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Total Quality Management - TQM

Total Quality Management - TQM
The quality journey continues……..



Author: Dr Rhys Rowland-Jones

Standards in Action

Total Quality Management - TQM

Session Plan
• • • • Introduction to concepts of TQM Standards and TQM TQM Reasons for failure Measurement of Quality

Standards in Action

TQM can be viewed as an extension of the traditional approach to . Standards in Action www.TQM Total Quality Management • • • • • TQM is a philosophy which applies equally to all parts of the organization. Greater emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of every member of staff within an organization to influence quality.bsieducation.Total Quality Management . TQM places the customer at the forefront of quality decision making. All staff are empowered.

FIRST time. …..bsieducation.Total Quality Management .org/standardsinaction Internetix (2005) . Standards in Action www.TQM Total Quality Management Doing things right….

bsieducation.TQM British Standards on TQM BS 7850-1:1992 • Total quality management.Total Quality Management . ISO 9004-4:1993 • Total quality management. Standards in Action www. BS 7850-2:1994. Guidelines for quality improvement. Guide to management .

bsieducation. Standards in Action www. Product/Process Excellence – Involves the process for continuous improvement. Employee involvement – All employees assume responsibility for the quality of their work.TQM Elements of TQM • • • Leadership – Top management vision.Total Quality Management . planning and .

TQM Elements of TQM • Continuous Improvement – A concept that recognizes that quality improvement is a journey with no end and that there is a need for continually looking for new approaches for improving quality.Total Quality Management . – Conformance quality • The degree to which a product meets its design . Standards in Action www. • Customer Focus on “Fitness for Use” – Design quality • Specific characteristics of a product that determine its value in the marketplace.bsieducation.

adds values to these inputs for customers.” (ISO 8402).TQM A fundamental concept of TQM from BS 7850 . • “Any activity that accepts inputs.bsieducation.a ‘Process’ • “A set of inter-related resources and activities which transform inputs into .” (BS 7850) Standards in Action www.Total Quality Management . and produces outputs for these customers. The customers may be either internal or external to the organization.

Total Quality Management .bsieducation.TQM "The Simple Process" Controls Inputs Proces s Outputs Resources (Source: BS 7850: . “Total Quality Management”) Standards in Action www.

org/standardsinaction .TQM Changing Role of the Process Owner Process 1 Input from supplier As customer Process owner Output As supplier Input As customer Process owner As supplier Output to customer Process 1 (Source: BS 7850: 1992.Total Quality Management . “Total Quality Management”) Standards in Action www.bsieducation.

bsieducation.TQM TQM & organizational Cultural Change Traditional Approach Lack of communication Control of staff Inspection & fire fighting Internal focus on rule Stability seeking Adversarial relations Allocating blame Standards in Action www.Total Quality Management .org/standardsinaction TQM Open communications Empowerment Prevention External focus on customer Continuous improvement Co-operative relations Solving problems at their roots .

TQM Perceived quality is governed by the gap between customers’ expectations and their perceptions of the product or service Customers’ expectations for the product or service Customers’ expectations of the product or service Gap Gap Expectations > perceptions Expectations = perceptions Perceived quality is poor Standards in Action www. 2004 Customers’ expectations for the product or service Customers’ perceptions of the product or service Expectations < perceptions Customers’ perceptions of the product or service Customers’ perceptions of the product or service .Total Quality Management .org/standardsinaction Perceived quality is good Source: Slack et al.bsieducation.

• Expectations and Perceptions – Customers’ prior expectations (generalized and specific service experiences) and their perception of service performance affect their satisfaction with a service. • Satisfaction = (Perception of Performance) – (Expectation) Standards in Action www.TQM Additional views of Quality in Services • Technical Quality versus Functional Quality – Technical quality — the core element of the good or service.bsieducation. – Functional quality — customer perception of how the good functions or the service is .Total Quality Management .

org/standardsinaction Source: Parasuraman.bsieducation.Total Quality Management . Zeithman and Berry. 1985 .TQM Previous Experience Word of mouth communications Image of product or service A “Gap” model of Quality Customer’s expectations concerning a product or service Customer’s own specification of quality Gap 1 Customer’s perceptions concerning the product or service Gap 4 The actual product or service Management’s concept of the product or service Gap 2 organization’s specification of quality Gap 3 Standards in Action www.

bsieducation.Total Quality Management . Kaizen: Japanese word for continuous improvement.TQM Continuous Improvement • Philosophy that seeks to make never-ending improvements to the process of converting inputs into . • Standards in Action www.

Total Quality Management .TQM Implementing TQM • Successful Implementation of TQM – Requires total integration of TQM into day-to-day operations. outdated organizational cultures. – . Standards in Action www.bsieducation. • Causes of TQM Implementation Failures – Lack of focus on strategic planning and core competencies.

Lack of a formalized strategic plan for change. Standards in Action www.bsieducation. Politics and turf issues. Lack of a customer focus. Lack of real employee empowerment. View of the quality program as a quick fix. Lack of employee trust in senior management.Total Quality Management . Poor inter-organizational communication.TQM Obstacles to Implementing TQM • • • • • • • • • Lack of a company-wide definition of . Drive for short-term financial results.

3.Total Quality Management .bsieducation. Blind pursuit of TQM programs Programs may not be linked to strategies Quality-related decisions may not be tied to market performance Failure to carefully plan a program Standards in Action www.TQM Some criticisms of TQM . 4. 2.

TQM PDCA Cycle repeated to create continuous improvement Performance Plan Act Do Check “Continuous” improvement Time Standards in Action .Total Quality Management .

Total Quality Management .TQM Recognizing and rewarding Quality • Promotion of high quality goods and services – Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) (United States) – Deming Prize (Japan) – European Quality Award (European Union) – ISO9000 certification Standards in Action www.

Baldrige National Quality Program. National Institute of Standards and Technology.Total Quality Management . . Gaithersburg. ( Standards in Action www.nist.bsieducation. U.quality.S.TQM The integrated framework of the Baldrige Award criteria Source: 2004 Criteria for Performance Excellence. of Commerce. MD 20899.

TQM Continual improvement of the quality management system Continual improvement of the quality management system Customers (and other interested parties) Customers (and other interested parties) Management responsibility Resource management Requirements Source: BS EN ISO 9001:2000 .Total Quality Management . analysis and improvement Satisfaction Input Key: Value adding activity information flow Product realisation Product Output Standards in Action www.bsieducation. .Total Quality Management .TQM Overview of the EFQM Excellence Model Standards in Action www.

org/standardsinaction .Total Quality Management .TQM Quality Award common elements • • • • • All take holistic approach Customers/people Measurable characteristics Visible Basis taken from TQM Standards in Action www.bsieducation.

org/standardsinaction .bsieducation.TQM Summary • • • • TQM – a way of working Involves everyone High prominence on ‘customer’ Awards based upon TQM Standards in Action www.Total Quality Management .

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