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Operati Onal Gui deli nes
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California POST
POST2005TPS- 0369.1
C a l i f o r n i a C o m m i s s i o n o n P e a c e O f f i c e r S t a n d a r d s a n d T r a i n i n g
contents
cOpyriGht
n
SWAT Operational Guidelines
and Standardized Training Recommendations
Copyright 2005
CaliforniaCommissiononPeaceOffcerStandardsandTraining(POST)
PublishedJuly2005
RevisedAugust2006
Allrightsreserved.Thispublicationmaynotbereproduced,inwhole
orinpart,inanyformorbyanymeanselectronicormechanicalorby
anyinformationstorageandretrievalsystemnowknownorhereafter
invented,withoutpriorwrittenpermissionoftheCaliforniaCommission
onPeaceOffcerStandardsandTraining(POST),withthefollowing
exception:
CalifornialawenforcementagenciesinthePOSTpeaceoffcerprogram
andPOST-certifedtrainingpresentersareherebygivenpermissionby
POSTtoreproduceanyorallofthecontentsofthismanualforinternal
usewithintheiragency/school.
Allotherindividuals,privatebusinessesandcorporations,publicand
privateagenciesandcolleges,professionalassociations,andnon-POSTlaw
enforcementagenciesin-stateorout-of-state,mayprintordownloadthis
publicationfornon-commercialuse.
Questions about this copyright information or about obtaining permission
tousePOST-developedpublicationsmaybeaddressedtothePublications
Manager at publications@postcagov
POST2005TPS-0369.1
contents
the missiOn
n
of the California Commission On Peace Offcer Standards and Training
istocontinuallyenhancetheprofessionalismofCaliforniaLaw
Enforcement in serving its communities
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cOmmissiOners
n
Anthony W. Batts Chief,LongBeachPoliceDepartment
Ron Lowenberg Dean/Director,GoldenWestCollege
John Avila NarcoticsDetective,FresnoCounty
Lai Lai Bui Detective,SacramentoPoliceDepartment
Collene Campbell Public Member
Robert Doyle Sheriff,RiversideCounty
Bonnie Dumanis DistrictAttorney,SanDiegoCounty
Deborah Linden Chief,SanLuisObispoPoliceDepartment
Nelson Lum Sergeant,SanFranciscoPoliceDepartment
Henry Perea Councilman,CityofFresno
Laurie Smith Sheriff,SantaClaraCounty
Michael Sobek Sergeant,SanLeandroPoliceDepartment
Bill Lockyer ExOffcioMember,AttorneyGeneral’sOffce
Ken O’Brien ExecutiveDirector,POST
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acknOwledGements
n
Thismanualcouldnothavebeendevelopedwithoutthecombined
effortsofagreatnumberofdedicatedindividualsandinterestedparties.
POSTwouldliketoextenditsgratitudetothemanylawenforcement
offcers,supervisors,managers,andsupportstaffwhocontributedtothe
success of this project
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FOrewOrd
n
PenalCodeSection13514.1directstheCommissiontodevelopand
disseminateguidelinesandstandardizedtrainingrecommendations
forlawenforcementoffcers,supervisors,andadministrators,whoare
assignedtoperform,supervise,ormanageSpecialWeaponsandTactics
(SWAT).
TheoperationalguidelinesaddresslegalandpracticalissuesofSWAT
operations,personnelselection,ftnessrecommendations,planning,
tacticalissues,safety,after-actionevaluationofoperations,logisticaland
resourceneeds,uniformandfrearmsrecommendations,riskassessment,
policyconsiderations,andmulti-jurisdictionalSWAToperations.
POSTassembledover130lawenforcementpractitioners,managers,and
executivestodeveloptheseguidelines.SWATsubjectmatterexperts
metthroughout2004toprovideinputregardingthehighlyspecialized
componentsofSWAToperationsandtraining.TheSWATExecutive
Committee,comprisedoflawenforcementchiefexecutives,administrators,
andSWATpractitioners,mettoreviewrecommendationsofsubcommittees.
TheCaliforniaAttorneyGeneral’sBlueRibbonSWATReport2002has
beenconsideredateachstepintheprocessandusedasaguidingdocument
indevelopingtheseoperationalguidelinesandstandardizedtraining
recommendations.TheCommissionappreciatestheeffortsofthePOST
SpecialWeaponsandTacticscommitteememberswhodevelopedand
reviewedtheguidelines.
TheseSWATguidelinesrefectrecentlawchangesandcontemporary
thinkingconcerningtacticallawenforcementoperations.Theyare
deliberatelybriefandareintendedtobeelaborateduponbylaw
enforcementadministratorsandtrainingpresenters.
Forquestionsconcerningtheguidelines,pleasecontactTrainingProgram
Servicesat(916)227-4885.Forquestionsconcerningbasicorupdate
training,pleasecontactyourareaconsultantinTrainingDeliveryat(916)
227-4863orviatheRegionalMaponourwebsiteatwww.post.ca.gov
KENNEThJ.O’BRiEN
ExecutiveDirector
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cOntents
Foreword iv
introduction 1
1.0 DefnitionofSWAT 2
20 SWATTeamComponents 3
3.0 PolicyConsiderations 4
4.0 RiskAssessment 6
50 Planning 7
6.0 LogisticalandResourceNeeds 9
7.0 LegalandPracticalissuesofSWATOperations 10
8.0 Uniforms,Equipment,andFirearms 11
9.0 PersonnelSelection,PhysicalFitnessandCoreSkillsProfciency 12
10.0 SWATTraining 14
11.0 Multi-JurisdictionalSWATOperations 18
12.0 After-ActionEvaluation 19
13.0 SpecializedFunctionsandSupportingResources 20
Appendices
A BasicSWATTeamOperationalComponents 29
B BasicSWATCourseTopics 30
C SWATCoreCompetencies 34
D SWAT/TacticalCommanders’CourseTopics 38
E CoreCompetenciesforSWATK-9Teams 41
F BasicCrisisNegotiatorCourseRecommendedCourseTopics 42
G Crisis Negotiations Core Competencies 47
h LongRife/ObserverTeamCourseTopicRecommendations 49
i TacticalWaterborneCoreCompetencies 52
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intrOductiOn
n
Thefollowingareguidelinesandstandardizedtraining
recommendationsformanaging,operating,andtraininglaw
enforcementSWATteamsintheStateofCaliforniainaccordance
withPenalCodeSection13514.1.Theintentoftheseguidelinesisto
providehelpfulguidancetolawenforcementagenciesintheformation,
oversight,operation,andtrainingofeffectiveSWATteams.Tothe
extentpossible,“bestpractices”havebeenidentifedandincorporated
intotheseguidelines.Whiletheseguidelinesencouragesomedegree
ofstandardizationofSWAT,itisrecognizedthatlocalconditionsand
needsvaryconsiderablyandthereforefexibilityisaffordedagencies.
