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New Neighbour Hoods and Mobility

New Neighbour Hoods and Mobility

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Published by Guntis Stirna
Mobility is a basic issue for neighbourhood projects aimed at energy efficiency. Urban development and transport planning are, in effect, the central areas of action for sustainable development.
Mobility therefore plays a central role in projects pertaining to eco-neighbourhoods, sustainable neighbourhoods or those for energy efficient transport. It responds to a wide range of sustainable development objectives in these projects, in particular under the framework of a Local Agenda 21:
• Solidarity objectives: guarantee access to mobility for the whole population (those without motorised vehicles, children, older people and people with reduced mobility); propose more collective services (car-sharing, lift-sharing, walking/cycling buses etc.).
• Objectives for local environmental protection and human well-being: limit the nuisances linked to traffic/guarantee quality of life (road safety, noise, pollution, streets and quality of public spaces).
• Objectives for combating climate change: limit greenhouse gas emissions by motorised vehicles.
• Objectives for the preservation of natural resources: limit fossil fuel consumption by transport; protect the town’s biodiversity.
• Objectives for eco-responsibility of the local public authority: in terms of the example set by its staff and amenities, in terms of its public policies for the development and promotion of alternatives to the private car (lift-sharing, car-sharing, self-service cycle hire etc.), in order to provide solutions for reducing, or renouncing private car travel.
This guide is connected to the various outputs of the European project PRO.MOTION; our concerns are centred on the objectives for energy efficient transport
Mobility is a basic issue for neighbourhood projects aimed at energy efficiency. Urban development and transport planning are, in effect, the central areas of action for sustainable development.
Mobility therefore plays a central role in projects pertaining to eco-neighbourhoods, sustainable neighbourhoods or those for energy efficient transport. It responds to a wide range of sustainable development objectives in these projects, in particular under the framework of a Local Agenda 21:
• Solidarity objectives: guarantee access to mobility for the whole population (those without motorised vehicles, children, older people and people with reduced mobility); propose more collective services (car-sharing, lift-sharing, walking/cycling buses etc.).
• Objectives for local environmental protection and human well-being: limit the nuisances linked to traffic/guarantee quality of life (road safety, noise, pollution, streets and quality of public spaces).
• Objectives for combating climate change: limit greenhouse gas emissions by motorised vehicles.
• Objectives for the preservation of natural resources: limit fossil fuel consumption by transport; protect the town’s biodiversity.
• Objectives for eco-responsibility of the local public authority: in terms of the example set by its staff and amenities, in terms of its public policies for the development and promotion of alternatives to the private car (lift-sharing, car-sharing, self-service cycle hire etc.), in order to provide solutions for reducing, or renouncing private car travel.
This guide is connected to the various outputs of the European project PRO.MOTION; our concerns are centred on the objectives for energy efficient transport

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Published by: Guntis Stirna on Jul 20, 2011
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sustainable mobility at home

For an energy efficient territory

New neighbourhoods and mobility

Supported by

Intelligent Energy


Introduction 2

1. The general outlook of an energy efficient neighbourhood
1.1 A strategic usage-based approach 1.2 Three cross-disciplinary orientations

6 7

Mobility at the heart 2. of the neighbourhood creation process
2.1 A decisive preliminary lever: connecting urban and transport plannings 2.2 The programme phase 2.3 The neighbourhood project 2.4 Local neighbourhood life

18 19 23 25

Mobilising and 3. involving local stakeholders in the project
3.1 Key factors for mobilising inhabitants 3.2 Creating a favourable setting for dialogue and providing information 3.3 Continuous participation

30 33 38

Technical 4. recommendations
4.1 Urban planning 4.2 Parking allocated to buildings 4.3 Road networks and traffic 4.4 Development of alternative transport 4.5 Mobility management

46 49 51 56 59



Mobility is a basic issue for neighbourhood projects aimed at energy efficiency. Urban development and transport planning are, in effect, the central areas of action for sustainable development. Mobility therefore plays a central role in projects pertaining to eco-neighbourhoods, sustainable neighbourhoods or those for energy efficient transport. It responds to a wide range of sustainable development objectives in these projects, in particular under the framework of a Local Agenda 21: • Solidarity objectives: guarantee access to mobility for the whole population (those without motorised vehicles, children, older people and people with reduced mobility); propose more collective services (car-sharing, lift-sharing, walking/cycling buses etc.). • Objectives for local environmental protection and human well-being: limit the nuisances linked to traffic/guarantee quality of life (road safety, noise, pollution, streets and quality of public spaces). • Objectives for combating climate change: limit greenhouse gas emissions by motorised vehicles. • Objectives for the preservation of natural resources: limit fossil fuel consumption by transport; protect the town’s biodiversity. • Objectives for eco-responsibility of the local public authority: in terms of the example set by its staff and amenities, in terms of its public policies for the development and promotion of alternatives to the private car (lift-sharing, car-sharing, self-service cycle hire etc.), in order to provide solutions for reducing, or renouncing private car travel. This guide is connected to the various outputs of the European project PRO.MOTION; our concerns are centred on the objectives for energy efficient transport.

PRO.MOTION: fostering energy efficient transport forms in the joint field of housing and mobility
PRO.MOTION is a European project initiated under the framework of the IEE programme (Intelligent Energy – Europe), put in place by the Directorate-General of Mobility and Transport (DG MOVE) at the European Commission. The project lasted 3 years, from 2007 to 2010, and brought together 17 European partners. Aware of the fact that the majority of journeys (80%) start from home, PRO.MOTION concentrated its approach on modal choices which are made in the home. The project’s aim is to formalise and diffuse know-how and good practices pertaining to the subject of energy efficient transport in residential neighbourhoods. To achieve this, PRO.MOTION proposes three complementary areas of intervention: 1. Improving objective conditions of transport in order to provide the best environment for changing modal use; by developing infrastructures (e.g. pedestrian paths or cycle route links with other districts in the town), or services (implementation of organisational measures such as lift-sharing), through the connection of town and transport planning; 2. Raising awareness amongst inhabitants (and other local actors) about energy efficient transport modes in order to change the way these modes are perceived by the population and encourage their use; 3. Motivating inhabitants to change of mobility behaviour in involving them into the planning process such as an energy efficient neighbourhood. The offer of transport, awareness and public participation are determining factors in changing the travel habits of inhabitants. The implementation of the project was based on three principal missions: – formalising the good practices /recommendations gathered from 14 sites; – producing transferable know-how for European countries; – disseminating the acquired know-how: guidelines, training sessions in 12 countries and wide dissemination across Europe and in each partner country. This guide represents one of the products for disseminating the lessons learned through the PRO.MOTION project.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

Scope of recommendations
Objectives and target groups The primary objective of this guide is to provide help for local public authorities in achieving the best possible gains, in terms of mobility, when running a new energy efficient neighbourhood project. Apart from the city’s head of project, other key actors in the transport and planning sector could find the information contained in this book useful. Firstly, the city’s services sector. And secondly, the professionals involved in the creation of neighbourhoods: – architects and more generally the co-developers; – promoters; – developers together with other co-contractors (engineers, Roads and utilities etc.); Contents and use of this guide The guide deals with the integration of energy efficient mobility into new (primarily residential) neighbourhoods. Its principal target is therefore the mobility of those who live there. This practical guide provides several materials. A book containing guidelines, methods, recommendations and examples. 15 good practices forms presenting experience feedback. A CD-ROM containing various materials: • Mobility and New Neighbourhoods tool (a decision help tool in the form of a table of questions); • Code of practice (results from the 14 PRO.MOTION application sites); • final brochure and its summary (presentation of the project and its results); • guidelines on energy saving tips for inhabitants (habitat and mobility). The book is made up of 4 chapters. Chapter 1 presents the general outlook of an energy efficient transport neighbourhood. It offers a cross-cutting vision of this type of project. This section is aimed at providing information and understanding about the underlying strategic orientations for projects concerning energy efficient transport in neighbourhoods. It is particularly useful for understanding the policy choices, planning issues and technical requirements which are inextricably linked to this type of project. These elements for comprehension are illustrated by feedback from experiences in Europe in order to give a concrete picture of those neighbourhoods which seek to achieve transport energy efficiency. This chapter will be of particular interest to local councillors wishing to develop projects of this type. Chapter 2 makes recommendations on methodology for optimising the integration of mobility into the neighbourhood planning process. It proposes a step-by-step approach. This chapter will be of particular use to the project head, and more generally to the general contractor and all subcontractors and partners, when organising the project. Chapter 3 rolls out the keys to success for a participative process in favour of mobilising the key stakeholders. Experience feedback is included to enhance recommendations. This chapter will be useful for the project head or for the responsible for the participative process (internal or external). Chapter 4 concludes with the technical requirements for optimising integration of mobility into the various domains of the actions concerned. The approach used is sectoral in order to facilitate collaboration between the project head and the various services and key actors. This chapter will be of particular interest to the project head; however, its contents will also be helpful to many of the actors involved, according to their own areas of action and authority. Happy reading ! – construction and property management companies; – transport and mobility service providers; – local energy agencies; – tenant or home-owner associations.



The general outlook 1. of an energy efficient neighbourhood
This first chapter presents the outlook of a residential neighbourhood with energy efficient transport – in that it highlights the distinctive characteristics of this type of project. It pin-points the essential elements which form the basis for energy efficiency and which must be reflected in the strategic orientations of the project. This chapter highlights the advantage of taking a strategic usage-based approach, for cross-disciplinary thinking and developing a prospective vision of the future (Part 1.1). A transferable framework for strategic orientations is then proposed for steering the construction of a neighbourhood with energy efficient transport (Part 1.2). Experience feedback is used to illustrate the various applications possible, depending on context.


A strategic 1.1 usage-based approach

1.2 Three cross-disciplinary orientations
1.2.1 Making the use of active modes a priority 1.2.2 Facilitating and encouraging the use of alternative transport 1.2.3 Rationalising private car use

1.1 A strategic usage-based approach
For a neighbourhood project, targeting energy efficient transport is synonymous with the choice for energy efficient modes of travel. In effect, although the ultimate determining factor is the offer of transport, the choices and usage of transport made by the territory’s actors will always be decisive.
This prerequisite must be taken into account right from the commitment stage – and in particular during the strategy and programming phase. The strategic orientations for an energy efficient neighbourhood project must therefore be formulated in respect of expected usage. The first deciding factor(s) for consideration is the targeted usage. This involves placing usage at the centre of the strategy, and not the offer: it is the mobility model. The strategic orientations will emerge if we examine aspects of the desired model for mobility. Or more specifically, if we ask ourselves whether journeys by residents or visitors can be made taking into account: – the energy efficient modes which are available (realistic objectives with regards to the current and future offer of travel); – acceptance by the targeted public (acceptable objectives); – the time scale for change/take-up (time-related objectives); – their evaluation (quantified, measurable objectives); – their impact on the project’s energy efficiency goals (objectives which translate into energy and Green House Gas savings). The model for mobility must lead to a model for future usage and travel habits to guide decision makers in their choices. It should harmonise: – on one hand, the performance of energy efficiency targets in the neighbourhood and the performance of the chosen model for mobility; – and on the other, the desired usage (mobility model) and planning issues – as well as the corresponding technical requirements (action).

FIgURe 1. Role

and place of the mobility model
Neighbourhood targets for energy efficiency

Chosen model for mobility: usage and performance

Planning choices and technical recommendations (programme)

This iterative process will ensure the acceptability of policy and technical choices made by the decision makers throughout the project. It uses a cross-disciplinary approach (opening up sectoral approaches), centred on usage. This method enables a framework for action which is clear, coherent and effective, due to: – the definition of quantified strategic objectives (mobility model: a frame of reference for desired usage and results); – the formulation of relevant indicators; – a prospective vision of neighbourhood life; – the proposition of variants.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

The model for mobility will be even more pertinent when associated with inhabitant mobility monitoring (before/after survey); making it possible to evaluate the achievement of objectives and propose corrective measures. Armed with the results of an upstream survey – and good information about the population (or at least a representative panel), the mobility model can effectively be translated into energy performance, in order to establish the model’s contribution to the neighbourhood’s energy efficiency. The following indicators could, for example, be used: – a Mobility carbon footprint per inhabitant (CO2 in toe (tons oil equivalent) and tons linked to transport/inhabitant/year); – a Mobility carbon footprint for the neighbourhood (CO2 in toe and tons linked to transport/inhabitant/year). This targeted contribution can then be compared to the actual footprint of choices made for mobility. This approach can be used for a new or regenerated neighbourhood project, or for a charter for municipality commitments on all future neighbourhoods. Details of mechanics of the model for mobility are given in Chapter 2.

1.2 Three cross-disciplinary orientations
To guarantee the energy efficiency of the project, the contracting authority must therefore define the strategic orientations centred on usage. This section is aimed at providing help for project owners – when integrating their prospective vision, upstream of the programme – strategic orientations which are coherent with one of the energy efficient transport goals, by proposing a transferable framework.
These inter-dependant orientations are turned towards the required usage of a mobility model for the promotion of energy efficient travel modes. They are not in this case “contextualised,” but rather presented as a transferable framework providing a comprehensible picture of the existing relationship between the possible benefits and the choices (in terms of regulatory, policy and technical issues), as to the design. Of course, these broad directional lines should be adapted and specified according to the local context of each project. The framework is based on 3 main cross-cutting strategic orientations which influence the model for mobility: – making the use of active modes a priority; – facilitating and encouraging the use of alternative transport; – rationalising private car use. Each orientation is examined in terms of: – energy performance and other benefits (energy efficiency approach: Why give preference to these modes or practices? What are the possible issues and benefits?); – targeted usage (prospective approach: What is the desired model for mobility? What is the targeted usage?); – neighbourhood vision (cross-cutting approach: What are the impacts in terms of policy choices and planning issues?); – the domains of action in question (sectoral approach: Which actions are led on traffic and town planning etc.?); – application (empirical approach: existing example?).



1.2.1 Making the use of active modes a priority
Active modes are the means of transport using the muscle power of the user as motive force, such as walk, bike, scooter, roller-skate, walking/cycling buses… Also called soft modes, they included all the forms of transport that are not motorized. Energy performance and other benefits Local daily journeys (shopping, schools, visits etc.) are, par excellence, the activities pursued at neighbourhood scale. Priority should be given to active modes for these short journeys. Good for your health, walking and cycling (and other non motorised modes) are also silent, nonpolluting and energy efficient. Walking and cycling are the champions of energy performance! Zero fossil fuel! An energy efficient neighbourhood seeks to demote private car use, in particular for short journeys which can easily be made on foot or cycle. This represents no small gain if we consider the daily volume of car traffic which these short journeys can represent. For example, in France, 50% of motorised journeys are of less than 3 kilometres1. A short but regular trip, the school run is a good illustration of the possible gains. If we look at the example of a school with 300 children living within an average maximum of 1 km of the school – travelling to school 4 times a week2: • Where the car is 100% modal share = 86 400 km (twice the world’s circumference) = 5 toe (tons oil equivalent) and 16 tons of CO2 per school year; • A modal share of 50/50 car and walking/cycling = 43 200 km (circumference of the world) = 2.55 toe and 8 tons of CO2 > 50% gain, or 2.55 toe and 8 tons of CO2; • A modal share of 20/80 car and walking/cycling = 17 280 km = 1 toe and 3.2 tons of CO2 > gain, of 80%, or 4 toe and 12.9 tons of CO2. Aiming to achieve 80% of school journeys made on foot or by cycle corresponds with over 4 toe of energy savings and 12.9 tons of CO2; which is the equivalent of over twice the annual emissions of one person living in France today3. Targeted usage Active modes are the most effective for short in-town journeys as well as a means for getting to public transport (stations, bus-stops etc.) or other service points for longer journeys. They constitute a primary lever for directing a neighbourhood project towards more reasonable energy consumption. They hold a prime place at the core of the model for mobility. An energy efficient neighbourhood should aim for the highest, realistically possible active modal share. The model will propose the modal shares (range) by motive, defined according to local context; for example: 70-80% of school children will walk to school. Their relevant objectives can be based on: • the share of inhabitant’s active modes for: – journeys within the neighbourhood: school, shops, amenities, visits etc., – inter-neighbourhood links, – journeys in town which are possible by cycle (up to 8 km, the cycle is in addition faster than the car in European town centres), – journeys to public transport stations/stops, • the share of active modes for commuting (inhabitants and employees in the neighbourhood); • the modal switch from private car to active modes, for the aforesaid purposes and targeted public groups (inhabitants, commuting, visitors); • the reduction in the number of car kilometres travelled by inhabitants. Neighbourhood vision Encouraging the practice of active modes requires the adoption of a neighbourhood vision based on planning policies which favour convenience in local life. Travel conditions are not, in effect, the only determining factor. Promoting cycle use or walking also requires reflection on urban pattern and functions to reduce the need for travel by private car, by reducing the distances to be covered.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

Functional diversity is a crucial lever. By ensuring diversity of use in a neighbourhood, that is to say placing homes, business, services and offices within easy reach of each other, the distances involved in daily activities (shops, schools, cultural activities etc.) are reduced. Inhabitants will have less need to use their cars to travel because the urban fabric and transport conditions favour the use of soft modes. The neighbourhood’s population must be sufficiently dense to ensure the long term survival of shops, services and local amenities. Finally, the first orientation will point the project’s conception towards an energy efficient neighbourhood by: – opting for an urban shape, as well as economic and cultural development (commercial and cultural activities), which will promote the use of green modes (reducing distances, functional diversity and density etc.); – creating pedestrian/cycle-friendly conditions (including disabled access) for getting around and parking in the neighbourhood and on inter-neighbourhood links; – developing the services which facilitate cycle use (links to a self-service cycle hire scheme, close proximity of cycle centre etc.); – involving inhabitants in the project (acceptability of the project, group activities such as the school walking buses); – raising awareness of active modes by proposing lessons on in-town cycling (cycle training). Areas of action From a sectoral point of view, giving priority to the use of soft modes will reflect on the neighbourhood concept at the following levels: – the involvement of inhabitants; – its town planning; – its buildings; – its public roadways; – its alternative transports; – the management of mobility.

For more information on each sector, go to Chapter 3 and try out the Mobility and New Neighbourhoods tool. Examples of application The experience feedback from numerous sustainable, eco-friendly or energy efficient neighbourhoods shows that active modes were a constant priority. The following neighbourhoods have tackled the use of active modes as a major issue. • The kronsberg neighbourhood (Hanover, Germany) put the accent on favourable town and railway conditions for active modes (diversity, services to amenities, quality of public spaces and 30 zones etc.). • The bO01 (Malmö, Sweden), Andromède (Blagnac, France), Temps durables (Limeil-Brévannes, France) and Lac de bordeaux neighbourhoods (France) all give priority to active modes in terms of traffic calming, shared public spaces and mobility management (walking buses, information etc.). • The bonne business park (Grenoble, France), the bedZeD (Sutton, United Kingdom) and Hammarby Sjöstad (Stockholm, Sweden) neighbourhoods aimed at providing optimum accessibility for pedestrians, in particular for the disabled, both on the neighbourhood streets and in its inter-neighbourhood links. Spotlight on the Vauban Neighbourhood in Freiburg im breisgau (germany)
The development plan aims to reduce the distances people have to travel and to limit car traffic, in favour of a safer and more welcoming street environment that promotes active modes and a vibrant municipality life. Conceived as a “walkable neighbourhood”, the local shops, services, schools and playgrounds are all within easy distance on foot or by bicycle from the housing units (services within walking and cycling distance – maximum distance: 700 m, average distance: 300 m). Urban advantages are reinforced by the organisation of the public road network: its configuration and speed limits favour local life and green transport options and demote motorised traffic flow and parking. For further information on each example, see the good practice forms.

