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Structure

15.1 Introduction

Objectives 15.1.1 Stable and Unstable Equilibrium 15.1.2 Buckling Phenomenon and Buckling Load

**Theory of ConcenLrically Loaded Compression Member
**

15.2.1 15.2.2 15.2.3 Derivation of Fuler's Buckling Load Formula for Pin-end Condition Concepts of Eff-ctiveLength, Slenderness Ratio, Crit~calStress, Short, Medium and Long Columns ,nd Strength Curve Partial End Cons~r-:ints

**Theory of Eccentrically Loaded Compression Member
**

15.3.1 Derivation of Secant Formula 15.3.2 Theory of Beam Column or Laterally Loaded Compression Member

**Empirical Formulae for Design of Columns
**

15.4.1 15.4.2 15.4.3 15.4.4 15.4.5 Rankine's Formula Stmight LineFormula Johnson's Parabolic Formula Indian Standard CodeFormulae Prof. Perry's Formula

Summary Key Words Answers to SAQs

15.1 INTRODUCTION

Column or strut is a compression member in which the length is considerably larger compared to the cross-section dimension. Column denotes vertical member in compression. The terms pillar and stanchion are used for long vertical compression members. Strut is any member (including diagonal or horizontal) subjected to compression.

In case of long compression members, the load causes the column to bend and stresses are affected by the deflection produced. The stress due to direct compression is very small compared to stress due to bending. This phenomenon is known as buckling. The derivation of Euler's buckling load is discussed in Section 15.2 along with concepts of effective length and slenderness ratio. The secant formula and laterally loaded columns are discussed in Section 15.3. Empirical formulae are discussed in Section 15.4.

Objectives

After stdying this unit, you should be able to find the safe load a column can c k y due to axial or eccentric loading, identify slender and short columns, find the maximum stresses in columns subjected to axial, with or without, transverse load, and design the column if the load and permissible stresses are known.

I

I

**15.1.1 Stable and Unstable Equilibrium
**

From mechanics it is known that a body may be in three types of equilibrium, viz. stable, neutral or unstable as in Figure 15.1 (a), (b), and (c) respectively. Tliese three conditions can be compared a$under, by increasing the compressive load P on the column gradually. (a) As shown in Figure 15.1 (a), when the ball resting on concave surface is disturbed slightly it will regain its original position, similarly the column is initially in a state of stable equilibrium. During this state if the column is perturbed by inducing small lateral deflections it will return to its straight configuration when the loads are removed.

The ball resting on plane horizontal surface is in state of neutral equilibrium as shown in Figure 15.1 (b) which is the limiting condition between stable and unstable equilibrium. When the load on the column is increased further, a critical value is reached at which the column is on the verge of experiencing a lateral deflection, it will not return to its straight configuration. The load cannot be illcreased beyondthis value unless the column is restrained laterally by lateral restraint. When the ball is resting on a convex surface, a negligible perturbation will cause unstnble equilibrium as shown in Figure 15.1 (c). Similarly if the force P exceeds the critical load PC,, the column becomes unstable. The column either collapses or undergoeshge lateral deflection.

(a)

@)

(c)

..

Figu-e 15.1 :(a) Stable (b) Neutral (c) Unstable Equilibrium

**15.1.2 Buckling Phenomenon and Buckling Load
**

Buckling Phenomenon

When the length of the strut or column is large as compared to its lateral dimensions, failure generally occurs due to lateral deflection rather than by direct compression. This lateral deflection in a long column is termed as buckling. In contrast buckling is negligible in short columns. They fail due to crushing. In very long columns the effect of direct stresses is small as compared with bending stresses. Main causes of bending in the columns are as follows : (a) lack of straightness and uniformity in the member itself, (b) initial crookedness or curvature of the member, (c) eccentricity of the applied load, (d) non-homogeneity in the material of the member, (e) minute tlaws in the material, and

**(0 casting of column may be out of plumb and load not being transmitted at
**

the selected bearing (accidental eccentricity).

Buckling Load

Once a meinher shows signs of buckling, it will lead to the failure of the member. This load at which the member just buckles is called the buckling load or critical load or crippling load. The buckling load is less than the crushing load. The value of buckling load is low for long columns and relatively high for short columns. The value of the buckling load for a given member depends upon the length of the member and the least lateral dimension. It also depends upon the types of end-constraints of the column .(hinged, fixed etc.). Thus, when an axially loaded compression member just buckles, it is said to develop an elastlc Instablllty.