TheseguidelinespayparticularattentiontotheSWATaspectsthat
focusoneffectiveness,safetyandpreventionofproblematiccritical
incidents.
NOTE:inthefollowingsections,operationalguidelinesand
standardizedtrainingrecommendationsareidentifedinregular type
withexplanatoryinformationinitalicized type
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1.0 deFinitiOn OF swat
1.1 ASpecialWeaponsandTactics(SWAT)teamisanydesignatedgroupof
lawenforcementoffcerswhoareselected,trained,andequippedtowork
asacoordinatedteamtoresolvecriticalincidentsthataresohazardous,
complex,orunusualthattheymayexceedthecapabilitiesoffrst
respondersorinvestigativeunits.
u TheprimarycharacteristicofSWATthatdistinguishesitfromtheother
unitsisthefocusofeffort.SWATteamsarefocusedontacticalsolutions,as
opposedtootherfunctions,suchasinvestigation.ThepurposeofSWATisto
increasethelikelihoodofsafelyresolvingcriticalincidents.Nothinginthese
guidelinesisintendedtoprecludeagenciesfromutilizingspeciallytrainedunits
inareassuchasnarcoticsinvestigations,felonyapprehension,andothertasks.
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2.0 swat team cOmpOnents
2.1 SWATteamsshoulddevelopsuffcientresourcestoperformthethree
basic operational functions:
1. CommandandControl
2 Containment
3. Entry/Apprehension/Rescue
u Appendix Aprovidesasuggestedlistingofactivitiesforeachoperational
component.
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3.0 pOlicy cOnsideratiOns
3.1 Aneedsassessmentshouldbeconductedtodeterminethetypeand
extentofSWATmissionsandoperationsappropriatetotheparticular
agency.Thisassessmentshouldconsidertheteam’scapabilitiesand
limitationsandshouldbereviewedperiodically.
3.2 PoliciesandproceduresspecifctoSWATorganizationandoperations
shouldbeestablishedandmaintainedbytheagency.Thesepoliciesand
proceduresshouldaddress,ataminimum:
nThelocallyidentifedspecifcmissionstheteamiscapableofper-
forming
nTeamorganizationandfunction
nPersonnelselectionandretentioncriteria
nTrainingandrequiredcompetencies
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3.0 continued pOlicy cOnsideratiOns pOlicy cOnsideratiOns
nProceduresforactivationanddeployment
nCommandandcontrolissues,includingaclearlydefnedcommand
structure
nMulti-agencyresponse
nOut-of-jurisdictionalresponse
nSpecializedfunctionsandsupportingresources
u ThesepoliciesandproceduresshouldtakeintoconsiderationPOST
guidelinesandstandardizedtrainingrecommendations.
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4.0 risk assessment
4.1 Agenciesshouldconductathreatassessmenttodeterminethe
appropriateresponseandresourcesnecessary,includingtheuseof
SWAT.
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5.0 planninG
5.1 Missionbriefngsshouldbeconductedpriortoanoperation,unless
circumstancesrequireimmediatedeployment.
u Whenpossible,briefingsshouldincludethespecializedunitsand
supportingresources.
5 2 SWATteamsshoulddesignatepersonnelresponsiblefordevelopingan
operationalortacticalplanpriortoandduringSWAToperations.
5.3 AllSWATteammembersshouldhaveanunderstandingofoperational
planning
u SkillredundancyinknowledgeofplanningproceduresforSWATteam
membersimprovesperformanceinrapidlydevelopingscenarios.
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5.0 continued planninG planninG
5.4 SWATteampoliciesandtrainingshouldconsiderplanningforboth
spontaneousandplannedevents.

5 5 SWATteamsshouldincorporatemedicalemergencycontingency
planningaspartoftheSWAToperationalplan.
u Whereresourcesallow,considerationshouldbegiventointegrating
TacticalEmergencyMedicalSupport(TEMS)personnelwithinthestructureof
theSWATteam.
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6.0 lOGistical and resOurce needs
6.1 SWATteamsthatanticipateaugmentationbyspecializedresources
shouldincorporateuseofthoseresourcesintotheirplanningand
training
u Refertosection13.0forfurtherguidelinesonSpecializedFunctionsand
SupportingResources.

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leGal and practical issues OF
7.0 swat OperatiOns

7.1 Agenciesshoulddevelopprotocolstomaintainsustainedoperations,
whichmayincluderelief,rotationofpersonnel,andaugmentationof
resources
7.2 Agenciesshoulddevelopproceduresforpost-incidentscenemanagement,
includingdocumentationandtransitiontoinvestigationsandother
units
7.3 Agenciesshouldconsidertheuseoftacticallytrainedpersonnelfor
communicationsandrecordkeepingduringSWAToperations.
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8.0 uniFOrms, equipment, and Firearms
8.1 SWATteamsshouldwearuniformsthatclearlyidentifyteammembers
aslawenforcementoffcers.
u Itisrecognizedthatcertaintacticalconditionsmayrequirecovert
movement.Attiremaybeselectedappropriatetothespecificmission.
8.2 SWATteamsshouldbeadequatelyequippedtomeetthespecifcmission
identifedbytheagency.
