Brand Positioning

 Define competitive frame of reference  Target market  Nature of competition  Define desired brand knowledge

structures

 

Points-of-parity
necessary competitive strong, favorable, and unique brand associations

Points-of-difference

Issues in Implementing Brand Positioning
 Establishing Category Membership  Identifying & Choosing POP’s & POD’s  Communicating & Establishing POP’s &

POD’s  Sustaining & Evolving POD’s & POP’s

Establishing Category Membership
 Product descriptor  Exemplar comparisons

Identifying & Choosing POP’s & POD’s
 Desirability criteria (consumer

perspective)

Personally relevant  Distinctive & superior  Believable & credible
 Deliverability criteria (firm

perspective)

Feasible  Profitable  Pre-emptive, defensible & difficult to attack

Major Challenges in Positioning
 Find compelling & impactful points-

of-difference (MacMillan & McGrath, HBR, ‘97)
      

How do people become aware of their need for your product and service? How do consumers find your offering? How do consumers make their final selection? How do consumers order and purchase your product or service? What happens when your product or service is delivered? How is your product installed? How is your product or service paid for?

Major Challenges in Positioning
 Find compelling & impactful points-

of-difference (cont.)
  

  

How is your product stored? How is your product moved around? What is the consumer really using your product for? What do consumers need help with when they use your product? What about returns or exchanges? How is your product repaired or serviced? What happens when your product is disposed of or no longer used?

Communicating & Establishing POP’s & and POD’s in the face of  Create POP’sPOD’s
attribute & benefit trade-offs
       

Price & quality Convenience & quality Taste & low calories Efficacy & mildness Power & safety Ubiquity & prestige Comprehensiveness (variety) & simplicity Strength & refinement

Strategies to Reconcile Attribute & Benefit Trade-Offs
 Establish separate marketing programs  Leverage secondary association (e.g., co-

brand)  Re-define the relationship from negative to positive

Sustaining & Evolving POP’s & POD’s
 Core Brand Values &

Core Brand Proposition

Core Brand Values
 Set of abstract concepts or phrases that

characterize the 5-10 most important dimensions of the mental map of a brand.
 Relate to points-of-parity and points-of-

difference
 Mental Map  Core Brand Values  Brand Mantra

Brand Mantras
 A brand mantra is an articulation of the

“heart and soul” of the brand.

Brand mantras are short three to five word phrases that capture the irrefutable essence or spirit of the brand positioning and brand values.

 Nike  Authentic Athletic Performance  Disney

Fun Family Entertainment

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