**15.2 THEORY OF CONCENTRICALLY LOADED , COMPRESSION MEMBER
**

The first solution for the buckling of long slender columns was published in 1757 by the Swiss mathematician Euler (1707-1783). Although the results of this article can be used only tor slender columns, the analysis, similar to that used by Euler, is mathematically revealing and helps in explanations of the behaviour of columns.

Self weight of the column is negligible and the column will fail by buckling only. Joints are frictionless. slender.e. M = & + 0= 0 7 where. The bending moment due to crippling load. homogeneous. (15. .1 Derivation of Euler's Bucklifig Load Formula for Pin-end Condition The purpose of this d y s i s is to determine the rnii~imum axial compressive load for which a column will experience lateral deflections. isotropic and obeys Hooke's law. ii = clx The solution d this differential equation is \I: Il. A pivot-ended column is supported such that the bending moment and lateral movement are zero at the ends. The direct stress is very small compared with the bending stress corresponding to the bucklii~g condition. Length of the column is very large as coillpared to the lateral dimensions. A straight. Column section is uniform and material is perfectly elastic. y = 0. Consider a cross-section at a distance x from the end A.2) y = A sin kx + B cos kx where.2. 15. namely at x = 0.2 (a). B = 0 and at x = 1. pivot-ended column having uniform section is concentrically loaded by axial compressive force P at each end. i. is shown in Figure 15.e.2 :Wn-ended Column :Euler Load Determination Due to crippling load the column will detlect into a curved shape ACB shown in Figure 15. i.2 (b). Let v be the lateral deflection at this section.Assumptions Made in Euler's Theory Cdumns and Struts (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) The column is initially perfectly straight and is axially loaded. A and B are constants of integration which are evaluated by putting the end conditions. y = 0. 0 = A sin k1. Figure 15.

Let opbe the crushing will strength of column material. p is slenderness ratio. Putting I = A?. column is not deflecting at all. Eq. . or kl = 0. it is seen that either A = 0 or sin kl = 0. the stress at the failure ocr be large. . is the slenderness ratio and is determined for the axis about which bending tends to occur. . Many columns lie between these extremes in which neither of these solutions is applicable. n n Sincek = P=PEI n2E1 4n2E1 n27t2~1 p=i2 ' 12 . It can be seen that the column will have a tendency to bend or buckle in that plane about which flexural rigidity El is least. bending occurs about the axis of minimum moment of inertia. (15. . where. then from Eq.. (15. Slenderness Ratio. is called critical stress.2).3). refers to the axis about which bending occurs. If a. Hence. iin kl = 0. . > apthe failure of column will be due to crushing and not due to buckl&.5) is known as Euler's formula. These intermediate length columns are analyzed by empirical formulae described in later sections. i. r is the radius of gyration about the axis of bending. .2 Concepts of Effective Length. I. Therefore. For a pivot-ended concentrically loaded column with no intermediate bracing to restrain lateral motion. As B = 0. . 2n. then if A is also equal to zero. radius of gyration is taken as minimum. o. The quantity /4 \ = P \ ratio of effective length to radius of gyration. Therefore in the above equation minimum moment of inertia should be used. 15. . (15.5) agrees well with experiment only if the slendemess ratio is large. Critical Stress.4) P The values given by Eq. (15.. which is trivial solution. Thelowest critical load is the most significant and which is as follows : This load is termed as Euler's load and is denoted by PE. whereas short compression members can be analyzed easily considering direct stress o = P/A.e. n . Therefore. (15. where.The moment of inertia. l2 7 (15.Miscellaneous Topiis From Eq. the Euler's formula will not be applicable for smaller slenderness ratio. Short and Long Columns . It can be seen that critical load is proportional to flexural rigidity and inversely proportional to length does not depend upon permissible and stress of material from which the column is made.4) are required values of critical loads. r. we get y = 0.2. i The Euler buckling load as given by Eq. Limitations of Euler's Formula " To check the validity of Euler's formula consider Eq.5) which implies that if the slendemess ratio is small. (15.