8.3 Withintherespectiveagency,weaponsandequipmentusedby
SWAT,thespecializedunits,andthesupportingresourcesshouldbe
agency-issuedorapproved,includinganymodifcations,additions,or
attachments
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persOnnel selectiOn, physical Fitness
9.0 and cOre skills prOFiciency
9.1 Minimumrequirementsforbothinitialselectionandfulldeployment
withtheSWATteamshouldbeestablishedbytheagencybasedupon
resourcesavailableandidentifedlocalneeds,POSTguidelines,and
soundriskmanagementpractices.
u AgenciesshouldensurethattheSWATselectionprocessisreasonable,job
related,andunbiased.
9.2 Agenciesshouldestablishphysicalftnessstandardsfortheselectionand
retentionofSWATteammembers.
u Agenciesshouldconsiderconductingphysicalfitnessassessmentat
leastannually.Policiesshouldbeestablishedforfailuretocomplywiththese
standards.
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persOnnel selectiOn, physical Fitness
9.0 continued and cOre skills prOFiciency
9.3 AgenciesshouldestablishSWATcoreskillsprofciencylevelsforSWAT
team members
u Agenciesshouldconsiderconductingcoreskillsproficiencyassessment
atleastannually.Policiesshouldbeestablishedforfailuretomaintainthese
proficiencies.
u SeeGuideline 10.2andAppendix Cforalistingofcorecompetencies
andelements.
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10.0 swat traininG
10.1 Initial Training
10.1.1 SWATteamOperatorsandSWATSupervisors/teamleadersshouldnot
bedeployeduntilsuccessfulcompletionofthePOST-certifedBasic
SWATCourseoritsequivalentasdeterminedbytheagency.
u Appendix BprovidesthetrainingrecommendationsforthePOSTBasic
SWATCourse.
10.1.2 Appropriatetraining,priortofulldeployment,shouldalsobe
incorporatedintoagencypolicyforthespecializedSWATfunctionsand
other supporting resources
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10.0 continued swat traininG swat traininG
10.2 Recurrent Core Competency Training
10.2.1 SWATteamsshouldparticipateindocumentedandverifablemonthly
trainingtomaintainindividualandteamcorecompetenciesas
determinedbythetypeandextentofSWATmissionsandoperations
performed.
u SWATcorecompetenciesfallwithinthreegeneralcategories:
nWeapons,munitions,andequipmenttraining
nindividualandteammovementandtactics
nDecision-making
u Appendix CprovidesalistingofSWAToperatorcorecompetenciesand
elementsforeachcompetency.
u Ongoingtrainingintherespectivecorecompetenciesshouldalsobe
incorporatedintopolicyforthespecializedSWATfunctionsandsupporting
resources.
10.3 Update and Refresher Training
10.3.1 SWATteamOperatorsandSWATSupervisors/teamleadersshould
attend24hoursofPOST-certifedSWATupdateorrefreshertraining,or
itsequivalent(asdeterminedbytheagency),every24months.
u Appendix CprovidesalistingofSWAToperatorcorecompetenciesand
elementsforeachcompetency.
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10.0 continued swat traininG swat traininG
10.4 Supervision and Management
10.4.1 Commandandexecutivepersonnelwhoprovideactiveoversightat
thesceneofSWAToperationsshouldunderstandthepurposeand
capabilitiesoftheteam(s).
u Commandandexecutivepersonnelareencouragedtoattendtrainingfor
managingtheSWATfunctionattheorganizationallevel.
10.4.2 Commandpersonnelwhomayassumeincidentcommandresponsibilities
shouldattendaSWATorcriticalincidentcommandercourse,orits
equivalent.
10.4.3 SWATcommandpersonnelshouldattendaPOST-certifedSWAT
commanderortacticalcommandercourse,oritsequivalent.
u Appendix DprovidesthetrainingrecommendationsforthePOST
TacticalCommanderCourse.
10.5 Approval of Prior Training
10.5.1 AgencieswithSWATteamsshouldestablishprocedurestorecognize
previoustrainingofmemberssoastoprecludeunnecessary,redundant
training
u Asageneralrule,previouslycompletedtrainingmaybeconsidered
equivalentwhenthehoursandcontent(topics)meetorexceedagency
requirementsorPOST’sstandardizedtrainingrecommendations.
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10.0 continued swat traininG swat traininG
10.6 Training Safety
10.6.1 Useofadesignatedsafetyoffcershouldbeconsideredfortactical
training
u RefertoPOSTGuidelinesforStudentSafetyinCertifedCoursesfor
furthertrainingsafetyinformation.
10.7 Scenario-Based Training
10.7.1 SWATteamsshouldparticipateinscenario-basedtraining.
u Scenario-basedtrainingthatsimulatesthetacticaloperational
environmentisanestablishedmethodofimprovingperformanceduringan
actualdeployment.

10.8 Annual Training Plan
10.8.1 SWATteamsshoulddevelopanannualtrainingplanbasedonatraining
needsassessment.
u AnannualtrainingplanhelpsSWATteamstoidentifyandprioritize
trainingneedsandscheduleaccordingly.
10.9 Training Documentation
10.9.1 individualandteamtrainingshouldbedocumentedandrecords
maintainedbytheagency.
u Documentationofindividualandteamtraining/performancecan
contributetolong-termreductionofliabilityandaidininvestigations.
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11.0 multi-JurisdictiOnal swat OperatiOns
11.1 TheSWATteam,includingrelevantspecializedunitsandsupporting
resources,shoulddevelopprotocols,agreements,orworking
relationshipstosupportmulti-jurisdictionalorregionalresponses.
11.2 SWATmulti-agencyandmulti-disciplinaryjointtrainingexercisesare
encouraged.SpecializedSWATunitsandsupportingresourcesshould
also participate
u SomeagenciesmaychoosetoconsolidateresourcesintoaregionalSWAT
teamconcept.
u Samplesofinitialsuggestedprotocolsandmulti-jurisdictionalagreements
canbeobtainedthroughthePOSTclearinghouse,uponrequest.