1. Global Transport Study, 2001. 2. Hypothesis: 300 pupils (not taking into account siblings); 4 school days/week and 36 weeks school/year; 1 km one way – 2 km/day; car: 59 grams of oil equivalent/person.km and 186g CO2 person.km. Source unitary factors: RATP; www.ratp.fr 3. Source: www.statistiques.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/


1.2.2 Facilitating and encouraging the use of alternative transport
Energy performance and other benefits The offer of public transport has a strong impact on a neighbourhood’s energy efficiency (Figure 2). Their proximity encourages their use. Public transport is in effect the best performing motorised mode (Figure 3). A tram is approximately 10 times less fuel thirsty than the car – a bus is two times less (in km travelled). Therefore, an employee commuting 20 km per day (a two-way trip) by car can make the following yearly savings4, if there is the alternative of travelling by: – bus, 1 758 euros, 962.20 kg CO2 and 381.30 litres of petrol; – tram, 1 758 euros, 1224.40 kg CO2 and 480 litres of petrol. For a neighbourhood with, for example, an economically active population of 500, the use of public transport represents an important gain. This 20 km daily commute would represent 648 tons of CO2 and 253 250 litres of petrol, or 2 532 500 kWh, equating to the annual consumption of energy required to heat 118 standard built homes or 422 energy efficient homes. With a modal share of 30% bus and 10% cycle, CO2 emissions could be reduced by 209 tons per year5 and energy consumption by over 82 000 litres (or 820 000 kWh) equating to the annual fuel consumption for heating 67 standard built homes and 137 energy efficient homes.

FIgURe 2. Energy

consumption and urban developments

kWh/pers/semaine 300 250 200 150 100 50 0


Urban centres

Periphery with PT Periphery without PT

Source : T&E 1996. (PT : public transport)

Targeted usage For all journeys which cannot be made solely using active modes (walking, cycling etc.) the neighbourhood must provide an alternative mode to the car which encourages multi-modal use and facilitates inter-modality (combination of several modes for one journey). For the user, the most important thing is to have a choice of transport mode for day to day living. The interoperability of public transport and other alternative modes (walking, cycling, lift-sharing, car-sharing etc.) is therefore essential; it ensures the right conditions for a sustainable modal shift. The model for mobility is designed to operate on the journeys for which alternative modes can be encouraged: – commuting; – leisure activities; – journeys made by the elderly or young people; – visitors to public amenities in the neighbourhood etc.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

FIgURe 3. Energy

consumption and CO2 emissions by urban transport modes
Equivalences in g fuel/passenger.km Grammes fuel

Equivalences in g CO2/passenger.km Grammes CO2

Equivalences Equivalences Equivalences in Equivalences in g COin g CO2/passenger.km g CO2/passenger.km 2/passenger.km Equivalences in Equivalences in g fuel/passenger.km g fuel/passenger.km in g fuel/passenger.km Grammes CO2 Grammes fuel Grammes CO2 Grammes CO2 Grammes fuel Grammes fuel 200




200 150





150 100





100 50


60 60 40 20

59 59 29 29 6,5





23 23 3,5 23 3,3

59 60 40 60 29
20 40 40 20 0 20

27 29 27 6,9 27 0 6,5 5,4 0 5,4 0 0

0 0 0 0


0 0




3,5 3,3 2,83,5 0 3,3 2,8


2,8 0



6,9 6,5 6,5 5,4



Transport modes www.ratp.fr TransportSource: RATP;Transport modes modes Transport modes

Regional trains


Sharing our experienceS

The ADD HOME project (ILS Studies 2008) has highlighted that the proximity of public transport is the 3rd most important factor for choice out of recent public choices for location, after the cost and presence of green spaces. Public transport is becoming a selling point! For more information: www.addhome.eu

According to context, the model can for example specify: – the modal share of public transport, all reasons, and commuter travel for inhabitants and those working in the neighbourhood; – the number of people getting on and off at public transport stops in the neighbourhood; – the share of company employees (or more generally those working in the sector, or the inhabitants) using a lift-sharing scheme – according to the scheme in place; – the number of users and uses (in usage, in km) of a car-sharing scheme; – the number of bicycles hired and the number of km travelled by users etc. Neighbourhood vision If we aim to encourage optimal use of alternative modes within a neighbourhood project, then consideration must be given to choice of location – well before the conception stage. It must provide continuity with the urban fabric and be close to the existing public transport networks to encourage their use by future inhabitants. The neighbourhood project must obviously be connected to the existing offer; but it should also develop additional offers adapted to the neighbourhood’s specific requirements. Journeys into town should be easy to make using alternative modes to the private car. The success of a project to encourage multi-modal use depends on the provision of a mixed range of alternative options.

4. Source: eco-calculator ADEME: www.ademe.fr/eco-deplacements/calculette/ 5. Source: TScheidler/ILS, energy agency NRW de Wuppertal, 1997. For comparison, heating a house for one year requires on average 13 500 kWh/year for a standard construction and 6 000 kWh/year for an energy efficient construction.


The second orientation will steer the neighbourhood’s vision towards energy efficiency through: – public transport access to the neighbourhood (proximity, inter-neighbourhood links by public transport, links with the main regional centres); – good traffic conditions for public transport; – the development of additional services (taxis, car-sharing or cycle hire centres, lift-sharing parks, deliveries etc.); – the involvement of inhabitants (acceptability of the project, participation in its processes etc.) and local actors (public transport operators and mobility services); – raising the awareness of inhabitants and other transport users. Areas of action From a sectoral point of view, promoting the use of alternative transport should be reflected in the conception of the neighbourhood at the level of: – the involvement of inhabitants; – its buildings; – its public roadways; – its alternative transports; – the management of mobility. For more information on each sector, go to Chapter 3 and try out the Mobility and New Neighbourhoods tool. Examples of application The development of alternatives to the private car constitutes a recurrent objective for those neighbourhoods seeking optimum energy performance. Experience feedback has shown that a large number of neighbourhoods have chosen the objective of encouraging use of alternative modes. This is for example demonstrated: – by providing easy access to an attractive offer of public transport as in the following neighbourhoods : Bonne (France), Temps durables, Andromède and Ginko (France), BedZED (United-Kingdom), Vauban (Germany); – by information and/or awareness campaigns such as at Andromède, Temps durables and Ginko, BO01 (Sweden), Sarriguren (Spain), Vauban; – by the implementation of mobility services (self-service cycle hire) or mobility centre such as those in the Temps durables neighbourhood and BO01; – by the lift-sharing services in Sarriguren, Andromède, Temps durables, BO01; – by the car-sharing services in Hammarby Sjöstad (Sweden), Bonne, Andromède, Temps durables, BO01, Vauban and BedZED. Carclubs and lift-sharing services also contribute in a big way to the third orientation and as such are further developed in the following section.
Sharing our experienceS

In bremen, Germany, the public transport and car-sharing operator Cambio has been offering the “Bremer Karte Plus AutoCard” since 1998 – this is a yearly season ticket which provides cheaper rates on the car-sharing scheme. Sources: European Moses project, www.managenergy.net/products/R465.htm) CERTU study reports: Car-sharing and Lift-sharing in France and Europe.

Spotlight on the hammarby Sjöstad Neighbourhood, Stockholm (Sweden) The concept of this neighbourhood was aimed at reducing private car use in favour of more energy-efficient modes. To achieve this, the programme targeted the development of alternative modes to the private car; in particular through the implementation of an effective public transport system which includes a tramway, car ferries to the town centre and clean buses (bio-fuel or hybrid). In addition, electric or biogas vehicles were made available to residents (through car-sharing scheme) in order to limit household motor vehicle use and reduce the number of parking places. This offer of transport was complemented by infrastructures and amenities for pedestrians and cyclists. Finally, educational actions, made possible by the creation of a “green” learning centre and workshops, were implemented in local schools. For further information, see the good practice form 13.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

1.2.3 Rationalising private car use
Energy performance and other benefits The private car is at the high end of energy and space consumption. High in GHG (green house gas) emissions, the motorised vehicle is also a source of pollution which is harmful to our health. In addition, high speeds and dense traffic are incompatible with local life and do not encourage social connection. Several studies (Figure 4)6 have shown the effects of motorised traffic on social life. A study carried out in Zurich produced evidence of the positive influence of traffic calming on social connections – whether for children or parents. Therefore, children living in calm streets often travel without adults and have on average 4 times as many friends in their neighbourhood than those children living on roads with heavy traffic7. The place accorded to motorised traffic therefore has a strong influence on social interaction and the way people live local life in public spaces. From an energy point of view, use of the private car represents poor energy performance – even more so when it is used simply to transport the driver.

FIgURe 4. Social

connections and traffic density

friends 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

6,3 3 1,2
calmed traffic average traffic

4 0,8
dense traffic


Source: Adams etal., Diagramme FGM-AMOR 2005

Car-sharing is one way of rationalising car use. Experience feedback demonstrates the gains in both energy and GHG by its users, due to: – a reduction in the kms travelled; – a higher than average occupation rate; – a switch towards the use of other, alternative modes (multimodal practices); – optimisation of car fleets: A shared vehicle replaces between four to eight private cars; – shared vehicles are generally newer and thus, less fuel thirsty. For example, studies in Switzerland and Germany have shown that new participants in car-sharing schemes reduced their car journeys by 1 000 to 1 600 km/year and doubled the number of kilometres travelled on public transport 7.
Sharing our experienceS

In Switzerland, Mobility clients reduced their usage of the car by kms travelled. What is more, 80% of member’s journeys were done on public transport, cycle or on foot. Source: Mobility Carsharing, CERTU7.

Sharing our experienceS

Each Carplus vehicle in the United Kingdom replaces 6 private cars. The users make an average reduction of 50% in the number of kms travelled. Moreover, in 2005, 45% of private cars which were replaced by car-sharing were over 10 years old. Source: www.carplus.org.uk, CERTU7.

6. Source: Studies Adams etal., www.transportlearning.net. 7. Source: Kids on the move, European Commission, 2002 – In-depth study on 5 year olds in Zurich. 8. Source: European Moses project.


Targeted usage To achieve a substantial alternative modal share, and guarantee energy efficiency in the neighbourhood, inhabitants’ use of the private car and its importance in the neighbourhood have to be a primary element for consideration. This third directional line is inter-linked and dependant on the first two orientations. An energy efficient neighbourhood seeks in effect to reduce the number of private car journeys and rationalise car use; the model for mobility will therefore target: – a reduction in the rate of private car use in particular within the neighbourhood: the discouragement of car use in favour of alternative modes, in particular for local journeys (coherent and complementary to the first two orientations); – alternative use of the car: car-sharing (through associations, commercial enterprise or by arrangement between individuals), or sharing a personal car (lift-sharing); – non use of the car: renunciation of car ownership, consumer practices which do not involve travelling (deliveries or distance services provided by the internet). The model can also be used to set objectives: – linked to ownership: limit the rate of household motorisation (respect for speed limits), limit the number of parking places being created etc.; – linked to behaviour: curb the habits of dangerous, energy thirsty and inappropriate driving (eco-driving) in residential neighbourhoods (peace of mind and safety). Neighbourhood vision The place given to the car (buildings, streets, public spaces) impacts heavily on energy performance and quality of a new neighbourhood (and its costs). The choice for an energy efficient neighbourhood implies acceptance of the need for smart car use. The third orientation depends on the acceptance of the choices made about street planning, usage and development of services to encourage and frame this intelligent use of the car. It provides the favourable conditions for: – discouraging car traffic and parking: non car-friendly streets (speed limits etc.), limited parking away from homes; – new car-use practices which dissociate ownership from use: lift-sharing and car-sharing; – avoid the need for individual journeys through the use of services: deliveries, distance services on the internet; – raising awareness amongst inhabitants and, more particularly, drivers (compliance with parking and driving restrictions); – the involvement of inhabitants (commitment and acceptance to a car-free neighbourhood, advice on mobility). Areas of action From a sectoral point of view, rationalising car use should be reflected in the conception of the neighbourhood at the level of: – the involvement of inhabitants; – its town planning; – its buildings; – its public roadways; – its alternative transports; – the management of mobility. For more information on each sector, go to Chapter 3 and try out the Mobility and New Neighbourhoods tool.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

Examples of application Reducing car use is a common theme amongst all neighbourhoods studied. Parking and accessibility by car are therefore primary conceptual elements of the aforesaid neighbourhoods.
Spotlight on the bedZeD neighbourhood in Sutton (United kingdom) In order to rationalise private car use, the neighbourhood opted for a pro-active approach to the issue of parking; providing fifty non-allocated spaces for rent (per year) to be shared amongst the 250 residents and around 100 people working in the district. Clean cars were given preferential rates. The neighbourhood is equipped with 26 charging terminals for electric vehicles: 3 cars (PLG, electric) are available to 35 residents who are members of the car-sharing service. Finally, the road network is classified as a home zone – designed to discourage transiting traffic. Several years into the project, residents’ mileage has been reduced by 64% compared to the national average – and the residents of this municipality know an average of 20 neighbours by name.

Spotlight on the bO01 neighbourhood in Malmö (Sweden) Internal roads are primarily car-free and are reserved for use by pedestrians and cyclists. Car parking was limited (0.7 place per home) and preference was given to ecological vehicles. Shared electric cars are available for residents who need to travel in the town centre. Finally, a biogas station and charging terminals (powered by a 2 MW wind turbine) for electric vehicles have been installed to encourage the choice for alternative fuel vehicles. For further information on each example, see the good practice forms 9 and 15.

Ultimately, it is essential that the neighbourhood’s design seeks to provide the conditions for transport and urban planning that reduce the use of cars and facilitate the use of active and alternative modes of transport. In parallel, engaging inhabitants and raising their awareness is vital to sustaining energy efficient choices in the long term. A neighbourhood project should be considered as having a life-span that extends beyond the conception/construction stages. This framework, together with the following technical and methodology recommendations, is applicable in the following instances: – where the local authority has control over land ownership and can therefore impose energy performance requirements on future developers; – joint planning procedures or where the municipality does not have complete control over land ownership, but can impose some requirements concerning development of the zone; – when private developers wish to develop building projects which integrate energy efficiency through mobility.



Mobility at the heart of 2. the neighbourhood creation process
Chapter 2 makes recommendations on methodology for optimising the integration of mobility into the neighbourhood planning process. If mobility is to effectively contribute to the energy efficiency goals of a neighbourhood, it must be an integral part of the project and, as such, be dealt with in each stage of the process: – during the programming phase (section 2.2); – during Project roll-out (section 2.3); – and throughout neighbourhood life (section 2.4). Moreover, the municipality can take a preliminary look at the existing regulatory levers; and choose to synchronise these planning and transport documents in order to benefit from the regulatory advantages and ensure energy efficiency in their neighbourhood projects; as well those of private landlords (section 2.1). These recommendations are centred on the various aspects of method or organisation, independently of the procedures in force in each country, in order to establish a process which can be easily transferred.
For help with integrating mobility into your project’s steering, consult the question table in the Mobility and New Neighbourhoods tool on the CD-ROM which accompanies this guide.

A decisive preliminary lever: 2.1 connecting urban and transport plannings
2.1.1 Integrated urban development-transport planning at local scale 2.1.2 The possible levers

The programme 2.2 phase
2.2.1 Commitment phase 2.2.2 Study and diagnostic phase 2.2.3 Strategy and programming phases

2.3 The neighbourhood project
2.3.1 Conception phase 2.3.2 Implementation of works phase

2.4 Local neighbourhood life
2.4.1 Raising awareness and providing information to support change 2.4.2 Monitoring and assessing the project

2.1 A decisive preliminary lever: connecting urban and transport plannings
The consistency of urban and transport plannings at local scale (local urban and/or habitat plans, urban or local travel plans) is a key advantage for energy efficient urban development.
Therefore, recommendations relating to urban planning can also appear in travel planning documents; and inversely, recommendations relating to transport can be imposed by local urban development and habitat plans (or other planning documents).

2.1.1 Integrated urban development-transport planning at local scale
For example, in France, the connection between the Urban Travel Plan (which is mandatory for metropolitan areas over 100 000 inhabitants and often an intermunicipal initiative) and the Urban Development Plan (which is taken at city scale), can foster the development of neighbourhoods with energy efficient transport. On one hand, the urban travel plan sets perimeters in which the conditions of access by public transport permit the reduction or suppression of requirements (minimum) set by the urban development/housing plan for the creation of parking places (article 12). This requirement from transport plan is therefore imposed on the urban development plan. Within these perimeters, maximum quotas, or restrictions, can be applied for the creation of car parking places for new constructions, and minimum quotas for cycle parking. However, experience feedback shows that municipalities can also set these perimeters out directly in their urban development plan. On the other hand, the urban development plan (article 3) makes the provision for access to land which is set aside for development. It can be drafted with a view to promoting access by public transport or active modes (see example of Lille). An optimum connection of travel and urban development plans help to put in place the successful conditions for the construction of energy efficient neighbourhoods by: – favouring the densification of those areas with good public transport services; – imposing maximum quotas for car parking; – imposing minimum quotas for cycle parking with quality requirements.
Sharing our experienceS

The urban development plan of Nantes (France) applies a reduction of 15% compared to the number of places usually required where “the site (even partially) is located within the area of influence of stops and stations on restricted lanes of public transport (within a radius of 400 metres around the station).”

Sharing our experienceS

The urban development plan of Lille (France) mapped the perimeters of good public transport service; this showed the perimeters of a 500 metres radius around railway stations (underground, tramways and regional train stations with more than 10 stops per day per direction). The urban development plan stipulates for one of its urban zones (article 3) that within the perimeters of good service by railway stations shown on the plan, access to the land parcel must be designed to connect it as closely as possible to a railway station (underground, tramway or regional train) where this is technically possible; on areas for development, article 3 stipulates that every new road development projects must “guarantee the comfort of pedestrians and cyclists under conditions which are safe for all modes of travel.”