. PROPORTIONALlTY FOR CAST IRON STEEL 1 Figure 15. we can calculate Imi. rmin - = .51 x 103 N and o. ~.3 :Variation of Critical Stress with Slenderness Ratio A column... Take proportionality limit as 250 MPa and E = 200 GPa (2 x lo5 ~ l m m ~ ) . (15. o.1 x lo5 ~ / r m nEquating the crippling stress to yield stress.230.. Example 15. as follows : Using Eq. The curves representing Eq. Smaller the slenderness ratio. we get PC.= 55.. Figufe 15.5) are hyperbola.= 37. (15. is determined by the numerical values of slenderness ratios. yield point stress = 330 MPa and E = 2.94 r~nin . whether short or long. Columns and Struts o.66mm and ) .1 A steel bar of rectangular cross section 30 x 50 mm pinned at each end is 2 m long. Determine the minimum length for which Euler's equation may be valid. For mild steel. for these two materials as a function of slenderness ratio. lesser will be the tendency to deflect and higher will be the buckling load.3 shows variation of critical stress. Solution Here. Determine the buckling load when it is subjected to axial compression and also calculate axial:stress using Euler's expression. C A 2 - d ( ~= 8. namely cast iron and mild steel. the corresponding minimum value of slenderness ratio is around 80.5).For validity of Euler's formula.01 Nlmm P. I op Let us consider two materials.

= 2L). < op.4.4 (a)].6) Since o.5 - 0. is defined as the effective length of the column (the distance between two successive inflection points or points of zero moment).4 (d) is fixed at one end B and pinned at the other end. If a mirror iniage of this column is imaginaq visualized below @e fixed end B . (15. therefore.5 L). the effective length between points of zero moment would be twice the actual length of the column A B (L. The Euler's equation changes for columns with different end conditions.> 88. is the distance between successive points of zero bending moment [Figure 15. 15. Figare 15. The column in Figure 15. Thus.3 Partial End Constraints Effect of Different Idealized End Conditions The Euler buckling formula. of a fixed ended column for use in the Euler's formula is half the actual length (L. The ends A and B of the column in Figure 15.77 m which is minimum length. by definition has zero bending moments at each end.. (15. = 0. as could be done in the previous + . the effective length. m e length L in the Euler equation. where. L.2. The pivot ended column. < o.4 :Etfective Length of Column with Dimerent Restraints It is possible to set up the differential equations with the appropriate boundary conditions to determine the Euler's equation for each new case. L.4 (b) are built-in or fixed. has zero moment only at the free end. as expressed by Eq.4 (c). . since tlie deflection curve is symmetrical. rmin Euler's expression is valid for limiting value of mit~imum length L = 769. 1'1 As o. by using the concept of effective length of column..MisceUanecDUS Topics C)r.86) for L = 2 m. Four such common cases are shown in Figure 15. . the distance between successive points of zero moment (inflection points) A' and B' is half the length of the colurmi.. being fixed at one end B and free at the other end A. All that is needed to modify the Euler column formula for use with other end conditions is to replace L by L. The column in Figure 15. using Eq. (i. The effective length of this colunm cannot be determined by inspection. A' will be the point of mirror image of A.5) was derived for a column with pivoted or hinged ends.e.

'The external and i~lterr~al dianlelcrs art. 6 = where L is the span of the beam. As the column is to fail by buckling only.4 (b) to (dl. derive Euler's cripplirlg lo.d.id expressloll. = TJZ L = 0. SAQ 2 Calculate safc compressive load oil a hollow cast irth coluirl wilh one end hinged and other rigidly fixed. Now if this transverse load is removed and b e a n is loaded axially. L 325' Deflection in case of a fixed beam subjected to u. it should be considered as long column. E Example 15. it is necessary to solve the differential equation to determine the effective length. Also calcul:ite critical axial stress.2 A beam is fixed at both ends is loaded transversely by total uniformly distributed load of 32 kN. therefore using Euler's formula for crippling load . This procedure yields Cdumns and Struts L. W = 32 kN. considering bottom cnd B. Therefore. 120 inm ru~d nuii 90 respectively and length of the colu~nrl 9 1 1 is 1 . and E = 200 GPa. - Solution (a) Load on beam.1. Tidce factor of safety as 3 ru~d = 95 (.i two cases. fuid out safe axial load for the condition such that it fails by buckling only.Pa. (b) When heam is loaded axial1y it will acts as column. It is found that deflection at centre is 11325 of span.7L SAQ 1 Referring to Figure 15. Take factor of safety = 4. and deflection.as origin and equilibrium of portion above the section.