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12.0 aFter-actiOn evaluatiOn
12.1 After-actionteamdebriefngsshouldbeconducted.
u Evaluationandanalysisofcriticalincidentsaffordsopportunityfor
individualandteamassessment,helpstoidentifytrainingneeds,andreinforces
soundriskmanagementpractices.Whenappropriate,thedebriefingsshould
includespecializedunitsandresources.
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 and suppOrtinG resOurces
13.1 SWATK-9Teams

u Theseguidelinesareintendedashelpfulguidanceforagencieswhoutilize
K-9teamsonarecurrentbasisfordeploymentwithatacticalteam.
DefnitionofaSWATK-9Team
u ASWATK-9teamisadesignatedunit,consistingofahandleranddog,
whichisspecificallyselected,trained,andequippedtoworkinconjunctionwith
SWAT/tacticalteamstoassistintacticalincidents.
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
FormationandPolicyConsiderations
nAgenciesshouldestablishproceduresforbothinitialselectionand
fulldeploymentofcaninehandlerswiththeSWATteam,whichare
consistentwithPOSTK-9guidelines.
nAgenciesshouldestablishproceduresfortheselectionofdogsused
aspartoftheSWATK-9team.
nNotallpolicecaninesaresuitableforSWAToperations.
Planning
nSWATK-9handlersshouldbeprovidedwithappropriateSWAT-
specifcsafetyandcommunicationsequipmentappropriatetothe
assignedtacticalmission,consistentwithdepartmentpolicy.
nSWATK-9teamsshouldparticipateinmissionbriefngspriortoa
tacticaloperation,after-actionevaluationsandteamdebriefngs.
Training
nAgenciesshouldestablishSWATK-9coreskillsprofciencylevelsfor
K-9tacticalteams.
nAgenciesshouldconductcoreskillsprofciencyassessmentonan
ongoing basis
nAppendixEprovidesasuggestedlistingofcorecompetenciesfor
SWATK-9teams.
nSWATteamsandSWATK-9teamsshouldjointlyparticipatein
documentedquarterlyscenario-basedtrainingtomaintainSWAT
K-9teamcorecompetencies,consistentwiththetypeofSWAT
missionsperformed.
nitisrecommendedthattheK-9handlerandK-9successfully
completeaSWATorientationprogramthatemphasizesbasicSWAT
procedures,practices,andequipment.
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
nCommandpersonnelwhomayassumeSWATK-9Teamcommand
responsibilitiesandSWATK-9handlersshouldremaincurrenton
legalissuespertainingtolawenforcementK-9deployment.

SafetyConsiderations
nRescueproceduresfortheSWATK-9team(i.e.handlerdown)
shouldbedeveloped,trained,andpracticedpriortodeployment.
nMedicalemergencycontingencyplanningshouldbeincorporatedas
partoftherescueprocedures.
LegalandPracticalissues
nSWATK-9Teamsshouldbeevaluatedastotheirsuitabilityfor
deploymentwithatacticalteampriortodeploymentandonan
ongoing basis
13.2 CrisisNegotiationsTeam
DefnitionofaCrisisNegotiationsTeam
u ACrisisNegotiationsTeam(CNT)isadesignatedgroupofpersonnel
specificallyselected,trained,andequippedtoassistintheresolutionofcritical
incidentsbymeansofcommunicationandnegotiationwithcriminalsuspects
andotherpersons,ofteninconjunctionwiththeSWAT/tacticalunit.
Formation
nAgenciesthatfeldaSWATteam,orwhoparticipateinaregional
ormulti-jurisdictionalteam,shoulddevelopaCrisisNegotiations
componentforresponsetoidentifedcriticalincidents.
nACrisisNegotiationsTeammaybedevelopedasanintegralpartof
theSWATteam/unit,orasaseparateentitywithitsowncommand
structure
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
PolicyConsiderations
u AgenciesshouldorganizeCNTwithregardtothefollowingpolicy
considerations:
nDevelopmentofwrittenoperatingprocedures.
nidentifcationofpersonnelresponsibleforoperations,training,and
equipmentmaintenance.
nDevelopmentofwrittencriteriafortheactivationanddeployment
ofaCrisisNegotiationsTeam.
ninstitutionofproceduresforestablishingandrunningthe
NegotiationsOperationsCenterincoordinationwiththeTactical
CommanderandtheincidentCommander.
CNTOperationalFunctions
u AgenciesshoulddevelopresourcessufficienttoperformthefourCNT
operationalfunctions:
nCommunications/Negotiations
nintelligence
nTacticalLiaison
nLogistics
initialTraining
nCNTmembersshouldsuccessfullycompleteaPOST-certifedBasic
CrisisNegotiatorcourseoritsequivalent.
nAppendixFcontainsalistingofrecommendedtopicsfortheBasic
Crisis Negotiator course
RecurrentCoreCompetencyTraining
nCNTmembersshouldparticipateindocumentedquarterlytraining
thatmaintainsprofciencyincorecompetencies,consistentwith
thetypeofSWATmissionsidentifedbyagencypolicy.Periodic
scenario-basedtraining,inconjunctionwiththeSWATteam,is
encouraged.
nAppendixGprovidesasuggestedlistingofCNTcorecompetencies.
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
CNTSupervisionandManagement
nCommandpersonnelwhomayassumeCNTcommand
responsibilitiesshouldattendaSWATorcriticalincident
commandercourse,oritsequivalent,whichincludescurriculum
regardingcrisisnegotiationsprotocols.
13.3 LongRife/ObserverTeams
DefnitionofaLongRife/ObserverTeam
u ALongRifle/ObserverTeamisadesignatedunitoflawenforcement
officerswhoareselected,trained,andequippedtoworkasanelementofthe
SWATteamintheresolutionofcriticalincidentsbyprovidingobservation,cover,
andtheemploymentofprecisionfire.
nLongRife/ObserverTeamsaremostoftenacomponentofSWAT.
however,itisrecognizedthatsomeagenciestrainanddeployLong
Rife/ObserverTeamsincoordinationwith,butdistinctfrom,the
SWATteam.
