GRE SAMPLE VERBAL QUESTIONS

Instruction: This file contains 112 GRE sample questions for the following sections: Sentence Completion, Reading Comprehension, Antonym and Analogy. Each question is followed by the answer with complete explanation. For GRE test strategies and techniques, please order the Verbal Study Guide, Essay Prep Course, Math Review or the Complete GRE Prep Course.

SENTENCE COMPLETION
1. Natural selection tends to eliminate genes that cause inherited diseases, acting most strongly against the most severe diseases; consequently, hereditary diseases that are----would be expected to be very----, but, surprisingly, they are not. (A) lethal.. rare (B) untreated.. dangerous (C) unusual.. refractory (D) new.. perplexing (E) widespread.. acute Explanation: The first part of the sentence is a statement: the more severe an inherited disease is, the more likely it is that the genes causing it will be eliminated by natural selection. The word "consequently" suggests that the missing words must, together, make a statement in keeping with this assumption. A is the correct answer. A disease that is "lethal" is very severe. Because, according to the statement, the most severe diseases are likely to be most strongly acted against and are therefore least likely to recur, one would expect "lethal" diseases to be very "rare". B is incorrect. It is possible that diseases that are "untreated" would be "dangerous," but the first part of the sentence suggests that the expectation concerns the elimination of hereditary diseases, not their dangerousness. C is also incorrect. There is no information in the sentence that suggests that the more "unusual" a disease is, the more "unusual" a disease is, the more "refractory" (resistant to treatment) it will be. D is not the correct answer. It is not unlikely that "new" hereditary diseases would be "perplexing," but the first part of the sentence suggests that the expectation concerns the elimination of hereditary diseases, not whether they are perplexing. E, the last choice, is not the correct answer. The idea that "widespread" diseases are "acute" does not follow from the statement give. Rather, the opposite would be expected, given the assumption. Answer: (A) 2. Although ancient tools were----preserved, enough have survived to allow us to demonstrate an occasionally interrupted but generally----progress through prehistory. (A) partially.. noticeable (B) superficially.. necessary (C) unwittingly.. documented (D) rarely.. continual (E) needlessly.. incessant

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Explanation: The first missing word describes how ancient tools were preserved. The phrase "enough have survived" indicates that not all survived, and the word "Although" indicates that the tools were preserved in a way that would not lead you to expect enough to survive. The second missing word describes a progress through prehistory. The word "but" suggests that the word that fills the second blank must contrast with the idea of occasional interruption. D is the correct answer. It is logical to say that enough tools have survived in spite of their being "rarely" preserved. A "continual" progress contrasts with one that is occasionally interrupted. Answer: (D) 3. For centuries animals have been used as----for people in experiments to assess the effects of therapeutic and other agents that might later be used in humans. (A) benefactors (B) companions (C) examples (D) precedents (E) surrogates Explanation: The missing word describes a role animals play in experiments. The sentence indicates that experiments using animals occur before the agents studied in the experiments are used in people. The correct answer is E. A "surrogate" serves as a substitute. Answer: (E) 4. The pressure of population on available resources is the key to understanding history; consequently, any historical writing that takes no cognizance of----facts is----flawed. (A) demographic.. intrinsically (B) ecological.. marginally (C) cultural.. substantively (D) psychological.. philosophically (E) political.. demonstratively Explanation: The first part of the sentence emphasizes that, in order to understand history, it is important to take into account the great importance of the pressure of population on available resources. The word "consequently" indicates that the second part of the sentence describes a conclusion that follows from the statement made in the first part. In this case, what follows is a judgment about any historical writing that does not show recognition of the correctness of the statement. The first missing word will provide a one-word description of the type of fact suggested by the first part of the sentence. The second missing word describes in what way writing that fails to take this type of fact into account is flawed. A is the correct answer. "Demographic" facts are derived

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from the study of human populations. The "pressure of population" mentioned in the first clause is a "demographic" consideration. Because the sentence indicates that these facts are very important, you can conclude that the author believes that writing that fails to take them into account is "intrinsically" (essentially) flaw. Answer: (A) 5. During the opera's most famous aria the tempo chosen by the orchestra's conductor seemed----,without necessary relation to what had gone before. (A) tedious (B) melodious (C) capricious (D) compelling (E) cautious Explanation: The placement of the words "without necessary relation to what had gone before" in the sentence suggests that these words provide an explanation or elaboration of the missing word. C is the correct answer. A "capricious" choice is made without a rational basis. "What had gone before" is a possible rational basis for choosing a particular tempo. Answer: (C) 6. The state is a network of exchanged benefits and beliefs, ----between rulers and citizens based on those laws and procedures that are----to the maintenance of community. (A) a compromise.. inimical (B) an interdependence.. subsidiary (C) a counterpoint.. incidental (D) an equivalence.. prerequisite (E) a reciprocity.. conducive Explanation: The first missing word is a brief description of the first clause in the sentence, which explains what a state is. The second missing word describes laws and procedures and explains their relationship to the maintenance of community. E is the correct answer. "A reciprocity" is an exchange, in this case of benefits and beliefs. A network of exchanged benefits and beliefs is very likely to be based on laws and procedures that are "conducive" (encouraging) to the maintenance of community. Answer: (E) 7. An investigation that is----can occasionally yield new facts, even notable ones, but typically the appearance of such facts is the result of a search in a definite direction. (A) timely (B) unguided

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Winckelmann's "involvement with" the high and mighty is indicated by the fact that he cultivated those in power.(C) consistent (D) uncomplicated (E) subjective Explanation: The missing word describes an investigation that contrasts with a "search in a definite direction. by some -----gesture of comradeship. An "unguided" investigation contrasts with a search in a definite direction.. the resentment his peers were bound to feel because of his----the high and mighty. significant (B) enthusiastically.. who agree that history and fiction deal with----orders of experience. involvement with (D) salutary. The other choices are all incorrect. intrigue with (B) enigmatic. Answer: (C) 9... distinct (E) contentiously. unusual (D) sympathetically. C is the correct answer... "Timely" does not contrast with the idea of definite direction. The characterization of historical analysis as a form of fiction is not likely to be received----by either historians or literary critics. familiarity with (C) propitiatory. Like many eighteenth-century scholars who lived by cultivating those in power. sympathy for Explanation: The first missing word describes a gesture of comradeship of a kind that would neutralize the resentment of Winckelmann's peers. questioning of (E) unfeigned. The second missing word explains Winckelmann's relationship with the high and mighty. realistic Explanation: 4 . A "subjective" investigation does not contrast with a search in a definite direction. (A) quietly. (A) quixotic... An "uncomplicated" investigation does not contrast with a search in a definite direction.. Answer: (B) 8. shifting (C) passively." The correct answer is B. A "propitiatory" gesture is one intended to divert anger. Winckelmann neglected to neutralize. A "consistent" investigation does not contrast with a search in a definite direction..

. lack of generosity). The second missing word will depend on how the first missing word characterizes this way of reacting. (A) distrust of. Since it is obvious that philosophers use the ideas of science. superfluous (C) reliance on. since it is almost axiomatic that many philosophers use scientific concepts as the foundations for their speculations. In addition. Answer: (D) 10. Her----should not be confused with miserliness. E is the correct answer. (A) intemperance (B) intolerance (C) apprehension (D) diffidence (E) frugality Explanation: The missing word in this sentence is a characteristic that is easily confused with miserliness (unwillingness to spend money. elementary (B) influence on. B is the correct answer. inappropriate (D) dependence on. clarified. Physicists rejected the innovative experimental technique because. Answer: (E) 12. Answer: (B) 11. then they are unlikely to react "sympathetically" to the idea that historical analysis is a form of fiction.. "Frugality" suggests unwillingness to spend money. although it----some problems. data 5 ... difficult (E) differences from. it also produced new----. she has always been willing to assist those who are in need. D is the correct answer. The last part of the sentence explains the statement by indicating that philosophers' use of the ideas of science in developing philosophies is axiomatic (so obvious that it needs no proof). Documenting science's----philosophy would be----.. If historians and literary critics agree that history and fiction are "distinct" orders of experience. but not the graspingness that makes miserliness incompatible with assisting those in need. the characteristic is not incompatible with assisting those in need.The first missing word describes a way in which historians and literary critics are not likely to react to the suggestion that historical analysis is a form of fiction. finding proof of science's "influence on" philosophy would be unnecessary ("superfluous"). impossible Explanation: The first part of the sentence is a statement that you must complete. as long as I have known her..

The words "such _____for resolving their conflict" help you to fill in the first missing word by indicating that adult social tensions are affected by being resolved by politics. Social tensions among adult factions can be---. interpretations resolved. but adolescents and children have no such----for resolving their conflict with the exclusive world of adults. relief (C) frustrated. justification (D) adjusted. hypotheses revealed. The second missing word is some undesirable feature that the technique produced. complications caused. (A) intensified. 6 . opportunity Explanation: The first missing word describes how adult social tensions are affected by politics. If it adjusts tensions. The word "such" indicates that the second missing word is a conflict revolver.. C is the correct answer. politics can be described as a "mechanism" that resolves conflicts. The spellings of many Old English words have been----in the living language. like politics.(A) (B) (C) (D) eased. explains why an innovative experimental technique was rejected by physicists. D is the correct answer. where the missing words appear... inconsistencies Explanation: The word "because" indicates that the second part of the sentence. Since the missing word is a verb that. To have social tensions "adjusted" could be a way of resolving conflict. although their pronunciations have changed. Although a technique "resolved" some problems. The word "although" indicates that the technique had some redeeming feature. To have been "preserved" contrasts with having changed." the missing word is a verb that contrasts with change. (A) preserved (B) shortened (C) preempted (D) revised (E) improved Explanation: The word "although" indicates that the second part of the sentence presents a contrast with the first part. mechanism (E) revealed... the first missing word is something positive that can be done to problems. in the structure of the sentence. Answer: (A) 14.. attitude (B) complicated.. it might still be rejected because it produced new "complications.. parallels the verb "have changed.by politics.." Answer: (C) 13. A is the correct answer.

(A) predictable (B) unexpected (C) admirable (D) explicit (E) confusing 7 . The missing word describes signs of adolescent anxiety as they relate to the infant. corruption (C) rejection of. stable institution to widespread----it as an oppressive and bankrupt one whose----was both imminent and welcome.. For the infant. During the 1960's assessments of the family shifted remarkably. can often be----. (A) flight from. foretell future occurrences. ascent Explanation: The sentence describes a continuum of opinion on which "general endorsement" is one extreme. A is the correct answer. dissolution (E) relinquishment of.. It comes as no surprise that societies have codes of behavior. "Censure" is all the opposite end of a continuum from general endorsement. If an institution is seen as oppressive and bankrupt.. then "dissolution" is a welcome fate for it. Answer: (A) 16. like harbingers. on the other hand. with future unhappiness and anxiety.. the character of the codes. (A) prophetic (B) normal (C) monotonous (D) virtual (E) typical Explanation: The sentence contrasts the infant's reactions.. Answer: (D) 17. "Prophetic" signs. Kagan maintains that an infant's reactions to its first stressful experiences are part of a natural process of development. D is the correct answer. not harbingers of childhood unhappiness or ----signs of adolescent anxiety. restitution (B) fascination with. adolescent anxiety is a future occurrence. from general endorsement of it as a worthwhile. The first missing word describes the other extreme. vogue (D) censure of. you must decide what fate would be "imminent and welcome" for an "oppressive and bankrupt" institution. For the second missing word.Answer: (D) 15. part of a normal developmental process.

historians of the 1960's portrayed him as----thinker. well-intentioned (D) competitive. Answer: (B) 8 . Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but enlightened intellectual. eager to fill the young with his political orthodoxy while censoring ideas he did not like. hardheaded (C) rational. The words "far from" suggest that the missing word is not at all similar in meaning to "skeptical but enlightened. The second missing word describes the kinds of decisions that such a society requires.. The correct answer is B to be "unexpected" means to be surprising. " A doctrinaire" thinker is likely to want to fill the young with political orthodoxy and to censure other people's ideas. Such a society might well require "hardheaded" decisions rather than the idealistic ones preferred by a sensitive and idealistic person. dysfunctional Explanation: The first missing word describes a society that worships efficiency.. and contrasts with the words "sensitive" and "idealistic" that characterize a person trying with difficulty to make such decisions... A "pragmatic" society is one that is more concerned with practical matters than with idealism. edifying (B) pragmatic. it is difficult for a sensitive and idealistic person to make the kinds of----decisions that alone spell success as it is defined by such a society.Explanation: The words "on the other hand" indicates that people's reactions to the character of societies' codes of behavior are not like their reactions to the fact of the codes' existence. evenhanded (E) modern.. Answer: (B) 18. (A) bureaucratic. (A) an adventurous (B) a doctrinaire (C) an eclectic (D) a judicious (E) a cynical Explanation: The missing word describes Jefferson' thinking. Answer: (B) 19." The last part of the sentence elaborates on the description provided by the missing word. In a----society that worships efficiency. B is the correct answer. B is the correct answer. Reaction to the existence of codes is likely to be the opposite of reaction to the character of codes.

in turn. the new expansion in literacy" are a strong clue for the first missing word. The ----of mass literacy coincided with the first industrial revolution. as well as cheaper printing.. the sick can become infirm.. During a period of protracted illness. ----both the strength to work and many of the specific skills they once possessed. The words "in turn. mistrust (B) reappearance." It is reasonable to assume that increased literacy and cheaper printing are likely to have contributed to the "rise" of popular literature. The word "seemingly" tells out that the missing word may or may not truly characterize the source: whether it does so remains to be seen... rise Explanation: The sentence describes a chain of occurrences. The words "sheer diversity" suggest that the number of different kinds of tropical plants is by itself enough to indicate the character of the source. display (C) receipt. influence (E) emergence.20. the new expansion in literacy. D is the correct answer. The second missing word suggests what happened to popular literature as a result of the expansion of literacy and the advent of cheaper printing. source (D) selection. It is likely that the diversity of tropical plants would contribute to their seeming "inexhaustible" (incapable of being used up).. Answer: (E) 21. The "emergence" of mass literacy corresponds to the "new expansion in literacy. helped to nurture the----of popular literature. Answer: (D) 22. (A) regaining (B) denying (C) pursuing (D) insuring (E) losing 9 . E is the correct answer. (A) exploited (B) quantifiable (C) controversial (D) inexhaustible (E) remarkable Explanation: The missing word describes the character of a source of raw materials. The sheer diversity of tropical plants represents a seemingly----source of raw materials. The first missing word suggests what happened to mass literacy during the industrial revolution. of which only a few have been utilized. (A) building.