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

2.1.2 The possible levers
Although local planning documents are specific to each European Union member state, levers can be proposed because there were converging developments over the last 15 years in Europe on regional or urban planning processes – from land use planning to strategic land planning. Propositions for connecting urban development plans and urban travel plans made here are duplicable according to the regulations in force in each country. Urban travel plans can play an important role in ensuring the adequacy of the car parking offer in new buildings to the supply of public transport. Therefore, these plans can define the areas within which the quality of access by public transport permits (according to each case): – a reduction in the mandatory quota (minimum) to build parking spaces in new buildings; – the suppression of minimum quotas in favour of maximum quotas thus limiting the creation of parking spaces in residential neighbourhoods around the transport hubs; – the imposition of minimum quotas for cycle parking in new constructions, which would preferably include criterion for quality. Local urban development plans also represent a crucial lever for developing energy efficient neighbourhoods, which go beyond the issues of specific zones. In view of the fact that they determine both land occupation and use, they can: – synchronise future land occupancy with the supplies of transport; – define the urban areas and those for development in continuity with the urban environment or by urban renewal (renovation, interstitial spaces); – favour dense urbanisation in proximity to the main public transport routes or hubs; – favour the mixed use development of neighbourhoods – adapted to the use of soft modes (shortened distances). In addition, according to regulatory context, urban development plans set the conditions of access for lands designated for construction (see example: Lille in France). In this case, they can give preference to access by public transport, by cycling or by walking. The subject of parking will be covered in greater detail in Chapter 4. This paragraph provided the prerequisite conditions in order to facilitate the construction of an energy efficient neighbourhood.

2.2 The programme phase
2.2.1 Commitment phase
Defining aspirations in coherence with local policies This preliminary phase, before defining the mobility model, frames the strategic orientations in accordance with local policies on travel, energy and sustainable development. It ensures the project’s coherence with the municipal strategy in applying objectives set in different policies (urban travel plans, local agenda 21, climate plan etc.). Ultimately, this first stage is aimed at drawing up an outline for the neighbourhood’s outlook regarding mobility issues.



Choosing a site Depending on the contexts (land availability), the site is more or less defined at the very start of the project. In all cases, the “mobility” criterion must be integrated into the choice of site, in particular: – continuous urban development (limit sprawl towards farm lands or the countryside), urban development of interstitial spaces in the existing urban fabric, extension of a pre-existing urban core; – the proximity of existing public transport networks, and, where necessary, the feasibility of providing connections; – the current condition of links with other neighbourhoods: proportion of roads to create, links with other neighbourhoods which can provide functions, activities or services which are not available in the new neighbourhood. At this stage, mobility should be included as a consideration when choosing a site, if energy performance is to be optimised. For further information, please consult the urban development section in Chapter 4. Organisation Steering and transversality are organised in order to ensure the good coordination of the city staff and external key actors on mobility issues. A steering committee and joint working groups favour efficient transmission of the project and create a sense of belonging by all stakeholders. The project (site and aspirations) is communicated to services and other key actors involved in the project, in order to provide them with information (public meetings, letters, Town newspaper, Town website etc.) and ensure their early mobilisation. From country to country, assistance can be sought during the very early stages of the project to provide backing and support in the choice of site, running analysis and defining the programme. In this case, care should be taken to write down the required competences in transport.

2.2.2 Study and phase diagnosis
Running diagnosis and pre-operational studies The pre-operational stage or, more specifically, the consideration of available options is a decisive one. It should be done in partnership with the contracting authority and all other parties involved. As such, the mandatory procedures in place, such as a public enquiry or an impact study will ensure – according to country – that the public has had access to certain items of information and were consulted before implementation of the project. The diagnosis is aimed at making a study of the site: context, requirements, constraints, potential, regulations etc. The mobility and accessibility analysis will shed light on the problems and issues of mobility on the site. Diagnosis is based on an analysis of the offer and demand for mobility – both existing and envisaged – as well as their adequacy. It is, in particular, a study of mobility requirements (what is required of the offer? what will be the newly generated traffic?) or the necessary parking regulations in order to pre-identify the project’s possible obstacles or levers. The diagnosis should be done in partnership with the neighbourhood’s future users and/or existing inhabitants in the area. Inhabitants will provide their own user expertise which will help with sharing the diagnosis. Complementary or mandatory studies (e.g. the urban development zone impact studies), will provide further information for diagnosis on specific or technical aspects. For example: – accessibility in the planned or existing neighbourhood; – traffic generated by existing infrastructures (street networks, public transport); – how the public transport offer will be connected in order to prepare the ground for inter-operability of urban development and transport planning.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

FIgURe 5. Diagram

of the process for integrating mobility into a neighbourhood project



• Define ambitions in coherence with local policies • Choose the general contractor team and/or co-contractor team (Definition contract) • Choose the site (Scenario) • Organise: procedure, steering, mobilisation of stakeholders

Ambitions: 1st framing of a model for mobility in line with the local policies on travel, energy and sustainable development (local travel plans, Agenda 21, climate plan etc.) Integration of “mobility” criterion for the choice of site (see Chapter 3)

Diagnosis and studies

• Run a diagnosis: site, needs, regulations… • Carry out additional or obligatory pre-operational studies

Diagnosis of accessibility and mobility: offer and demand, induced traffic, regulations on parking etc. Information/participation: user expertise diagnosis with inhabitants and other local actors Studies: impacts, management of parking street and various network engineering, public spaces, green modes etc. Model for mobility and strategic orientations Proposition of scenarios: offer and demand Additional studies: parking offer, street and various network engineering, public spaces, green modes Define the programme in terms of prescriptions impacting on mobility


Strategy and Programme

• Define a strategy • Carry out studies: feasibility… • Define a programme: translate orientations into recommendations

Definition of the project

• Choose the general contracting team (competition) • Propose scenarios • Carry out a preliminary design and development plan • Deliver the finished neighbourhood project in coherence with the programme

- Team: competences in the conception of roads and utilities, Green routes, parking management, mobility management, public participation - Information/participation concerning conception - Urban pattern plans, traffic and parking plans - Supervision of respect for technical prescriptions



• Choose builder/developer/general contractors • Site management • Sales

- Competences in streets, public spaces, creation of car parking – according to programme - Make the neighbourhood’s accessibility a selling point, in particular for shops and businesses - Information/participation on the development of the site or - Inauguration of the neighbourhood: demonstration of its ease of access using alternative transport - Awareness raising-information on the arrival of inhabitants and other actors - Awareness and information of inhabitants and other local actors, mobility advice > see Mobility Management heading - Acknowledgement for exemplary behaviour and initiatives Neighbourhood maintenance: roads and utilities, public places, street cleaning contribute to monitoring through caretaker role - Mobilisation of resources stakeholders on monitoring (municipal services, associations, inhabitants, shopkeepers) - Implementation of « mobility » monitoring tools - Evaluation: achievement of objectives for mobility, corrective measures

Accompanying change

• Work towards changing habits and practices • Acknowledgement (in conjunction with the evaluation)

• Handle management/operation • Contribute to monitoring Management


Monitor the mobility of inhabitants, usage of proposed services and evaluate the energy efficiency of the project

Source: Adams etal., Diagramme FGM-AMOR 2005


2.2.3 Strategy and programming phases
Using the model for mobility to define strategy Before deciding on a programme, it is important that a strategy is defined, that is to say the directions which will guide the project in its concept and creation. This approach will guarantee coherence between local policy lines and the aspired goals of the neighbourhood. To achieve these transport energy performance objectives, the neighbourhood project must encourage inhabitants and visitors to choose energy efficient modes of travel. When reflecting on this, the defined mobility model can be used upstream of the project to help local councillors define appropriate strategic orientations, in step with their mission to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This is an exercise in forecasting common preferences, concerning usage and priorities given to public spaces and traffic, in order to set realistic and ambitious goals. Projections will be based on the alignment of initial political ambitions for the neighbourhood with findings on current usages and the actual and potential offer of transport. The question is primarily about which usage and journeys will lead to optimal energy efficiency? This question table can also help with reflections when defining the model for mobility if you have not already done so. This approach is recommended, on one hand, for coordinating the development of the neighbourhood with the local travel plan, and on the other hand it will help with defining orientations for traffic and parking within a new neighbourhood. Finally, it will enable you to spot the obstacles or constraints, or unwelcome-effects (such as induced traffic) on the end goal of energy efficiency, particularly in regulatory terms (coherence with the Local Urban Development Plan or regulated zones). Defining a mobility model means formulating a prospective model of usage and travelling habits. A number of formulations are possible: • by priority of usage (unquantified): The mobility model assigns priorities for usage without quantifying them. The priorities should therefore be indicated in terms of modes, motives and users. For example: by defining that all or part of the streets and public spaces are prioritised for inhabitants – to promote local life. In the absence of pre-existing policy objectives, prioritising issues will have the advantage of being easier to formulate than, for example, modal shares. • by modal share: The mobility model defines the expected usage in terms of modal share, that is to say a % of journeys by motive and by target (inhabitants, employees etc.). For example: % of journeys made on foot by inhabitants to school, or to the local shops. It can be based on the objectives of the local travel plan. The advantage of quantifying expected travel habits is that it will provide important elements for the programme in terms of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (forecast). Within a neighbourhood which seeks to achieve energy efficiency, the mobility model which is defined must be ambitious in respect of local or regional authority travel policies, according to context (urban travel plan). But it must also take into account the current practices observed in the territory. For example, it aims to make walking an important modal share, to school (greater than 60-70-80%), or to the local shops (60%) etc. In any event, these quantified objectives are relative to local context in each case (conformity with mandatory ratios). Once the model for mobility has been decided upon, it is then used to define the offer of street parking, the spaces allocated to buildings, as well as the priorities for traffic (in accordance with the regulatory context). The reader is invited to try out the Mobility and New Neighbourhoods tool included on the CD-ROM – to check whether the issue of energy efficient transport has been properly integrated into prospective thinking – before deciding upon the strategic orientations. Studying the project’s feasibility Once the compass has been set, some other issues will need to be studied in order to ascertain the project’s feasibility in terms of mobility: the offer of parking, design of streets and other networks, public spaces, green modes.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

Therefore, additional studies can be carried out on: – feasibility of a mobility service; – intelligent parking management (global approach at neighbourhood scale, including streets and buildings); – feasibility of connecting up with the public transport offer – in anticipation of interoperability with transport planning; – feasibility of shared multi-storey parking etc. Defining a programme The programme translates strategic orientations into technical requirements. It portrays a detailed picture of the neighbourhood’s outlook. It specifies the requirements, constraints and expectations of the municipality for this project, in particular in terms of mobility. The technical requirements impacting on mobility can be found in the following fields: – town planning; – buildings; – public roadways; – alternative transports; – and the management of mobility. Technical requirements are dealt with further in Chapter 4. Readers can use the CD-ROM’s Mobility and New Neighbourhoods tool to examine the area specific questions relating to the technical requirements. The development plan should be supported by an accompaniment plan to ensure the project’s continuity. This plan will determine an appropriate usage, in line with the project’s energy goals – both for transport and buildings. In particular, it is aimed at supporting: – the desired changes in habit and behaviour; – the use of the new services on offer; – the involvement of inhabitants in mobility projects (see Chapter 3).

2.3 The neighbourhood project
2.3.1 Conception phase
Choosing the contract management team Once the programme has been defined, according to the procedures in force the town needs to form a contract management team (developer, building contractor etc.) and co-contractor (or several depending the projects and actions in hand); one which is able to meet the municipality’s requirements (in particular those concerning mobility) according to the project’s specific goals (low energy streets, raising awareness amongst inhabitants, communication etc.) The required competences are detailed in the Special Technical Clause Specifications. Proposing scenarios The choice of a scenario involves the creation of a composition plan which will define the various usage of each space (public spaces and dwellings etc.), as well as the drafting of regulations which will supplement rules on access and service routes to each land parcel. The cost of streets, parking and networks will influence the cost of the project, their conception must therefore be considered in the development of proposed scenarios by taking into account the expected usage and the future management of amenities and infrastructure. The plan must specify the different usage of public spaces, indicating the areas to be put in place (home zone, zone 30 etc.) and the parking spaces, by stating its type (underground, surface, multi-storey, mixed etc.). Regarding the specific regulations that define the project, it must also take into account the priority usage within the neighbourhood (active modes) for access roads to land parcels. Scenarios can be set up in partnership with the key actors involved. By taking this approach, several different scenarios, which are more or less pro-active in terms of energy efficiency, can be proposed, which will help local councillors in their decision making.



Creating a preliminary design and a development plan The neighbourhood project is specified through a “preliminary design” for approval by local councillors. The preliminary design must contain all the elements which make it possible to ascertain their accordance with technical requirements in terms of mobility (all domains): urban pattern and traffic plans, development plans (buildings, streets, public spaces), car and cycle parking etc. The town can ascertain whether the preliminary design has properly integrated the requirements of the programme and the contributions made by stakeholder participation. Consult the Mobility and New Neighbourhoods tool on CD-ROM to find out how the action is performing and measure the energy efficiency of mobility, at all stages of the project.

2.3.2 Implementation of works phase
Launch and monitoring of works It is recommended that site management is put in place (of an environmental management systems type) not only to reduce the impacts on local life but also to increase the energy performances (transport of materials and waste). In addition, the town can publish information concerning the launch of works and the project under construction (information panels, town newspaper, mayor’s newsletter etc.). This should be followed up with regular bulletins to local inhabitants concerning the stage of works. It is important to highlight the notions of leading by example and respect for the neighbourhood environment. In partnership with the contractor(s), the town can organise local inhabitant visits to the site in order to encourage their acceptance of the project and enable them to discover the new neighbourhood under construction.
Sharing our experienceS

During the construction of Hammarby neighbourhood (22 buildings, Stockholm, Sweden), a communal logistics platform was put in place for use by the various developers and business in order to optimise delivery of materials and the management of waste from the site. By reducing the number of lorries required, 900 litres of diesel per day were saved. (Source: Sustainable Neighbourhoods in Europe, ARENE-IMBE, 2005.) Read the good practice form 13.

Integrating mobility as a strategic selling point Requirements for energy efficient transport can constitute a commercial opportunity to attract: • inhabitants: The proximity of public transport, the presence of new services and good quality of life in the neighbourhood are elements which attract local convenience shops, and represent a reduction in the cost of parking; • businesses: : Access to the neighbourhood by means of alternative modes is a factor in productivity, competitiveness and the quality of working conditions of which businesses, in particular those which are pro-active on sustainable development or social and environmental responsibility, can be made aware; • and local shops : The quality of pedestrian streets and cycle routes, the quality of public spaces and the priority given to local life are incentives for shops keepers to open in the neighbourhood. Handover of works Once works have been delivered, these must be checked for conformity with the defined project. Therefore, before the residents move in, a site visit should be carried out to ascertain conformity with the programme (quality of amenities in streets and public spaces, cycle parking, disabled access etc.). The visit can be organised with a group of representatives from technical services and/or local councillors as well as the future inhabitants/owners. Following this, the neighbourhood can be officially opened by local councillors in order to mark the importance of the project for the municipality. This event is a perfect opportunity to demonstrate the ease of access to alternative transport and the new services in place (car-sharing, lift-sharing park, self-service cycle hire, home zones etc.).


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

2.4 Local neighbourhood life
Neighbourhood projects which target energy efficient mobility cannot succeed by acting solely on the offer of transport and buildings. They also need to support the local actors in changing their travel habits. The project must therefore be totally absorbed into local life.

2.4.1 Raising awareness and providing information to support change
The move towards change can be based on several actions: – raising the awareness of inhabitants and other local actors to the use of active modes, and more generally to the alternative modes (public transport etc.). In particular by offering them the opportunity to test out new modes – experimenting with a walking or cycle bus for the school run, organising walking or cycle tours of the district or cycle training courses; – providing information about mobility services in place and the transport offer (cycle route network etc.), particularly through the use of an information brochure delivered to new residents concerning the terms of access and traffic in the neighbourhood; – providing mobility advice; – promoting exemplary behaviour and initiatives (in relation with evaluation). For more technical information please go to Chapter 4 and the Mobility and New Neighbourhoods tool (see section on the Management of Mobility). It will also be helpful to read about public commitments in Chapter 3.

2.4.2 Monitoring and assessing the project
Once it has been in place for some years, it will be possible to evaluate the neighbourhood, in order to measure the energy efficiency of the project and estimate to what degree it has met the preliminary objectives and public expectations. In order to do this the municipality should: – put in place the right monitoring and evaluation tool for measuring obtained results and whether or not the energy efficiency objectives have been reached; – mobilise the actors involved in monitoring (town hall services, associations, inhabitants, shop-keepers); – advertise the results amongst inhabitants and give credit for their involvement; – take the necessary corrective measures; – study the feedback on experiences in other neighbourhoods to help with continuous improvement. Monitoring can be carried out on the basis of a survey and various counts, examination of complaints, meetings or assessments or observations by technical services. Maintenance services in the neighbourhood (roads and utilities, public spaces, cleaning services) can also contribute effectively to monitoring by their regular presence in the neighbourhood (for example: the presence of illegally parked cars which cause danger for cyclists). The quality of lighting, road markings, obstacles on cycle lanes and paths should also be regularly checked.



Sharing our experienceS

The Vauban Forum (a public association), having coordinated public participation (see Chapter 3), was also charged with facilitating the task of gathering information in the neighbourhood, particularly from residents. Gathered information was used for comparison with a series of indicators for monitoring the evolution of the project and its performance. Concerning mobility, the following indicators were used: – number of cars for 1 000 inhabitants: 450 (against 960 in town); – share of housing units with no allocated parking: 70% (against ~ 1% in town); – share of public transport (in % of passenger/km travelled): 50% (against an average of 24% in town); – % of streets where children can play: 55% (no local reference). Read the good practice form 3.