FormationandPolicyConsiderations
nAgenciesshoulddevelopsuffcienttrainingandresourcestoperform
thebasicfunctionsoftheLongRife/ObserverTeam.
nALongRife/ObserverTeamshouldconsistoftwooffcers,cross-
trainedasbothLongRifeOperatorandObserver.
initialTraining
nLongRifeOperatorsshouldnotbedeployeduntilsuccessful
completionofaPOST-CertifedBasicLongRifeCourse,orits
equivalent.
nAppendixhprovidesinformationabouttheBasicLongRife
Course
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
RecurrentCoreCompetencyTraining
nLongRifeOperatorsshouldparticipateindocumentedand
verifabletrainingonamonthlybasisthatmaintainsindividual
andteamcorecompetenciesconsistentwiththetypeofSWAT
missionsperformed.
LongRife/Observercorecompetenciesfallwithinthreegeneral
categories:
nFundamentalsofPrecisionShooting
nTactics
nObservation/Communication
LongRifeOperatorsshoulddemonstrateprofciencyonatleasta
quarterlybasiswithassignedfrearms.
SafetyConsiderations
nAppropriatesafetyprecautionsshouldbeincorporatedintoLong
Rife/ObserverTeamtraining.
nTheuseofasafetyoffcerisrecommended.

u RefertoPOSTGuidelinesforStudentSafetyinCertifiedCoursesforfurther
trainingsafetyinformation.
13.4 SWATOperationsinaWeaponsofMassDestruction(WMD)/Terrrorism
Event
u SWATteamsmaybetaskedwithpreparingthetacticalcomponentof
thegovernmentalresponsetoapotentialexposuretochemical,biological,
radiological,nuclear,orexplosive(CBRNE)hazards.Agenciesshouldrecognize
thattacticaloperationsinaCBRNEenvironmentarehighlyspecialized.SWAT
teamsmaynotbepreparedtohandletheseincidentsalone,andshouldconsider
acoordinatedregionalresponsebylocal,state,andfederalagencies.
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
13.5 SWATWaterborneOperations
u Definition
Forthepurposesofthissection,waterborneoperationsrefertothedeployment
ofspeciallytrainedSWATOperatorstoengageintacticaloperationsassociated
withthewaterborneenvironment.
NeedsAssessment
nAneedsassessmentshouldbeconductedtodeterminethetypeand
extentofSWATwaterbornemissionsandoperationsappropriateto
the agency
Training
nSWATteamswhoanticipateutilizingwaterbornesupportin
recurrentmissionsshouldcompleteinitialvesselorientationand
trainingpriortodeployment.
nSWATTeamswhoanticipateutilizingwaterbornesupportfor
recurrentmissionsshouldincorporatemaritimetraininginthe
annual training plan
nAppendixiprovidesalistingofSWAToperatorcorecompetencies
associatedwiththemaritimeenvironment.
Planning
nConsiderationshouldbegiventotheproperselectionofequipment
relatedtolocallyidentifedmissionprofles.
nVesseloperatorsshouldparticipateinthedevelopmentphaseof
mission planning to ensure appropriate assets are in place for the
identifedmissionprofle.
nPriortocommencingunderwayoperations,thevesseloperatorsand
crewshouldconductasafetybriefng,includingvesselsafetyand
emergencyprocedures.
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
Multi-jurisdictionalissues
nAgenciesinvolvedinwaterbornetacticaloperationsshoulddevelop
protocols,agreements,and/orworkingrelationshipswithother
agenciesthatmaybeoperationallyaffectedduetostatutory,cross
jurisdictional,ormulti-jurisdictionalrequirements.
13.6 SWATAiRBORNEOPERATiONS
u Definition
Forthepurposesofthissection,atacticalairborneoperationreferstotheuseof
airsupportasaresourceincoordinationwithSWATtoresolvecriticalincidents.
nFormationandPolicyConsiderations
Aneedsassessmentshouldbeconductedtodeterminethetypeand
extentofSWATairsupportmissionsandoperationsappropriateto
the particular agency
nTheagency,incoordinationwithSWATandtheairsupport
provider,shoulddevelopproceduresforthetacticaluseofthe
aircraft
Planning
nAircrewsshouldparticipateinthedevelopmentphaseofmission
planningandriskassessmenttoensureappropriateassetsarein
placefortheidentifedmissionparameters.
nAircrewsshouldparticipatewithSWATinafter-actionevaluationof
operationsanddebriefngs.
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
SafetyConsiderations
nPriortocommencingoperations,adesignatedaircrewmember
shouldconductasafetybriefng,includingaircraftsafetyand
emergencyprocedures.
Training
nSWATteamswhoutilizeairsupportforrecurrentmissionsshould
incorporateairbornetrainingwiththeaircraftandaircrew
members in the annual training plan
Firearms
nAgenciesshoulddeveloppoliciesregardinguseoffrearmsand
frearmstraininginanairborneenvironment.
nWeaponssafetyisofextremeimportanceinairborneoperations.
SWATteamsinvolvedinairborneweaponsutilizationshould
conductperiodictrainingusingtheaircraftasashootingplatform.
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Basic swat team
appendix a OperatiOnal cOmpOnents
n
SWATteamsshoulddevelopresourcessuffcienttofulfllthefollowing
three minimum operational components:
1. Command and Control Element
a, Planning,organizing,staffng,anddirectingtheoverallSWAT
operation
b. CoordinationwiththeCrisisNegotiationsTeam
c. Liaisonwithalliedagencies
d. Missiondocumentation
e Communications
f. Medicalsupport
g. Missiondebriefngs
2 Containment Element
a Control of inner perimeter
b Evacuation
c. Tacticaldeliveries(chemicalmunitions,equipment,etc.)