Leff = L .9 mm (b) When acting as compression member . 1 Di inner diameter.id when it is used as a colu~nn with both ends hinged. ast= 150 MPa r. L = 2 m = 2000 mm.15 mm2 I). Assume factor of safety for compression equal to 2 and allowable stresses in tension ast equal to 150 MPa. the deflection at centre is 11100 is of span.S) = 2. .A = Area A' 0. Allowable stress. . But due to wind load it is subjecled to compressive load equal to 46 kN. = outer diameter.. As it is acting as truss member. 1)' = 1929. = (a) When acting as telision member Given : Load=100 kN. is to be designed to take up tensile load equal to 100 kN. oSt= .E = 2 x 10" MPa. Hence. P = Safe Load = Crippling load Factor of safety P = 534. Detcrmlne the crippling lo.3 A truss member which is having le~lgth equal to 2 m and acting as a tension member for normal loading. L LC = 2 Thus. Given : working load P = 46 kN. and Factor of safety (F. P Load P Stress.t . 0. = 43.2 Di where. Example 15.Miscellaneous Topics We know for both ends fixed. Find outer diii~nekr when = 1. 1 . 4 -Qst . both ends are considered as hinged.6 kN SAQ 3 A bar wlie~i used as siniply supported bean1 ant1 sublected lo total load of 96 kN wh~cli uniformly disttihutecl over Uie whole spiui..

753 mm. Using Euler's equation.S : PC.944 mm. Solution Given.04 mm Percentage saving = A solid . we know. we get Di = 43. Exa'mple 15.25 times internal diameter. Compute percent saving in material. The column is long enough to fail by buckling only. ' Cdumns and Struts Putting Do = 1. = 50 mm (solid column) . = 4 6 x 2 = 92kN . Do = 1. Critical load for solid column = Critical load for hollow column Thus.2 Di Selecting higher values from the two cases.A hollow x 100 A solid .25 x Di = 57. Do = 1.Critical load = Working load x F.and Do = 52.4 A solid column of diameter 50 mrn is required to be replaced by hollow column whose external diameter is 1.0. Further. D.25 Di (hollow column) Here.

For example.8 nlm. deduce the kalue 01 sle~idernes. ral~o upto a~ltl heyond which Euler7sformula IS valid Co~isider ( I ) hotl~ encls hinged (11) hotl1 f~xetl 15.= 0. or their bending moment will increase the stress in the column and reduce its load carrying capacity.-=250Y 6 6 15 8 15 Substituting and sin~plifying. the column is then subjected to a bending moment due to the connection of beam and column. b = 0. but many times the column is subjected to eccentric loads. (1 = 422. Yielding on outer fibres starts when the central deflection is equal to 15 mnl.fy = 250 MPa. ald E = 2 x 10' MPa Solution b Given.4dx-=f. i.2 x 10' MPa L = ~ f f = 2 n ~ = 2 0 0 0 i and 6 = 15mm=0.015m m.4. It gives. SAQ 5 For t11c ~nlld steel bar w~th y~cld stre\\ at 3410 MPa and E = 215 GPa. At yielding stage. M=fz=f off2 d2 (1' -=~fy~0.5 A long column of 2 m length is hinged at both ends. fy = 250 MPa. . and E = . SAQ 4 Compare the buckling loads of two colu~luls hinged a ends L (a) (b) of rectangular sect1011 c111x 12 cul. and 3 other of square se~tioo l~a~ving cross-sectlon area 6 cm x 6 cnl as that of same rectangular colunm and 01 same length and made up of sane material. d Take Yield stress'. Determine the breadth and depth of rectangular section with .e.17 nlm. Use Euler's for~nula. M = P x 6 We know. The eccentricity of the load. a bean in a to building may be c o ~ e c t e d side of a colunln by welding or riveting.Miscellaneous Topics Example 15.4 x d = 168.3 THEORY OF ECCENTRICALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBER Although a column will support the maximu~n load when the load is applied concentrically.

