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The History of Digital Transmission
’70s - introduction of PCM into Telecom networks 32 PCM streams are Synchronously Multiplexed to 2.048 Mbit/s (E1) Multiplexing to higher rates via PDH 1985 Bellcore proposes SONET 1988 SDH standard introduced.
PDH: Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
2.048 Mbit/s 8.448 Mbit/s 34.368 Mbit/s 139.264 Mbit/s
Uses Positive justification to adapt frequency differences Overheads: CRC Defects: LOS, LOF, AIS
Before SDH transmission networks were based on the PDH hierarchy. Plesiochronous means nearly synchronous. 2 Mbit/s service signals are multiplexed to 140 Mbit/s for transmission over optical fiber or radio. Multiplexing of 2 Mbit/s to 140 Mbit/s requires two intermediate multiplexing stages of 8 Mbit/s and 34 Mbit/s. Multiplexing of 2 Mbit/s to 140 Mbit/s requires multiplex equipment known as 2, 3 and 4 DME. Alarm and performance management requires separate equipment in PDH.
448 M bit/s .264Mbit/s x 4 34.084 M bit/s x5 6.PDH vs.312 M bit/s x4 274. SDH Hierarchy PDH transmission rates: SDH is designed to unify all transmission rates into a single Mapping hierarchy Japan North America Europe 397.176 M bit/s x6 44.368 Mbit/s x 4 8.312 Mbit/s x4 x 4 1.738 M bit/s x7 6.544 M bit/s 2.2 M bit/s x4 97.728 M bit/s x3 32.048 M bit/s 139.
2 Mb it/s 8 Mbi t/s 3 4 Mb it/s 140 Mbi t/s 1 2 D M E 3 D M E 4 D M E 3 D M E 64 2 D M E .PDH Multiplexing PDH Multiplexing of 2 Mbit/s to 140 Mbit/s requires 22 PDH multiplexers: 16 x 2DME 4 x 3DME 1 x 4DME Also a total of 106 cables required.
PDH Add/Drop If a small number of 2 Mbit/s streams passing through a site need to be dropped then in PDH this requires large amount of equipment to multiplex down to 2Mbit/s. .
. In SDH the multiplexed channels are in fixed locations relative to the framing byte. This allows a single channel to be ‘dropped’ from the data stream without demultiplexing intermediate rates as is required in PDH.What is SDH? The basis of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) is synchronous multiplexing .data from multiple tributary sources is byte interleaved. Demultiplexing is achieved by gating out the required bytes from the digital stream.
52 Mbit/s The basic unit of SDH is STM-1: STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 = = = = 155. .32 Mbit/s 9953.SDH Rates SDH is a transport hierarchy based on multiples of 155.28 Mbit/s Each rate is an exact multiple of the lower rate therefore the hierarchy is synchronous.52 Mbit/s 622.08 Mbit/s 2588.
The following diagram shows these multiplexing paths: x1 STM-N xN x3 AUG AU-4 VC-4 x3 x1 TUG-3 TU-3 VC-3 44736 kb/s (DS3) 34368 kb/s HOP 139264 kb/s C-4 AU-3 VC-3 x7 x7 TUG-2 x3 TU-12 C-3 x1 TU-2 VC-2 C-2 6312 kb /s (DS2) LOP 204 8 kb/s TU-11 VC-12 C12 x4 VC-11 C-11 154 4 kb/s (DS1) .SDH Hierarchy SDH defines a multiplexing hierarchy that allows all existing PDH rates to be transported synchronously.
Example: Multiplex path for the E1 xN STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4 x3 TUG-3 x7 TUG-2 x3 TU-12 VC-12 C-12 Section overhead Pointer processor HO path overhead Pointer processor LO path overhead .
This function is performed by the container (C). The synchroniser adapts the rate of an incoming PDH signal to SDH rate. A mechanism is required to map PDH rates into the STM frame. A PDH channel must be synchronised before it can be mapped into a container.Transport of PDH payloads SDH is essentially a transport mechanism for carrying a large number of PDH payloads. .