d. Precisionlongrife/observerdeploymentandsupport
3. Entry/Apprehension/Rescue Element
a. Scoutingmissions
b. Breaching
c. Enter,search,andsecureobjective(s)
d. Rescueoperations
e. Subject/suspectdetention
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appendix B Basic swat cOurse tOpics
n
Thesecoursetopicrecommendationsaredesignedforoffcerswho
areassignedtoaSWAT/tacticalteam.Thetopicsaddressthebasic
conceptsofSWAT,andincludepracticalapplicationandproblemsolving
simulationsaseffectivelearningmethods.Typicalscenarioswould
includebarricadedsubjects,hostagesituations,warrantservice,active
shooters,andotherhigh-risksituations.Thecourseshouldincludethe
followingtopics:
1. Introduction
a Course Objectives
b. POSTSWATProjectandGuidelines
c. historicalPerspectiveoftheSWATConcept
2 Performance Evaluation of Team Members
a. CoreCompetencyTrainingandCompliance
3. Policy Issues
a. Legalissues/CivilLiability
b. UseofForce
c. MutualAidProcedures
d. SWATPoliciesandProcedures
e. importanceofCorrectTerminology
4. Basic SWAT Concepts
a. CommonSWATResponses
b. incidentCommandandDirectSupervisionoftheSWATteam
c. SWATActivationCriteria
d. TeamCompositionandDuties
5 Psychological Considerations
a. Post-TraumaStress
b. StressManagement
c. MentalConditioningforConfrontations
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Appendix B continued Basic SWAT Course Topics
contents
6. Physical Considerations
a. FitnessStandardsforSWATTeamMembers
b. LifetimeFitnessRecommendations
c. PhysicalTrainingforSWATTeamMembers
d. EmergencyMedicalProcedures
7. Overview of Individual and Team Equipment
a. UniformEquipment
b. WeaponsandFirearms
c. CommunicationsDevices
d. SupportEquipmentandTechnology
8. Operational Planning
a. importanceofPlanning
b. StructuredPlanningFormat
c Principles of Containment
d. intelligenceGathering
e. Pre-EventPlanning
f Contemporaneous Planning
g. implementation/Resolution
h. incidentDe-Briefng
9. Overview of Specialized SWAT Functions
a Canines
b. Airborne
c Crisis Negotiations
d. ExplosiveBreaching
e. LongRife/Observer
f Rescue Operations
g. MobileAssaults
h. SWATResponsetoWMD-relatedincidents
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10. Command Post Operations
a. FieldCommandPost
b. TacticalOperationsCenter
c. MediaConsiderations
11. Individual and Team Movement
a. CoverandConcealment
b. TeamCommunications
c Overcoming Obstacles
d. PracticalApplication
12. Basic Entry and Search Techniques
a. SWATArrestandControl
b. BuildingsandStructures
c. MechanicalBreaching
d. OpenAreaSearches
e. PracticalApplication
13. Chemical Agents in SWAT Operations
a. OverviewofChemicalAgents
b Less Lethal Munitions
c. PracticalApplication
14. Diversionary Devices
a. OverviewofDiversionaryDevices
b. PracticalApplication
15. Crisis Negotiation
a. NegotiationConceptsandStrategies
b. RelationshipBetweenSWATandCrisisNegotiationTeams
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Appendix B continued Basic SWAT Course Topics
contents
16. Individual and Team Firearms Training
a. handguns
b. Shoulder-fredWeapons
c. PracticalApplication
17. Training Scenarios and Problem-Solving Simulations
a. TableTopExercises
b. Reality-basedExercises
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appendix c swat cOre cOmpetencies
n
Thislistisintendedtoassistagenciesindeterminingareasof
responsibilityforindividualSWATteamsandindevelopinganannual
SWATtrainingplan.
1. Weapons, Munitions, and Equipment
a. ArmoredVehicleOperations
b. EquipmentFamiliarizationandMaintenance
c. FirearmSkills(livefre)
(1) handgun
(2) Lowlight/nighttraining
(3) Shoulder-fredweapons
d. individualOperator’sUniformMaintenanceandWear
e. LadderandOtherhighAngleAccess
f. LightingSystems(personal,weapons,other)
g. MechanicalBreaching
(1) 12-gaugeshotgunbreaching
(2) Rams,picks,pullers,etc.
h Munitions
(1) Chemicalagents:Optionsanddeliverysystems
(2) Lesslethalimpactmunitionsanddelivery
(4) Light/sounddiversionarydevices
(5) Otherlesslethaldevices
i. NightVisionEquipment
j. UseofBallisticShields
k. WeaponsMaintenance
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Appendix C continued SWAT Core Competencies
contents
2 Individual and Team Movement/Tactics
a. ActiveShooterResponse
b. Aircraftintervention
c. BarricadedSubjectOperations
d. BoobyTraps
e. CamoufageTechniques
f. ConductingEvacuations
g. ContainmentTechniques
h. CoverandMovement
i Covert Clearing
j. DownedOffcer/CitizenRescues
k. DynamicClearing
l. EmergencyDeploymentTechniques
m Entries
n. highRiskWarrantService
(1) Contain&call-outs
(2) Dynamic
(3) Remotetakedowns
(4) Ruses,etc.
o. homicideBombers
p. immediateActionDrills
q. LongRifeinitiatedAssaults
r Night Movement
s. Rappelling(ruraland/orurban)
(1) Airborne
(2) Static
t Reactionary Responses
u. RescueOperations–Basic
v Rural Operations
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Appendix C continued SWAT Core Competencies
contents
w. Scouting
x. SearchingTechniques
y. SmallUnitTactics
z. TacticalOperationCenter
aa. VehicleAssaults
(1) Busassaults
(2) Car/van/truckassaults
3. Decision-Making
a. MissionandTacticalContingencyPlanning
b. TrainingSimulations(scenario-basedtraining)
c. Barricadedsubject/suspect
d. highRiskWarrant(dynamic,contain&call-outs,etc.)
e. hostagesituations
(1) Suicideintervention
(2) Other
f. WarrantServiceWork-upsandPlanning
4. SpecializedFunctionsand/orSupportingResources
a. AirborneOperations
b. Counter-Terrorism
c Executive Protection
d. ExplosiveBreaching
e. LongRife/Observer
f. MarijuanaGrowOperations
g. RescueOperations–Advanced
h Riot Response
i. Surveillance
j. SWATCanineintegration
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Appendix C continued SWAT Core Competencies
contents
k. TacticalEmergencyMedicalSupport
l. TeamLeaderTraining
m. Train/TrolleyAssaults
n WaterborneOperations
o. WMDResponse
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swat/tactical
appendix d cOmmanders’ cOurse tOpics
n
Thesecoursetopicrecommendationsaredesignedforsupervisoryand
commandleveloffcerswhohaveSWAT/tacticalteamresponsibility.