the differential equation for the elastic curve becomes or.9) P where. As the loading is increased. If axes are chosen with the origin at the top.ek sin kx Due to symmetry.9) becomes y = A sinkx @ = Ak cos kx x=O.3.5 :~ecentricall~-Load~ Compression Member (Secant Formula) If the stress doesn't exceed the proportional limit md deflections are small. k2 = . This is the same differential equation as Eq. In this section.15. (15.1 Derivation of Secant Formula Many times column do not behave as predicted by the Euler's formula because of iinpeifectionsin the alignment of the foading. B = e + e coskx dx . Thus. the column deflects laterally. where. The pivot (pin) ended column shown in Figure 15. as shown in Figure 15.5 (a) is subjected to compressive forces acting at a distance e from the centerline of the undeformed column. the solution of this equation is y = A sinkx+ B coskx +0 (15.O = Ak mi($] ek .1) by Euler's method. the effect of imperfect alignment is examined by considering an eccentric loading.5 (b).. El A upper end A. (15. On putting the value of s. f and Eq. the bending moment at a section x from A would be as follows : Columns and Struts I Figure 15. y = e i. we get h = O dx a t x = -1 2 - . A and B are constants to be determined from the boundary conditions.e.

. r is the radius of gyration of the column cross-section. om. /r should he used accordingly. = Ye sec (5) Substituting the value of k. is the allowable stress. Thus. maximum bending momeilt Mlllax = Py. the maximum stress is.'Y Miscellaneous Topics Hence. minute flaws in the material and a lack of uniformity of the cross-section. and the maximum stress would he equal tc?P/A... The term U is the same slenderness ratio found in the Euler buckling formula. to eliminate all eccentricity that might result from various factors such as the initial crookedness of the column. Putting these values 2 1 Since. M.. of . c is distance of extreme fibre from neutral plane. It is virtually impossible however. Therefore. it has been assumed that the stresses do not ex-eed the proportional limit. The maximum bending stress occurs on a section at the midspan of the column wheri the bendii~g moment is assumed to be the largest value. Eq. and A is area of cross-section. . For columns r with different end conditions. An extensive study of the results of Inany column tests Indicated that a value of 0. The quantity ec/? is called the eccentricity ratio and is seen to depend on the eccentricity of the load and the dimellsions of the colunm. e would presumably be zero. the maximum compressive stress can be obtained by superposition of the axial stress and the maximum bending stress.2 to 0. If the column was loaded axially. as well as accidental eccentricity of the load. we get... where.1 3) is lolown as the secant formula and relates the average stress PA to the / dimensions of the column.25 for ec/j! would give results with the secant formula that would be m good agreement with experimental test on axially loaded colurm~s structural steel In ordinary structural sizes. = Py. the properties of the column material. where. and the eccentricity e. (15. the equation of elastic I The maximum deflection occurs at x = -.. the effective slellderness ratio L .

For these material properties. - Solution Area of the column Moment of inertia .6 is such a set of curves for a material with ay= 280 MPa and E = 210 GPa. corresponds to zero eccentricity. m is factbr of safety. Example 15. From the data presented in Figure 15.6.6. the curves for the various eccentrrcity ratios tend to merge with the Euler curve.6.Digital computers can also be programnled to directly solve the Secant Formula using iterative techniques. solutions can be obtained from Figure 15.6). it is r seen that eccentricity of loading plays a significant role in reducing the working load (the maximum safe load) in the short and intermediate ranges (slenderness ratio less than 150 for the steel in Figure 15. the corresponding value of direct stress will be m = . -A Cdumns and mP where. In order to make effective use of Eq. is yield stress of material to be equated to o. being permissible stress = P/A. a. Figure 15. The Euler curve is truncated at 280 MPa. Since this is the maximum allowable stress for the material with Young's modulus equal to E = 210 GPa. and Find also the maximum eccentricity in order to have no tension anywhere on the section.6 A column 4 meters long of circular section made of cast iron with 200 mm external diameter and 20 mm thick is used as a column. Both ends of the column are fixed. Thus. For the large slenderness ratios.13). curves showing PIA and Ur can be drawn for various values of ecl? for any given material.. The column carries a load of 150 ldrJ at an eccentricity of 25 mm from the axis of the column.6 :Rebtion betweenPIA sad Ur ' The outer enyelope of Figure 15.4 x lo4 MPa. the uuncation occurs at U = 86.k. Take E = 9. (15. consisting of the horizontal line ay= 280 MPa and the Euler curve. SLENDERNESS RATIO Agure 15. (a) (b) Find the extreme stress on the column section.If a.