Indicators Based on strategic orientations of the neighbourhood, the development project and the actions in place, the monitoring and evaluation tool proposes a series of indicators which will make it possible to oversee and measure the project’s performances. The following indicators are given as examples. Impact indicators

energy efficiency

– Litres of fuel/year/inhab. (or toe or kWh) – Kg of CO2 emitted/year/inhab. – Energy gains and emissions cut through the use of alternative modes – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness) – Number of days with good air quality – Average noise level – Number of road accidents and level of seriousness – Number of m2 and km dedicated to cars, active modes and other alternative modes – Number of m2 of pedestrian/cycle zones (fleet etc) – Number of inhabitants in car free roads – Level of inhabitant satisfaction concerning their quality of life – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness) – Number of asthma sufferers – Number of overweight or obese people – Number of people practising a physical activity which will benefit their health – Number of hours of activity per child and per adult living in the neighbourhood – per day or per week (average) – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness)

Quality of life


Result indicators

Modes of travel used Cycle parking Car parking

– Modal shares – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness) – Frequency of use – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness) – Frequency of use – Number of pro-active commitments – Share of car-free households – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness) – Number of people alighting/descending per day – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness) – Number of cycles rented, serviced or left in secure parking per year – Number of lift-sharing journeys or regular lift-sharers – Numbers for usage of car-sharing service – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness) – Number of requests – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness) – Number of children and parents participating in a walking bus – Number of people involved in a private car-sharing group – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness)

Rate of public transport use Use of mobility services

Use of an information service Organised journeys


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

Achievement indicators

Offer of alternative transport

– Number of km of cycle routes (paths, lanes, zones 30 kph, home zones etc.) – Number of km of pedestrian paths – Number of public transport stops within 500 m of the neighbourhood – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness) – Number of awareness campaigns and public reached – Number of leaflets and information kits distributed amongst inhabitants – Number of personalised mobility advice sessions – Number of companies and employees involved in the inter-company commuter plan – Number of educational establishments and students involved in the travel plan – Number of joint projects led by inhabitants – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness) – Number of inhabitants involved in the creation of the neighbourhood – Number of inhabitants wishing to take part in the development of neighbourhood life

Mobility management


Indicators for resources and efficiency

Infrastructures and amenities Services Information communication actions Participation Efficiency

– Cost of infrastructures per mode – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness) – Cost of services (time spent) – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness) – Cost of actions (time spent) – Difference from forecasts (effectiveness) – Costs for participative activities (time spent) – Costs incurred for achieving a modal switch towards alternative of active modes – Costs incurred for 1 km on foot, by car or by cycle etc. – Modal switch obtained for 1 euro incurred (per mode) –…

Sharing our experienceS

To evaluate the Hammarby Sjöstad neighbourhood, Stockholm used its own 17 sustainable development indicators, defined during the development of their LA21 with residents (30 round tables). The indicators are based on the 4 following themes: – living in a safe and healthy urban environment; – minimising the impact of travel on the environment; – minimising the consumption of natural resources; – increasing the decision making power of residents and their influence on the town’s development. Indicators – Energy consumption per inhabitant. – Carbon dioxide produced per inhabitant. – Number of days with good air quality. – Percentage of public transport compared to other modes of transport. – Number of asthma sufferers. – Number of inhabitants wishing to take part in the development of neighbourhood life. Amongst other things, an online tool was put in place for calculating one’s personal (or household) environmental profile according to various consumer habits (life-style, leisure activities, journeys etc.). The programme uses data which are specific to Stockholm. It is available online: www.miljoporten.stockholm.se

Read the good practice form 13.



Mobilising and 3. involving local stakeholders in the project
The mobilisation and involvement of the residents for the choice of energy efficient modes are determining factors for the success of a project of an energy efficient neighbourhood. It is, in effect, the usage practiced by inhabitants, and more generally by mobility users in the neighbourhood, of the proposed offer which will determine its level of energy efficiency. Mobilisation of these stakeholders will therefore aim at gathering and involving them in the collective project of a new neighbourhood. Their strong support, or even their membership for and contribution to the project, are sought right from its launch. Moreover, associating the public with the definition of their future transport conditions in itself constitutes a means for promoting change in future practices. This chapter highlights the different keys to success when mobilising and engaging stakeholders, by citing feedback on experience and proposing recommendations for the participative process for energy efficient mobility. The recommendations in this chapter do not take into account the specific legal obligations relative to each country, but are placed in a pro-active context.

Key factors 3.1 for mobilising inhabitants
3.1.1 Identifying the key actors 3.1.2 Obstacles and levers

Creating a favourable 3.2 setting for dialogue and providing information
3.2.1 A transparent and identifiable project 3.2.2 Accessible participation 3.2.3 Acknowledging the value of participation 3.2.4 Choosing active modes of participation

Continuous 3.3 participation
3.3.1 Mobilising the key actors right from the start 3.3.2 Supplementing studies through the input of inhabitants 3.3.3 Working with inhabitants towards a strategy for mobility 3.3.4 Defining a common project 3.3.5 Consolidating acceptance through commitment

3.1 Key factors for mobilising inhabitants
This section highlights the factors which influence the involvement of key actors in the project; in particular the inhabitants, bearing in mind that it is their choices and practices which will determine the level of energy efficiency.

3.1.1 Identifying the key actors
When approaching the subject of new neighbourhoods, one of the first questions relating to participation is “who will be associated with the project?” In general, the actors outside of the local authority which are associated with the neighbourhood will be: • the inhabitants; • the economic actors; • the actors from non-governmental associations; • the technical partners. The inhabitants For those new neighbourhoods which are as yet unoccupied, the following groups can be associated where possible: – the future inhabitants where they are already known; this is usually the case for a project being led with or by owner residents. Coming together as an association or citizens’ group can help them participate in the process and be actively involved in the project; – residents’ associations which exist in the sector can effectively re-group themselves in order to become involved in the neighbourhood project; – consultation committees, bringing together resident representatives (neighbourhood council, extra-municipal commission etc.) existing in the sector; – a representative panel of expected inhabitants, chosen from amongst the local population: their contribution could be paid for, in order to guarantee a good rate of participation if this is judged to be necessary; – the surrounding population which will also be concerned and affected by this new neighbourhood. The economic actors It is important that dialogue with the local economic establishments is not excluded. Mobility also represents a growing concern for employers, in terms of their workforce, their clients and their suppliers. The participatory approach will also therefore involve: – the future tenants/owners of commercial premises as well as those of office and service buildings; – companies, shops or commercial zone managers in the proximity of the neighbourhood; – business associations and clubs. The neighbourhood project can for example constitute an opportunity to initiate dialogue with existing and/or future businesses concerning the advantages of an inter-company commuter plan. The actors from non-governmental associations The additional input of outside, independent opinions will not only be useful but will also demonstrate the municipality’s commitment to transparency and open dialogue. Therefore, various types of local associations can be of interest: – those for environmental protection or sustainable development; – cyclist, pedestrian or public transport user associations; – those involved in environmental or road safety education; – student parent associations etc. These groups are usually consulted, or associated at the same time as the inhabitants. Where these groups are actively involved they can also be the subject of specific joint working groups (for example: a student parent association which is leading a walking bus project).


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The technical partners These are mainly the service operators and competent partners: – delegate for the contracting authority and in general all the professional actors participating in the conception and construction of the neighbourhood (architect, general contractor etc.); – transport companies and local transport authority (where this is not the municipality); – energy operators and other urban services; – technical experts: local energy agency, regional environmental agency etc.; – any financial partners. Their participation concerns, therefore, operational interests (concerning connections to the public transport network or the development of new services etc.). During the course of any necessary work meetings with the city staff, they can effectively contribute to a public debate session. The liaising partners for participation and communication The contracting authority can make good use of local information relays in order to effectively reach its target public. These channels are for example the social centres, neighbourhood councils, local public amenities (sports, culture etc.), the associations already mobilised etc. The constitution of an ad hoc association There are advantages to re-grouping the existing local associations and inhabitants to create a single association which can perform diverse roles in the construction of the project: – to represent the inhabitants during consultation and decision meetings; – to relay information to inhabitants; – to provide advice to inhabitants; – to manage resources; – to run joint projects; – to participate in the project’s evaluation. On this point, the examples of Forum Vauban and the eco-neighbourhood of Camp Countal show the wide range of roles which can be played by these sorts of citizens associations – depending on the regulations in force locally.
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In 1995, the town of Freiburg im breisgau (Germany) initiated a public participation process for the creation of the Vauban neighbourhood and appointed the Forum Vauban association to the task of managing and coordinating this process. The Forum was consulted right from the initial planning stage of the neighbourhood. Forum Vauban is made up of citizen associations (up to 250 members), which are guided by the principles of sustainable development. It is funded by the town and played an important role in both defining and supporting the project. A mission to inform The Forum is served by a local citizen’s information centre. Its principal mission for providing information led Forum Vauban to publish a magazine aimed at raising awareness about the conception and monitoring of actions associated with the neighbourhood. This promotional tool also strengthened the neighbourhood’s identity and attracted new residents. A role in raising awareness It also played a vital role in raising the awareness of inhabitants about the various levers for energy efficiency, such as bio-climatic systems or the use of renewable fuels. A reduction in the number of private cars in the area was also one of the primary targets, particularly through the encouragement of car-free housing units. An advisory and management role A group of multi-disciplinary experts (legal expert, biologist, town planner, physicist, geographer, economist, banking expert, environmental technician), funded by the German Foundation of the environment, the town and the Life programme, came together with the Forum in order to accompany and organise work groups and to formulate technical advice and recommendations for future inhabitants. The role of developer Certain members of the Forum – the “developer-owners” (construction groups) – participated in regular meetings to define the design and amenities which would surround their future land parcel or residential block. They subsequently forwarded their project to the general contractors. Compared to traditional methods for building developments, this approach resulted in a reduction in construction costs. A role in evaluation The Forum was also charged with facilitating the task of gathering information in the neighbourhood, particularly from residents. Gathered information was used for comparison with a series of indicators for monitoring the evolution the project and its performance.

Read the good practice form 3.



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In line with its 2002 Citizen’s Charter, the Séquestre municipality decided to give priority to existing and future inhabitants, in the creation of the Camp Countal eco-neighbourhood. In 2004, the population was consulted over the choice of the main HQE targets for this urban development. The project was also monitored by residents’ advisory committees comprising: The 2004 to 2008 Town Planning Advisory Committee and the 2008 Economic, Social and Environmental Committee. Finally, the constitution of a future residents’ association brought these bodies together with an architect appointed to ensure the correct application of existing recommendations for urban development. Together, they drew up an outline for the proposed development (a blueprint for the housing units and general outline of neighbourhood regulations). Read the good practice form 12.

3.1.2 Obstacles and levers
Apart from the task of identifying which public groups should be associated, the real difficulty lies in achieving the successful, constructive and continuous mobilisation of the project’s key actors – in particular the inhabitants. However, there are three primary obstacles to get around: • the capacity of inhabitants to participate and get involved; • their attitude towards the project; • their motivation for participation. The capacity of inhabitants to participate and get involved Their capacity will depend on the relationship between: – their personal constraints: working hours, child care etc.; – and the opportunities for participation which are on offer (time, place, conditions). These are essentially material constraints. Their attitude towards the project Indifference to a project will not inspire the desire to act upon it. It is therefore vital that inhabitants are encouraged to have an opinion on what is being proposed. Their attitude will depend on: – their knowledge of the subject; – their understanding of the project; – as well as recognition of the added value they can bring to the project and therefore of their relevance and personal interest in contributing to it. The obstacles here are mainly cognitive. Their motivation Ultimately, inhabitant motivation is a decisive factor which will affect both their involvement in the participative process and the implementation of the project. A lack of motivation amongst inhabitants to participate and take on board the project is mainly due to weaknesses in the project and its participative processes, such as the lack of: – visibility concerning the individual and common benefits; – ownership of the project; – clarity of the participative process; – opportunity to influence the project’s direction and play an active role. These obstacles should be taken seriously, since the motivation of actors is not only a triggering factor but will also increase levels of involvement.


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The levers for mobilising inhabitants To effectively involve inhabitants, three conditions must be brought together. Inhabitants must: – be able to easily participate and involve themselves; – determine their position in respect of the project; – feel motivated to take part. To bring these conditions together, three types of lever, echoing the aforementioned obstacles, can be used throughout the project in order to encourage affiliation and therefore ensure that behaviour in support of the project is sustained over time. Levers which are linked to the participative process The quality of this process is a determining factor for mobilising the population. It is recommended that a favourable setting for dialogue is put in place using the following levers: – proposing a transparent and multifaceted setting; – a commitment to recognising the value of contributions from inhabitants; – providing a participative process which is continuous and active. The levers which are linked to communication Good communication can also contribute to providing better information for inhabitants, in that it enables sharing and recognition of the project. The levers linked to the nature of the project In order to ensure permanent changes in travelling habits, the neighbourhood must be seen as: – a united, shared project, by inciting individual and common commitment; – beyond the conception and construction stage, by supporting residents in their choices and usage once they have moved into the neighbourhood.

3.2 Creating a favourable setting for dialogue and providing information
The right conditions for initiating dialogue and informing inhabitants must be put in place if we are to encourage them to take part in the process.
As with all ambitious projects, it is a good idea to initially coordinate the participation and communication plans which can be adapted as the project progresses. In addition to this precautionary step, several levers can be used to help with mobilising, associating and involving residents in the neighbourhood creation process.

3.2.1 A transparent and identifiable project
In order to ensure that the participative process is solid, it is recommended that the specific roles of the various parties involved are clearly stated, as well as their scope of influence on the project. It is important that those involved are not led to hold the wrong expectations. The scope of participation must be explained at the initial stage of the process. Considering their involvement, it is clear that inhabitants must be accorded significant room for improvement on the project. As a rule, the greater the room for improvement, the greater their involvement and take up will be in the project. The project should not be definitively defined in its initial stage; participation can therefore produce the opposite to desired results (rejection of the project and the participative process).



By establishing an initial participation and communication plan it will be possible to define their objectives at each stage of the project (development, construction, local life). For each stage it will therefore be necessary to specify: • what is expected of inhabitants: opinions, co-productions etc.; • the weight of their contribution; • the means of communication. It is also important that the residents have access to a liaison officer in charge of the process who can provide an link between the contracting authority and themselves. This relay, or coordination role can be played by: – either a representative from the contracting authority who, depending on the size of the project, could be the project head themselves or someone from another service working in the field (local democracy or citizenship for example); – or by an association appointed by the contracting authority (such as the Vauban Forum). Moreover, the participative process is aligned to communications wherever possible, in order to give identity to the project, to gather information on a regular basis and to raise awareness, question and invite the active participation of residents. Communication will play a determining role in making the project visible and attractive and ensuring the clarity of its participative process. Therefore, the following items need to be in place: • an identity to create membership to the neighbourhood: residents can be associated in various ways (competitions, on-line suggestions etc.) to the naming and visual identity of the project; • communication tools which target: – the residents concerned by the participative process, – the local population in general; • various media: creation of a neighbourhood newspaper, town newspaper or mayor’s newsletter, personally addressed letters, local TV, internet, posters, mail shots, site information officer etc.; • information relays at neighbourhood scale and surrounding areas (neighbourhood councils, business or residents associations, leisure centres, schools, markets etc.).

3.2.2 Accessible participation
In order to remove the material obstacles, a wide range of opportunities should be offered in order to optimise the number of participants. Bearing this in mind it is a good idea to think about: – the physical conditions of access to participation: by varying times and locations, to avoid problems of transport; – distance access: through the creation of a dedicated website or a page on the local authority website. Enabling access to the participative process > Keeping the rhythm of participative activities in step with people’s day to day lives:
Sarriguren neighbourhood (Spain). Information point, as activity led during the PRO.MOTION project.

– in the evenings during week days; – during the day on non school-days or week-ends; – during school holidays. > Reaching out wherever possible to the residents concerned through the deployment of information sites and participative activities: – at the town hall or its annexes; – in a recreational setting: taking advantage of festival events such as the European Mobility Week, or those of a slightly more diverse nature such as the Spring festival etc.; – during consultation committees: sourcing a relay within the neighbourhood council, advisory committee, association forums etc.; – within local or neighbourhood relays: leisure centre, school, town hall annexes, public amenities etc.; – within residents’ homes: organisation of coffee morning debates by residents in their homes. Best results will be achieved if a permanent site for participation and information is available within the neighbourhood (citizens’ advice centre, local municipality centre etc.). Management of this post and its missions can be done through a local partnership between the contracting authority and the general contractor and other operators, neighbourhood associations or representatives to define the terms for funding and operation. The option will therefore be available to confer all or part of its missions on the residents’ association(s) representative(s). These missions for participation, promotion, awareness and information will be pertinent both in the initial conception stage and the post-handover stage for supporting changes in behaviour (see section 3.5).


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The experiences of the Vauban project (above), the Muette neighbourhood (Garges-lès-Gonesse) and Hammarby Sjöstad (below) demonstrate the benefits of having an information/awareness centre in terms of increasing inhabitant’s participation.
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Mindful of the need for transparency during the creation of the Hammarby Sjöstad neighbourhood, an environmental information centre (GlashusEtt) was created at the initiative of the Stockholm water company, the town’s building and transport managers and the Nordic Electricity company (Fortum). The role of this centre is to provide information and advice to inhabitants about the technologies being developed in the neighbourhood and the conservation of natural resources. It raises awareness on the “eco-cycle” model of Hammarby where public transport is one of 6 environmental objectives. It offers the public the chance to enjoy exhibitions on an environmental theme, teaching activities as well as find information concerning new technologies and take part in debates. Read the good practice form 13.

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Garges-lès-Gonesse created a dedicated project site as part of their renovation programme for the Muette neighbourhood: “the project house”. Its role was to provide public information on the stage of works as well as a platform for public opinions. The councillors for town planning and project technicians were present on a weekly basis. Communication tools supported this action: – a town newsletter dedicated to the project and the neighbourhood; – the I3F gazette (a social landlord present in the district); – audiovisual documents, neighbourhood memory project; – creation of competitive intelligence files. Read the good practice form 4.

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The BedZED information Centre was first opened during the creation of the bedZeD neighbourhood in Sutton. It is co-run by the Bioregional Development Group and the Bill Dunster architectural practice. It promotes the neighbourhood and provides information concerning its concept and development: – organisation of guided tours; – seminaries; – permanent themed exhibition centre. Read the good practice form 15.

> Managing journeys: provide specific information about the options for access by public transport, on foot or by cycle, propose a shuttle service or organise lift-sharing. > Consider parents problems: propose child-care or learning activities for children in order to leave parents free to take part in meetings. Online information and participation New technologies mean that we now have access, at anytime and anywhere, to information about the project as well as the option to contribute or take part in online discussions. It is also represents a less daunting opportunity for the more timid inhabitants to express themselves. The creation of a dedicated website can itself represent an initial participatory activity with residents when defining the functions of this interactive, collaborative tool: – information about the project and its stage of progress; – online contributions; – social network: forum for exchanges between residents; – joint projects led by residents. The advantage of a website is that it can be developed as a useful tool to: – provide inhabitants with information about local life; – raise awareness of inhabitants about the best travel practices to adopt; – provide access to mobility services in the neighbourhood (car-sharing, lift-sharing, walking bus etc.); – offer a forum for discussions between neighbours on joint projects. The website can be jointly managed by the contracting authority and a residents’ association representative. This method provides a more spontaneous context for associations and inhabitants to express themselves about the project – without prompting or manipulation by the contracting authority.