ThetopicsaddresstheemploymentofSWATteams,longrifes,and
observers,negotiators,containment,commandposts,andother
specialoperationsresources.Typicaltrainingscenarioswouldinclude
barricadedsubjects,hostagesituations,warrantservice,activeshooters,
andotherhigh-risksituations.Thecourseshouldincludethefollowing
topics:
1. Introduction
a Course Objectives
b. POSTSWATProjectandGuidelines
2 Defnition of a Critical Incident
a. historyofTacticalOperations
3. Administrative Duties and Responsibilities
a. PersonnelSelectionandRetention
b. CoreCompetencyTrainingandCompliance
c. Documentation
d. PolicyandProceduresUpdateandCompliance
e. Equipment/NewTechnology
4. Legal Issues
a. CivilLiability/CaseLaw
b. UseofForce
5 Mutual Aid Procedures
a Policy
b. MOU’s
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c Communications
6. Deployment Guidelines
a. SuspectinitiatedEvents
b. DepartmentinitiatedEvents
7. Tactical Team Operations
a. WarrantService
b. hostageRescue
c. BarricadedSuspect/Subject
d. MobileSuspectinterdiction
e. OpenAreaClearing
f. SpecialtyTactics
g. ProtectionDetails
8. Command and Control
a. incidentCommand
b. TacticalCommand
9. Command Post Operations
a. DefnitionandFunctions
b. DutiesandResponsibilities
c Communications
10. Tactical Operation Procedures
a. SituationAssessment
b Operational Planning
c. ForceOptions
d. MedicalSupport
e. Briefng
f. PostOperationalDebriefng
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contents
11. Tactical Components/Capabilities
a. SWATTeam
b. LongRife/ObserverTeam
c. CrisisNegotiationsTeam
d. TacticalDispatch
12. Tactical Considerations/Missions
a. Containmentteam(SWATorPatrol)
b. TacticalEmergencyMedicalSupport(TEMS)
c. AirSupport
d. Evacuation
e. Arrest/ReactionTeam
f. ChemicalAgents
g Less Lethal Munitions
h. Breaching
i. ThrowPhone/FoodDelivery
j. hostageRescue
k. BombSquad
l. WMD
13. Training Scenarios and Problem-Solving Simulations
a. TableTopExercises
b. Reality-basedExercises
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cOre cOmpetencies
appendix e FOr swat k-9 teams
n
SWATK-9handler:
1. Firearmsqualifcationwithassignedweapon(s)atleasttwiceper
yearwithK-9incloseproximitytohandler.
2. Teamandstealthmovementtechniques(tacticalobedience)
3. Teamapproachtoobjective
4. Teamentryintoobjective
5. Directedandnon-directedtacticalsearches
6. Confnedspaceandlimitedaccessinsertionandextraction
7. Limitedaccesssearching(confnedspaces–attics,crawlspaces,
vehicleinteriors,etc.)
8. Long-lineutilization
9. AbilitytorecallK-9duringtacticalsearches
10. AuditoryalertbyK-9uponlocatinginaccessiblesuspect
11. handand/oraudibledowncommandsforK-9duringtacticalsearch
12. Calm/controlledbehaviorbyK-9duringsearchexercises.
13. Calm/controlledbehaviorbyK-9withteamduringlivefre
exercises
14. Operatinginachemicalagentandsmokeenvironment
15. Operatinginconjunctionwithdiversionarydevicedeployment
16. Tacticaloutandteamarrestprocedures.
17. Tacticaltrackingconsistentwithagencyprocedures
18. Suspectcontainment
19. Suspectapprehension
20. Suspectdistraction
21. Clearinghigh-riskareas(entryways,stairwells,hallways,etc.)
22. Extractionofanon-complianthigh-risksubject
23. Otherskillsconsistentwithagencymissionprofle,basedonlocal
needs
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Basic crisis neGOtiatOr cOurse
appendix F recOmmended cOurse tOpics
n
Thesecoursetopicrecommendationsaredesignedforpersonnelwhoare
assignedtoaCrisisNegotiationTeam(CNT.)Thesetopicsaddressthe
basicconceptsofcrisisnegotiations,andincludepracticalapplication
andproblemsolvingsimulationsaseffectivelearningmethods.The
courseshouldincludethefollowingtopics:
1. historicalPerspective
a. SignifcantEventsAffectingEarlyNegotiations
b. ModernDayNegotiations
c. Centralizedvs.DecentralizedTeamConcepts
2. BasicNegotiationsTheory
a. Three“Cs”ofNegotiations
(1) Containment
(2) Control
(3) Communication
3. CrisisNegotiationsTeamStructure
a. VariousAgencyStandards
(1) CommandPostOperations
(2) iCS
(3) TacticalElement
(4) Positions,Roles,Responsibilities
b Logistics
(1) OnSiteSupport–CNT
(2) OnSiteSupport-Tactical
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c. intelligence
(1) interview
(2) SubjectProfle
(3) informationSharing
4. incidentTypes
a.hostageSituations
b.Non-hostageSituations
c.SpecialCircumstances
(1) Custodial/Correctionsincidents
(2) SuicidebyCop
(3) RepeatOffenders
(4) LawEnforcementPersonnel
5. SubjectTypes
a. Mentalhealthissues
(1) PsychologicalDisordersandDiagnosis
b. Suicide
c. interruptedCrimes
d. DomesticViolence
e. Terrorism
f. Chemicalinfuence
6. ResponseProtocol
a. TeamActivation
(1) FirstResponderEvaluation
(2) DepartmentPolicyissues
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Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics
contents
7. CriticalincidentAssessment
a.RiskAssessment
(1) Typeofincident
(2) AppropriateActiontoResolve
b. Walkawayassessment
(1) ToNegotiateorNottoNegotiate
c. StockholmSyndrome
d. Victimology
e. hostageBehavior
8. Equipment
a. CNTSpecializedEquipment(UseandMaintenance)
b. Technology
9. NegotiationTechniques