=80MPa.. / T (El) .= 2 m 2 2 Thus. Maximum moment.. .1856 radian = sec 10°40' = 1. e = dJ10. e = 44. = 150 x 25 x 1. Solution Given: P = 1001cN. . MI.7 Find the necessary diameter of a mild steel strut 2 meter long hinged at its ends if it has to carry a load of 100 IcN with possible deviation from the axis of 1110th of the diameter. Z = Y I L 4 Effective length of the column L. L = 2 m E = 200 GPa . Example 15.017 = 3814 kN mnl P Maximum compcesive stress = a.. A 2 Hence.32 mm is the value of the eccentricity in order that there may be no tension anywhere on the section. = 2000 m n = Q.5 MPa. hinged ends kL 1-T . = .. (b) If tension is just to be avoided corresponding to the maximum eccentricity P -- PC sec 2 q@ .= . The greatest compressive stress is not to exceed 80 MPa and value of E = 200 GPa.Section modulus. - = sec 0. A M +Z The maximum stress on the column is 21. (a) L.om. where.L . = ..017 MI.

2 Maximum stress. It is 1. has an external dianleter of 38 ilurl c ~ internal U diameter 35 nun.1 mm. Calculate the maxin~uni stress in the tube. Consider a column with a concentrated load at mid height as shown in Figure 15.3..5 m long and carries a cornpressivc load of 20 kN acting parallel to the axis of the tube but 2 nun from it. a = A kL P M +Z we get. SAQ 6 A steel tube is initially straight. 15. Take E = 210 GPa.7). Let W be the lateral concentrated load applied and P be the axial load (Figure 15.Cdumns and Struts where. d = 60. -is in radians. Figure 15.2 Theory of Beam Column or Laterally Loaded ~ h m ~ r e s s i o n Member A beam that is acted upon by an axial compressive force in addition to the transverse loads is referred to as beam-column.Provide diameter as 60. . On solving by trial and error method.7 (a).7 .03 mm.

2 2P Substituting value of A in Eq.- (2 1 2 El The solution of the above equation is as follows : wx y = A sin kx + B cos kx .2P wx W = Aksinkx . B = O On subsituting the values.ax = [&1 sec kl kl Wl i sin i .. y=O. (15.i.17) At x = I .7 (b).Miscellaneous Topics From Figure 15.x. v dx = A sin kx . kl W 0 = Ak cos . we get 2 wx d v + k 2 y = .e..we get.jr 1 The ~naxi~num inoment at ..2P "=o Atx = 2' dx On subsituting the values. the moment at a section: distance x from origin A is as follows : Let Then.2P Atx=O. 2 v.. = 2 .

For short columns. .. = . He proposed the relation where. the application is so involved that simpler empirical formulae have been developed which give results in reasonable agreement with the experimental results within the intermediate range. is very large and hence l/Pc is small in comparison to IIP.4 EMPIRICAL FORMULAE FOR DESIGN OF COLUMNS Numerous column experiments indicate Ulat tlic Euler formula is reliable for designing axially loaded columns. P. thus making the crippling load P approximately equal to P. provided theeslendernessratio is within the range in which the eccentricity has relatively little effect.= Eulerian crippling load for the standard case..15. Thus. Since the application of the secant formulae to centric loading requires an estimate of accidental eccentricity ratlo..1 Rankine's Formula Rankine proposed an empirical formula for columns which cover all cases ranging from very short to very long struts. and should not be calculated values of o and E. P.e. This range is called the slender range which ranges from 120 to 140. At lower slenderness the failure stress would he the compressive strength of the material. The extent of this range is 0 . For long columns. In the intermediate range (i. thus making the crippling load P approximately equal to PC. Furthermore. Eq. PC = ultimate load for a short column. the equation acquires an empirical nature. Material 0 (MPa) .40.n2 . is extremely small and hence 1/Pc is large as compared to UP.The maximum stress can be evaluated from Columns and Struts . the only equation of rational nature that applies to the real columns is the secant formula.4. 15. (15. and L~ 1 -P C constant for a material.23) can be rearranged as n = Rankine's constant for the material which is determined experimentally. slenderness ratio 40 to 120). a for Hinged Ends 255 119000 111600 I=I Cast irou - 550 Mild steel Strong timber I 330 50 1 117500 11750 I . the value of P obtained from the above relahon covers all cases fanging from short to long columns or struts. El P.