SDH and non-synchronous signals At the PDH/SDH boundary Bit stuffing is performed when the PDH signal is mapped into its container. Bit stuffing PDH SDH .
The path overheads travel with the container over the path.SDH virtual Containers Once a container has been created. . performance and other management information. path overhead byte are added to create a virtual container. A path through an SDH network exists from the point where a PDH signal is put into a container to where the signal is recovered from the container. Path overheads contain alarm.
Phase alignment between the unshaded and shaded areas is defined by the pointer (PTR) and is indicated by the arrow. .Mapping Virtual Containers C-4 container being mapped into an STM frame via a VC-4 virtual container Container-4 VC-4 POH Container-4 VC-4 AU-4 PTR VC-4 AU-4 AU-4 PTR VC-4 AUG SOH Logical association Physical association AUG AUG STM-N T1517990-95 NOTE – Unshaded areas are phase aligned.
The following diagram shows the PCM30 frame: 125 us TS0 TS1 TS15 TS16 TS17 TS30 TS31 TS0 .2 Mbit/s PCM30 frame structure The SDH frame rate is inherited from PCM. the SDH has 8 bits per time slot. As with PCM. the SDH frame rate in 125 us per frame. As with PCM.
270 × N columns (bytes) 9×N 261 × N 1 Section overhead SOH Administrative unit pointer(s) STM-N payload Section overhead SOH 9 rows 3 4 5 9 T15180 00-9 5 . Administrative Unit pointer(s). The three main areas of the STM-N frame are indicated: SOH. Information payload.Basic SDH frame structure STM-N frame structure is shown in the Figure below.
Different clock rates in SDH SDH will still work if there are two different clocks in the network and the network becomes asynchronous. Pointer processing ocurrs here STM -N NE #1 S TM -N N E #2 STM -N f f +δf . Pointers are used adjust for the new frequency.
The location of the first byte of the VC-n is indicated by the AU-n pointer. The VC-4 associated with each AU-4 does not have a fixed phase with respect to the STM-N frame.95 P TR P o in t e r .1 F ix e d st u f f C . N × 2 7 0 b yt e s N × 9 N × 2 6 1 b yt e s S T M -N 3 RS OH 1 A U -n P T R s J1 B3 V C -4 -X c 5 M SO H C2 G 1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 1 X.4 -X c X × 260 X × 2 6 1 b y te s T 1 5 18 2 3 0 .Administrative Units in the STM-N The VC-4 is mapped into an STM frame via the administrative group (AU).
The TUs are then multiplexed into a VC-4. If lower speed PDH signals need to be transported these are mapped into a tributary unit (TU).Tributary Units in a VC-4 The VC-4 can carry a container -4 (C-4). The VC-4 forms what is known as an high order path. . The VC-n associated with each TU-n does not have a fixed phase relationship with respect to the start of the VC4. The C4 carries a 140 Mbit/s PDH signal. The TU-n pointer is in a fixed location in the VC-4 and the location of the first byte of the VC-n is indicated by the TUn pointer.
. .... .. TUG-2 TUG-3 (7 × TUG-2) POH TU-2 PTR Fixed stuff Fixed stuff POH . . PTR Pointer 3 VC-12s or 4 VC-11s in 1 × TUG-2 T1518100-95 .....Tributary Units in a VC-4 86 Columns TUG-2 TU-1 PTRs .. POH VC-2 VC-1 .
V5 byte: V5 RR R RR RR R 32 bytes RR R RR RR R J2 C1 C2 O O O O R R 32 bytes R RR RR RR R N2 C1 C2 O O O O R R 140 bytes 32 bytes R RR RR RR R K4 C 1 C2 R R R R R S 1 S2 D D D D D D D 31 bytes R RR RR RR R T1523020-96 D R O S C Data bit Fix ed stuff bit Overhead bit Justification opportunity bit Justification c ontrol bit BIP-2 1 2 REI 3 RFI 4 5 Signal Label 6 7 RDI 8 .Tributary units 2 Mbit/s are mapped asynchronously into a VC-12. The figure shows this over a period of 500 µs. VC-12s are distributed over four frames known as a VC multiframe.
The first three rows are the regenerator section overhead. The last six rows are the multiplex section overhead. A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 B1 D1 9 rows B2 B2 B2 K1 D4 D7 D10 D5 D8 D11 K2 D6 D9 D12 MSOH E1 E1 D2 F1 D3 RSOH S1 Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 M1 E2 E2 .STM Section Overheads 9 Bytes Nine rows of nine bytes at the front of the SDH frame form the section overhead.
VC-4 path overheads The first column of the VC-4 is the VC-4 path overhead.707 Old VC-4 POH J1 B3 C2 G1 9 rows F2 H4 Z3 Z4 Z5 new VC-4 POH J1 B3 C2 G1 9 rows F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 . The overheads have been modified in the latest release of G.
The VC-12 frame is spread over four frames to form a VC-12 multiframe.707 V5 J2 125 us 35 by tes J2 125 us 35 by tes Z6 125 us 35 by tes N2 125 us 35 by tes Z7 125 us 35 by tes K4 125 us 35 by tes .VC-12 overhead old VC-12 OH VC-12 new VC-12 OH VC-12 V5 125 us 35 by tes 125 us 35 by tes The first byte of the VC-12 is the VC-12 path overhead. The overheads have been modified in the latest release of G. Each of the four frames in the multiframe contains an overhead byte.
V5 Byte The bits in the V5 byte are allocated as follows: BIP-2 1 2 REI 3 RFI 4 5 Signal Label 6 7 RDI 8 .
Framing bytes (A1 & A2) The framing byte locate the beginning of the STM frame Byte A1 A2 comments First framing byte A1:11110110 Second framing byte A2:00101000 .
The synchronisation status marker byte contains information about the quality of the embedded timing Byte S1 comments Synchronistion status marker byte S1 Byte: bit 5 -8 0000 Quality unknown 0010 Traceable to PRC G.812 1011 Derived from SETS 1111 Don't use for Synchronisation. .811 0100 Traceable to Transit G.812 1000 Traceable to Local G. Other bytes are reserved.Synchronisation status marker byte (S1).
Virtual Container AU-4 Regen OH VC-4 V5 bits 1 & 2: TU-12 frame AU-4 Regen OH 9 rows Path TU-1 2 poin ter VC-4 Path OH VC-4 Payload 9 rows Path VC-4 Payload T U-12 Mux OH OH Mux OH OH Payload 9 column s 261 co lumns 9 columns 26 1 columns .Entire frame B2 parity: Mux OH + AU-4 Regen OH 9 rows AU-4 9 rows Regen OH AU-4 Mux OH Mux OH 9 column s 261 co lumns 9 columns 26 1 columns B3 parity .Bit interleaved parity (B1. B3) The BIP is calculated over the previous frame/multiframe BIP Bits & Bytes Coverage B1 parity . B2.
The BIP is calculated over the previous VC-4.Bit interleaved parity (B1.3 B3 V5 comments Bit interleaved parity .8 bits for entire previous frame before scrambling. Bit interleaved parity . V2.8 bits for entire previous frame before scrambling. B3) Byte B1 B2 #1. Three bytes of a 24 bit multiplex section bit interleaved parity . .2 bits for previous frame The BIP is calculated over the previous VC-12 frame including VC-12 path overheads but excludes V1.Calculated over the previous STM-1 frame excluding the first three rows of the SOH before scrambling. B2.2. V3. VC-12 path bit interleaved parity .
The relief byte is used for ring protection E1 – Regenerator section orderwire E2 – Multiplex section orderwire .Orderwire (E1 & E2) The E byte carry the orderwire channels.
Multiplex section data communications channel The D4 to D12 bytes are a 576 kbit/s DCC channel. D4 to D12 .DCC channels (D1 to D3 and D4 to D12) The DCC channels are used Element Management Software to pass management information between sites. Byte D1 to D3 comments Regenerator section data communications channel (DCC) The D1 to D3 bytes are a 192 kbit/s DCC channel.
F2.User channels (F1. F3 & N2) The user channels appear at a front panel connector for use by the network operator. VC-4 path user channel VC-4 path user channel Network operator byte - F2 Z3 (F3) Z6 (N2) . Byte F1 User channel comments 64 kbit/s user channel. This user channel can be passed through at a regenerator.703 co-directional or contradirectional interface. The FLX150/600 supports either G.
J2) The section/path trace supports a string assigned to a path. this verifies continued connection to the intended transmitter Byte J0 comments Regenerator section trace use is not defined in ITU-T. J1. Trace value can be entered for section id between national boundaries. Path trace byte J1 J2 . ITU-T: High order path access point identifier.Section/Path trace bytes (J0.
Byte M1 comments Multiplex section remote error indication (MS REI) .Remote error indication MS REI (M1) Indicates the count of the interleaved bit blocks (1 to N) that have detected an error.
Multiframe Pointer Byte H4 comments VC-4 multiframe pointer. This byte is sent from the receiver back to the originator. Path Status Byte G1 comments Path status byte.High order path management Signal label (C2) Byte C2 com m en ts Signal label: This byte indicates the composition of the VC-4 . Indicates the multiframe position indicator for the VC-12 .
Byte V5 bit 3 V5 bit 4 V5 bit 5-7 V5 bit 8 Comments Remote error indication (REI): set to one if one or more error is detected at receiver in the BIP-2. Set to one if a failure is declared . VC-12 path remote defect indication (RDI) Set to 1 if an AIS or a signal failure condition is received.Low order path management The VC-12 path overhead signals are held in the V5 byte. VC-12 signal label. Standard implementation on FLX and FLM Remote failure indication (RFI). .
The transmission path passes through five layers in this connection. SDH Low er O rder Pat h Lay er PDH LPA Cr os s Connec tion 1 LPT LPC HPA Higher O rder Pat h Lay er Cross Connec tion HPT H PC M ultiple xer S ection Lay er M SA M ST Regenerator S ection Lay er P hys ica l M edia Lay er RSA R ST S PI PPI .SDH layers The following diagram shows 2Mbit/s multiplexed to STM1.
In the diagram the 140Mbit/s path passes unaltered through the multiplex section0 hi gh or de r p ath M ux se ctio n 1 40 Mb it/s A DM A DM 14 0 M bi t/s S TM-1 ring A DM A DM 140 Mbit/ s in S ection O H in Se ction O H out 140 M bit/s out .Termination points Within a layer each path ends at a ‘termination point’ A path in SDH can be visualised as a pipe.
Layers .12 P at h r e m a in s u n in te r r u p te d b e tw e e n te r m in a tio n p o in ts M u x s e ct io n M u x se ct io n E1 AD M M ux s e ct io n R egen s e c tio n R egen s e c tio n E1 S T M -1 r in g A DM D X C 4 /4 Te rm in a l ST M .Example V C .12 te rm in atio n V C -1 2 X -c o n ne c t V C -4 X .c on n ec t R e ge n V C -1 2 T e rm in atio n .1 E1 ST M-4 L ow e r O rd e r P a th L a ye r H ig h e r O rd e r P a th L a ye r M u ltip le x S e c tio n L a ye r R eg e ne r ato r S e c tio n L a ye r P hy s ic a l in ter fac e L a ye r V C .
Alarms and layers STM Physical Media Layer R eg en er ator Sectio n Layer Mu ltiplexer Sectio n Layer LO S LOS LO F RS-BIP LOF RS-BIP Each defect indication is associated with a layer MS-AIS MS-BIP MS-RDI AU-AIS AU-LO P MS-AIS MS-BIP MS-RDI AU-AIS AU-LOP VC-4 BIP VC-4 RE I VC-4 RDI VC-4 LOM E1 E1 ADM Low order path Mux section H igher Order Path Layer VC-4 BIP VC-4 REI VC-4 RDI VC-4 LOM Lo wer Order Path Layer VC-12 AIS VC-12 LO P VC-12 BIP VC-12 REI VC-12 RFI VC-12 RDI VC-12 AIS VC-12 LOP VC-12 BIP VC-12 REI VC-12 RFI VC-12 RDI LOS STM-1 ring ADM PDH Physical In terface Layer LO S .
UN EQ u n s p e c if ie d H O u n e q u ip p e d s ig n a l HP.FE R F H P .FE R F LP .A IS A U .B IP E r ro r ( B 1 ) R e g e n s ig n a l p a s se d "1 " th ro u g h "1 " M S. These are described in the G.LO M / TU -L O P U n u se d LP C O u t p u t / L P -U N EQ p a y lo a d "1 " "1 " TU .A I S M S.A IS "1 " A IS F EB E F ER F LO S LO F LO M LO P T IM SL M U N EQ D e te c ti o n G e n e ra ti o n In s e rti o n o f A IS s i g n a l A l a rm In d i c a t o n Si g n a l i F a r e n d b l o c k e rr o r F a r e n d re c e i v e f a i l u r e Lo s s of s ig na l L o s s o f fr a m e L o ss o f m u l t i fra m e L o s s o f p o i n te r T ra c e i d e n ti f i e r m i s m a tc h Si g n a l l a b e l M i s m a tc h Un e q u p p e d si g n a l p e r G 7 0 9 i M S.A IS H P .SL M H P -B IP E rr o r ( B 3) H P .FE B E SD H M a in t e n a n c e Sig n a l In t e r a c t io n G .Ex c Er ro r (B 2 ) A U .FE R F H P .LO P H O P a t h s ig n a l p a s s e d H O V C w it h PO H a n d th r o u g h p a y lo a d "1 " U n u se d H PC O u t p u t / HP.FE B E H P .7 8 2 1 0 N o v e m b e r 1 9 92 .TIM LP .TIM H P .SLM L P -B IP Er ro r ( V 5 ) LP .FE R F "1 " A U .A IS "1 " L O P a t h s ig n a l p a s s e d t h r o u g h L O VC w it h P O H a n d u n s p e c if ie d L O u n e q u ip p e d sig n a l LP .FE B E LP .UN EQ H P .FE R F M S.782 diagram P h y s ic a l Se c tio n Re g e n Se c tio n M u ltip le x Se c t io n H ig h e r O rd e r P a t h Lo w e r O rd e r P a t h SPI RST N o te 1 M ST M SA HPO M H UG H PC HPT HPA LP O M LU G LP C L PT LP A LO S "1 " LO F R S.U N EQ "1 " LP .B IP E rr o r ( B 2 ) M S.FE B E TU .FE R F LP .Signalling interactions Each signal has a consequent action.
SETS: Synchronous Equipment Timing Source The SETS function controls the selection of the timing source to be used as a reference in the SDH equipment The SETG function is a DPLL function that smoothes the clock and provides holdover on loss of clock. Select A Select C Output clk STM-N in PDH in Ext ref Select B Sys clk SETG .
812 clock G.Sync distribution in the SDH network SDH can be used as a timing transport in a telecommunications network.812 clock is the network providers exchange clock.812 clock . In this case a SETG (DPLL) is in the clock path at each network element (NE) Timing The PRC is the network recovery providers primary reference clock The G. PRC PRC 1 NE st 1 NE st 2 NE nd 2 NE nd Timing recovery N NE th N NE th G.