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Although this was not a neighbourhood creation project (redevelopment operation linked to the arrival of a new tramway), the example of the Coteaux neighbourhood in Mulhouse (France) is interesting in terms of its participative approach – which successfully mobilised inhabitants on the project’s construction. The arrival of a tramway in the neighbourhood represented a major issue for debate, in that many of the inhabitants were against the idea of a station within the neighbourhood as well as the associated changes in traffic. The main cause for concern was the potential risk of accidents involving children playing in public spaces. Fear of accident and concerns over other undesirable side effects caused by trams (noise etc.) were significant obstacles to gaining acceptance for the project. The neighbourhood council was the principal lever for this action. They represented not only the inhabitants but also the associations which were brought together on the “council of associations”. Around 50 individuals were prepared to involve further studies on the possible arrival of a tramway, in particular concerning the question: “should the tramway run through, or alongside the neighbourhood?” In the end, 20 people formed the core of the study group (largely due to problems of availability). Two visits were carried out to Freiburg im breisgau and to Strasbourg to provide first hand experience of the way in which tramway infrastructures can transform the urban landscape. These visits were financed by the town hall from the Town Contract and PIC URBAIN funds. Meetings between local councillors, a school complex and residents from the social districts of Strasbourg were organised with the study group, Town Hall representatives and the SITRAM (public transport authority). Following these visits, the group put together a work plan and timetable for studies between June and September 2000. Several scenarios were thus developed; they were validated by the neighbourhood council and the SITRAM used these blueprints as a basis for work. The SITRAM launched a communications campaign during this period through the implementation of a mobile exhibition within the neighbourhood. Other communication tools were used at each different stage of the project: – creation and publication of a project information update document; – implementation of a communication campaign (using various means: local media, press and radio, posters, mail shots etc.); – neighbourhood newspapers to document the discussions, options and decisions made in terms of transport related consultation.

3.2.3 Acknowledging the value of participation
The involvement of residents and results of their contribution must be acknowledged, that is to say: – treated with respect: Local councillors are present during dialogue and services must give credit to contributions from the public; – which are integrated into the project: The level of integration (policy decisions) should preferably be enthusiastic, contributions are brought to the fore; – recognised: the local population should be made aware of contributions made by residents. It is vital that inhabitants are recognised as being actors in the project – as well as for their expertise at user level. Acknowledgement should also be given to the advantages which the participative process can bring for inhabitants. If dialogue is to be productive, it is vital that all parties involved understand each other. As with the case of a complex sustainable development project, the initial programming of know-how transfer activities is recommended (at project start up). These will help with understanding of the project (or issue) and in making group choices. These activities will also enable residents to acquire knowledge about the project, its issues and the various technical possibilities (existing examples etc). They will also reveal the details which will help them to define their respective position and thus give informed opinions on the project. A series of transfer activities can be implemented with various goals in mind: – since the beginning of the process, to improve comprehension of a neighbourhood with energy efficient transport: explain, why? what does it mean? what are the benefits and commitments involved? – en route, to explain the various possible strategic and technical strategies – as well as their consequences; – after its inauguration, on the theme of “living in an energy efficient neighbourhood” to raise awareness amongst inhabitants about their role in the neighbourhood’s energy efficiency, and the choices and practices which should be adopted in line with the project.


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In all cases, the activities are based as much as possible on solid principles which will facilitate exchanges between the parties involved such as: – experience feedback: explain and demonstrate the feasibility through examples; – site visits: visualise the possible options and their consequences (set the project in the real context of the site and the city); – a study visit outside of the city: enable a representative group of the stakeholders (local councillors, inhabitants, associations, developers etc.) to see the reality of such project in a different context. These activities can be conferred to partners, or outsourced where the necessary competences cannot be provided internally: environmental education actors, communication agencies (see example: Kronsberg), training-awareness consultants etc.
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As part of its kronsberg project, the town of hanover created KUKA, an environmental mediation and communication centre which is run as a limited liability company (51% of its capital is held by the town and 49% by a consortium of local actors, investors, architects etc.). Its role for relay information and mediation between the different actors has led to: – the edition of several publications – prospectus, information bulletins, the neighbourhood’s own magazine as well as information files; – the organisation of debates, discussion, events, seminars and workshops; – offering personalised advice; – carrying out online training sessions and creating visual web supports (posters, exhibitions, slide shows and video clips); – putting in place the procedures for public consultation. Apart from the task of dispensing environmental messages, KUKA acts as an agent for the transmission of good practices and specialises in the field of eco-citizenship, that is to say raising the awareness of residents to a new way of living in accordance with the requirements for sustainable development.

3.2.4 Choosing active modes of participation
Opinions are generally gathered using standard public participation methods – whether this is through workshops or working groups using various techniques (brainstorming, pinboard, world café, consensus conferences etc.). In addition to these more typical activities, the development of an active, recreational programme will constitute an attractive offer which will be accessible to the widest possible public group – including children. It is a good idea to choose methods of public participation which will appeal to inhabitants – on creative or recreational themes, or involving a physical activity.
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Under the framework of its project for the renovation of the Muette neighbourhood, Garges-lès-Gonesse – apart from public meetings and consultation by sector works-

hops – organised a monthly “walking analysis” to identify any dysfunctional aspects of the neighbourhood and hold coordination meetings with its managers. Councillors, technicians and tenants’ associations involved in the project took part in this active diagnosis.

Cultural projects were also put in place to encourage inhabitants to participate in the project: – A Forum Theatre performance about the neighbourhood’s renovation was organised through opinion workshops – aimed at providing a free platform for residents to air their views. Short sketches were performed by inhabitants; – The “Chimney” project, backed by the Commun’art Association was aimed at encouraging ownership of the neighbourhood and therefore support for those who were moving. Giant murals were created by teams from the municipality which were then photographed and printed onto a 150 m long banner, which was then draped over the gable end of a condemned building. Finally, an annual event “En chantier de vous connaître” (this is a pun which substitutes the French word for building site (“chantier”) for “enchanté” meaning “how do you?”) has been organised to raise awareness of inhabitants to the issues of renovation and its consequences. This event is the basis for various activities: – a photo rally: organised around a neighbourhood memory project; – a science rally – based on the renovation of the neighbourhood : field visits to include presentations by students (scientific) of the technical elements of equipment, water and waste management, demolition processes (danger on building sites), presentation of scale models of the neighbourhood etc.; – a street theatre presentation was put together based on real-life situations in the neighbourhood; – show house visits; – planting workshops; – photo competitions on a theme of transformation; – street painting competitions.


Moreover, some forms of collaboration can help to persuade the more reticent inhabitants to have their say and contribute in public (as part of a mural creation team or by taking part in a competition etc.). It can also represent, for the more extrovert neighbourhood «personalities», a great opportunity to take centre stage (forum theatre). Following this, a large number of actions can be put in place: > by proposing artistic activities: – a project bringing together adults and children around the creation of a mural showing different visions of the neighbourhood and public expectations, – the creation of a scale model by local college students, – the creation of specially designed site hoardings; > by organising recreational events: – picnics, coffee morning debates, – organising an inauguration event;
Budapest (Hungary): > by using recreational events: a play idea to enable inhabitants, – a competition amongst the town’s population for naming the neighbourhood, of all ages, to get information or designing its visual identity – this can be the subject of an online vote, on the works in progress and on a works implementation. – role playing or forum theatre: simulation of daily life situations according to planning issues

(e.g. possible conflicts of use on streets); > by using the active modes: – walking or cycling analysis, walking workshops to identify any dysfunctional areas in the neighbourhood or other districts (avoid the pitfalls of previous projects), – field visits to experience and discuss, on site, the realities of town planning (depending on the project’s objectives, this could for example be to an existing home zone or one with no cycle amenities or with newly installed tram stop). Moreover, participative activities can effectively be linked to the town’s programme of public events, in order to benefit from the increased number of people these attract.

3.3 Continuous participation
The ultimate aim of the participative process is to involve residents and local actors in a neighbourhood project, in order to encourage acceptance from its future users (residents, business owners etc.) and ensure that it is adapted to their requirements; it should also be designed to help them choose and adopt travel practices which are coherent with the neighbourhood’s vision. Participative activities often represent the additional advantage of raising awareness amongst a targeted public group; it is therefore important to seize these opportunities to inform inhabitants of the choices to be made about energy efficient journeys.
Once the pre-requisite conditions are in place, public participation and information should be continuous and properly invested, in order to avoid the phenomenon of public detachment from a project which requires time to produce results. The contribution of residents is pertinent at all stages of the project as described in Chapter 2. Public participation should be a part of the development stage of the project.


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3.3.1 Mobilising the key actors right from the start
A meeting upstream of the launch should be convened between local councillors to establish the project’s ambitions as well as its compatibility with the municipal strategy on sustainable development. During the commitment phase, the goal is mainly to inform inhabitants of the energy efficient neighbourhood project and to encourage them to participate. To do this, certain elements should be in place right from the start: • information materials which will trace the project’s development: exhibition, audio-visual materials, website etc.;
Sarriguren Neighbourhood (Spain). Meeting with inhabitants, activity led during the PRO.MOTION project.

• a group of residents and association representatives which can play a consultative role throughout the project (advisory committee, forum, neighbourhood council etc.); • know-how transfer activities which will help with mutual comprehension between all parties in the project. Information on the launch will particularly specify and explain: – the rules of participation; – the policy objectives which are already fixed; – the timetable for deliveries.

3.3.2 Supplementing studies through the input of inhabitants
Inhabitants can effectively contribute to the initial inventory and diverse complementary studies, either through their user experience (actual, perceived) or through the expression of their requirements and expectations (initial projection works) – in other words, what motivates them. Public participation during the study phase can represent several advantages, in several forms: – improving knowledge about existing mobility for example, by carrying out a survey (individual interviews, questionnaires etc.) amongst a representative panel; – understanding and exchanges about the journey requirements of future users in the neighbourhood, through workshops (population, activity, generated flow); – appreciating the current difficulties involved in using alternative transport in the neighbourhood and its surrounding areas, through field visits or walking analysis; – discovering the obstacles to developing alternative modes (habits, perception etc.), through discussion groups as a sounding board for the various points of view of previously unacquainted parties (residents, the town’s political players and technicians); – identifying the motivation of inhabitants: cost, peace of mind, ecology, child safety etc. The contracting authority can also consult with a representative group about impact studies, for example by putting in place an advisory committee. The study phase can run right through to the definition of the project, it is advisable to inform residents and local associations about the project’s progress on a regular basis. The initial inventory should in particular be the subject of a summary communiqué.
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In order to plan and monitor the necessary environmental impact studies for the creation of the Kronsberg neighbourhood, the town of Hanover created an advisory committee composed of targeted groups (including teachers, researchers and representatives from environmental protection associations).

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Governance of the “bonne Caserne” project in grenoble (France) benefited from strong policy support. The local actors were associated in various ways: – reflection group, composed of representatives from the socio-professional environment (residents associations, Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Trades Association, General Council, town planning professionals, social landlords etc.) which met at each main phase of the project; – public meetings and special meetings of neighbourhood unions concerned; – working groups constituted of student parents, residents’ associations and school teachers from the Lucie Aubrac School; – guided visits to the neighbourhood and permanent exhibitions. Read the good practice form 6.



3.3.3 Working with inhabitants towards a strategy for mobility
As of its strategy phase, an energy efficient transport neighbourhood project can be a co-production by local councillors, technicians and inhabitants (as well as other targeted public groups), in order to encourage its uptake. This collective effort will produce a project which is acceptable to its users and which will therefore help to ensure its acceptance in the future. In particular, it will encourage acceptance from: – inhabitants, in terms of their choices for mobility (in coherence with the project); – local councillors and technicians in terms of its realistic objectives, available options and the service and planning requirements necessary for their achievement. Initially, residents can contribute to defining the strategy that will broadly govern the project, its ultimate goals for sustainable development and in particular for energy consumption. Where energy efficient objectives for the project are not already determined by policy directions, these can be defined in association with residents in order to produce shared goals for achievement. However, the approach to this should be educational – by clearly describing the available levers for energy efficiency (buildings, town planning, transport etc.), as well as pragmatic – by illustrating the possible gains using concrete examples of daily life. For example, it is possible to make a comparison between the impacts of commuting to school or work according to the mode employed (private car, public transport, walking, cycling etc.) in terms of energy, CO2, air quality (noise, air, road safety) and household budget. At this stage, the main aim is to obtain a consensus on the project’s ultimate goals, in particular concerning energy efficiency (regulatory level, individual footprint etc.) and the fields in which they are reflected – transport being one. The objectives can subsequently be quantified during the strategy and programming phases using the mobility model. At a later time, the inhabitants can be called upon using a sectoral or thematic approach (mobility, habitat etc.), which will facilitate dialogue between actors. The mobility model (see Chapter 2, section 2.1) is a useful tool when constructing the shared vision of the neighbourhood, in that it takes a sequential view of the questions involved, based on work concerning anticipated usage. Using examples of the daily lives and motivations of each individual, it simplifies the task of including inhabitants in the definition of mobility strategy. The inhabitants are therefore asked to consider the desired usage of mobility, in terms of energy efficiency objectives, in the context of their future neighbourhood. In order to facilitate joint thinking, concrete situations can be suggested, such as: – What are the desired/preferable methods of traffic in the neighbourhood? – Which forms of transport should be used on short journeys? – Which forms of transport for commuting? – How should parking be managed in the neighbourhood? The inhabitants can also be asked about their expectations concerning the use of public spaces (public, common) which will impact on traffic within the neighbourhood. The various possible options should be placed in the context of legal obligations (norms, levels of requirements etc.) and their impacts on energy efficiency – as well as on quality of life. The presence of outside experts and independent associations will be helpful during discussion workshops to help explain the various choices available to the public.

3.3.4 Defining a common project
The inhabitants can then participate during the step of clarify the strategic orientations to define a detailed project. Guidelines of the programme should be defined in partnership with everyone involved (councillors, inhabitants, technical partners etc.) which are coherent with the targeted usage, in terms of the transport offer and mobility management and, where necessary, the technical choices.


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When associating inhabitants, particular attention should be given to: – avoid starting from a pre-defined project: the municipality could possibly initiate dialogue by proposing various situations (or scenarios) for comparison, but they should, wherever possible, avoid influencing or limiting public imagination. They can also draw attention to the legal obligations (disabled access, cycle traffic etc.); – explain the various potential options that would meet user requirements in a manner and with a vocabulary that is accessible to the general public;
Sarriguren Neighbourhood (Spain). public space planning, arrival of heavy goods vehicles, management of parking etc.; Meeting with inhabitants, – use visual aids (graphics, maps, scale models, 3D simulations etc.) to create mental maps, visualise activity led during and compare the different options (maps of local public spaces away from traffic, green routes etc.). the PRO.MOTION project.

– put the subject into a solid context by pointing out the impacts on the daily lives of inhabitants:

In particular, the inhabitants can contribute to a definition of the future offer of transport in terms of the street networks and services, for example: – the regulations for car traffic and parking in the neighbourhood; – the approach to green routes (public highway, clean streets, cycle parking); – access to public transport; – parking which is linked to buildings; – public spaces planning; – mobility services. Working or survey groups offer the chance to confirm the type and scale of the proposed services, by identifying: – potential uses and users; – the possible risks and obstacles which should be anticipated; – the possible levers. The programme should highlight the contributions and motivations of local actors, in particular the inhabitants, in order to bring them to the attention of the project’s future contractors as early as possible. The general contracting team must be closely involved in meetings with local actors and inhabitants, they can moreover be charged with the task of organising communication and public participation during the Project phase. It is crucial that the team take on board the results of previous participative activities during the project phase, in order to have a clear vision of the expectations and motivations of inhabitants. Their participation can take various forms according to the level of participation desired by councillors (or imposed by the law): – inhabitant representative participating in the project selection (steering committee); – meetings for project presentation by the general contracting team; – discussion meetings on the preliminary design, the development and traffic plans (working group, workshop); – inhabitants representative participating in the project validation (steering committee). During the developmental stages, it may prove useful to consider the project’s various options from both a conceptual and practical standpoint, and to use educational tools such as models and 3D simulations. A scale model will in particular enable inhabitants to examine and eventually reposition or adapt “elements” of the project. If the general contractor and contracting authority are present, they will be able to give clear explanations of the positive or negative consequences of the different options. These actions and exchanges will help encourage take up of the project by inhabitants. Giving proper consideration to uses is more likely to lead to a productive and practical dialogue and will help involve residents on the strategy as well as on technical requirements. This will further help the dialogue or negotiation phase, according to the chosen level of public participation for this stage. Besides the proposed development project, it would be pertinent to instigate a dialogue focussed on the city life of the neighbourhood and residents’ involvement either via collaborative projects, or personal commitments.
Sharing our experienceS

Under the framework of the PRO.MOTION project, CRANA and NASURSA worked with the local partners during the implementation of a participative action to associate inhabitants with the questions of mobility in the Sarriguren neighbourhood. 6 workshops were organised bringing together 40 individuals. Resulting exchanges produced additional elements for diagnosis and solutions – through work based on proposition plans and forms. These measures were then studied per transport mode. Read the good practice form 11.



3.3.5 Consolidating acceptance through commitment
Commitment at individual or group level will consolidate support for the project. On the other hand, it does not require the same type of action and impetus. Calling upon user expertise, taking into account the public’s vision for the neighbourhood and giving credit to their contributions are pre-conditions of the project. Supporting collective commitment To inspire “buy in”, it is essential that there is a significant scope for ownership of the project. In addition to this condition, a project owner may, via their participative process: – solicit involvement by creating opportunities for exchange between future residents and by being a source of ideas for collaborative neighbourhood projects which can be managed by the inhabitants; – formalise commitments (contracts). Inhabitants are in the best position to consider their role and potential involvement in neighbourhood life. On these questions, it is obviously essential to ensure the acceptability and uptake of joint projects. Consultation with future inhabitants (or with a representative association of inhabitants) is therefore preferable – even if this means waiting until they have moved in. The object of this will be to involve them in mobility projects as well as those for the use of public spaces which will underpin local life (by excluding omnipresence of the private car right from the start). For more technical information, see section 4.5, Mobility Management in Chapter 4. Working with individual commitment Citizen commitment is expressed by a choice for the use of energy efficient transport modes. Therefore, this also refers to a commitment to future mobility practices (individual/household). Once the neighbourhood project has been handed over, it is vital that mobility management actions are carried out amongst the local population in order to encourage them to use alternative modes and, if possible, abandon use of their own personal cars. This aspect should not be overlooked in that it is the inhabitants who will determine the usage of transport, and therefore the energy efficiency of the neighbourhood. This action is even more pertinent in the sense that moving to a new neighbourhood can also present a change in life-style – including travel practices –, because it represents the opportunity to break old habits and explore new opportunities. Abandoning the use of a private car constitutes a firm commitment by inhabitants. Also, it is essential that the choice is willingly made and formalised (sale or termination of agreement). To work with residents in the use of an energy efficient transport offer, the municipality and its partners should put in place a series of measures to encourage the use of alternative modes and any mobility services which have been created. When doing this it is recommended that the following steps are taken to: – improve knowledge about the offer of alternative transport, in particular by making known any new services; practical information being a pre-requisite for all modal choices; – make sure that residents and visitors can easily understand how the neighbourhood works: its public spaces, roads and paths, parking restrictions etc.; – raise the awareness of adults and children living in the neighbourhood about the new choices on offer and their advantages (individual and common benefits); – encourage use through practical implementation: offer the chance to test services, organise in-town cycle training, walks or rides, walking buses etc. All of these missions can be conferred upon a mobility agency.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

Sharing our experienceS

As part of the creation of the bO01 neighbourhood, the town of Malmö put in place a broad consultation process bringing together public authorities, businesses, inhabitants and associations. In order to encourage and help inhabitants to adopt eco-responsible practices, the Town also implemented environmentally themed educational actions in an effort to accompany residents in their move to switch travel habits. They were put in place by the mobility agency (Mobility Office) created by the Malmö town hall. Read the good practice form 9.