Johnson and written in the form where. a and cl are experimentally determined and these co~~stants depending on the . ad = compressive yield stress. B.24) is the Rankine's formula for the standard case of two end-hinged column.6 0. are material. (PIA) may he expressed either in terins of critical stress or safe working stress. and ant L. = Effective length of the column. FoIlowing table gives one of the empirical values.8 Using Rankine's fonnula find the crippling load for a mild steel strut of 500 mm long with a rectangular cross-section 50 mm x 12. It is sometimes known as Rankine-Gordon fonnula. Johnson modified the. o = allowable stress. = 330 MPa and (1 for hinged ends = 117500. Take o.25) can be re-arranged in terms of an average axial stress and is given as where. J.4. the value of the constant will be changed accordingly. a i d (h) both ends fixed. For columns with other end conditions. 06 . a = Rankine's c o ~ ~ ~ tfor a particular material.3 Johnson's Parabolic Formula Prof. (15.5 nun having (a) hinged ends.straight line formula as under where.4. and a = -. or n 2 ~ The only difference is that this formula includes factor (of safety.57 Safe working stress 15.Eq. (P/A)(MPa) Critical stress Critical stress Material Structural steel Cast iron Milcl steel - . Eq. it is better to modify the Rankine's formula as where. since 'a' is a constant for a particular material used as a hinged coIumn. However. . 15.2 Straight Line Formula This is proposed by T. (MPa) 367. aid cz = 42E ' Example 15. a. H.8 150 0.5 cl (MPa) 2 23. (15.

Find Uie load usirig Rankine's fornlula. (b) For fixed ends P = %A [l+a[$] 1 Taking.& = yield stress which was taken as 250 MPa. 2 ] = 125759 N - 330 x 625 SAQ 7 A hollow cylindrical cast iron colulm 150 tnni external diameter aid 20 mm diick 1s 6 meter In length having both ends hinged. secant formula was adopted with ec/? = 0.2. 1. = 1.Solution Cdumns and Struts (a) For hinged ends Taking. Conlpare this load with that given by Euler's formula. as it was found to be average value for a large number of columns experimentally tested.68 was adopted additionally. we get. Take o = 550 N/mm2 and a = 1/160. But factor of safety of 1. 15. the Eq.4 Indian Standard Code Formulae IS :800-1962 In old version of IS : 800. .4. 1. we get. does the Euler formula ceases to apply. = -. (1 5.13) was modified to where. For what lengtli of strut 01 this cross-section .

0 x 1 0 h ~ or 200 GPa. L = effective length of the compression member.= 230 to. r = minimum radius of gyration. (15. Using factor of safety of 1. following form which is called Merchant-Rankine's Formula where. o . fa = -= n 2 ~ f~'? Euler's critical buckling stress. Close fit with test data on axially loaded columns is obtained by expressing the axial compresive stress. However. Peny's Formula From the secant formula. . and a n = an imperfection index assumed as 1. stresses and limit of eccentricity has to be determined. 15. When slenderness ratio tends to zero a = fy . fy = yield stress of steel in MPa.in terms of .67.4.4 . E = 2.30) will give the allowable stress in axial compression in form Table below shows the various values of allowable stress in axial compression for IS : 800-1984 and IS : 800-1962 for = 250 MPa. if the safe load for a given section.MisceUaneaus Topics IS : 800-1984 (Merchant-Rankine's Formula) This approach has been changed in IS : 800-1984. it can be seen that if column section. f. (The table has been given in the code for various values of f. -= L Ir) r slenderness ratio.540 MPa). the necessary formula will have to be thrown into workable form X 2 . it is easy to workout the extreme stress intensities due to given load and eccentricity or to calculate permissible eccentricity for a given load and permissible stresses.5 Prof. the Eq. length and end conditions are given.

. = ~ E - I (12> Thus. ~.2 a.2 Pe ( P C . The permissible compressive stress is 80 ~ l m mTake E = 2 x 10" ~ / m r n ~ .. Find the nlaximum load that can be applied at an eccentricity of 20 mn from the axis Y . (ae . we get Or 1.P Yr o m m = . = 80 Nlmm2 . Example 15. Assume hinged ends M I of the compound section ahout y . Given. sec 1. from given a.+ p eAP e c ( i ) d ( & ) .oo)' On simplifying..4 -s I (since 7 = YC = & ) YC Cdumns and Struts where. we fmd j! as computed below Eulerian load P.5 x 107m4.P) ($1 d ( $ ) or set(:) d [ ~ ] approximated very closely to On substituting. we have. and e. a. 4.9 A compound stanchion 3 m long is made up of two charnels ISJC 200 and two 250 mm x 10 mm plates riveted one on each flange.y axis may be taken . Solutlon Firstly. Pe = ~ E - I l2 Prof. from which it is easy to workout a.v. Perry found out that the expression..

555kN. = 428555 N = 428. On solving. and gyration is called slenderness ratio of column. m ~ Safe load. we get o . For eccentrically loaded member. 15.5 SUMMARY The crippling load or buckling load of a column with different end conditions is as follows : L = actual length of column.iscc >pi< Applying'Perry's formula. = radius of gyration. r = < ' -= r L p which is ratio of effective length to least radius of (4. which can be reduced to secant formula as below . P = a x A = 50. = 50. The crippling stress in terms of radius of gyration for both ends hinged condition where. Thus.1x 8554 .1~ 1 m .

.= slendemess ratio (p).0 x lo5 MPa or 200 GPa (for steel).4. r L L = effective length of the compression member. Load at which column fails by cashing generally applicable to short column. fcc = -- 7 t 2 ~ I . a = Rankine's constant. = crushing stress for the material.Ranlune's formula for columns having wide range of slenderness ratio CdumnrandStrvts I where. (MPa) 255 550 330 SO a (for Hinged Ends) - Wrought iron Cast iron Mild steel 119000 1/1600 1fl500 In50 Strong timber Indian Standard Code Formula where. fy = yield stress of steel (MPa) (The table has been given in the code for various values of f. Euler's critical buckling stress. E = 2. Prof. Load at which column just buckles is known as buckling load or critical load or crippling load. This is generally applicable to long columns. n = an imperfection index assumed as 1. Material 0. and a. r = minimum radius of gyration. .6 KEY WORDS Column Strut : A vertical member of a structure subjected to loads is known as column.). Buckling Load Crushing Load : . = 230 to 540 MPa. : : Member of structure which may not be vertical and subjected to compressive load.. Perry's formula 15.

4 (b)]. = 4rr2E' L2 Po = For both end fired [Figure 15.The ratio of Euler's load = . P~(Rectangulta) PE(.71 kN. = -.4 (c)].7 ANSWERS TO SAQs SAQ 1 PC.125 W. i t can be seen that the buckling load for square column is four times more than the rectangular column. 1. we know. = 12337 kN Ez L~ SAQ 4 PE.= PE. ocr= 32. .4 (d)].) Thus. = 6. SAQ 5 Here.15. = I .56 MPa SAQ 3 W = wL = 160kN .364 m Psde = 53... PC. For Case (i). 2 1 . For one end fixed and other end hinged [Figure 15.. n2EI 4L2 Po = 2n2E1 L~ SAQ 2 L. and For Case (ii) 1. For one end fixed and other free [Figure 15.

a .= 82. (ii) Forhothendstixed.It is also known that PE = (i) Cdumns and Struts n2m2 K~EZ . For both ends hinged..46 say 165.8 N/mm2 P (Rankine) = 393.. .which can unlssc?he written as PE = .73 nearly - r r 80. le 1 .= 2 x 82. 1 .0 kN..5 . P (Euler) = 387. SAQ 7 = 245.1 2 L e 1 2 1.76 m.73 = r SAQ 6 165.0 kN and L = 1.

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