Answer: (E) 23. it means the opposite. It explains why you walk off the coast without realizing that you have done so. You must decide what is likely to happen to attacks on the ramifications of a policy when the attacker accepts the policy's underlying assumptions. B is the correct answer. It is likely that.Explanation: The last part of the sentence explains what happens when people who are sick become infirm. To become infirm means to experience diminished vigor. Answer: (B) 10 . A person who has become infirm my at the same time be "pursuing" strength and skills. his damaging attacks on the ramifications of the economic policy have been----by his wholehearted acceptance of that policy's underlying assumptions. his attacks on its ramifications would be "undermined" (insidiously weakened). but the condition of infirmity is not defined in this way. The other four choices are all incorrect. rather than to be "denying" them. B is the correct answer. A person who has become infirm may be said to be denied strength and skills. To become infirm does not imply "insuring" strength and skills. In part of the Arctic. "Imperceptibly" means undetectably. the land grades into the land fast ice so----that you can walk off the coast and not know you are over the hidden sea. (A) supplemented (B) undermined (C) wasted (D) diverted (E) redeemed Explanation: The person discussed in the sentence seems to approve of the assumptions of a policy while at the same time disapproving of the consequences of accepting it. Becoming infirm does not mean "regaining" strength and skills. (A) permanently (B) imperceptibly (C) irregularly (D) precariously (E) slightly Explanation: The missing word describes how land grades (levels off gradually and smoothly) into ice. The fact that you can not detect the grading explains why you can walk off the coast without realizing it. if the attacker agrees with the bases of the policy. Unfortunately. The correct answer E. to experience dismissed vigor implies "losing" strength and skills. Answer: (B) 24.

value (E) contradictory. A is the correct answer. speak to (C) anachronistic. exclude Explanation: The first missing word describes human intelledct (which makes use of creative reasoning) in a machinelike world. It is puzzling to observe that Jones's novel has recently been criticized for its----structure. reenact (D) self-confident.. (A) anomalous. The middle of the sentence. (A) attention to. or not in keeping with accepted ideas. revitalize 11 . In the machinelike world of classical physics. the human intellect appears----. (A) popular.. disparity (D) violation of. flaw Explanation: The word "since" indicates that the second part of the sentence explains why recent criticism of the structure of Jones' novel is puzzling. then this ability appears "anomalous" (unexpected.. If classical physics does not "allow for" the ability that made its formulation possible. dismiss (B) methodical. indeed schematic. the very ability that had made the formulation of classical principles possible. when its rigid framework is often seen as an obvious "flaw". The first missing word helps to explain why the novel has been recently criticized... allow for (B) abstract.) Answer: (A) 26... and the second missing word is a general name for such a characteristic." explains why the human intellect appears as it does in the machinelike world of classical physics. E is the correct answer.. since commentators have traditionally argued that its most obvious----is its relentlessly rigid. deny (D) enduring.25. since the mechanical nature of classical physics does not ----creative reasoning. interpret (C) idiosyncratic. The second part of the sentence gives the characteristic of the novel that has traditionally been criticized. The second missing word must make the meaning of the middle part of the sentence consistent with that of the first missing word. Answer: (E) 27.. "since-creative reasoning.... To have true disciples.. preoccupation (B) speculation about. characteristic (C) parody of. contradiction (E) lack of.. a thinker must not be too----: any effective intellectual leader depends on the ability of other people to----thought processes that did not originate with them. One might well be puzzled that a novel is criticized for "lack of" structure. framework.

The choice of B is incorrect. A leader's not being too "pragmatic" (practical) does not necessarily permit others to "discourage" the leader's thought processes. The fact that a leader is not too "self confident" does not necessarily permit any followers to "revitalize" the leader's thought processes." meaning that the leader's thinking is unique to himself or herself. For some time now. An intellectual leader might want people to "interpret" his or her thoughts. but not his or her thought processes. because the thought processes would be so unlike their own. B is not correct.(E) pragmatic. discourage Explanation: The first missing word describes a characteristic that a thinker with disciples (an intellectual leader) can have." Great popularity would not necessarily permit people to "dismiss" the leader's thought processes. 12 .. but cannot have in excess. is not the opposite of self-interest. timidity." that is. Also." or lack of honesty. the each person is concerned primarily with his or her own interests. D is also incorrect. A is incorrect. The colon (:) indicates that the second part of the sentence explains or amplifies what is said in the first part. "Diffidence" (reserve. or lack of confidence) is not the opposite of self-interest. The sentence does not suggest any reason why a thinker should not be too "popular. In addition. ----has been presumed not to exist: the cynical conviction that everybody has an angle is considered wisdom. it is unlikely that a "methodical" approach would keep disciples from making interpretations." which can mean a tendency to yield to influence or ability to respond to change. it is unlikely that intellectual leadership depends on the ability of followers to "discourage" thought. E is also incorrect: "insincerity. since "rationality. C is the best answer. Therefore. whatever characteristic the leader has must enable others to deal with thought processes that are not their own but belong to the leader. Therefore. "Disinterestedness" means lack of self-interest. C is also in correct. D is the correct answer." or reasonableness. The second missing word indicates what followers must be able to do with a leader's thought processes if the leader is to be effective. is not the opposite of self-interest. (A) rationality (B) flexibility (C) diffidence (D) disinterestedness (E) insincerity Explanation: The colon (:) indicates that the second part of the sentence will explain the first part. In addition. If an intellectual leader were too "idiosyncratic. it would be difficult for the leader's followers to "reenact" the leader's thought processes. A is not the correct answer. "Flexibility. Answer: (D) 28. The missing word will describe the opposite of the cynical conviction that "everybody has an angle. is not the opposite of self-interest. E is incorrect.

A rationale for this analogy could be "X" is a large. Answer: A Relationship: expensive to general 3. ADULT : CHILD:: (A) horse : mare (B) cat : kitten (C) swine : sow (D) human : animal (E) cow : herd Explanation: An "adult" is what a "child" who grows up will be. A "limousine" is a special kind of "automobile. MANSION : RESIDENCE :: (A) limousine : automobile (B) chandelier : candle (C) tuxedo : wardrobe (D) diamond : rhinestone (E) yacht : harbor Explanation: A "mansion" is a large and usually expensive "residence". expensive member of class "Y". a large and expensive one. A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a container designed to protect objects such as 13 . Answer: B Relationship: big to small 2. A "cat" is what a "kitten" will be when it grows up.Answer: (D) ANALOGY 1. A rationale for this analogy could be "X (an adult) is what a Y (child) who grows up will necessarily be"." specifically. ENVELOPE : LETTER :: (A) scarf : hat (B) box : bag (C) crate : produce (D) neck : head (E) blood : heart Explanation: One purpose of an "envelope" is to contain and protect a "letter" when it is sent from one place to another.

Answer: C Relationship: container to object 4. Answer: E Relationship: pre-structure to outcome 5. much as an "overdose" violates the rules set forth in a "prescription". Answer: B Relationship: violation to common 6. OVERDOSE : PRESCRIPTION :: (A) deprivation : materialism (B) indiscretion : convention (C) affliction : sympathy (D) adventure : expedition (E) drug : medicine Explanation: "Prescription" has several meanings. "produce" among them." a creative endeavor. but its use with "overdose" suggests that here it means written instructions for medication. An "indiscretion" is an action that violates such rules. CHOREOGRAPHY : DANCE :: (A) ceremony : sermon (B) agenda : advertisement (C) poetry : recitation (D) instrumentation : conductor (E) plot : story Explanation: "Choreography" (the art of composing dances) provides a structure that determines what will happen during a "dance". An "overdose" is a dosage of a medication that exceeds the amount called for by the "prescription. A "convention" is a rule. A rationale for this analogy could be "X provides the organizing structure for creation of Y"." A rationale for this analogy might be "X violates the rules set forth in a Y". usually unwritten. A "crate" is designed to protect things. EVAPORATE : VAPOR :: (A) petrify : stone (B) centrifuge : liquid (C) saturate : fluid (D) corrode : acid (E) incinerate : fire Explanation: 14 . during transport.Y's during transport". or set of rules. governing behavior. The "plot" provides structure for a "story.

You can tell that "mercenary" is used as an adjective." "Fragment" is one of several possible names for a piece broken off a "bone"." the first word in the first answer choice. to be "vindictive" means to desire "revenge." "Vindictive" means disposed to seek "revenge". SHARD : POTTERY :: (A) flint : stone (B) flange : wheel (C) cinder : coal (D) fragment : bone (E) tare : grain Explanation: A "shard" is a piece of "pottery" that has been broken off. can be used only as an adjective. A rationale for this analogy could be "An X is a piece of Y that has been broken off. MERCENARY : MONEY :: (A) vindictive : revenge (B) scholarly : library (C) immaculate : cleanliness (D) thirsty : water (E) belligerent : invasion Explanation: "Mercenary" means having a strong desire for "money" or serving as a soldier for pay rather than for a cause. HAMMER : ANVIL :: (A) knocker : door (B) stick : gong (C) hand : drum (D) pestle : mortar (E) gavel : lectern Explanation: 15 ." Answer: A Relationship: characteristic to noun." Answer: A Relationship: action to outcome 7. A rationale for this analogy could be " To X means to change into Y". Answer: D Relationship: fragments to whole 8. 9. A rationale for this analogy could be "X is an attribute of human character that means to seek or desire Y. and not as a noun. because "vindictive. To "petrify" means to turn into "stone. not as a noun.To "evaporate" means to change or be changed into a "vapor".

You can tell that "numb" is used as a verb. Answer: B Relationship: action to characteristic of outcome 11. Something "exorbitant" is characterized by a lack of "moderation." to "burnish" means to polish something so that it is shiny. a "perfidious" person lacks "loyalty. NUMB : INSENSIBLE :: (A) reflect : luminous (B) burnish : lustrous (C) heckle : raucous (D) repulse : odious (E) braid : sinuous Explanation: One way to make something "insensible" is to "numb" it. Answer: D Relationship: tools group 10. not as an adjective. because "reflect" in the first choice is used only as a verb." A rationale for this analogy could be "something properly called X lacks Y. not as an adjective. A rationale for this analogy could be "To X something means to render it Y." "Perfidious" means disloyal. A "mortar" is a vessel that provides a surface on which a "pestle" is used to modify materials. EXORBITANT : MODERATION :: (A) dispassionate : equanimity (B) macabre : interest (C) perfidious : loyalty (D) brilliant : gullibility (E) lavish : extravagance Explanation: To be "exorbitant" means to exceed some customary or proper limit." Answer: C Relationship: lacking relationship 12. or "lustrous". TROUBLED : DISTRAUGHT :: (A) annoyed : disillusioned (B) disturbed : interrupted (C) covetous : rapacious (D) outmoded : ostentatious (E) tranquil : placid Explanation: 16 .An "anvil" is a metal tool that provides a surface on which things can be modified by a "hammer". A rationale for this analogy could be "X provides a surface on which Y can be used to modify materials".

a rationale for this analogy could be "to be Y is to be very X. A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a barrier that can be used to close off (prevent entry into) Y. Answer: C Relationship: degree and depth 13. To be "rapacious" means to be excessively "covetous. Therefore.To be "distraught" means to be greatly "troubled" or to show that one is "troubled"." A rationale for this analogy could be "X is an enclosure where people keep Y"." or to be insatiable in desiring things. Answer: D Relationship: entry to closing 15. 17 ." A "telescope" is an instrument commonly used in the work of an "astronomer. SCALPEL : SURGEON :: (A) laser : agronomist (B) magnet: ecologist (C) syringe : geologist (D) telescope : astronomer (E) microscope : geometrician Explanation: A "scalpel" is an instrument commonly used in the work of a "surgeon". Therefore." Answer: D Relationship: tool to professional 14." a "hatch" is a barrier that is used to close off a "hold" (a place where cargo is kept).DOOR : ROOM :: (A) rudder : anchor (B) boat : ship (C) patio : terrace (D) hatch : hold (E) basement : attic Explanation: A "door" is a barrier that can be used to close off (access to) a "room"." to be "covetous" means to desire the possessions of others. a rationale for this analogy could be "X (a scalpel) is an instrument commonly used in or associated with the work of a person called a Y (surgeon). CORRAL : HORSES :: (A) den : lions (B) meadow : sheep (C) herd : cattle (D) nest : birds (E) coop : chickens Explanation: "Horses" are kept in a "corral. A "coop" is an enclosure where people keep "chickens".

PANEGYRIC : EULOGIZE :: (A) ballad : stigmatize (B) ode : criticize (C) lampoon : satirize (D) tirade : entertain (E) treatise : dispute Explanation: A "panegyric" is a speech or written work that is intended primarily to "eulogize". A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a material commonly used in the work of person Y. GLOSSARY : TEXT :: (A) bibliography : source (B) abstract : dissertation (C) legend : map (D) index : catalog (E) abbreviation : footnote Explanation: A "glossary" is a set of explanations. the primary purpose of which is to Y". A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a communication. usually explanations of words. As a "painter" uses "canvas" in creating a work of art. Answer: C 18 .Answer: E Relationship: enclosure to animal 16. so a "sculptor" uses "marble. CANVAS : PAINTER :: (A) leather : shoe (B) brush : palette (C) chisel : wood (D) marble : sculptor (E) hammer : carpenter Explanation: A "painter" often paints on "canvas"." Answer: D Relationship: tool surface to professional 17." A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a set of explanations that helps one to understand Y. that accompanies a "text" and helps the reader to understand the "text. Answer: C Relationship: thing to purpose 18." "Marble" is a material commonly used by a "sculptor". A "lampoon" is defined as a work that is intended to "satirize"." A "legend" lists symbols or notations used on a "map" and is intended to help one understand the "map".