Sharing our experienceS

During the Caserne de bonne neighbourhood project in Grenoble, operation “Moth” was organised as part of an information campaign about illegal overnight parking on streets (leaflets containing details). Over a period of 5 weeks, a campaign was launched to inform local residents about cheap night rates in existing car parks (from 76 cts to 2.29 euros per night). “Moth” stickers were therefore applied to the windscreens of illegally/inconveniently parked cars (on crossings and pavements etc.). This campaign is reinstated at the start of every summer season and at the beginning of school term. With a rise of 20 to 25% in the use of existing car parks, the impact of this campaign is obvious. By dint of its “voluntary” character – this campaign is particularly well received by the public.

Read the good practice form 6.

For more technical information, see the Parking and Mobility Management sections (4.2 and 4.5) in Chapter 4. See the part concerning the participative process in the Mobility and New Neighbourhoods tool.



Technical 4. recommendations
This last chapter concludes with the technical requirements for optimising integration of mobility into the various domains of the actions concerned. It presents a more detailed picture of the preferred planning aspects and technical solutions. A sectoral approach is the preferred method here in order to facilitate, on the one hand, collaboration between the project head and the various other key players and services and, on the other hand, to ensure full benefit from the core skills of each individual (developers, town planners, architects, road engineers etc.). The chapter comprises 5 sectoral headings: 1. Town planning; 2. buildings; 3. Public roadways; 4. Alternative transports; 5. Mobility management. These 5 headings have been developed in the project manager’s help tool Mobility and New Neighbourhoods in the form of questions and keys to understanding.

Urban 4.1 planning
4.1.1 Choosing a site 4.1.2 Density and functional diversity 4.1.3 Urban pattern 4.1.4 Public spaces

Parking allocated 4.2 to buildings
4.2.1 Car parking 4.2.2 Cycle parking

Road networks 4.3 and traffic
4.3.1 Organisation of traffic 4.3.2 Traffic calming 4.3.3 easy traffic for active modes 4.3.4 Intelligent on-street parking

The development 4.4 of alternative transport
4.4.1 Public transport offer 4.4.2 Mobility services

Mobility 4.5 management
4.5.1 Information and awareness 4.5.2 Mobility advice 4.5.3 Organisation and commitment of inhabitants

4.1 Urban planning
There is a clear inter-operability between town planning and travelling. The urban shape directly influences transport practices and, in return, the organisation of travel in the sector affects the urban structure of a city.

4.1.1 Choosing a site
If we are to encourage optimal use of alternative modes within a neighbourhood project, then consideration must be given to choice of location – well before the conception stage. An energy efficient neighbourhood is developed in continuity with the urban fabric (in particular for the renewal of wasteland) in order to tackle urban sprawl (increasing distances) and benefit from the proximity of pre-existing activities in the city and of neighbourhoods that offer complementary services (15 mins max by cycle and 20 mins on foot). Energy-efficient town planning favours the localisation of urban zones and continuing urban development/renewal (rehabilitation, interstitial zones, extending a pre-existing core) and discourages incursions into natural/agricultural zones. Sites are chosen, where this is possible (land availability), in the proximity of existing public transport networks (station, hub, stop). This proximity will facilitate connection to the existing network (reduce costs) and favour their use by residents – and more generally the uptake of multi-modal choices.

4.1.2 Density and functional diversity
Residential density is a condition which will ensure the viability of future transport services. The following markers should be useful9: – for small towns and market town extensions: 20 or 25 dwellings/hectares (dwe/ha) (roads and public spaces included); – in peri-urban zones: 30 – 40 dwe/ha; – in urban districts 45-50 dwe/ha; – and in proximity of public transport: up to 70 – 90 dwe/ha. To avoid creating dormitory towns, the project must also generate employment in different sectors (services, retail, government, industry) which will then provide a good indicator of the areas’ social and functional diversity. Comparison with the experiences studied (good practices, see table below) highlights the following employment densities: – very similar inhabitant per job ratios of 0.3 – 0.4; – more varied job per inhabitant ratios of 1 job for 2.5 to 8 inhabitants; – and jobs per hectare of 16 to 87 jobs/ha. Modal choices will be particularly influenced by the urban functions of the neighbourhood. Functional diversity is an indispensable condition for “walkable” urban development. It reduces the need for motorised journeys by reducing the distances which need to be covered. Diversifying the neighbourhood’s functions, by placing shops, services, residential zones and offices side by side, contributes to the development of those lifestyles which are adapted to the use of green modes (such as walking or cycling). They are, therefore the key elements of an energy efficient development programme.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

Apart from the residential aspects, these factors will bring diversity of usage/functions to the neighbourhood’s buildings : – a variety of services and commercial activities to satisfy the essential requirements of inhabitants and visitors (food and other daily purchases, restaurants etc.); – public establishments which meet the needs of local life: nursery, school, colleges, government offices etc.; – cultural spaces: theatre, exhibition centre etc. ; – leisure spaces, for sporting activities and relaxation: parks, squares, stadiums etc. Thought should be given to the attractiveness of the neighbourhood, by: – taking into account the neighbourhood’s particular character when planning commercial zones (numbers of children, the elderly, families, workers etc.); – considering the possibility of a commercial speciality; – by the implantation of an establishment which includes the town in its catchment area; – by creating mixed use/function within buildings (avoid concentrating all shops in the same place, balancing their presence in the neighbourhood); – creating jobs. The presence of diverse activities and users will guarantee the predominance of local life and local mobility in the neighbourhood.


example of functional diversity and ratio of workers in various european neighbourhoods
Nb OF jObS



• 1.7 ha • 82 dwellings (250 inhabitants) • 2 500 m2 of commercial premises (in particular one café and one restaurant) and offices • Public amenities: nursery, sports centre, medical centre, 1 social club, village hall • village green and private outside spaces • 23 ha • 2 200 dwellings (6 000 inhabitants) • 2 800 m2 of commercial premises • 2 500 m2 of offices and services • Public amenities: 2 schools, 1 dance studio, 1 sports centre, 1 multi-use centre (babies care, seniors, associations), project for an association in support of local farms • 4.5 ha gardens • 70 ha • 3 000 homes delivered (6 300 inhabitants, 15 000 at full term) • Public amenities: Child day care centre, school, sports hall, theatre, 15 municipal rooms, neighbourhood centre, medical centre • Shops, offices, bank, direct sales of local farm organic products, arts centre • Numerous green spaces • 38 ha • 2 000 dwellings (5 000 inhabitants) • 4 ha industrial zone (small and medium sized businesses, tradesmen) • Several schools and sporting amenities: elementary school, nursery, playgrounds, neighbourhood centre • Shops • Numerous public green spaces • 200 ha • 8 000 dwellings (15 000 inhabitants, 30 000 at full term) • Numerous shops and services on ground floor level in residential blocks: hairdressers, beauty salon, laundry, restaurants, chemists, estate agencies, post office, book shops etc. • Public amenities: schools and playgrounds, centre for the elderly, library, theatre workshops and concert hall • Green spaces, jogging tracks, sports fields

100 employees Representing: 1 employee for 2.5 inhabitants 0.4 job per inhabitant 59 jobs/ha 2 000 jobs Representing: 1 employee for 3 inhabitants 0.3 jobs per inhabitant 87 jobs/ha



2 500 jobs Representing: 1 employee for 2.5 inhabitants, 6 by full term 0.4 jobs per inhabitant 36 jobs/ha 600 jobs Representing: 1 employee for 8 inhabitants 0.12 job per inhabitant 16 jobs/ha


Hammarby Sjöstad

8 000 employees Representing: 1 employee for 1.9 inhabitants, 3.8 by full term 0.5 job per inhabitant and 0.27 at full term 40 jobs/ha

Sources: Sustainable Neighbourhoods in Europe, IMbE-ARENE, 2005; Auxilia for Ginko.

9.Source: For Sustainable Neighbourhoods and Small Towns, ARPE, 2009 (Guide).


4.1.3 Urban pattern
Apart from the conception of buildings and public roadways, it is important that consideration of the desired urban pattern happens upstream; that is to say thought needs to be given to the internal meshing of a neighbourhood which is defined by land parcels, public spaces (village green, square etc.) and the street network. The urban pattern will in effect have a strong influence over the usage and choice of mobility as well as the urban setting. At neighbourhood scale, the pattern’s permeability must be considered if there is to be a high level of pedestrian and cycle accessibility. In other words, pedestrian paths and cycle routes must form the main threads of the neighbourhood pattern. However, the neighbourhood’s pattern will be strongly governed by the size of parcels and buildings. Therefore, parcels should preferably be less than 300 m in length if they are to be easily adapted for pedestrian and cycle use. Apart from its traffic function, it is important to think about the effect of the urban pattern (forecasting exercises) on the ambiance of public spaces, their usage (relaxation, games, sports etc.) as well as on the spaces dedicated for use by residents and children etc. The urban pattern should be compatible with expected usage – particularly concerning the sizing of street networks.

4.1.4 Public spaces
The quality of public spaces is a determining factor in encouraging a switch to active modes. Pedestrians and cyclists are in effect very sensitive to the environmental quality of the spaces they live in and travel through.
Play areas for children, The Muette neighbourhood, Garges-lès-Gonesse (France).

Planning of these spaces (outside of traffic) should be defined and integrated into the programme in order to be in harmony with the desired usage. As part of this the programme should indicate: – their functions; – their minimum surface area; – a list of qualitative requirements (landscape quality, disabled access, rest areas, greenery, lighting, access for cyclists etc.). It is important to: – define one or several functions for all public spaces (relaxation, culture, sport, strolling etc.); – define the planning regulations on spaces adjacent to buildings according to type (house, apartment block, old people’s home etc.); – make provision for dedicated spaces for children’s games, in particular areas which allow for physical activities or learning to ride bikes – especially where the public street network has not done so; – make provision for spaces which will facilitate, or prompt social activities amongst inhabitants. Communal public spaces should in particular be included (gardens, allotments, water installations, exhibition areas etc.); – imagine oneself as the user and ask questions about the aspects of public spaces: their aesthetics, agreeability, safety, comfort (a bench to sit for a while) etc. Care should be taken to ensure that the urban pattern and public spaces are coherent with the desired urban setting. It could be the case that inhabitants would like to establish the collective ownership of some public spaces (e.g. for a communal garden). Finally, some spaces, particularly green spaces and those for socialising or outdoor playing can be developed after residents have moved in – meaning that they can have input into the functions and usage allocated.

Play areas for children, Vauban neighbourhood, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany).


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

4.2 Parking allocated to buildings
Parking is in effect a determining factor in private car use, as it is with cycles. An energy efficient neighbourhood will seek to discourage car ownership and use by proposing a limited number of spaces. On the other hand, it will try to encourage cycle use through the implementation of quantitive and qualitative requirements for cycle parking.

Vauban neighbourhood, Freiburg im Breisgau.

4.2.1 Car parking
Car parking in new buildings is subject to different regulations in different European countries. The recommendations contained in this guide are based on defining pro-active parking norms which the contracting authority can integrate by its own regulatory authority (norms applying to the zone to be developed, revision of the urban development plan or habitat plan etc.). Targeting dissuasive ratios Parking requirements can be estimated using the chosen mobility model (modal share of the car and two wheeled motorised vehicles). Different possible scenarios could be suggested to highlight the relationship between mobility, parking and cost and shed light on the choices. Of course, the capacity to reduce the offer of parking in buildings is strongly affected by the offer of alternative transport. Therefore in zones where public transport services are good, it would be advisable to stipulate reductions or maximum ratios of car parking allocated to new buildings. For example, the referenced neighbourhoods in Europe adopted ratios from 0.2 to 1 place per dwelling according to urban context.
examples of neighbourhood ratios for energy efficient objectives: • Limeil-brévannes (Temps durables): less than 1 place per dwelling • Saint-Ouen (Docks): 0.7 place per dwelling • Grenoble (Caserne de bonne): from 0.8 to 0.6 place per dwelling • Malmö (bO01): 0.7 place per dwelling • Freiburg (vauban): Approx. 0.14 place per potential user (50 places fro 250 residents and 100 employees) • Germany (bremen, Hanover, Hamburg): up to 0.2 – 0.5 place per dwelling

The ratios for other types of constructions (schools, offices etc.) should be established according to the head-counts involved and targeted usage. Therefore, if the model specifies 30% of cars for work, a company with 100 employees will be allocated 30 spaces. The more these ratios are pro-active, the more it will be necessary to rely on an alternative, attractive offer and to involve inhabitants in the project. For further information on the terms of individual commitments, see the Mobility Management heading (section 4.5). Pooling resources Car parks for different buildings (homes, businesses, shopping centres etc.) can be regrouped into one or several surface or multi-storey car parks (these are less expensive than underground). They should preferably be at some distance from homes (50-200 m) in order to make car use less simple and just as attractive as using the bus or cycling. In some cases, use of a single car park is shared between residents (night) and workers (day) within the area. This solution should be studied whilst keeping in mind the need to discourage car use, and should be combined with restrictions on the number of places. The installation of charging terminals for electric vehicles can also be envisaged.
Sharing our experienceS

In the Vauban neighbourhood in Freiburg im breisgau, Germany, resident parking has been pooled and centralised at a single site – away from dwellings and fitted with solar panels. Shared cars are also available to residents. Read the good practice form 3.



Reserving places for car-sharers Whatever the type of car-sharing in view (see Mobility services, section 4.4.2), its success will depend on the simplicity of access to parking spaces. Reserved spaces for shared cars in residential car parks can be integrated into the programme – together with the creation of the service itself. Where the number of spaces is restricted, shared cars can be given priority in their allocation. When integrated at the conception stage of a car park, this will reduce the need to create spaces and therefore the costs involved. When car-sharing has been directly organised between members of the public, the places which are freed-up can be reconverted or pooled with other facilities (depending on negotiations with residents).

4.2.2 Cycle parking
As with the car, an energy efficient neighbourhood needs to be pro-active concerning cycle parking in new buildings. The programme should target: – minimum ratios per construction type ; – standards of quality. Targeting incentive ratios The requirements for cycle parking can be estimated using the chosen mobility model (modal share of the cycle). Different possible scenarios could be suggested to compare the differences in cost and shed light on the choices. Ultimately, the ratios proposed for the neighbourhood must be ambitious in comparison with the rest of the city. It is advised that CERTU (Centre for studies on networks, transport, urban development and public construction) recommendations should be applied and even higher if there is a favourable context. CERTU recommends the following ratios per construction type: • dwelling: – room or studio: 0.5 to 1 place per dwelling, – studio or 1 bed: 0.5 to 1 place per dwelling, – two bed: 0.5 to 1.5 place per dwelling, – 3 bed: 0.5 to 2 places per dwelling, – 4 bed and over: 2 to 2.5 places per dwelling; • school establishment: – primary schools: 1 place for 8 to 12 students, – secondary schools and colleges: 1 place for 3 to 5 students, – universities: 1 place for 5 to 8 students; • workplaces: – 1 place for 5 employees based on a targeted modal share of 20%, – 1 place for 50 to 100 m2 surface of commercial use. Creating a good offer of cycle parking Apart from the ratios, quality requirements must be imposed for long stay parking (daily or longer for residents). Particular attention should be given to the implementation of:
Vauban neighbourhood, Freiburg im Breisgau.

– ground floor location; – solid fixing points (avoid suspension systems, preference for 2 fixing points); – conditions of access: Avoid stairs, install ramps where necessary, adapt the width of access lifts and doors where necessary, limit the number of access doors etc.; – lighting conditions: The quality of cycle parking will determine ease of use and safety of equipment – and therefore usage! – security conditions: Access should be limited to users of the building (residents, workers etc.), possible use of CCTV in the parking area. The number and the quality of cycle places, both in residences and other centres of activity will be decisive factors in cycle use by people in the neighbourhood. These measures should be accompanied by a street design which is adapted to active modes.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

4.3 Road networks and traffic
The neighbourhood represents “par excellence” the scale at which are used short distance modes such as walking and cycling combined with public transport for longer journeys. An energy efficient neighbourhood will seek to discourage the use of the private car and encourage the use of green routes through the implementation of a properly adapted street network and traffic calming.
In order to design a street network for energy efficient usage, the project must organise traffic routes and a street hierarchy which will calm traffic; one which is pedestrian and cycle friendly and restrictive for car users.

4.3.1 Organisation of traffic
The configuration of the street network and rules for traffic are determining factors in the choices for mobility usage. A neighbourhood which only has one access road is often inaccessible and badly connected to the rest of the town. It is far better to open up connections between the neighbourhood and the town, both through the configuration of buildings and the communicating roads. The project should comprise a traffic plan or outline to define the rules for driving in the neighbourhood and on the routes which connect it to surrounding areas. The traffic plan/outline will define how people travel within the neighbourhood by: – ranking the public roadways: qualifying the street network according to its primary function (transit, access, local life) by setting the speed limits (50 kph roads, 30 kph roads or zones, 20 kph roads or zones etc.); – specifying the planning issues: sharing the public roadways, cycle paths, bus and tram lines etc.; – in particular by envisaging the provision of amenities and activities in the neighbourhood: school, shops, sports or cultural facilities etc. The traffic plan will also define links to the town which should be put in place, in particular: – the inter-neighbourhood links which can be walked or cycled; – links to neighbouring urban centres; – journeys to public transport stations/stops; – the inter-operation of supra-communal cycle routes to encourage the use of this mode for journeys outside of the neighbourhood. For all these links, the plan will give an indication of the infrastructure required to connect the district to the existing cycle and pedestrian routes. The neighbourhood’s traffic plan will facilitate the integration of neighbourhood routes into the city’s cycle and pedestrian plans/schemes. Finally, this plan will comprise a blueprint for pedestrian and cycle route road markings for the whole neighbourhood. Road markings are the first promotional step in raising awareness amongst inhabitants about a new network. This involves the provision of directional signage for local amenities: – schools (possible bus, pedestrian or cycle routes) and other teaching establishments; – shops and services, public amenities; – transport hubs (to be reached using active modes); – green spaces or leisure areas (tourist trails). Cycle parking or lift and car-sharing car parks can also be signed in order to help with their visibility.



4.3.2 Traffic calming
Home zone in Freiburg im Breisgau.

Traffic calming – that is to say reducing its speed through the implementation of specific street design, is a determining factor in the use of active modes and quality of life. The choice of speed restrictions has a powerful influence on urban setting, the use of active modes and their safety, children’s outdoor games and the social connection of residents in the neighbourhood (see Chapter 1, section 1.2.2). Traffic calming measures are employed in order to render the streets less “car-friendly” and therefore more adapted to the use of green modes. As a result of these, the roads will be less attractive to drivers (speed restrictions, interruption of direct routes, solid obstructions, presence of pedestrians on the road or children playing etc.). Home zones (5 to 20 kph) and zones 30 (30 kph) are highly recommended for residential areas. Both these measures can be combined in the same area to create street networks which are best adapted to the desired usage and requirements. Home zones, which are becoming increasingly widespread throughout Europe, make provision for shared space, often with a single level roadway (no pavement, eventually traffic island on each sides of the street) less encumbered by parked cars, and which have speed restrictions (5 to 20 kph according to law in force in each country). To take some examples: • the Caserne neighbourhood in Bonne (France) opted for the application of a 30 kph zone across the whole district; • the Ginko neighbourhood (France) has chosen to implement a home zone within a 30 kph zone; • and, finally, the Vauban neighbourhood (Germany) has imposed 30 kph restrictions on its main roads as well as limiting its residential roads to 5 kph (home zones). To encourage the practice of calm, safe driving, the progressive implementation of speed restrictions is recommended (20 kph > 30 kph > 50 kph etc). For example, if the neighbourhood is classed as a home zone (5-20 kph), it is recommended that the adjacent roads are limited to 30 kph and not 50 kph.
FIgURe 7. example

of traffic calming within a neighbourhood

50 kph Street 30 kph Street 20 kph Street Pedestrian path and walking-cycles path

Traffic restriction
Pedestrian paths between parcels in Freiburg im Breisgau.

Traffic of motorised vehicles (other than public transport) can be restricted on some roads, where these are of a strictly residential character. In order to limit transiting traffic, various restrictive practices are possible: – Traffic is reserved for use by inhabitants only in the Kronsberg neighbourhood – where driving in residential areas is forbidden to non-residents; – Driving is forbidden on all or part of a neighbourhood (Temps durables in Limeil-Brévannes). In the BO01 district this represents most of the area and for the Camp Countal eco-neighbourhood, some parcels. Streets are therefore reserved for pedestrians and cyclists and open to public transport (where required) and emergency vehicles.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

4.3.3 easy traffic for active modes
The internal street network of a neighbourhood should be accessible to pedestrians, cyclists and other non-motorised users (roller blades/skates, scooters etc.). A high quality pedestrian network The pedestrian network in a neighbourhood covers all accessible pedestrian routes (pavements, paths, public spaces etc.). In order to guarantee access for all and a good level of comfort, the entire street network and pedestrian pathways need to have access for people with reduced mobility. Pedestrian amenities should be designed and put in place according to the required standards (comfort, safety etc.): – minimum unencumbered width (over and above legal obligations, e.g. 1.4 m in France required by the 2005 law); – resurfacing and levelling of pavements (to remove differences in road/pavement heights); – tactile paving or audible pedestrian traffic lights at crossings for the visually impaired; – visibility on crossings, in particular of children; – levelling of pavements at bus stops. A good quality pedestrian network which is safe, continuous and comfortable constitutes an important element in the quality of life. The presence of pedestrians on the streets and in public places makes a big contribution to the vibrancy and security of neighbourhood life. An efficient cycle network The choice for traffic calming will greatly help the traffic of green modes in the neighbourhood, by favouring the design for shared streets and multi-modal use – without implanting cycle-specific amenities (other than two-way cycle lanes). Where traffic calming measures are not in place, the neighbourhood street network (or at least those leading to amenities in the neighbourhood) should constitute a continuous thread of direct, safe routes for cyclists. The network should respond to requirements for the safety and comfort of its users. Cyclist amenities are implemented according to the standardised quality requirements (speed, comfort and safety): – directness and continuity of cycle routes; – widespread implementation of two-way cycle lanes in one way streets; – choice of surfaces; – choice of design and amenities: cycle lanes or paths, bicycle boxes etc.; – road safety: visibility on crossings, 50 cm safety margins between parked cars and cycle lanes (for opening car doors); – cycle friendly road markings. The use of two-way cycle lanes on one way streets is a useful tool in the development of cycle networks which favour cycle use by providing shorter or more direct routes. The issues of design and implementation are less weighty and can be varied according the physical constraints imposed by the street: – a cycle lane (physically separated); – a cycle path (marked on the road surface); – a shared space (without boundaries, cycle pictogram road marking); – a bus-cycle lane… Apart from roadway, cycling and/or walking network can be complemented by routes dedicated to pedestrians and/or cyclists (without motorized traffic): – to offer short cuts or areas for strolling and leisure pursuits. (For example: a pedestrian and cycling paths, green routes, green spaces etc.); – to encourage social contact and appropriation of public areas for private/collective use (public/private gardening spaces or those for meeting, relaxing or playing games etc.). A safe and convenient cycling network offers an efficient alternative to substitute for motorized trips under 8 km which are therefore a significant part of urban travels.



4.3.4 Intelligent on-street parking
An important increase in the number of cars during the second half of the 20th century has caused the progressive growth in the requirement for parking spaces. These have, in the main, been to the detriment of pedestrians and cyclists, public spaces and diversity of un-built areas (gardens have disappeared to make way for car parks). However, a number of studies have shown that the choice for car ownership is mainly determined by the availability and cost of parking. An energy efficient neighbourhood will attempt to redress this imbalance by the implementation of cycle parking. However, the sensitive question of parking cannot be settled at neighbourhood scale without recourse to the more global policies at local authority or regional scale (new build ratios, synchronisation of parking fees, relay parks, station car parks etc.). Several levers have been proposed in this guide which will make it possible to define a more reasonable offer of parking for cycles and cars (as well as two-wheeled motor vehicles). A similar approach In both cases, the offer of parking is defined by taking into account the mobility model, (targeted modal split) and the requirements of the various neighbourhood users (particularities). knowledge of the neighbourhood’s functions is crucial, as is a study of the main traffic generating hubs in the area (or its close proximity), if we are to anticipate parking requirements. The offer of on-street parking should be defined in accordance with: – the expected modal split (car, cycle, lift-sharing etc.) for diverse purposes (school, work, local shopping etc.); – residents’ requirements (consultation); – and their options for parking (ratios within buildings). Therefore the number of jobs or students or visitors to public buildings will determine, based on modal split, the best adapted ratios for the targeted usage (deductions of offers in buildings). The offer of street parking should be seen as complementary to that which is offered for buildings and used primarily to make up any shortfall: – when they do not reach the objectives for modal split; – when they do not meet the requirements for all usage: for example, a business which may have enough places for staff but none for customers. Where this is possible, consultation with representatives of a neighbourhood’s existing or future activities is vital in order to learn about their requirements and discuss the proposed offer of street parking.
Parking places can be gathered at entrances or inside the neighbourhood.

An offer which discourages car ownership If the question of car parking cannot be managed at purely neighbourhood scale, various measures can however be implemented in order to propose a solution which will meet requirements without provoking increased use. Local authority power over street parking can permit several actions: – restricting the number of parking spaces; – locating car parking away from the living areas; – limiting the length of time allowed (rotational parking for business customers); – charging fees for parking; – reserving spaces for lift or car-sharing schemes; – encouraging residents’ parking (special tariffs), where the number of household spaces allocated are insufficient. Restricting the number of spaces and distancing their location To free up public spaces for other use (games, sports, gardening, walking, meeting places, cycle parks etc.), the choice can be made to restrict the offer of car parking, particularly in residential streets. This could be: – partial restriction: As with home zones where parking can be considerably reduced when a «car-free neighbourhood» project is shared with inhabitants (low level of motorisation) and those who have cars have somewhere to park; – total restriction: as with car-free neighbourhoods (see Mobility management, section 4.5). The programme can choose to regroup all or part of the street places into one central surface area, in order to leave the streets unencumbered for walking or cycling and to promote local life. It is therefore advisable to ascertain at what level this will be accepted by inhabitants.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

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bremen, in Germany implemented “Mobilpunkt”, an urban location comprising a public transport stop, a car-sharing station, taxis and number of cycle parking spaces together with a digital information terminal. Some neighbourhoods have decided to implement car-sharing and thus reduce (by one third) the construction of underground car parks. Car-sharing is showing results: • over 3 100 members, of which one third have joint public transport membership; • 700 private cars replaced; • approx. 9% of users no longer own their own car; • a reduction of approx. 800 tonnes of CO2 (analysis based on life span). Sources: www.managenergy.net/products/R465.htm CERTU study reports: Car-sharing and Lift-sharing in France and Europe.

Encouraging other usage Where the project has made provision for a car-sharing service organised by a specialist operator (see section 4.4.2), it should be integrated into the programme in order to ensure the provision of easily accessible parking on the public streets. The city will encourage and facilitate installation by an operator by providing places. Implementing lift-sharing parking places constitutes a mean for raising awareness, encouraging and facilitating lift-sharing, on condition that parking is visible on the streets. In the same way, access to on-street charging terminals for electric vehicles will encourage their use. As is can be seen in Mobilpunkt in Bremen (Germany), these different parking spaces can be regrouped in order to pool space, centralise services and give them better visibility. Finally, the provision of delivery bays should be made through consultation with local shops and businesses – particularly in terms of their location. Minimum quotas can be defined in the programme which can be adjusted in accordance to the requirements of local life, and in consultation with the parties involved. The project can also study the possible advantages of providing small urban logistics platforms for handling the consolidation and breaking bulk of the flow of goods, as well as final deliveries using clean vehicles (electric vehicles, three-wheeled electric cycles etc.). A specialist, selected by a project tender process, will be responsible for its implementation and management in accordance with clauses in the schedule of specifications – as well as participate in any monitoring and evaluation activities. This type of platform has already been put in place in Paris (France). An incentive offer for cycles As with the car, cycle parking is a determining factor for its use. On the other hand, there is a greater need to adapt parking to cycle usage. Different categories of usage and users will require different offers of parking: – cycle racks on streets for short periods – e.g. visitors to amenities (schools, sports centres etc.) and local shops (clients); – cycle parks or garages, preferably lit and sheltered or secured, for longer stays (visits, administrative errands etc.) or to provide spaces for those who do not have the offer of a secure overnight site within their own residences (buildings) or on business premises for employees; – garages which are locked or guarded, in particular for stays at public transport stations in partnership with the local transport authority and the transport operators. Cycle racks or other means of street parking should be sited close to public transport and public amenities, shops, services and residential areas. The number of places are estimated and situated according to requirements (meetings, consultation workshops) and the desired modal share of the cycle for a particular motive. For example, a 10% modal share for visitors to an establishment (average of 300 visitors per day) will involve the creation of 30 places on the street for visitors (short stay parking). The parking offer will be decisive in encouraging daily cycle use.



4.4 The development of alternative transport
The neighbourhood project must obviously be connected to the existing offer; but it should also develop additional offers adapted to the neighbourhood’s specific requirements. Journeys into town should be easy to make using alternative modes to the private car.

4.4.1 Public transport offer
An energy efficient neighbourhood – and examples will bear this out – relies on an excellent public transport service. Public transport is an essential partner for the alternative modes – together they will ensure that a neighbourhood is connected to the town, and the outside world. However, not all local authorities have control over transport (local transport authorities). They therefore have different room for manoeuvre when developing public transport networks and handling integrated planning. Local transport authorities can thus: – connect the neighbourhood to the existing network by creating/extending/modifying routes (new lines, new stops, new routes); – improve the quality of service on an existing network to include the needs of a future neighbourhood (increase frequency, volume adapted to needs, connections etc.). Where direct intervention is not possible, local authorities should initiate discussions well upstream of the project to negotiate the creation or improvement of the offer with the local transport authority and the operators concerned (creation or modification of route, quality of service).
Sharing our experienceS

• During the conception of the Vauban neighbourhood in Freiburg, a tramline extension to the centre of town was planned. • The Hammarby Sjöstad neighbourhood in Stockholm developed an attractive offer of public transport comprising the tramway, ferries to the centre of town as well as bio-fuel or hybrid buses. Inhabitants are on average 500 m away from stations/stops. • The eco-neighbourhood of ZAC Confluences in Lyon is built around one of the town’s central stations (Lyon Perrache), and is also served by the tramway. • The ginko neighbourhood in bordeaux is situated near tram stops – meaning that each dwelling is less than 300 m from a station. • Access to the Andromède district in blagnac was conceived through links to an existing tramway. 80% of inhabitants should live less than 400 m from a tram stop. • Inhabitants in the Camp Countal district will be an average of 5 minutes walk from buses to the town’s centre. • Inhabitants in the bO01 neighbourhood in Malmö live 300 m from bus stops. Read the good practice forms 1, 2, 3, 9, 12, 13.

Ideally, in order to represent a viable alternative to the private motor vehicle, the public transport offer should propose links which cannot be covered using other green modes. In addition, these route modifications should ensure passenger flow towards: – the local network, in order to provide inter-neighbourhood links and access to the local transport hubs; – the supra-communal network in order to provide inter-urban or regional links. One of the common characteristics amongst the projects studied is the proximity of stations to residential areas. Experience therefore indicates that the recommended distance between housing units and existing (or new) stations should be between 300 and 500 m maximum (representing approx. an average of 5-10 mins on foot). It should be evident that planning for neighbourhoods and transport infrastructures should, where possible, be synchronised (land availability, construction timetables etc.).


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

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The kronsberg neighbourhood (hanover) is a good example of an integrated planning process. To guarantee the high quality of accessibility for public transport, all the infrastructures necessary for neighbourhood life (new station, tramway, train, underground, routes) were programmed and ready for use by the time that the first residents arrived. Their conception required the implementation of an integrated planning process between 1993 and 2000. Three new tram stops, at a maximum of 600 meters from housing units, mean that residents in Kronsberg can get to town in 17 minutes. They also have the option of a bus route which provides other connections. Read the good practice form 7.

In general, the necessary conditions for good public transport are: – its proximity to inhabitants (stops less than 300 m – 500 m from dwellings); – regular connections to main, direct services; – higher and regular frequencies; – scope adapted to requirements (evening and weekend services); – services on time and no hold-ups due to badly parked cars; – the comfort and cleanliness of vehicles which are designed/adapted for people with reduced mobility; – car and cycle parks for those who commute to public transport stops/stations; – customer services (sales and information). The performance of public road transport is strongly influenced by the conditions of private car traffic. Road congestion and badly parked vehicles are major obstacles to keeping public transport running on time. Street design can include dedicated bus lanes or prescribe restrictive measures for traffic and parking (prevention/repression of illegal parking etc.). The quality and accessibility of public transport stops are, at neighbourhood scale, very important elements in the quality of services to regular users: – intelligent location of stops (related to residential sectors and neighbourhood activities); – road markings for access roads to stops and stations; – safe, straightforward access to stops (no detours, safe routes, well lit etc.); – bus/tram shelters, seating, timetable information systems (preferably real time). The attractiveness of the offer will not be sufficient in itself to ensure systematic use of public transport – but it remains a necessary condition.

4.4.2 Mobility services
Organisation of lift-sharing for companies by the Grand Lyon (France).

In addition to public transport, the municipality has wide room for manoeuvre when developing complementary mobility services. Lift-sharing The city has several options for encouraging the development of lift-sharing at neighbourhood scale: – promoting the lift-sharing website of the municipality (where this exists); – promoting other existing websites; – proposing the creation of a system at neighbourhood scale to inhabitants and employers (for example using a web database) – if numbers are sufficient. In all cases, this measure should: – be based on common requirements (inhabitants, employees, students etc.); – be accompanied by dedicated lift-sharing parks and a targeted information and promotional campaign of the service. Lift-sharing can reduce the number of motorised journeys as well as encourage social cohesion and good citizenship amongst inhabitants. Car-sharing Municipalities can call upon car-sharing operators, or encourage and facilitate their installation (on street parking spaces and reserved places in car parks). If there is provision for this option in the project, it should be integrated into the programme in order to ensure its visibility on the streets (and in some buildings depending on users) and that the targeted public has been properly informed of its existence. Either the city will already have such a service in the region (commercial operator, association, co-operative etc) and will extend stations into the new neighbourhood, or the new neighbourhood could be a pilot site for the launch of a new service.


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An innovative car-sharing system (gas or electric vehicles) was put in place in Hammarby Sjöstad. It is the result of competitive tendering by several petrol companies for the implantation of a service station and the organisation of a car-sharing system. In exchange for this best offer, Statoil has the monopoly on fuel sales from the only petrol station implanted on the site. Statoil is currently managing this system which is open to everyone living in Hammarby Sjöstad. The best parking places throughout the neighbourhood are permanently reserved for the scheme. In 2004, 16 cars were in service and already attracting use by 10% of families. Read the good practice form 13.

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The “Car Frei” (car-free) Association which brings together 1 500 members, manages a car-sharing system for residents in the Vauban Neighbourhood in Freiburg. It purchases one car for 20 members, which represents approximately 63 cars. These vehicles are parked in communal car parks – away from residences. Read the good practice form 3.

In bedZeD in Sutton, 3 cars (LPG, electric) are available to 35 resident members of the car-sharing service (or 14% of residents, 1 car for 12 inhabitants). Read the good practice form 15.

Services for cyclists Various services can be proposed to cyclists at neighbourhood scale, in order to facilitate their journeys: – maintenance-repair centre; – cycle hire and electrically assisted cycles (and accessories); – cycle centres: multiservice centres for cyclists which include: hire, secure storage, repairs, training in urban cycling, information and advice, organised rides etc. If the city is already running a self-service cycle hire in the region, this can also be extended to the new neighbourhood. Mobility centres/offices In order to bring greater visibility to these alternatives, and pool the necessary resources, the various services as well as any communication, information and awareness actions can be allocated to a mobility advice team (see Mobility Management, section 4.5). The programme should therefore include the creation of a site adapted to these requirements (storage of cycles, vehicles and materials etc.). The mobility office can also contribute to the monitoring of mobility indicators: • an interface between public decision makers and users; • reporting on the development of usage (use of services), needs and expectations of the targeted public.
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When the Vauban neighbourhood was created, a mobility agency (Mobility Office) was set up within the town’s municipal services in Malmö. Its aim was to encourage the use of ecological travel modes and implement awareness programmes for inhabitants. Read the good practice form 3. In the same vein, the Temps durables district in Limeil-Brévannes programmed a mobility agency project to inform residents about transport options and manage services such as: cycle hire, car and lift-sharing. Read the good practice form 8.

The example of the BO01 neighbourhood in Malmö demonstrates the opportunities for making transport energy savings by creating a mobility centre that is useful during the conception and after for users.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

Home deliveries The development of online purchasing and delivery services can reduce and replace motorised journeys by regrouping goods for transport. It clearly represents an important daily life solution for members of the public who have difficulty travelling – older people, people with reduced mobility or those with no personal transport. The municipality can form partnerships with the local shops and supermarkets, or those farther afield, to provide home delivery services.
A lot of other mobility services can be developed.

Moreover, deliveries can be optimised in terms of financial savings and the environment through: – “last kilometre” logistics platforms within the neighbourhood (see on section 4.3.4); – deliveries by bicycle (standard or electrically assisted); – grouping orders between businesses in the area.

4.5 Mobility management
Energy saving actions should not simply be linked to the neighbourhood’s conception, but should also extend to helping and encouraging its residents to adopt sustainable travel practices in their daily lives. The management of mobility goes hand-in-hand with a pro-active policy for the offer and networks for transport. It brings together measures which are directed towards the demand for travel policies.
Mobility management is characterised by: – its targeted response: by actor (company etc.) and/or by purpose (school, work etc.); – its tailored response: a response based on the understanding of uses, requirements and participation of the target group; – its evolutionary response: this can be developed through evaluation; – in the intangible fields: information, communication, organisation, awareness, mobility advice etc. (other than the services addressed in alternative transport, see section 4.4.2); – low cost to support investment in the infrastructure, amenities and services implemented. This involves changing habits and practices amongst users, decision makers and technicians alike. Apart from the awareness actions aimed at encouraging uptake of alternative modes (described in Chapter 3), three main fields of action for managing mobility are described below: – multi-modal information; – advice on mobility; – and journey management. Moving house is a particularly good time to take up new habits. It is therefore a prime moment for raising awareness, informing and advising inhabitants about energy efficient modes of travel.

4.5.1 Information and awareness
To work with inhabitants to move to using energy efficient practices from the moment they move in, the municipality must act beyond the neighbourhood construction itself, by providing information to people, as they arrive, about the alternatives to the private car which are on offer. The municipality should take care to produce clear, targeted information: – on inhabitants’ access to the neighbourhood using alternative transport; – on the regulations for car traffic and parking; – on the available active modes for children and parents travelling to school; – on the access to employment areas for employers and staff. The information should be disseminated using all possible media for communication.



• Online materials: – broadcasts with existing public transport website information (town, operators, transport authorities); – creation of a webpage giving transport information for the town’s neighbourhoods on its website and, where possible on the neighbourhood’s website; – transport information call centre. • Printed materials: – a leaflet on access to the neighbourhood using alternative modes; – a leaflet about the mobility services located in the neighbourhood or available in the town – such as car-sharing, lift-sharing, self-service cycle hire etc.; – a welcome pack distributed to new arrivals in the neighbourhood: access plan for the neighbourhood, a map of the public transport network, green travel route maps, cycle clips, hi-viz jackets, a public transport ticket, a test drive voucher for the car-sharing scheme etc.; – leaflets or posters giving information to school children in primary/college or further education establishments about access using alternative modes. • Information panels on streets: – information terminals; – poster showing a map of the neighbourhood and the town; – real time information systems at bus stops; – collective letter boxes (e.g. Sarriguren). • human resources : – information sites or mobility agencies providing personal information to users.
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As part of its bO01 neighbourhood creation project, Malmö also wanted to provide high quality public information about the alternative modes of transport which were on offer. The project turned in particular towards the use of new technologies: – to create a reservation service for lift-sharing (data base at neighbourhood scale); – to provide timetable information about public transport (Web and neighbourhood TV); – to provide real-time traffic information via screens installed in the neighbourhood. Read the good practice form 9.

In addition, the project should integrate a series of actions aimed at encouraging use by: • raising the awareness of inhabitants to the individual and common benefits of the alternative modes: – demonstrations of mobility services, – poster campaigns, – organisation of coffee morning debates, – participation in European Mobility Week, – awareness actions in schools and participation in «walk to school» campaigns (international operation every year in October); • educating citizens – adults and children – about sustainable mobility: – classroom activities, – organising training courses for the public on cycling in town, – organising “mobility” training for those on social integration programmes (urban cycling, use of public transport, map reading etc.); • offering opportunities to practice alternative modes: – promotional offer to test new services, – organisation of pedestrian and cycle tours, – testing a walking bus, – festal events with demonstrations and test driving for electric cycles etc. To highlight the advantages of active modes, the local authority can implement a “participatory campaign”, involving inhabitants in the identification of key messages or in the campaign itself thanks to their witness or other contribution. This can be developed using various methods: posters, exhibitions, short films etc.

Educational activities organized in classrooms by Sinergija during PRO.MOTION project.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

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As part of the PRO.MOTION project, CRANA and NASURSA together with local partners, put in place an awareness campaign entitled: Gym starts in the home! It aimed to encourage inhabitants to travel to the sports centres using active modes rather than driving. Posters and leaflets, showing a map of the neighbourhood, gave the distances (in metres) involved in crossing the various districts. The campaign was monitored using an original form of participative evaluation. A letter box was installed on the road leading to the sports centre. Inhabitants were invited to post a card to validate their journey on foot or cycle. Two campaigns were put in place in October 2009 and June 2010 which mobilised 104 and 144 individuals. The first edition saved 578 motorised journeys, representing 1 357 km, or 200 kg of CO2 (which would be the equivalent of 2 tons per year). Read the good practice form 11.

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Under the framework of the PRO.MOTION project, the application implemented in Graz by Austrian Mobility Research FGM-AMOR on the Alphawolf neighbourhood was centred on an awareness campaign concerning daily and leisure journeys using alternative transport. The campaign was developed around the creation of a website providing information about the offer centred on raising awareness to sustainable mobility. Read the good practice form 5.

4.5.2 Mobility advice
Mobility advice in Europe has been a subject for development over the last several years through various local initiatives. These actions are being led both by local communities and associations. It involves supporting the move towards change of use, or of choice, by the local population in a bid to achieve more efficient and more sustainable mobility. The role of these advisors is to encourage and help the various actors to rationalise their habits, choices and practices according to criterion which can be either socio-economic (health, budget, time-management) or environmental (impact on air, noise and energy consumption etc.). Often confused with multi-modal information, mobility advice will: – provide solutions for individuals or entities seeking information and advice about mobility, often linked to changes in circumstances. These changes can be either voluntary (career path, a need to reduce costs, concern for the planet) or imposed (relocation, change in working hours etc.); – develop over time according to the needs identified, following several stages starting from an initial diagnosis of the situation; – use existing services as a baseline for developing initial practices. The presence of complementary services will reinforce the pertinence and effectiveness of advice (and vice versa). Mobility advice supports the development of more sustainable mobility practices: – through playing a prompting role (a starting point): question, raise awareness, thought and dialogue (communication); – by making the local stakeholders responsible for their own choices for mobility (awareness); – by providing suggestions and support: advice will be followed up with actions according to the needs, targets and process for changing habits which will be maintained over time (accompaniment, organisation).



Mobility advice is particularly aimed at: • encouraging use of the existing and future offer of alternative transport: – optimising use of the existing offer: the role of promotion and information relay for existing networks/actions/services, – accompanying the development of the alternative transport offer (supporting public investment, encouraging demand); • improving access to sustainable mobility for all: – removing the constraints on access to sustainable mobility (training etc.); – discovering the right mobility solutions (difficult working hours etc.). It is recommended that mobility advice is offered to residents, schools and employers in an energy efficient neighbourhood (businesses and shops, public amenities etc.).






Personalised advice Personalised mobility advice consists of proposing individual journey management which will permit households to change travel practices (for health reasons etc.), to reduce the costs of running a car as well as their environmental footprint. The advisor will carry out a diagnosis and propose personalised choices and commitments. Moving house is an ideal moment to consider a change in transport habits. It is therefore a good idea to provide advice to new residents on the potential choices. The advisor will make an inventory of household or individual journeys – highlighting the cost, the level of autonomy and the environmental impacts that they represent. Journey solutions are then proposed which will reduce these impacts, thus defining the potential for individual (or household) commitments in terms of: – objectives: use of public transport for commuting, getting rid of the private car etc.; – actions: a cycle training course, take up cycling, join a car-sharing service. The advisor will take care to ensure the feasibility and pertinence of the solutions proposed. Advice sessions can take the form of a single meeting (where the inhabitant is already motivated) or extend over several sessions for more complex situations (those on social integration programmes, an individual who relies heavily on personal car use but has been banned from driving etc.). School travel plan School mobility advice consists of working with schools, parents and pupils in the creation of a school travel plan (or college or other establishment). It will help run a shared diagnosis and put in place a partnership plan for the relevant actions. The travel plan should lead to an action plan which complements: – corrective measures for street design (visibility on crossings etc.); – information actions; – awareness and educational activities; – journey management (walking/cycling buses, carpooling).
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Under the framework of the PRO.MOTION project, CRANA and NASURA launched a partnership initiative with the town and the managers and parents of the local primary school. Workshops with parents’ associations were put in place to define the routes for a school “walking bus”. Read the good practice form 11.

Workplace travel plans Advice on mobility for businesses consists of accompanying employers and staff in the creation of a workplace travel plan (for a single company or intercompany). It will help run shared diagnosis with employees and put in place a partnership plan for the relevant actions.


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

In the context of an energy efficient neighbourhood, the municipality can initiate dialogue with local employers who wish to participate (individual followed by group meetings) in an inter-company commuter plan. The travel plans will be even more effective if it is initiated at the neighbourhood conception phase of the project in that: – it will help determine the number of parking places; – confirm and calibrate the mobility services programmed for the neighbourhood; – pool material resources such as teleconference rooms, car-sharing stations or company concierge services (reducing costs). In all cases, it will make it possible to identify the additional measures required in other areas: awareness, information, organisation of working hours, lift-sharing etc.
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Although the school eco-mobility action at gif-sur-yvette (France) is not linked to a new urban development, its participative process is a good subject for transfer. The school travel plan is the result of joint work between the town, the schools, parents associations and technical partners (ARENE, Ile-de-France Region, and the ADEME). It favoured a global approach based on a keystone action involving parents: the walking bus. Having associated parents and students during a mobility survey, the actors then defined and implemented a full partnership action plan: – improvement on walking conditions: rehabilitation of paths, improvement in the comfort and security of pedestrians and cyclists; – information: printing of leaflets for parents about access to the school and how the walking bus operates; – organisation by parents of a walking bus; creation by parents of a website for the bus at the Neuveries School; – support from the Town Hall for the walking bus: road marking for stops, supply of hi-viz jackets etc.; – awareness actions: awareness day, Walking to School Week etc. Two walking buses are actually operating in the school sectors of Neuveries and the Centre; a third is to be launched in time for the next school year at Sablons. In total, there are 5 walking buses lines which have been created since 2007 and which enable around 60 children to walk to school every day with the help of around 40 parents. The strong involvement of all actors represents the particular principle of this experience. Innovation also lies in the creation by organizers of two web sites (Wiki) where parents can sign up to be monitors. The site is easy to use. It gives timetables for the stops, the names of monitors as well as news about the routes. This practical tool underlines the social aspect of the action, which has been a frank success with both parents and children.

4.5.3 Organisation and commitment of inhabitants
Walking bus in Bois-le-Roi (France).

This section echoes the topics of individual and common commitments contained in Chapter 3. Journeys management includes actions which are led and organised by inhabitants, both individually and as a group. Joint run projects The organisation of joint projects by inhabitants will obviously be helped by the presence of a residents’ association which can manage projects and apply for local authority funding. The local authority can also provide technical support (recourse to a mobility advisor). Inhabitants can also propose solutions or act on suggestions by the contracting authority whether for: • mobility projects: – organisation of walking/cycling buses: a scheme where parents will accompany together children (on foot or cycle) to school in safe, enjoyable conditions, – lift-sharing: management of lift-sharing by a residents’ association, – private car-sharing: as well as the more usual commercial or associative car-sharing schemes, it is also possible for 2 or more individuals to come to a formal agreement on the joint purchase of a car for shared use (and expenses), – the organisation of group journeys: inhabitants come together to share shopping trips by car (lift-sharing) or by cycle (cycling bus); • building the keystones of neighbourhood life: – an annual street party, – putting in place street games for children; • managing common amenities: – collective garden shed, children’s outside games cupboard, – cycle sheds etc.;



• a reduction in private parking: – possibility for pooling and positioning throughout the neighbourhood, – getting rid of personal parking spaces in favour of shared vehicles. The object of this will be to involve them in mobility projects as well as those for the use of public spaces which will underpin local life (by excluding the omnipresence of the private car right from the start). The atmosphere and relationship between inhabitants are factors which will determine the success of these types of action. Several years into the project, the mileage travelled by residents has been reduced by 64% compared to the national average – and the residents know an average of 20 neighbours by name.
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During its Temps durables neighbourhood project, the City of Limeil-brévannes brought together the school and student parents in a walking bus project to accompany children to the local school. Read the good practice form 8.

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In bedZeD in Sutton, the residents’ associations are responsible for running social events in the neighbourhood as well as managing facilities for inhabitants (nurseries for example). Read the good practice form 15.

Pro-active commitment to a car free neighbourhood Abandoning the use of a private car constitutes a firm commitment by inhabitants. Also, it is essential that the choice is made willingly and formalised (sale or termination of agreement). It should be the choice for a lifestyle prompted by desired and accepted circumstances. In order to ensure the acceptance and respect for restrictions on the ownership of vehicles, experience feedback will highlight several levers: – formalising the pro-active commitment of individuals through sale or leasing contracts; – appointing a management structure for the allocation of spaces (owner or residents associations etc.); – defining the criteria for allocation: priority for disabled badge-holders, those with health problems, car-sharers, eco-fuel vehicles etc. For more information on recommended ratios, the reader is advised to consult the section 4.2, dealing with parking allocated to buildings.
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The grünenstrasse neighbourhood, bremen (germany) Creation of a 23 home neighbourhood (40 tenants, 0.08 ha) car-free since 1995: – 5 car spaces in all by order of the managing association (criterion); – 2 spaces for the disabled; – commitment by tenants to neither use nor own a private car is included in their rental and tenancy agreement; – creation of a nearby car-sharing station (operated by Cambio). Source : ADD HOME, www.addhome.eu

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The Am kornweg neighbourhood, hamburg (germany) New car-free neighbourhood with 65 housing units (220 programmed at full term): – signature of commitment by residents not to own a car is included in their rental and tenancy agreement; – 0.2 car spaces per dwelling; – payment of compensation tax to obtain a space by order of the owners’ association (for example due to health reasons); – car-sharing project (between individuals or with an operator). Source : ADD HOME, www.addhome.eu

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The Floridsdorf district in Vienna (Austria) – 250 homes and only 20 parking places (1/10) for the car-sharing and cycles (500 places with workshop); – Signature of commitment by tenants to respect the rules of the car-free neighbourhood; – Space savings were used for collective amenities: hall, launderette, solar powered hot water, green spaces; – 80% of homes rented, 90% of inhabitants with public transport season tickets and 20% have a driving licence. Source : ADD HOME, www.addhome.eu


New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility


Andromède neighbourhood Greater Toulouse, France

IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants Greater Toulouse (located on Blagnac and Beauzelle towns) 366 km2 ~ 703 000 Andromède neighbourhood 210 ha 4 000 dwellings, 10 000 inhabitants

Context Andromède neighbourhood is situated in the outlying suburbs of Blagnac and Beauzelle towns, in the Haute-Garonne, an area where private-car use is an entrenched cultural norm. The programme aims at developing, on 210 hectares, 4 000 housing units, 70 hectares of public natural spaces, activities, services and public facilities that meet the needs of the local population. From the outset in 2001, the project managers wanted to implement an urban development in accordance with sustainable development. Andromède breaks with the periurban private housing estate pattern.

Programme regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty This neighbourhood’s asset regarding energy-efficient transport depends on 4 major principles of urban development: 1- Functional and social diversity to create a lively neighbourhood and to give citizens opportunities for social ties: – 3 700 dwellings of which 20% will be public housing; – offices, services and shops; 6 000 m2 of shops are planned in mixed-use buildings (ground floor) on the Avenue of Andromède, 130 000 m2 dedicated to activities in the service sector; – local public facilities; a secondary and two primary schools, a leisure centre, sports pitches and a running track, a police station and a facility for the elderly; – 1/3 of the total surface area is reserved for green and leisure spaces: 5 planted grounds (north-south) intersected by a “green corridor” (east-west). 2- Integrated access to a public transport system that anticipates future needs of mobility: – connection to the tramway line (line E), in order to connect the district to the Toulouse underground network (at Arènes station). The tram will run every 5 minutes at peak times and every 8 minutes at off-peak hours; – 80% of residents will live less than 400 m from a tram stop. 3- Traffic management within the area to favour the use of active modes, thanks to: – a road network ranking (organization into a hierarchy); – paths for soft modes across the whole district, including green spaces, bicycle paths and wide pavements to be laid alongside the main roads; – access roads designed with narrow one-way car lanes in order to highlight a share of uses and the priority given to bicycles; – green corridors as footpaths; – footpaths connected to the existing infrastructure of the surrounding neighbourhoods (for a seamless network); – a pro-active parking policy. 4- The development of transport services: – information and resources; – lift-sharing; – car-sharing.

Progress Launch Delivery 2001 Since 2009 until 2015

Key aCtors Project owners (or their delegates) Project manager and project assistance Greater Toulouse Developer: SEM Constellation Project management team: Treuttel-Garcias-Treuttel Assistance on Sustainable Development: CRP Consulting

For more information:
Sources: ADDHOME project: www.add-home.eu Pour des hameaux et quartiers durables en Midi-Pyrénées, Guide ARPE-ADEME, 2009 (www.arpe-mip.com/html/1-6159-DADD-n3-Pour-des-quartiers-et-hameaux-durables-en-Midi-Pyrenees.php) Website for Blagnac: www.mairie-blagnac.fr ; www.mairie-blagnac.fr/article/archive/70/ Developer’s website: www.semconstellation.com/spip.php?rubrique59 Quartiers durables, premiers retours d’expériences en Midi-Pyrénées, ARPE, ADEME, PRELUDDE (2000-2006): www.ademe.fr/midi-pyrenees/documents/publications/quartiers_durables.pdf

Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility


The eco-friendly neighbourhood Ginko

Bordeaux, France

IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants Bordeaux 49.36 km² 235 178 (2007) Ginko neighbourhood 32.6 ha 2 200 dwellings, 6 000 inhabitants

Context Under the auspices of the urban project “Bordeaux 2030, heading towards a sustainable metropolis” launched in 2009, Bordeaux municipality and Greater Bordeaux conceived a project of an environment-friendly urban development for the banks of the Bordeaux Lake, envisaged for 2012. In 2009 the project was awarded the prize of “Ecofriendly Neighbourhood National Contest” under the category “Energy Efficiency”. Ginko is a new neighbourhood that extends from the inner city of Bordeaux.

Programme regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty This eco-friendly neighbourhood is based on mobility management to reduce need of mobility and favour energy efficient travels. Consequently, the spatial organisation of the district supports the use of energy-efficient transport (bus, tram, bicycles, walking), by: – looking for lively neighbourhood achieved through mixed-used, social and economic diversity; – providing access to the neighbourhood by public transport; – fostering the use of active modes. 1. