bodies. These "next generation" or "third generation" artificial grass surfaces are generally regarded as being about as safe to play on as a typical natural grass surface — perhaps even safer in cold conditions.biological turf with the resilience and resistance to tearing and divots of artificial turf. it also requires all the maintenance of both systems. These days. Technical advancements ensure that there is a large variety and a higher quality of artificial lawns. new artificial playing surfaces using sand and/or rubber infill were developed. there is less creation of pollution caused by the use of fuel. 26 . and it is not suitable for most indoor applications. most commonly as part of an all-weather training capability. Different companies create different types of fake grass. Also. herbicides and fertilizers. rain. synthetic grass looks very realistic and you won’t find bumps or uneven surfaces. by eliminating lawn mowers. Other clubs which have maintained natural grass surfaces are now re-considering artificial grass. The use of artificial grass in gardens is on the rise. Other water conservation organisations have also realised how artificial grass can help to conserve water. the low level of maintenance that is required can prove to make it less costly than maintaining a natural garden.

snow and ice. your 27 . synthetic grass looks very realistic and you won’t find bumps or uneven surfaces.Artificial turf can withstand significantly more use than natural grass and can therefore be used much more frequently.Protecting the field is about protecting the environment. especially in the UK and the United States . the low level of maintenance that is required can prove to make it less costly than maintaining a natural garden. Water conservation organizations have also realised how artificial grass can help to conserve water. CONCLUSION The use of artificial grass in gardens is on the rise. . Technical advancements ensure that there is a large variety and a higher quality of artificial lawns.11. Artificial turf grass can also solve problems of cleanliness. rain. These days. Although installing synthetic grass is expensive. Fake turfs can withstand intense heat. Artificial grass still needs some level of maintenance.

Natural Grass and Artificial Turf :Separating Myths and Fact . third edition (2000) 4. J K Malhothra . Howard James. second edition (2007). innovating protection.investment and most importantly. 2. first edition (2007) 3. It is not about protecting innovation. 12. Lawn maintenance . Turf grass Resource Center 28 . Artificial turfs – myths and facts . Oxford Publications. your players. Artificial Turfs. REFERENCES 1. but more importantly. Bruce Lehman .