To "dampen" can mean to diminish the intensity of a feeling such as "ardor". A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a characteristic that must describe a person who is to be called a Y". a rationale for this analogy could be "X is a particular kind of Y. FERVOR : ZEALOT :: (A) antipathy : philanthropist (B) improvidence : spendthrift (C) concision : politician (D) determination : ecologist (E) nonchalance : acrobat Explanation: "Fervor"(intense feeling or passion) is a characteristic that has a fanatical interest in a cause. Answer: D Relationship: particular to kind 20. Answer: B Relationship: characteristic to person 21. A rationale for this analogy could be " to X means to lessen the intensity of a feeling such as Y". ASSUAGE : SORROW :: (A) retaliate : antipathy (B) dampen : ardor (C) entrust : reliability (D) counsel : reluctance (E) withhold : appreciation Explanation: To "assuage" means to lessen the intensity of. or to relieve. LULLABY : SONG :: (A) narrative : volume (B) lecture : tutor (C) paragraph : page (D) diatribe : discourse (E) invective : compliment Explanation: A "lullaby" is a "song" sung to put children to sleep. "Improvidence" (failure to exercise thrift or to provide for the future) is a characteristic of a "spendthrift" (one who spends wastefully). something like pain or "sorrow"." A "diatribe" is a bitter or abusive kind of "discourse"(an extended expression of thought). Therefore.Relationship: explanation to thing 19. Answer: B Relationship: lessening to degree 19 .

A rationale for this analogy could be "to X is to show a lack of Y". without enthusiasm or "inspiration". To "equivocate" means to lie or deceive. where Y is done to something else. Answer: C Relationship: model to modeling 23. Answer: A Relationship: lacking 24.22. and shows a lack of "directness". One who feels admiration or reverence does not behave arrogantly. PERFUNCTORILY : INSPIRATION :: (A) insolently : veneration (B) ardently : passion (C) phlegmatically : composure (D) surreptitiously : obsession (E) haltingly : reluctance Explanation: Something done "perfunctorily" is done in a mechanical or superficial manner. but its use with "shaping' suggests that here it should be taken to mean a tool used to form an object." A "drill" is a tool used for "boring" (making holes by piercing). FAWN : IMPERIOUSNESS :: (A) equivocate : directness (B) elaborate : originality (C) boggle : imagination (D) manipulate : repression (E) coddle : permissiveness Explanation: To "fawn" means to court favor in a cringing or flattering manner. 20 . A rationale for this analogy could be "A person performing in a manner described as X is acting without feeling Y. DIE : SHAPING :: (A) glue : attaching (B) anchor : sailing (C) drill : boring (D) pedal : propelling (E) ink : printing Explanation: "Die" has several meanings. or a commanding presence). One who fawns is not characterized by "imperiousness" (arrogance. This definition suggests that a rationale for this analogy could be " X is a tool used for Y." a person who does something "insolently" (arrogantly or insultingly) does not feel "veneration".

"Wool" is the name of a kind of "fabric". APPLE : FRUIT :: (A) egg : chicken (B) rung : chair (C) wool : fabric (D) fuse : dynamite (E) wick : candle Explanation: An "apple" is a kind of "fruit". Answer: C Relationship: state to disappearing 26." or "one way to y (learn) is to X (study). Answer: C Relationship: particular to kind 21 ." if a "crowd" is "dispersed. Answer: B Relationship: action to outcome 27. A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a kind of Y". when it has undergone the particular process of being Y). one way to "find" something is to "search for it". Therefore." it is no longer a "crowd.Answer: A Relationship: lacking 25." People "search" in order to "find"." A rationale for this analogy could be "an X ceases to be an X when it is Y (that. CLOT : DISSOLVED :: (A) enthusiast : influenced (B) carton : distorted (C) crowd : dispersed (D) chain : disengaged (E) disciple : inspired Explanation: A "clot" (a mass created when the components of something stick together) ceases to be a "clot" when it is "dissolved. a rationale for this analogy could be "People X (study) in order to Y (learn). STUDY : LEARN :: (A) pervade : encompass (B) search : find (C) gather : win (D) agree : keep (E) accumulate : raise Explanation: People "study" in order to "learn". is." but a number of separate individuals.

" A "sheet" is used to cover a "mattress. to increase its ability to "resist"." "Partisans" are people who support a particular person or cause and are therefore characterized by "allegiance. or who are or act authoritative. either to decorate it or to protect it. A rationale for this analogy could be " the reason to X an organism is to increase its ability to Y. Answer: A Relationship: action to purpose 30. Therefore. A reason to "immunize" something is to make it resistant to disease." Answer: E Relationship: characteristic to person 22 . AUTHORITATIVENESS : PUNDITS :: (A) dedication : signatories (B) sobriety : executors (C) sensitivity : literati (D) recklessness : warriors (E) allegiance : partisans Explanation "Pundits" are persons who are learned.28." Answer: D Relationship: coverings to things covered 29. TABLECLOTH : TABLE :: (A) tent : ground (B) shirt : hanger (C) window : sill (D) sheet : mattress (E) cloud : earth Explanation: A "tablecloth" is used to cover a "table'. FERTILIZE : GROW :: (A) immunize : resist (B) nourish : enrich (C) hear : burn (D) graft : multiply (E) prune : dwarf Explanation: People "fertilize" plants in order to make them "grow". a rationale for this analogy could be "X is by definition a personal characteristic of persons called Y. that is. A rationale for this analogy could be "the purpose of X (a tablecloth) is to cover Y (a table)." where y is something the organism must do itself.

A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a method of artistic decoration. FRESCO : WALL :: (A) fountain : courtyard (B) parquetry : floor (C) thatch : roof (D) statuary : passage (E) gargoyle : gutter Explanation: "Fresco" is a method of painting that is usually executed on a "wall"." but it implies being "attentive" in a way that is unwelcome to others. Therefore. Answer: C 23 . a rationale for this analogy could be "X is a stationary structural element that can support a Y.31. Answer: C Relationship: supporting things to things supported 33. Answer: B Relationship: decorative thing to thing decorated 32." and in acting "refined" is offensive to others. ATTENTIVE : OFFICIOUS :: (A) doubtful : ambiguous (B) absorbed : engrossed (C) refined : snobbish (D) magisterial : authoritative (E) impromptu : spontaneous Explanation: To be "officious" is a way of being "attentive. "Fresco" is also the name of a painting executed by this method." "Parquetry" is a method of artistic decoration (the laying of pieces of wood flooring in a design) that is usually found on a "floor". One who is "snobbish" wishes to be thought "refined. A rationale for this analogy could be " to be Y is to be X in a way that is unwelcome to others". examples of which are usually found on architectural surface Y." A "buttress" is a stationary structure whose primary purpose is to support a "wall". "Parquetry" also names a "floor" laid in this manner. STRUT : WING :: (A) lever : handle (B) axle : wheel (C) buttress : wall (D) beam : rivet (E) well : pipe Explanation: A stationary structural element that is designed to support an airplane's "wing" is called a "strut".

Relationship: degree and good-bad 34. AUDACIOUS : TREPIDATION :: (A) refractory : intransigence (B) laconic : volubility (C) sordid : aspiration (D) cursory : accumulation (E) derisive : subordination Explanation: An "audacious" person acts boldly and fearlessly, that is, without "trepidation" (nervousness or fear). A rationale for this analogy could be "A person properly described as X is not characterized by Y". "Laconic" means not characterized by "volubility" (talkativeness). Answer: B Relationship: lacking (antonym) 35. BLANDISHMENT : COAX :: (A) medal : honor (B) budget : save (C) diary : reminisce (D) concert : play (E) plea : threaten Explanation: "Blandishment" is a way to "coax" or persuade another by gentle urging. A rationale for this analogy could be "X is used by one person to Y another person." A "medal" is used to "honor" another. Although a "medal" is a concrete object and "blandishment" consists of words, each is used by one person to accomplish a goal related to another person. Answer: A Relationship: action to purpose 36. RELEVANT : CRUCIAL :: (A) marginal : unique (B) perceptible : obvious (C) apparent : real (D) peripheral : central (E) possible : desirable Explanation: Something "relevant" has a bearing on a matter under consideration but it may be of great or little importance. Something "crucial" is relevant and has the highest degree of importance. A rationale for this analogy could be something properly described as Y is X to a very high degree. Something properly described as "obvious" is "perceptible" to a very high degree: it is easy to perceive. Answer: B

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Relationship: degree and depth

ANTONYM
1. MOROSE: A. overawed B. agitated C. cherubic D. decisive E. cheerful Explanation: To be "morose" means to be gloomy or sullen. It is used to describe people's dispositions. A "cheerful" person is not gloomy or sullen. The correct answer is E. to be "overawed" means to be overcome by superior power or authority. To be "agitated" means to be excited or disturbed. It does not necessarily imply good humor. A gloomy person may or may not be "agitated". "Cherubic" is usually used to describe a person's appearance as rosy, innocent, or childlike. A cherub is not likely to appear "morose", but "cherubic" does not necessarily indicate a sunny disposition. A "decisive" person is able to make decisions and stick by them. A decisive person may or may not have a cheerful disposition. 2. OFFHAND: A. accurate B. universal C. appropriate D. premeditated E. disputatious Explanation: "Offhand" means done without preparation or much prior thought. It refers to a person's actions or statements. D is the correct answer. "Premeditated" means thought about or prepared for ahead of time. To be "accurate" means to be correct or free from error. An "offhand" statement is not necessary an inaccurate one. To be "universal" means to be applicable everywhere. It does not imply anything about prior thought or preparation. Something "offhand" is not by definition the opposite of "appropriate". To be "disputatious" means to be likely to argue. This quality does not imply anything about either preparation or lack of preparation. 3. WARMONGER: A. commentator B. liaison C. lobbyist D. emissary E. pacifist

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Explanation: A "warmonger" is one who incites other to make war. E is the correct answer. A "pacifist" is one who actively oppose war. A "commentator" is one who reports, usually in an objective manner and without taking sides on issues. A "liaison" is a person who provides a link between people or groups. A "liaison" does not necessarily have particular views about war. A "lobbyist" is one who promotes a particular point of view in order to influence public officials. No single view necessarily characterizes every "lobbyist". An "emissary" is a messenger or agent. No particular view necessarily characterizes an "emissary". 4. PERSEVERE: A. put into B. send out C. take away D. give up E. bring forward Explanation: To "persevere" means to continue in an enterprise in spite of opposition or other difficulties. D is the correct answer. To "give up" can mean to cease to try to accomplish something. To "put into" could mean to invest, as energy, or, more generally, to insert. To "send out" means to emit. To "take away" means to subtract, to relieve someone of something, or to remove. To "bring forward" can mean to move up or to carry over. It does not suggest a lack of perseverance. 5. EXPIRE: A. evolve B. stabilize C. come to life D. grow to fruition E. bring to light Explanation: To "expire" means to die or to run out of time. C is the correct answer. To "come to life" (to begin living) is the opposite of to die (to end life). To "evolve" means to develop gradually. The process of evolution must involve life, but to "evolve" is not the opposite of to die. to "stabilize" means to make steady or to maintain without change. To remain in a stabilized condition may mean to remain alive, but it is not the opposite of dying (ending life). To "growth to fruition" means to develop to the point of being productive. It is necessary to be alive in order to "grow to fruition," but the condition of being productive is not the opposite of dying. To "bring to light" means to reveal. It is done to another person or to a thing. 6. METAMORPHOSE: A. move ahead B. remain unaltered C. descend slowly

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"Promotion" means the act of advancing or raising to a new. Something that is the opposite of pungent might cause "boredom. but "unresponsiveness" is a characteristic of the perceiver.D. unresponsiveness D. It implies sharpness. but it does not necessarily imply a lack of sharpness. subsidization D. A is the correct answer. not irritating. redundancy C. PUNGENCY: A. better position. monopolization Explanation: "Divestiture" is a taking away of something. unnecessary. "Subsidization" refers to a continuing process of being granted something rather than to the point at which something is attained. consultation E. "Consultation" means a conferring among 27 . presumably desirable. "pungency" is a quality that is directly perceived. not the opposite of transforming. It is frequently used to describe tastes. blandness E." but "boredom" is a feeling rather than a quality. DIVESTITURE: A. "Blandness" means lacking flavor. One could be divested of a new position. "Redundancy" refers to that which is extra. promotion C. or stinging. One can divest oneself. but to "metamorphose" is not the opposite of moving ahead. boredom B. Metamorphosis might be part of a process of moving ahead. or repetitive. Coming down is not the opposite of transformation. and frequently applies to smells or tastes. prepare in advance Explanation: To "metamorphose" means to change or be transformed into something else. sharp. To "remain unaltered" is the opposite of changing or being transformed into something else. To "descend slowly" means to come down without speed. D is the correct answer. a stinging quality. insignificance Explanation: In some contexts. or one can be divested of something during "divestiture". B is the correct answer. examine in haste E. "Insignificance" is a quality. that was formerly possessed or owned. not of the thing perceived. "Acquisition" means coming into possession of something desired. acquisition B. It is not a common quality of tastes or smells. "Subsidization" means the act of giving money or aid in any of several possible situations. 7. stimulating. Examining in haste has no clear relationship to metamorphosis. but the idea of a position is not included in the definition of "divestiture" as it is in the definition of "promotion". "Pungency" is a quality that might provoke a response. 8. Preparing in advance is a preliminary step.

leisureliness C. "Leisureliness" means unhurried pace. presumptuous B. "Irregularity" can suggest dishonesty or a lack of continuity in action. useless Explanation: "Sedulous" means applying oneself faithfully to a task. D is the correct answer. TORTUOUS: A. Presumptuousness does not necessarily have to do with performance of a task. cautious D. Although "dispatch" can also be used as a verb. It does not imply lack of either speed or efficiency. 10. It implies a lack of efficiency but implies nothing about the speed of operation. straightforward 28 . It does not describe an approach to a task. Work might be made "useless" if effort and attention were not applied to it. ponderous C. DISPATCH: A. "Careless" can mean failing to apply due attention to performance of a task. it is not incompatible with "serenity". "Heedlessness" means lack of care in performance. It does not have to do with giving or taking. heedlessness D. irregularity E. 9. "Serenity" means calmness. informal C. It suggests continuing effort and attention to what is to be done. An "aversion" is a feeling of dislike or a desire to avoid. whereas "divestiture" does not imply amount or degree of divesting.people. It does not suggest a lack of attention or application. and may suggest a state of mind or an appearance of calm. "Treacherous" means likely to betray. Though "dispatch" suggests activity. rather than a way of behaving. serenity B. "Monopolization" implies having all of something. 11. SEDULOUS: A. "Presumptuous" means showing arrogance by overstepping one's authority. enduring B. but "useless" does not describe the worker's approach to the work. so "dispatch" must also be used as a noun. It implies slowness and lack of quick efficiency. simplistic E. aversion Explanation: "Dispatch" in this question means quick efficiency. "serenity" in the first choice is used only as a noun and not as a verb. careless E. treacherous D. "Ponderous" means being hard to manage because of great weight or size.

and is not indelible. it can refer to physical entities like roads or rivers and also to people's actions or reasonings. It does not imply straightness or directness. 12. It might result from isolation or the lack of it. It does not imply straightness or directness. or indirect. erasability E. comprehensibility C. It does not imply straightness or directness. Something indelible is likely to be available as well. it may or may not be indelible. Something characterized by "eras ability" can be erased or deleted. availability B. "Informal" means casual or not marked by ceremony. "Straightforward" means direct or honest. It can mean winding. and does not have to do directly with isolation. or it may refer to an impression made on a person's mind. It is unlikely that an insular people would be characterized by "willing hospitality. Something characterized by "retractability" can be disavowed or taken back. "Insularity" might make a nation susceptible.Explanation: "Tortuous" means not straight. devious. "Indebility" may refer to an actual mark like that made by a pen or pencil. rather than to marks or impressions. INDELIBILITY: A. cosmopolitanism C. 13. "Cosmopolitanism" implies worldwide scope. INSULARITY: A. B is the correct answer. Something characterized by "availability" can be obtained or used. but it does not imply a lack of isolation. "retractability" usually refers to statements or physical parts of things. To be "simplistic" means to ignore complications. susceptibility D. It is not the opposite of "indelibility". It often applies to nations or to peoples. "Enduring" means long lasting. "Comprehensibility" indicates an ability to be understood." it can refer to physical entities and also to people's actions and reasonings. D is the correct answer. but "susceptibility" means inability to resist some outside influence. Something characterized by "decidability" can be decided. retractability Explanation: Something characterized by "indelibility" cannot be removed. willing hospitality E. decidability D. Like "tortuous. to think ahead in order to avoid risks." 29 . overzealousness B. but the impression left by it may still be indelible. "Overzealousness" is excessive concern over an issue. It does not imply straightness or directness. knowledgeable consideration Explanation: "Insularity" means the state of being isolated or confined to a limited area. To be "cautious" means to be careful.

Something described as "gossamer" is not likely also to be "awkward. taciturn C." is not itself a state like "insularity. not as a noun. It is a quality of things rather than of people. To be scrupulous" may in some instances require courage. It refers to a quality of people rather than of things. valorous D. One who is "presumptuous" may or may not lack courage. intense D. "Intense" means having a quality to an extreme degree. To be "scrupulous" means to be careful and exacting. scrupulous E. "Ponderous" means heavy and possibly cumbersome. You can tell that "gossamer" is used as an adjective. because "sincere" in the first choice can be used only as an adjective and not as a noun." but to be "gossamer" does not necessarily imply lack of awkwardness. presumptuous C. 15. "Sincere" means honest or genuine." 14. "Taciturn" means not talkative. insensitive B. E is the correct answer. GOSSAMER: A. FLUENT: A. One who is "indifferent" is neutral or uncaring. 16. CRAVEN: A. awkward E. halting 30 . filmy. petulant Explanation: "Craven" means cowardly. "Valorous" means courageous. ponderous Explanation: "Gossamer" means light. "Insularity" might result from a lack of "knowledgeable consideration. derogatory D. To be "presumptuous" means to go farther than is proper. C is the correct answer. It is a quality of people rather than of things. lacking courage. sincere B.but "willing hospitality" is not implied in the idea of a lack of isolation. but "scrupulous" does not necessarily imply being courageous. "Awkward" means clumsy or ungraceful. inappropriate C. indifferent B. Indifference does not necessarily have to do with courage or the lack of it. "Petulant" means bad tempered. or delicate.

17. It is often used to refer to a manner of speech. adversary D." 31 . felon C. D is the correct answer.E. hypocritical Explanation: "Fluent" means able to flow rapidly. "Insensitive" means unfeeling. but to be a "conspirator" is not necessarily to be an enemy. "Halting" means lacking in a smoothness that permits rapidity. 18. C is the correct answer. heavy D. To be "heavy" means to have great weight. courageous Explanation: To be "flustered" means to be confused and agitated to such a degree that one cannot think clearly or act decisively. Being "courageous" is not usually associated with being "flustered. "Hypocritical" means saying one thing while meaning another. conspirator Explanation: An "ally" is a helper or supporter. rather than with a particular quality a person has. It refers to the content of speech rather than to the manner of delivery. A conspiracy may involve a plot against another person. A "conspirator" is one who plots with others as an "ally". To be an "ally" has to do with a person's relationships with others. it refers to the content of speech rather than to the manner of delivery. mute B. Inventiveness does not imply anything about a person's relationships with others. "Inappropriate" means unsuitable. calm C. An "inventor" is one who comes up with new ideas." but "courageous" does not mean the opposite of "flustered. one who operates against another rather than helping or supporting. putting on a false appearance. A "felon" is one who has committed a crime. To be "mute" means to be silent-unable or unwilling to speak. To be "calm" means to be free from agitation or disturbance. but it does not describe the presence or absence of confusion and agitation. To be "courageous" means to be brave. It can be used in many senses. It is often used to refer to effortlessly smooth and rapid speech. An "adversary" is an enemy. it refers to the content of speech rather than to the manner of delivery. it refers to a personal characteristic or the content of speech rather than to the manner of delivery. inventor E. It does not refer to a state of mind. A "mediator" is one who reconciles differences among other parties without taking sides. B is the correct answer. FLUSTERED: A. ingrained E. "Ingrained" describes attitudes that have becomes so firmly established that they are very hard to get rid of. mediator B. "Derogatory" means expressing a low opinion of something. ALLY: A.

arouse C. to "demand' means to ask for. It may imply a desire to take in. Change in speed is not implied. "Natural" does not indicate either resistance to water or lack of resistance. prevent E. WATERPROOF: A. "unglazed" does not by definition mean lacking resistance to water. demand C. by water or other liquids. natural C. E is the correct answer. Something "soggy" is not "waterproof." To "dispel" means to do away with something. require Explanation: To "emit" means to give out or send out. viscous E. No change in speed is implied. unglazed D. retard Explanation: One meaning of "accelerate" is to speed up the progress or development of something. mistake D. To "retard" is to slow down or impede progress. but it is not the opposite of sending 32 . E is the correct answer. 20. but a change in speed is not implied in the definition of "arouse. soggy B.19. "Viscous" means gluey. to turn away from something. ACCELERATE: A. "Permeable" means capable of being penetrated. It is unlikely that an "unglazed" substance such as pottery is less "waterproof" than the same substance covered with a glaze. However. swerve B. To "arouse" means to waken or stir up. EMIT: A." but "soggy" implies more than being penetrable by water. It means having already absorbed a great deal of liquid. generally. To "reject" means. One might "arouse" something in order to hasten its progress. absorb B. dispel D. 21. A is the correct answer. permeable Explanation: Something that is "waterproof" cannot be penetrated by water. To "swerve" means to change course suddenly. To "absorb" means to take in. it refers to the consistency of a material rather than to its resistance to water. especially by scattering its parts. Something "soggy" has already been penetrated by a liquid. It does not necessarily imply a change in speed. reject E.

cyclical motion D. METAMORPHOSIS: A. It is not a characteristic of the relationship. simplify 33 . The existence of a "contract" may imply a lack of "dissonance. "Cyclical motion" could itself be considered a change." but it is not a characteristic of a relationship. 22. "Collusion" is not itself either harmonious or inharmonious. lay claim to C. A "confederacy" is an agreement or a body formed by agreement. DISSONANCE: A. concord B. relief from strain B. but it implies a state of mind rather than the physical kind of change usually implied by "metamorphosis". "Collusion" means cooperation among people who intend to deceive others. but the preventing itself is not the opposite of emitting. It is not a characteristic of a relationship. "Dogmatic persistence" could refer to a refusal to change. close off D. soothe E. varied activity Explanation: A "metamorphosis" is a change. It is fostered by a harmonious relationship among people.out. 24. "Continuation without change" is the opposite of change. confederacy C. It is an action of some kind rather than a characteristic of a relationship. It can be a characteristic of sounds or of relationships among people. rather than the opposite of change. "Varied activity" may or may not include the idea of physical change. Emission might be prevented. To need something does not mean the same thing as to receive it. "Consent" is approval of or compliance with something done or proposed by another. A is the correct answer. "Relief from strain" may or may not accompany "metamorphosis". "Concord" means harmony or a state of agreement. contract Explanation: "Dissonance" means a clash or lack of agreement. continuation without change C. To "require" means to have a compelling need. B is the correct answer. dogmatic persistence E. collusion D. A "contract" is a kind of formal agreement. To "mistake" means to make an error of an unspecified kind. so "require" is not the opposite of "emit". usually in physical appearance or state. keep track of B. consent E. BROACH: A. To "prevent" means to keep from occurring. 23.

" but elation is an emotional state rather than the state that causes emotion. and does not imply luck or lack of it. "Excited" means stimulated. It raises questions of ownership but it is not the opposite of opening up or introducing. C is the correct answer. solidity B. transparency E. To "lay claim to" means to call one's own. "Solidity" means substantial. elated C. Like "ferment. In some situations. Although it is unlikely that "ferment" and "solidity" would characterize the same things. One who is "fortunate" is lucky. such as a container or building. as well as a physical state. To "simplify" means to lessen complication. To "keep track of" means to follow the progress of something. or showing strong feeling." it can characterize a state of political affairs. broaching could cause the opposite of comforting or placating. purity C. so "ferment" must also be sued as a noun. not as a verb.Explanation: To "broach" means to open up. they are not opposites." but it is not the opposite of a state of "transparency. or to end access to something. To "soothe" means to comfort or placate. tranquility Explanation: "Ferment" in this question is a state of unrest. excited B. sturdy. If one is "assured of success. 25. C is the correct answer. fortunate D. HAPLESS: A. assured of success Explanation: "Hapless" means unlucky or unable to achieve success because of bad luck. "Tranquility" means free from disturbance or turmoil. One might feel "elated" if one were not "hapless. Something characterized by purity may or may not be in a state of "ferment'. or it can refer to opening a topic for discussion. A state of "ferment" does not promote "transparency. or turbulence." but it is not the opposite of a state of "lucidity". To "broach" is not necessarily to complicate. or uniform character. "solidity" in the first choice can be used only as a noun. "Transparency" means clarity or obviousness." 26. It does not necessarily suggest opening or closing. but "soothe" is not the opposite of "broach". completely self-reliant E." one is not 34 . FERMENT: A. "Lucidity" means clarity or mental coherence. A state of "ferment" does not promote "lucidity. Although "ferment" can also be used as a verb. "Purity" means lack of contamination. lucidity D. To be "completely self-reliant" means to be able to depend entirely on one's own abilities. To " close off" is to end discussion. It can mean opening or breaking into an actual thing. disorder.

It does not describe a quantity. PLETHORA: A. narrowness C. You can tell that "posture" is used as a verb. "Vacuousness" means a state of being empty or stupid. It does not describe quantity as does "plethora. that is. attractively fragrant B. D is the correct answer. impose arbitrarily D. 29. To "behave naturally" is to act without artifice. and is characteristic of a particular quantity. choice D. It is less than is needed. luck or the lack of it is not a necessary element in the idea of being guaranteed success. but also harmful nature or unwholesomeness. A "dearth" is a scarcity. vacuousness B. 27. softly glowing E. consistently patient D. gradually diminishing Explanation: "Noisome" means bad smelling. publicize widely E. 28. NOISOME: A. without posing or attempting to create an effect. as does "plethora". It does not describe quantity. subtly flattering C. behave naturally C. "Narrowness" means a state of lacking scope. not of a quantity. explain carefully Explanation: To "posture" means to pose or to take a position in order to create a desired effect. To be "attractively fragrant" means to have a peasant smell."hapless". as does "plethora. POSTURE: A. because "walk clumsily" in the first choice can be used only as a verb and not as a noun. To be "subtly flattering" means to pay a possibly undeserved compliment without seeming 35 . It suggests not only unpleasant smell. walk clumsily B. However. not as a noun." "Confusion" means a lack of clear perception. A is the correct answer." A "choice" is an opportunity to choose or a thing chosen. dearth E. It can refer to people's appearance and actions or to their statements. confusion Explanation: A "plethora" is more than is necessary. It describes a characteristic of a particular quantity. It is a characteristic of a person or a thing.

as when something official done away with or when something is done away with by law. It does not necessarily suggest anything about how something smells or about its wholesomeness. In a legal context. To "admit willingly" does not necessarily mean to keep something in existence. It does not necessarily suggest anything about smell or wholesomeness. defer C. argue C. To be "grateful" means to appreciate something. to "defer" is most likely to mean to put off. It does not imply anything about smell. by definition. a connection between the two. frightened E. To "discuss secretly" is not necessarily to keep something in existence. 31. "Softly glowing" means giving off a non-glaring light. It does not imply a level of activity or of feeling. quiet. tickle B. 32. 30. It does not necessarily suggest anything about smell or wholesomeness. clever D. uphold B. One who is "angry" might be. "Quiet" can imply low levels of both noise and activity. or to delay. read thoroughly Explanation: To "abrogate" means to do away with. speak slowly 36 . but there is not. Expressing appreciation is not necessarily associated with particular levels of noise or activity. E is the correct answer. BOISTEROUS: A. "Gradually diminishing" means slowly becoming smaller. usually in a legal context. angry C. admit willingly E. grateful B. A "frightened" person might not behave boisterously. but is not necessarily. ABROGATE: A. To be "consistently patient" means to constantly carry on without complaint. To be "clever" means to be quick-witted or resourceful.to do so. To "read thoroughly" does not mean to keep something in existence. To "uphold" means to support something. it is likely to mean to keep something (like a rule or law) in existence rather than to do away with it. In a legal context. stroke D. quiet Explanation: "Boisterous" means noisy and high spirited. discuss secretly D. It implies activity as well as noise. JABBER: A.

To "separate" means to disunite. To "correlate" means to show a relationship to something else. It does not refer to the speed or intelligibility of speech. To "speak slowly" is the opposite of speaking rapidly. terminate D. 35. perform quickly Explanation: One meaning of "endorse" is to approve of something. correlate Explanation: To "amalgamate" means to mix together or unite. 33. calibrate E. To "provoke criticism" means to cause someone to criticize. It is different from jabbering in that it involves touch rather than verbal communication. provoke criticism B. "Endorse" does not suggest coercion or the absence of coercion. as the markings on an instrument. It is different from jabbering in that it involves touch rather than verbal communication. To "argue" means to dispute or to give reasons for something. To "submit unwillingly" may or may not suggest disapproval. submit unwillingly D. in order to "receive payment. A is the correct answer. D is the correct answer. receive payment C. To "joke inaptly" means to make inappropriate jests. but tickling is not the opposite of jabbering. To "fixate" means to gaze steadily at something." To "stroke" means to rub gently. To "perform quickly' does not imply approval or disapproval. It does not necessarily imply dissolution. To "tickle" means to excite in a pleasant way.E. ENDORSE: A. D is the correct answer. To "calibrate" means to adjust. but stroking is not the opposite of jabbering. and not its opposite. as one would sign a check. rather than to express disapproval. so to "submit unwillingly" is too specific to be the opposite of the more general "endorse". oppose publicly E. GIST: 37 . It implies attaching one's name to an indication of approval. such as a statement. "Endorse" can mean to sign. joke inaptly Explanation: To "jabber" means to speak so rapidly as to be unintelligible. AMALGAMATE: A." but endorsement is a step in a process of receiving payment. separate B. To "oppose publicly" is the opposite of lending one's name in approval. fixate C. It refers to the content rather than to the manner of speech and so cannot be the opposite of "jabber. To "terminate" means to put an end to or to come to an end. 34.

informal procedure D. A "trivial point" is an unimportant one. for instance. You can tell from the answer choices that "breach" is used as a verb. eccentric method E." but this lack is not implied in the definition of "anarchy. An "artificial manner" is an affected or unnatural way of behaving. To "keep silent" is to refrain from speaking or making noise. trivial point C.) is the main. keep silent D. order D. There is no reason to suppose that it is unrelated to the main point. singular event Explanation: The "gist" (of an argument. "Order" is the opposite of a lack of order. point. solder C. or most important. B is the correct answer." can be a political state. C is the correct answer. 36. An "informal procedure" is a method of operation that is not rigidly specified. artificial manner B. neutrality E. B is the correct answer. To "solder" is to unite parts or to mend a break. To "garner" is to gather. There is no reason to suppose that it is no reason to suppose that it is unrelated to the main point. garner B. give approval Explanation: To "breach" means to break or to break into something. A lack of "courtesy" might well accompany a state of "anarchy." "Hope" is an emotion. rather than a part of an argument or discussion. and not a state. importance Explanation: "Anarchy" means absence of order. There is no reason to suppose that it is unrelated to the main point. It may or may not accompany "anarchy.A." like "anarchy. "Neutrality. To "give approval" is to express a favorable opinion. 38 . not as a noun. ANARCHY: A. To "move forward" is to go ahead or to make progress. 37. BREACH: A. hope C." but it is not the opposite of "anarchy". but it does not necessarily imply orderliness. "Importance" is a quality that does not directly or necessarily have to do with order or the lack of it. move forward E. courtesy B. A "singular event" is an occurrence that is individual or unusual. An "eccentric method" is a way of operating that is peculiar to a person or group.

Something "extricable" can be removed or disentangled. 39. extricable D. E is the correct answer. To be "extensive" means to cover a large area. eclectic B. INCURSION: A. extensive B. so "figurative" cannot be the opposite of "spiritual". figurative C. in the case of an animal or kind of animal. no longer existing or living. "Extinct" means. extraneous C. Though "retreat" is more general than 39 . "Extraneous" means inessential. immoral E. corporeal Explanation: "Spiritual" refers to matters of the spirit rather than to the material world or the body. "immoral" is not the opposite of "spiritual". loss of respect B. It suggests aggression. "Figurative" refers to a way of representing something rather than to its nature. a backing off from a former position. 40. D is the correct answer. extra Explanation: "Extant" means still existing. "Extra" means additional. ephemeral D. SPIRITUAL: A. Something that is "extensive" must still exist. or to documents or other inanimate objects. but it does not imply nonexistence. relapse E. lack of resolve C. It may refer to living things. Though morality is sometimes seen as a concern of the "spiritual' world. EXTANT: A. Its use is not limited either to the realm of the material or to the realm of the immaterial. retreat Explanation: An "incursion" is an intrusion into another's territory. Such a thing is not nonexistent. "Retreat" is often used in a military context to describe an end to formal aggression. "Corporeal" mean of the body or the material world. but it does not imply nonexistence. extinct E. To be "eclectic" is to draw or be drawn from a variety of sources.38. and is often used in a military context. "Ephemeral" means lasting for a very short time. Something "immoral" does not conform to a standard of morality. reparation D. It may imply unimportance.

by itself. SAVANT: A. When "tractability" refers to a person."incursion" in that it does not necessarily refer to a position in another's territory. Such a person may or may not have great knowledge. A "relapse" is a return to a previous. "Reparation" (repaying wartime damages. imply resistance to influence. it suggests that something is easily changed or molded." but repayment is not the opposite of an intrusion. or making amends) may be required as a result of an "incursion. but a "lack of resolve" is not the opposite of an intrusion. TRACTABILITY: A. A "flatterer" is one who praises others excessively in order to achieve some end. flatterer B. in some circumstances. misunderstood advisor Explanation: A "savant" is a person characterized by great knowledge. infertility B. incorrigibility D. A "misunderstood advisor" is one whose advice is not properly comprehended. To make an "incursion" does not necessarily inspire respect in those whose territory is invaded. One who flatters may or may not have great knowledge. C is the correct answer. It is not the opposite of an intrusion. "Indefatigability" means tirelessness. it implies obedience or a tendency to be easily influenced by others. It does not imply anything about character when it is used to describe persons. indefatigability Explanation: "Tractability" can be a characteristic of either persons or materials. 42. "Incorrigibility" implies an unwillingness to be influenced by others. C is the correct answer. undesirable state. "Infertility" means inability to produce or reproduce. it is still the answer most nearly opposite to "incursion". When applied to materials. It does not. One who is incorrigible cannot be changed. An "unlearned person" is one who has not acquired great knowledge through reading or other experience. Such a person may or may not have great knowledge. AVER: A. implausibility C. 43. suggest unwillingness to be influenced by others. An "unprincipled individual" is one who is unethical. "Implausibility" means unbelievability. especially knowledge acquired from books. unprincipled individual E. impenetrability E. collect 40 . so a "loss of respect" is not the opposite of "incursion. "Impenetrability" may." It is likely that "incursion" is preceded by a certain amount of resolve. 41. A "bore" is a person who is unable to hold the interest of others. but it goes further in that it implies an obliviousness to efforts to influence. bore C. A "savant" could also be a "bore". unlearned person D. An impenetrable person is unaware that influence is being exerted.

ingenuous D. augment C. 41 . and could refer to evidence in support of a position. the hunting carnivores and the herbivores that they hunted. "Contentious" means likely to argue or to cause an argument.B. A is the correct answer. To "encourage" is to inspire or to help along. To "deny' is to state that something is false. unable to hide one' feelings. "Lugubrious" means mournful and implies that a special attempt to appear mournful is being made. placate D. specifically. It implies. The ability of a statement to placate is not necessarily related to the certainty or truth of its content. that a special effort to be funny has been made. deny E. lugubrious B. prodigious E. "Audacious" means bold or daring. To "collect" means to gather. "Prodigious" means very large. Encouragement is not concerned with truth or the lack of it. D is the correct answer. The interaction resulting from the differences between predator and prey led to a general improvement in brain functions. To "augment" means to make greater. certain components of intelligence were improved far more than others. contentious C. but it does not refer to a statement or to proof. audacious Explanation: "Facetious" means humorous. 44. "Ingenuous" means honest. however. or to prove something positively to be true. FACETIOUS: A. encourage Explanation: To "aver" means to state that something is certainly true. READING COMPLEHENSION Reading Passage 1 The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of the grasslands was due in great measure to the interaction between two ecologically synchronized groups of these animals. To "placate" means to soothe.

arousal attunes the animal to what is ahead. Arousal is at first general. innerdirected. the holding of consistent images. The organism is more awake. For both. Perhaps it does not experience forethought as we know it.The author is primarily concerned with (A) disproving the view that herbivores are less intelligent than carnivores (B) describing a relationship between animals' intelligence and their ecological roles (C) establishing a direct link between early large mammals and their modern counterparts (D) analyzing the ecological basis for the dominance of some carnivores over other carnivores (E) demonstrating the importance of hormones in mental activity Answer: (B) Explanation: 42 . active fixation. then gradually the activation is channeled. The herbivore prey is of a different mind. say. a network of tracts converging from sensory systems to integrating centers in the brain stem. the large mammal predator is working out a relationship between movement and food. this increased vigilance results in the apprehension of ever more subtle signals as the organism becomes more sensitive to its surroundings. It ranges from a passive. Using past events as a framework. Thus begins concentration. From the more relaxed to the more vigorous levels. The elements of intelligence and consciousness come together marvelously to produce different styles in predator and prey. sensitive to possibilities in cold trails and distant sounds-and yesterday's unforgotten lessons. a hungry lizard's instinctive snap at a passing beetle. Herbivores and carnivores develop different kinds of attention related to escaping or chasing. arousal stimulates the production of adrenaline and norepinephrine by the adrenal glands. tuned by the nervous system and the adrenal hormones. whereas in carnivores the effect is primarily aggression. 1. sensitivity to novelty is increased. The predator is searchingly aggressive.The kind of intelligence favored by the interplay of increasingly smarter catchers and increasingly keener escapers is defined by attention-that aspect of mind carrying consciousness forward from one moment to the next. but aware in a sense closer to human consciousness than. One meaning of intelligence is the way in which these images and other alertly searched information are used in the context of previous experience. Its mood of wariness rather than searching and its attitude of general expectancy instead of anticipating are silk-thin veils of tranquility over an explosive endocrine system. The processes of arousal and concentration give attention its direction. free-floating awareness to a highly focused. with a flooding of impulses in the brain stem. The range through these states is mediated by the arousal system.but the animal does experience something like it. Although in both kinds of animal. the effect in herbivores is primarily fear. more vigilant. Consciousness links past attention to the present and permits the integration of details with perceived ends and purposes.

the author defines intelligence in terms of an animals use of past experience. In the context of the entire passage. The sensitivity described in lines 70-76 is most clearly an example of (A) "free-floating awareness" (lines 20-21) (B) "flooding of impulses in the brain stem" (lines 36-37) 43 . it can be inferred that more intelligent animals. In lines 40-44. such as the grassland mammals discussed. 3. You are to identify the role this element plays in the passage. not discussed in the passage. It can be inferred from the passage that in animals less intelligent than the mammals discussed in the passage (A) past experience is less helpful in ensuring survival (B) attention is more highly focused (C) muscular coordination is less highly developed (D) there is less need for competition among species (E) environment is more important in establishing the proper ratio of prey to predator Answer: (A) Explanation: This question asks you to draw a conclusion from the information in the passage about animals. The purpose of the contrast is to make a distinction between higher and lower levels of consciousness. 4. The primary concern of the passage is introduced in the first paragraph. but all of them are focused on a single main concern. are better able to use past experience to help them survive than are less intelligent animals. specifically its role in furthering the author's argument. 2. that are less intelligent than the animals that are discussed. The author makes a number of different points. The author refers to a hungry lizard (lines 68-69) primarily in order to (A) demonstrate the similarity between the hunting methods of mammals and those of nonmammals (B) broaden the application of his argument by including an insectivore as an example (C) make a distinction between higher and lower levels of consciousness (D) provide an additional illustration of the brutality characteristic of predators (E) offer an objection to suggestions that all animals lack consciousness Answer: (C) Explanation: This question refers you to a specific element in the passage. and the rest of the passage presents additional information about the relationship described in that paragraph.This question asks you identify the author's primary concern. The "hungry lizard's instinctive snap" is contrasted with the mammal's awareness.

The author provides information that would answer which of the following questions? I. I can be answered. you must first determine which of the three questions (I. In lines 70-76. as well as the statement that these elements come together "marvelously" (lines 49-50).(C) "the holding of consistent images" (lines 39-40) (D) "integration of details with perceived ends and purposes" (lines 45-47) (E) "silk-thin veils of tranquility"(lines 80-81) Answer: (D) Explanation: To answer this question.II. the perceived end. suggests that the author respects and admires at least some of their characteristics. II and III Answer: (C) Explanation: To answer this question. The author's description of the animals' intelligence and ability to focus attention. you must determine the meaning of the word quoted from the passage in each answer. Then you must determine which of the given answer choices includes the Roman numerals of those questions. What are some of the degrees of attention in large mammals? III. What occurs when the stimulus that causes arousal of a mammal is removed? (A) I only (B) III only (C) I and II only (D) II and III only (E) I. Why is an aroused herbivore usually fearful? II. and then determine which quotation is most clearly illustrated by the words quoted in lines 70-76. 5. and III) can be answered using the information in the passage. The author's attitude toward the mammals discussed in the passage is best described as (A) superior and condescending (B) lighthearted and jocular (C) apologetic and conciliatory (D) wistful and tender (E) respectful and admiring Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to use information in the passage to judge the author's attitude toward the main subject. the animal's sensitivity connects "details" such as cold trails and distant sounds with food. 6. intelligent mammals. An aroused herbivore is fearful because it must be ready 44 .

Great comic artists assume that truth may bear all lights. III cannot be answered. even though we try to be gods. A directly paraphrases the statement in lines 7-10. not gloss over or transcend them by appeals to extrasocial symbols of divine ends. Both I and II can be answered using information provided in the passage. who are willing to 45 . 8. as the process of arousal in an organism continues. including escaping from a predator. 7. To answer the question. not their reaction to the removal of a stimulus. cosmic purpose. According to the passage.for what is ahead. improvement in brain function among early large mammals resulted primarily from which of the following? (A) Interplay of predator and prey (B) Persistence of free-floating awareness in animals of the grasslands (C) Gradual dominance of warm-blooded mammals over cold-blooded reptiles (D) Interaction of early large mammals with less intelligent species (E) Improvement of the capacity for memory among herbivores and carnivores Answer: (A) Explanation: This question asks you to identify a reason given in the passage for improved brain function among early large mammals. Lines 19-21 describe two degrees of attention in large mammals. the highest degree and the lowest. The author discusses only animals' reactions to the presence of stimuli. all of the following may occur EXCEPT (A) the production of adrenaline (B) the production of nor epinephrine (C) a heightening of sensitivity to stimuli (D) an increase in selectivity with respect to stimuli (E) an expansion of the range of states mediated by the brain stem Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you what does NOT occur during arousal. and thus they seek to accentuate contradictions in social action. born out of the conviction that we are human. Reading Passage 2 Great comic art is never other-wordly. The moment of transcendence in great comic art is a social moment. joyful. There is no indication in the passage that the range of states mediated by the brain stem expands during arousal. The comic community to which artists address themselves is a community of reasoning. According to the passage. II can be answered. it does not seek to mystify us. loving. or laws of nature. and it does not deny ambiguity by branding as evil whatever differs from good. which describes the author's view of the development of improved brain function in early mammals. compassionate beings. you must first determine what does occur.

" That comic artists address themselves to this audience suggests optimism about the ability of humans to "act rationally". an ability that great comic art attributes to humans. That great comic artists confront the truth about the human condition is implied in the author's statements that great comic art does not seek to mystify us. this is the correct answer. courage which grows out of trust in what human beings can do as humans. that is. but must be inferred. It can be inferred from the passage that the author admires great comic artists primarily for their (A) ability to understand the frequently subtle differences between good and evil (B) ability to reconcile the contradictions in human behavior (C) ability to distinguish between rational and irrational behavior (D) insistence on confronting the truth about the human condition (E) insistence on condemning human faults and weaknesses Answer: (D) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the characteristic of great comic artists that the author most admires. great comic art arouses courage in reason.assume the human risks of acting rationally. to deny ambiguity or to gloss over contradictions in social action.The passage suggests that great comic art can be characterized as optimistic about the ability of humans to (A) rid themselves of pride (B) transcend the human condition (C) differentiate clearly between good and evil (D) avoid social conflicts (E) act rationally Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to identify a human ability about which great comic art is optimistic. Without invoking gods or demons. the author expresses admiration. Which of the following is the most accurate description of the organization of the passage? (A) A sequence of observations leading to a prediction (B) A list of inferences drawn from facts stated at the beginning of the passage (C) A series of assertions related to one general subject (D) A statement of the major idea. According to the passage. followed by specific examples (E) A succession of ideas moving from specific to general 46 . The answer is not stated directly in the passage. 3. By calling the art "great". Therefore. the "comic community" is made up of people willing to "assume the human risks of acting rationally. 1. 2.

The passage consists of a series of assertions. Dust accounts for about one percent of the total mass of interstellar matter. According to the passage.000 to 10.000 times less than the best terrestrial laboratory vacuum. dust is only a minor constituent of the material. The interstellar material. In order to answer. comes in all shapes and sizes. you must consider all the elements in the passage and the relationships among them. Answer: (A) Explanation: This question asks you to identify an effect that the dust that lies between the stars has on the perceptions of observers on Earth. (E) The dust is conspicuously visible against a background of bright stars. extremely low in density.Answer: (C) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the most accurate description of the organization of the passage. (C) The presence of hydrogen and helium gas is revealed. they are dark because of interstellar dust that hides the stars behind it. It is only because of the enormous interstellar distances that so little material per unit of volume becomes so significant. based on the author's opinions. 1. which of the following is a direct perceptual consequence of interstellar dust? (A) Some stars are rendered invisible to observers on Earth. Reading Passage 3 The dark regions in the starry night sky are not pockets in the universe that are devoid of stars as had long been thought. (B) Many visible stars are made to seem brighter than they really are. 2. C is the correct answer. the dust is not. Rather. (D) The night sky appears dusty at all times to observers on Earth. for although interstellar gas is perfectly transparent. The rest is hydrogen and helium gas. that lies between the stars. Optical astronomy is most directly affected. It can be inferred from the passage that the density of interstellar material is (A) higher where distances between the stars are shorter (B) equal to that of interstellar dust (C) unusually low in the vicinity of our Sun (D) independent of the incidence of gaseous components (E) not homogeneous throughout interstellar space 47 . Although its visual effect is so pronounced. rather liketerrestrial clouds. A is the correct answer.According to the passage. interstellar dust hides the stars behind it. related to the general subject of great comic art. with small amounts of other elements. The average density of interstellar material in the vicinity of our Sun is 1.

saying that it "comes in all shapes and sizes" (lines 15-16). like Fogel. but it is not transparent. The answer is not necessarily stated in the passage. be regarded as transparent (E) optical astronomy would be of little use even if no interstellar dust existed Answer: (C) Explanation: This question asks what effect the vastness of space has. Reading Passage 4 In his 1976 study of slavery in the United States. and Genovese. Rather. It can be inferred from the passage that it is because space is so vast that (A) little of the interstellar material in it seems substantial (B) normal units of volume seem futile for measurements of density (C) stars can be far enough from Earth to be obscured even by very sparsely distributed matter (D) interstellar gases can. 48 . The answer is not necessarily stated in the passage. The matter between the stars is very sparsely distributed (of very low density). E is the best answer. were possible. for all practical purposes. The author's statement that " It is only because of the enormous interstellar distances that so little material per unit of volume becomes so significant" indicates that it is the vastness of space that accounts for the obscuring of the stars by material of low density. the reference to the "average density" of the interstellar material in the vicinity of our Sun (lines 16-17) suggests that the density of interstellar material varies from region to region and is not homogeneous. But unlike these historians. but must be inferred by putting together pieces of information found in the passage. Herbert Gutman. but must be inferred by putting together pieces of information found in the passage. Also. The passage compares the interstellar material to clouds. Engerman. according to the last sentence in the passage. Gutman argues that one must look to the Black family and the slaves' extended kinship system to understand how crucial achievements.Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to draw a conclusion about the density of the material that exists between the stars. C is the correct answer. this suggests that the material is not uniformly distributed throughout interstellar space. Stars can be obscured by it. 3. such as the maintenance of a cultural heritage and the development of a communal consciousness. has rightly stressed the slaves' achievements. Gutman gives plantation owners little credit for these achievements.

Discounted the influence of plantation owners on slaves' achievements. III. Pointed out the prevalence of the two-parent household among slaves. These sources indicate that the two-parent household predominated in slave quarters just as it did among freed slaves after emancipation. an exogamous tendency that contrasted sharply with the endogamy practiced by the plantation owners.According to the passage. This taboo against cousins' marrying is important.His findings compel attention. he shows that the slaves'preference. and religious expression from one generation to another. "fictive" kinship arrangements took their place until a new pattern of consanguinity developed. argues Gutman. Gutman's study is significant because it offers a closely reasoned and original explanation of some of the slaves' achievements. Showed the connection between stable monogamy and slaves' cultural heritage. because it is one of many indications of a strong awareness among slaves of an extended kinship network. Gutman presents convincing evidence that this extended kinship structure-which he believes developed by the mid-to-late eighteenth century-provided the foundations for the strong communal consciousness that existed among slaves. Gutman argues convincingly that the stability of the Black family encouraged the transmission of-and so was crucial in sustaining-the Black heritage of folklore. only Gutman emphasizes the preference for stable monogamy and points out what stable monogamy meant for the slaves' cultural heritage. Fogel. (A) I and II only 49 . may have derived from West African rules governing marriage. Although Gutman admits that forced separation by sale was frequent. Gutman recreates the family and extended kinship structure mainly through an ingenious use of what any historian should draw upon. and Genovese had already indicated the predominance of two-parent households. In sum. Gutman suggests. which. quantifiable data. In less conclusive fashion Fogel. Gutman's examination of other facets of kinship also produces important findings. music. IV. was very much for stable monogamy. revealed most clearly on plantations where sale was infrequent. Engerman. however. Gutman discovers that cousins rarely married. one that correctly emphasizes the resources that slaves themselves possessed. all involved some kind of prohibition against unions with close kin. Engerman. II. and Gutman have all done which of the following? I. as in newly created plantations in the Southwest. This preference for exogamy. though they differed from one tribal group to another. Emphasized the achievements of slaves. Genovese. 1. The fact that distantly related kin would care for children separated from their families also suggests this awareness. derived in this case mostly from plantation birth registers.When blood relationships were few. He also uses accounts of ex-slaves to probe the human reality behind his statistics. a heritage that slaves were continually fashioning out of their African and American experiences.

and Genovese are mentioned in line 3. and IV only Answer: (C) Explanation: This question asks you to compare Gutman's work with the work of other historians mentioned in the passage. Fogel. (D) Historians ought to make use of data that can be quantified. I is not an answer. and Genovese pointed out the prevalence of two parent households among slaves. I and IV do not. " what an y historian should draw upon. IV is not an answer. the resources that historians ought to use. stressed slaves' achievements. (E) Historians ought to draw on earlier historical research but they should do so in order to refute it. 3. and IV only II. According to lines 24-27. Lines 18-20 indicate the author's belief that historians should make use of quantifiable date. Answer: (D) Explanation: This question asks you to infer something about the author's beliefs concerning historians' resources. D is the correct answer. According to lines 28-33. Which of the following statements about the formation of the Black heritage of folklore. the author mentions. The historians Fogel. 2. III. II is an answer. and religious expression is best supported by the information presented in the passage? (A) The heritage was formed primarily out of the experiences of those slaves who attempted to preserve the stability of their families. According to lines 2-5." that is. In lines 18-19. (C) Historians should rely exclusively on data that can be quantified. 50 . Engerman. like the other historians. Engerman. Gutman. C is the correct answer. (B) Historians should rely primarily on birth registers. (B) The heritage was not formed out of the experiences of those slaves who married their cousins. and again in lines 34-35.(B) (C) (D) (E) I and IV only II and III only I. music. With which of the following statements regarding the resources that historians ought to use would the author of the passage be most likely to agree? (A) Historians ought to make use of written rather than oral accounts. only Gutman shows the relationship between stable monogamy and the slaves' cultural heritage. Gutman is unlike the other historians in that he discounts the influence of plantation owners on slaves' achievements. III. Lines 16-23 describe Gutman's citing of sources to document the prevalence of two parent households. According to lines 6-7. III is an answer. II and III both describe something that all the historians have done.

where it is mentioned that on these plantations the slaves' preference for stable monogamy was revealed most clearly. (D) The heritage was not formed out of the experiences of only a single generation of slaves. 5. The answer can be inferred from the information found in lines 30-33. but information in the passage permits you to make an inference. It can be inferred that. These two factors suggest that the heritage grew out of the experience of more than one generation. the most probable reason why a historian of slavery might be interested in studying the type of plantations mentioned in line 31 is that this type would (A) give the historian access to the most complete plantation birth registers (B) permit the historian to observe the kinship patterns that had been most popular among West African tribes (C) provide the historian with evidence concerning the preference of freed slaves for stable monogamy (D) furnish the historian with the opportunity to discover the kind of marital commitment that slaves themselves chose to have (E) allow the historian to examine the influence of slaves' preferences on the actions of plantation owners Answer: (D) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the most likely reason for a historian's interest in plantations where the sale of slaves was infrequent. 4. Black culture was passed form one generation to another and was being continually fashioned out of both African and American experiences. (B) The rules forbade marriages between close kin. According to the passage. D is the correct answer. According to the passage. all of the following are true of the West African rules governing marriage mentioned in lines (57-61) EXCEPT: (A) The rules were derived from rules governing fictive kinship arrangements. D is the best answer. because sale was infrequent on the plantations mentioned in lines 31-32. The answer is not necessarily stated in the passage. Answer: (D) Explanation: This question asks you to make an inference about the formation of black cultural heritage. (E) The heritage was formed primarily out of slaves' experiences of interdependence on newly created plantations in the Southwest. 51 . of the following. families were not separated against their wishes. It can be inferred from the passage that. and so the marital commitments they themselves chose were more likely to be evident.(C) The heritage was formed more out of the African than out of the American experiences of slaves.

(D) The rules were not uniform in all respects from one West African tribe to another. draws on the work of several historians for evidence to support his thesis. (B) The author presents his thesis. These arrangements resulted from a set of circumstances peculiar to the settlement of new plantations and did not give rise to the marriage rules of West Africa. Lines 59-63 describe West African rules governing marriage. (C) The author describes some features of a historical study and then uses those features to put forth his own argument. from the information in these lines or in other parts of the passage. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage? (A) The author compares and contrasts the work of several historians and then discusses areas for possible new research. therefore. You are to determine. This contrasted sharply with the endogamy (marriage within the same family) practiced by the plantation owners. Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to draw a logical conclusion from the information in the passage about the marriage practices of plantation owners. According to lines 54-57. (C) Plantation owners usually based their choice of marriage partners on economic considerations. (E) Plantation owners often married their cousins. Answer: (A) Explanation: This question refers you to a specific portion of the passage. It can be inferred. and concludes by reiterating his thesis. 7. (Marriage practices of plantation owners are mentioned only in lines 56-57. (A) These practices began to alter sometime around the mid-eighteenth century.(C) The rules are mentioned in Herbert Gutman's study. which statement is NOT true of these rules. 6. (D) Plantation owners often married earlier than slaves. Fictive kinship arrangements are mentioned later in the passage. (B) These practices varied markedly from one region of the country to another. A is the correct answer. Which of the following statements concerning the marriage practices of plantation owners during the period of Black slavery in the United States can most logically be inferred from the information in the passage. that plantation owners did marry their own cousins. 52 . slaves rarely married their own cousins.) E is the correct answer. (E) The rules have been considered to be a possible source of slaves' marriage preferences.

Woolf is deeply engaged by the questions of how individuals are shaped (or deformed) by their social environments. Reading Passage 5 "I want to criticize the social system. in lines 84-87. based on its content? (A) The Influence of Herbert Gutman on Historians of Slavery in the United States (B) Gutman's Explanation of How Slaves Could Maintain a Cultural Heritage and Develop a Communal Consciousness (C) Slavery in the United States: New Controversy About an Old Subject (D) The Black Heritage of Folklore. 8. that is. (E) The author presents the general argument of a historical study. B is the correct answer. a satirist and social critic as well as a visionary: literary critics' cavalier dismissal of Woolf's social vision will not withstand scrutiny. and concludes with a brief judgments of the study's value." Virginia Woolf's provocative statement about her intentions in writing Mrs. E is the correct answer choice. how historical forces impinge on 53 . He then describes the details of Gutman's study and.(D) The author summarizes a historical study. Music. the relationship of the parts of the passage to one another. since it highlights an aspect of her literary interests very different from the traditional picture of the "poetic" novelist concerned with examining states of reverie and vision and with following the intricate pathways of individual consciousness. examines two main arguments from the study. In her novels. and to show it at work. at its most intense. and Religious Expression: Its Growing Influence (E) The Black Family and Extended Kinship Structure: How They Were Important for the Freed Slave Answer: (B) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the title that best describes the content of the passage. Dalloway has regularly been ignored by the critics. and then shows how the arguments are potentially in conflict with one another. The author describes the general argument of Gutman's study in lines 8-14. But Virginia Woolf was a realistic as well as a poetic novelist. states the significance of the study. Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the best description of the organization of the passage. The main subject of the passage is Gutman's theory that extended kinship systems among slaves and the stability of slave families led to development of communal consciousness and the maintenance of cultural heritage. Which of the following is the most appropriate title for the passage. describes the study in more detail.

As she put it in The Common Reader. to know her society root and branch-a decision curcial in order to produce art rather than polemic. Woolf's focus on society has not been generally recognized because of her intense antipathy to propaganda in art. bearing witness: hers is the satirist's art. Woolf chose to understand as well as to judge. too.. we are absorbing morality at every pore. rather than asserting. calling into question. and gender help to determine people's fates. suggesting. As a moralist. and yet." Like Chaucer. as we read him.harbor. (Her Writer's Diary notes: "the only honest people are the artists.") Woolf detested what she called "preaching" in fiction. advocating.. Most of her novels are rooted in a realistically rendered social setting and in a precise historical time. "It is safe to say that not a single law has been framed or one stone set upon another because of anything Chaucer said or wrote. mocking. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the passage? (A) Poetry and Satire as Influences on the Novels of Virginia Woolf (B) Virginia Woolf: Critic and Commentator on the Twentieth-Century Novel (C) Trends in Contemporary Reform Movements as a Key to Understanding Virginia Woolf's Novels (D) Society as Allegory for the Individual in the Novels of Virginia Woolf (E) Virginia Woolf's Novels: Critical Reflections on the Individual and on Society Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the most appropriate title for the passage. fiction is a contemplative. Even when Woolf is fundamentally sympathetic to their causes. and the author emphasizes that the novels contain observations concerning "how individuals are shaped (or deformed) by their social environments" (lines 20-22)." whereas "these social reformers and philanthropists.. You should consider the passage as a self-contained unit.people's lives. subtly under-mining officially accepted mores.. and criticized novelist D.Lawrence(among others) for working by this method. Woolf works by indirection.. unaware of how their political ideas serve their own psychological needs.. E is the correct answer.discreditable desires under the disguiseof loving their kind. it is the reader's work to put the observations together and understand the coherent point of view behind them. She describes phenomena and provides materials for a judgment about society and social issues. The topics of the passage is Woolf's novels. Woolf's literary models were acute social observers like Checkhov and Chaucer. how class. she portrays people anxious to reform their society and possessed of a message or program as arrogant or dishonest. wealth.. not as part of a larger work. 1. since for her. The pictures of reformers in her novels are usually satiric or sharply critical. Woolf's own social criticism is expressed in the language of observation rather than in direct commentary. 54 .H. not an active art.

It can be inferred from the passage that the most probable reason Woolf realistically described the social setting in the majority of her novels was that she 55 . H. it is likely that it was Chaucer's subtle effectiveness that led Woolf to choose him as a model. The author's characterization of the critics' assessment as "cavalier"(line 16) can be described as "disparaging" 3. emphasizing Chaucer. Therefore. whereas novelists like D. A is the correct choice. the author's attitude toward the literary critics mentioned can best be described as (A) disparaging (B) ironic (C) factious (D) skeptical but resigned (E) disappointed but hopeful Answer: (A) Explanation: The literary critics discussed in the first paragraph ignored Woolf's intention to criticize society and saw her as a "poetic' novelist unconcerned with the real world. D is the correct answer. she did not overtly and vehemently criticize contemporary society Answer: (D) Explanation: The author discusses Woolf's literary models. It can be inferred from the passage that Woolf chose Chaucer as a literary model because she believed that (A) Chaucer was the first English author to focus on society as a whole as well as on individual characters (B) Chaucer was an honest and forthright author. effective in influencing the moral attitudes of his readers (E) her own novels would be more widely read if. Line 61 indicates that Woolf's work as a moralist is subtle and done " by indirection. This question asks you to identify the tone of the remarks made by the author of the passage concerning this assessment of Woolf's work.2. In the first paragraph of the passage. Lawrence did not sincerely wish to change society (C) Chaucer was more concerned with understanding his society than with calling its accepted mores into question (D) Chaucer's writing was greatly. in the last paragraph. if subtly. 4. The reason why Woolf chose Chaucer as her model is not directly stated in the passage but must be inferred from the information there." Woolf's statement that readers absorb morality at every pore despite the fact that no laws were changed because of Chaucer indicates that she believed Chaucer's influence to be subtle. like Chaucer.

In lines 19-22. The juxtaposition of these lines with the statement in lines 25-28 strongly suggests that Woolf realistically described social settings because she was interested in their effect on character. as a contemplative novelist. Lines 51-55 suggest that a contemplative art is expressed indirectly." You are to choose the definition of "contemplative" that is closest in meaning to the use of the word in that context. 5. Wooolf's interest in the effect of social environment on the individual is described.(A) was aware that contemporary literary critics considered the novel to be the most realistic of literary genres (B) was interested in the effect of a person's social milieu on his or her character and actions (C) needed to be as attentive to detail as possible in her novels in order to support the arguments she advanced in them (D) wanted to show that a painstaking fidelity in the representation of reality did not in any way hamper the artist (E) wished to prevent critics from charging that her novels were written in an ambiguous and inexact style Answer: (B) Explanation: In lines 25-28. Which of the following phrases best expresses the sense of the word "contemplative" as it is used in line 51 of the passage? (A) Gradually elucidating the rational structures underlying accepted mores (B) Reflecting on issues in society without prejudice or emotional commitment (C) Avoiding the aggressive assertion of the author's perspective to the exclusion of the reader's judgment (D) Conveying a broad view of society as a whole rather than focusing on an isolated individual consciousness (E) Appreciating the world as the artist sees it rather than judging it in moral terms Answer: (C) Explanation: This question refers you to line 54 of the passage so that you can evaluate the context in which the author uses the word "contemplative. rather than by "aggressive assertion. the author states that Woolf's novels presented social settings realistically. 6. The question asks why Woolf did so. encourages readers to make their own judgements." Lines 57-60 point out that Woolf. C is the best answer. B is the best answer. The author implies that a major element of the satirist's art is the satirist's (A) consistent adherence to a position of lofty disdain when viewing the foibles of humanity (B) insistence on the helplessness of individuals against the social forces that seek to determine an individual's fate 56 .

the deuterium-tritium reaction that nuclear scientists are currently exploring with such zeal produces both alpha particles and neutrons. and nonassertive way.(C) cynical disbelief that visionaries can either enlighten or improve their societies (D) fundamental assumption that some ambiguity must remain in a work of art in order for it to reflect society and social mores accurately (E) refusal to indulge in polemic when presenting social mores to readers for their scrutiny Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to identify an element that the author thinks is important in the satirist's art.) Another common misconception is that nuclear fusion power is a virtually unlimited source of energy because of the enormous quantity of deuterium in the sea. subtle. you must first attempt to answer each question using only the information presented by the author. Lawrence as concerned as Woolf was with creating realistic settings for his novels? (E) Does Woolf attribute more power to social environment or to historical forces as shapers of a person's life? Answer: (B) Explanation: This question asks you to determine which of the questions given can be answered using the information in the passage. E is the correct answer. Actually. which is about as plentiful as uranium in the 57 . H. that is." This statement indicates that conclusions about Woolf's work as a satirist can lead you to conclusions about the art of satirists in general. "hers is the satirist's art. To make this determination. in fact. in a nonpolemical way. The passage supplies information for answering which of the following questions? (A) Have literary critics ignored the social criticism inherent in the work of Chekhov and Chaucer? (B) Does the author believe that Woolf is solely an introspective and visionary novelist? (C) What are the social causes with which Woolf shows herself to be sympathetic in her writings? (D) Was D. (The neutrons are used to produce tritium from a lithium blanket surrounding the reactor. 7. its limits are set by the amount of available lithium. the author characterizes Woolf as realistic and satirical as well as introspective and visionary. In lines 13-15. Reading Passage 6 It is a popular misconception that nuclear fusion power is free of radioactivity. Lines 61-65 describe Woolf's satirical art as providing the materials for judgments about mores in an indirect. B is the correct answer. The colon in line 65 indicates that the information in lines 61-65 describing Woolf's work leads to the statement. The answer to the question is "No".

For the immediate future. 58 . and fossil fuels to meet our energy needs. (B) The public is unaware of the principal advantage of nuclear fusion over nuclear fission as an energy source. (D) The public is not interested in increasing its awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear fusion power. 1. we must continue to use hydroelectric power. Answer: (C) Explanation: This question asks you to use the specific statements made in the passage to determine what the author believes about public awareness of nuclear fusion power. 2. but no energy program should be premised on its existence until it has proven practical. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following about the current state of public awareness concerning nuclear fusion power? (A) The public has been deliberately misinformed about the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear fusion power. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) criticize scientists who believe that the deuterium-tritium fusion reaction can be made feasible as an energy source (B) admonish scientists who have failed to correctly calculate the amount of lithium (C) defend the continued short-term use of fossil fuels as a major energy source (D) caution against uncritical embrace of nuclear fusion power as a major energy source (E) correct the misconception that nuclear fusion power is entirely free of radioactivity Answer: (D) Explanation: This question asks you to determine the primary purpose of the passage. In order to do this. The energy sources already in major use are in major use for good reason. nuclear fission. (E) The public is aware of the disadvantages of nuclear fusion power but not of its advantages. indicating that he believes that people's knowledge of the scientific facts is incomplete. C is the correct answer. you must take into account all of the information in the passage. D is the best answer.Earth's crust. Research should certainly continue on controlled nuclear fusion. The author mentions several reasons why nuclear fusion should not be accepted as a major source of energy at this time and recommends continued critical evaluation of its potential. (C) The public's awareness of the scientific facts concerning nuclear fusion power is somewhat distorted and incomplete. The author specifically mentions two misconceptions about nuclear fusion that he believes are generally held.

This question asks you to determine what the passage most directly suggests about them. The passage provides information that would answer which of the following questions? (A) What is likely to be the principal source of deuterium for nuclear fusion power? (B) How much incidental radiation is produced in the deuterium-tritium fusion reaction? (C) Why are scientists exploring the deuterium-tritium fusion reaction with such zeal? (D) Why must the tritium for nuclear fusion be synthesized from lithium? (E) Why does the deuterium-tritium reaction yield both alpha particles and neutrons? Answer: (A) Explanation: This question asks you to determine which of the questions given can be answered using the information in the passage. (C) Nuclear scientists may have overestimated the amount of lithium actually available in the Earth's crust. A is the correct answer. D is the correct answer. Which of the following statements concerning nuclear scientists is most directly suggested in the passage? (A) Nuclear scientists are not themselves aware of all of the facts surrounding the deuterium-tritium fusion reaction. (B) Nuclear scientists exploring the decuterium-tritium reaction have overlooked key facts in their eagerness to prove nuclear fusion practical.3. (E) Nuclear scientists have insufficiently investigated the lithium-to-tritium reaction in nuclear fusion. (D) Nuclear scientists have not been entirely dispassionate in their investigation of the deuterium-tritium reaction. near the beginning of the passage. The answer to the question posed in this choice is "the sea. The author's statement that scientists are studying the deuterium-tritium reaction with "zeal" suggests that he believes that they are not dispassionate." The passage states that it is commonly believed that there is an enormous quantity of deuterium in the sea. you must first attempt to answer each question using only the information presented by the author. the author does not deny this. Reading Passage 7 59 . 4. To make this determination. Answer: (D) Explanation: The author mentions nuclear scientists only once.

the energy provider. leaving the large animal vulnerable to attack until the acid is reconverted. the lactic acid level is high in the body fluids. Perhaps they could if it were not for anaerobic glycolysis. With the conclusion of a burst of activity. The high metabolic rate of small animals. therefore. Fortunately. the dinosaur would have been able to generate almost instantaneously. The glycogen reserves of any animal are good. for example. This explains how many large species have managed to compete with their more active neighbor: the compensation for a low oxidative metabolic rate is glycolysis. There are limitations. but can generate little metabolic energy per gram of body weight. to this compensation. muscle glycogen is used only when needed and even then only in whatever quantity is necessary. more active. the gigantic dinosaur would have required more than three weeks. Whereas the tiny shrew can replace in minutes the glycogen used for maximum effort. one might assume that smaller. Only in times of panic or during mortal combat would the entire reserves be consumed. after which only the normal oxidative metabolic source of energy remains. for example. which is then sent (in part) back to the muscles for glycogen resynthesis. the energy of 3. normally torpid. If. through the breakdown of muscle glycogen into lactic acid and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP). for only about two minutes at maximum effort. The amount of energy that can be produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present-in all vertebrates about 0. the great equalizer. without oxygen.000 humans at maximum oxidative metabolic energy production. animals could prey on larger ones. can survive well on a sporadic food supply. Anaerobic glcolysis is a process in which energy is produced. It might seem that this interminably long recovery time in a large vertebrate would prove a grave disadvantage for survival. via anaerobic glycolysis. by the liver into glucose. Very large animals. some predators had attacked a 100-ton dinosaur. at least if they attacked in groups. via oxidative metabolism. however. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) refute a misconception about anaerobic glycolysis (B) introduce a new hypothesis about anaerobic glycolysis (C) describe the limitations of anaerobic glycolysis 60 . gives them sustained power and activity per unit of weight. at most.It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the process that uses oxygen to convert food into energy) in any animal has a profound effect on its living patterns. During this process the enormous energy debt that the animal has run up through anaerobic glycolysis must be repaid. with their relatively low metabolic rates.5 percent of their muscles' wet weight. a debt that is proportionally much greater for the larger vertebrates than for the smaller ones. 1. but at the cost of requiring constant consumption of food and water. Thus the anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the size of the animal. for example. If only oxidative metabolic rate is considered.

The passage provides information about the nature." Though he denies that it is a "grave disadvantage.According to the author. glycogen is crucial to the process of anaerobic glycolysis because glycogen (A) increases the organism's need for ATP (B) reduces the amount of ATP in the tissues (C) is an inhibitor of the oxidative metabolic production of ATP (D) ensures that the synthesis of ATP will occur speedily (E) is the material from which ATP is derived Answer: (E) Explanation: The process of anaerobic glycolysis is described in the second paragraph. The author describes the recovery period in large animals as "interminably long. According to the first sentence in the second paragraph. E is the correct answer. 2.(D) analyze the chemistry of anaerobic glycolysis and its similarity to oxidative metabolism (E) explain anaerobic glycolysis and its effects on animal survival Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the primary purpose of the passage. 61 . E is the correct answer." he does state that the recovery period leaves the animal vulnerable to attack. chemistry. To answer this question. glycogen is broken down into APT and lactic acid. According to the author. and limitations of anaerobic glycolysis in order to describe how the process affects animal survival. You are to determine the role of glycogen in the process. In order to do this. a major limitation of anaerobic glycolysis is that it can (A) produce in large animals more lactic acid than the liver can safely reconvert (B) necessitate a dangerously long recovery period in large animals (C) produce energy more slowly than it can be used by large animals (D) consume all of the available glycogen regardless of need (E) reduce significantly the rate at which energy is produced by oxidative metabolism Answer: (B) Explanation: The limitations of anaerobic glycolysis as a compensation for slow oxidative metabolism are discussed in the third paragraph. It is the material from which ATP is derived. and therefore is crucial to anaerobic glycolysis. you must identify a limitation that the author mentions. B is the best answer. 3. you must consider all the parts of the passage.

5 percent of their muscles' wet weight. If the amount of muscle tissue in a vertebrate is related to its size. The author's statement in the first paragraph that smaller. then the amount of glycogen must increase with size. more active animals might be able to prey on larger ones "at least if they attacked in groups" suggests that a single smaller. Sustained attack by numerous smaller. The second paragraph states that "The amount of energy that can be produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present-in all vertebrates about 0. and III Answer: (A) Explanation: This question is concerned with the vulnerability of a 100-ton dinosaur to different kinds of attacks. The author discusses a 100-ton dinosaur in the second paragraph. I is not an answer. a 100-ton dinosaur would have been markedly vulnerable to which of the following? I. on the basis of energy production. more active adversaries III. the author states that it is possible that smaller. The passage suggests that the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate's size because (A) larger vertebrates conserve more energy than smaller vertebrates (B) larger vertebrates use less oxygen per unit weight than smaller vertebrates (C) the ability of a vertebrate to consume food is a function of its size (D) the amount of muscle tissue in a vertebrate is directly related to its size (E) the size of a vertebrate is proportional to the quantity of energy it can utilize Answer: (D) Explanation: This question asks you why anaerobic energy reserves are proportional to a vertebrate's size. The passage states that the amount of glycogen is a fixed proportion of the vertebrate's muscle weight.4. Repeated attacks by a single smaller. 5. II. In the third paragraph the author continues the discussion of how energy production helps the dinosaur and what price the animal's body must pay for this help. The author discusses the relationship of size to anaerobic energy reserves in the second paragraph. An attack by an individual adversary of similar size (A) II only (B) I and II only (C) I and III only (D) II and III only (E) I." D is the correct answer. You are to recognize the situation or situations in which the dinosaur's method of energy production would have made it particularly vulnerable to attack. In the first paragraph. since the amount of energy that can be produced is a function of the amount of glycogen present. the animal's energy reserves are proportional to its size. 62 . The author suggests that. Therefore. II is an answer. more active adversary would not be a marked threat to a large animal. more active adversary II.

II and III are all factors. 7. It can be inferred from the passage that the time required to replenish muscle glycogen following anaerobic glycolysis is determined by which of the following factors? I. After that.more active animals could prey on a larger one if they attacked as a group. into glucose for use in muscle glycogen resynthesis. Quantity of lactic acid in the body fluids III. The lactic acid left in the muscles following anaerobic glycolysis is reconverted. If the rate of reconversion is held constant. part of it is sent to the muscles for glycogen resynthesis. In the third paragraph. by means of oxidative metabolism. Sending a greater proportion to the muscles will decrease the time required to repay the animal's energy debt. Thus. II is an answer. Rate of oxidative metabolism II. a larger quantity of lactic acid will take more time to reconvert than will a smaller amount. Percentage of glucose that is returned to the muscles (A) I only (B) III only (C) I and II only (D) I and III only (E) I. II. and III Answer: (E) Explanation: To answer this question. Muscle glycogen is replenished by the reconversion of lactic acid into glucose. II is an answer to the question posed. I is an answer. the rate at which oxidative metabolism takes place is a factor in determining how quickly the reconversion takes place. After lactic acid is reconverted to glucose. this process takes about three weeks. E is the correct answer. III is an answer. the dinosaur's method of energy production would not have disadvantaged it in this situation by making it particularly vulnerable to attack. you must infer from the information given in the third paragraph what factors influence the amount of time it will take an animal to replace the muscle glycogen it used during the production of energy by means of anaerobic glycolysis. The author is most probably addressing which of the following audiences? (A) College students in an introductory course on animal physiology (B) Historians of science investigating the discovery of anaerobic glycolysis (C) Graduate students with specialized training in comparative anatomy 63 . For the dinosaur. A is the correct answer. I and III are not answers. I. the author states that the energy generated by anaerobic glycolysis lasts only about two minutes when the animal puts forth maximum effort. III is not an answer. 6. The information in the passage suggests that a 100-ton dinosaur and an adversary of similar size would have available similar amounts of energy. Therefore. the animal is vulnerable to attack until the lactic acid in its body fluids is converted back to glycogen.

The topic of the passage. Reading Passage 8 Tocqueville. animal energy production. The rest of the passage discusses in detail how the disadvantage can be overcome. was wrong. (C) The benefits to animals of anaerobic glycolysis are offset by the profound costs that must be paid. is appropriate for inclusion in an introductory course on animal physiology. as it would be in a college-level course. as they would be in an introductory course. into glycogen.(D) Zoologists interested in prehistoric animals (E) Biochemists doing research on oxidative metabolism Answer: (A) Explanation: This question asks you to decide what audience the author is addressing in the passage. Pessen in his iconoclastic study of the very rich in the United States between 1825 and 1850. but technical terms are defined and processes are explained in detail. A is the correct answer. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage? (A) The disadvantage of a low oxidative metabolic rate in large animals can be offset by their ability to convert substantial amounts of glycogen into energy. glucose. 64 . Answer: (A) Explanation: To determine the central idea of the passage. apparently. and what the author assumes about the knowledge already possessed by the audience. At least to argues E. Jacksonian America was not a fluid. as well as the kind of information provided. you must note the author's style. egalitarian society where individual wealth and poverty were ephemeral conditions. (B) The most significant problem facing animals that have used anaerobic glycolysis for energy is the resynthesis of its by-product. The passage begins with a discussion of oxidative metabolism and its disadvantage for large animals. To do this. you must take into account the way the passage is organized as well as the kind of information given. (E) The great differences that exist in metabolic rates between species of small animals and species of large animals can have important effects on the patterns of their activities. A is the correct answer. The subject matter is complex. (D) The major factor ensuring that a large animal will triumph over a smaller animal is the large animal's ability to produce energy via anaerobic glycolysis. 8.

1. Pessen. these great fortunes survived the financial panics that destroyed lesser ones. in several cities the wealthiest one percent constantly increased its share until by 1850 it owned half of the community's wealth. but had inherited family fortunes. According to the passage." Therefore.The author's attitude toward Pessen's presentation of statistics can be best described as (A) disapproving (B) shocked (C) suspicious (D) amused (E) laudatory Answer: (E) Explanation: 65 . but had inherited family fortunes. Therefore. This question asks what statements the author of the passage attributes to pessen concerning the very wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850. Although these observations are true. they did NOT accumulate their own fortunes. (C) Some of them worked as professionals or in business. You are to identify the one statement that CANNOT be correctly attributed to Pessen. Indeed. In no sense mercurial. (B) Many of them were able to increase their holdings. "most of the wealthy were not self-made.Pessen does present a quantity of examples. Pessen overestimates their importance by concluding from them that the undoubted progress toward inequality in the late eighteenth century continued in the Jacksonian period and that the United States was a class-ridden. Answer: (D) Explanation: The author of the passage discusses the work of another author. most of the wealthy were not self-made. you must first determine which of the statements given can be attributed to Pessen. 2. plutocratic society even before industrialization. (D) Most of them accumulated their own fortunes. (E) Many of them retained their wealth in spite of financial upheavals. Though active in commerce or the professions. Pessen indicates that all of the following were true of the very wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 EXCEPT: (A) They formed a distinct upper class. According to the second paragraph. D is the correct answer. to establish the existence of an inordinately wealthy class. together with some refreshingly intelligible statistics.

To answer this question. 66 . (E) Pessen challenges a view of the social and economic system in the United States from 1825 to 1850. so "laudatory" describes the author's attitude toward Pessen's presentation of statistics. 3. (B) Tocqueville's analysis of the United States in the Jacksonian era remains the definitive account of this period. Pessen's conclusions are incorrect. The words "refreshingly intelligible" can be taken as praise. To do this. (D) The social patterns and political power of the extremely wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 are well documented. Pessen challenges Tocquevile's view. Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the main point that the author of the passage makes. Pessen challenges Tocqueville's view. E is the correct answer. The author of the passage discusses Pessen's statistics near the beginning of the second paragraph. Which of the following best states the author's main point? (A) Pessen's study has overturned the previously established view of the social and economic structure of early nineteenth-century America. According to the second paragraph. you must determine the attitude of the author of the passage toward Pessen's presentation of statistics. He calls Pessen's statistics "refreshingly intelligible. you must separate the author's description of Pessen's work and views from the author's evaluation of Pessen's work. but he draws conclusions that are incorrect. According to the first paragraph. According to the first paragraph." E is the correct answer.. (C) Pessen's study is valuable primarily because it shows the continuity of the social system in the United States throughout the nineteenth century.

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