a Verbal Communications
(1) FacetoFace
(2) ElectronicCommunications
(3) ThirdPartyCommunications
10. NegotiationStrategies
a. CommunicationSkills
(1) ActiveListening
b. indicatorsofProgress/Violence
c. TimeConsiderations
11. SurrenderPhase
a. Tactical/CNTCoordination
b. TransferofCommunications
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Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics
contents
12. Debriefng
a. incidentReview
(1) individual
(2) Team
(3) Tactical/CNTJointDebriefng
b. CriticalincidentStressDebriefng
(1) incidentDriven
(2) individualAssessment
13. MediaRelations
a. MediaManagement
(1) 409.5PC/MediaAccess
(2) NoFlyZones
14. PostincidentConsiderations
a. CrimeScene
(1) Evidence
(2) SecuringfromtheScene
b. hOBAS/LEO
c. Documentation
(1) ReportsandRecordedMaterial
15. LegalAspects
a. RiskManagement
b Ethics
c. CaseLaw
d. individualNegotiators’Resumes
(1) ExpertWitness
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Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics
contents
16. TrainingScenarios/Role-Playing
a. Safety
b. GroupScenarios
c. DebriefngofScenarios
(1) StudentPerformanceEvaluations
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crisis neGOtiatiOns
appendix G cOre cOmpetencies
n
CNTcorecompetencieswilldiminishunlessmaintainedthrough
meaningful,recurrenttraining.Baseduponaneedsassessment,
departmentpolicy,andsoundriskmanagementpractices,Crisis
Negotiatorsshouldmaintainprofciencyinthecorecompetencies
deemednecessaryfortheirlocalareaorregion:
1. CoreCompetencies:
a. Knowledgeofincidentmanagement,teamrolesand
responsibilities
b. Equipmentandtechnicalknowledge
c. Communicationsskills
(1) Activelistening
(2) Tacticalcommunications
(3) interviewandinterrogationskills
d. Riskassessment/incidentevaluation
(1) Behavioral/emotionalfactors
(2) Diminishedcapacity
e. homicide/Suicideindicators
2. ExpandedListing-Knowledgeof:
a. Drug/alcohol/medicationinteractions
b. Third-partyintermediaryskills
c. Juvenileissues
d. Faith-basednegotiations
e Extremist groups
f. Mediainfuencesandeffects
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Appendix G continued Crisis Negotiations Core Competencies
contents
g. Criticalincidentassessment(feedbacktoincidentCommander)
h. Suicidology(‘SuicidebyCop’)
i. Mentaldisorders
j. Specialcircumstances(negotiationw/knownpersons,agency
personnel,etc.)
k. Mutualaidprotocols
l Linguistics
m. Socio-culturalawareness
n. Legalissuesandcaselawregardingcrisisnegotiations
o. Prison/jail/holdingfacilityissues
p. Afteraction/incidentreporting
q. Emergingtechnologyissues
r. Jointtrainingwithtacticalunitsandothergroups
s. Otherhighriskincidents
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lOnG riFle/OBserver team
appendix h cOurse tOpic recOmmendatiOns
n
Thesecoursetopicrecommendationsaredesignedforoffcerswhoare
assignedtoaLongRife/ObserverTeam.Thesetopicsaddressbasic
conceptsofLongRifeTeamfunctionsandincludepracticalapplication
andproblemsolvingsimulationsaseffectivelearningmethods.The
courseshouldincludethefollowingtopics:
1. Safetyissues
a Classroom
b Range
c Operational
2. WeaponsandEquipmentConsiderations
3. RolesandDuties
4. CommonMissionProfles
5. Legalissues
a Use of force – policy issues
b. Casestudies
c. Documentation
(1) Trainingrecords
6. FundamentalsofPrecisionShooting
a. Mentalandphysicalpreparedness
b Optics
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Appendix H continued LongRife/ObserverTeamCourseTopicRecommendations
contents
c. Low-lightshooting
d. Fundamentalsofshootingascopedrife
(1) Zeroing
(2) Coldborezeroing
f. Windandrangeestimation
g Position shooting
h. Rifecare
i. Databooks
7. Ballistics
a. internalballistics
b External ballistics
(1) Environmentalfactors
(2) Angleshooting
c. Terminalballistics
(1) intermediatebarriershooting
8. BasicFieldcraft–UrbanandRural
a. Camoufage
b. Coverandconcealment
c. hides
d. Movement
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Appendix H continued LongRife/ObserverTeamCourseTopicRecommendations
contents
9. Observation/CommunicationSkills
a. Observation/retentionexercises
b. intelligencegathering
c Reporting
(1) Observationlog
d. Diagramming
(1) Rangecards
(2) Fieldsketching
e. Teammembercommunications
10.Practicalapplicationandevaluation
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tactical waterBOrne
appendix i cOre cOmpetencies
1. iflimitedtoboatoperations:
a. UseandmaintenanceofaPersonalFlotationDevice
b. Basicwatersafetytechniques
c. Nightandlowlightconditions
d. Familiarizationwithvesseloperations,includingsafety
briefng
e. Smallboattactics
f. Boardingtechniquesandtactics
2. ifconductingsurfaceswimmeroperations:
a. Agency-approvedswimtest,toincludewatertread
b. Self-rescuetechniques
c. Boardingandoffoadingtechniques
3. ifconductingsub-surfaceoperations:
a. Certifcationfromarecognizedcertifyingagency,including
NAUi,PADi,themilitaryorequivalent.
b. MedicalexamandcertifcationforSCUBAasperCalOShA
guidelines
c. CalOShAregulationspertainingtounderwateroperations
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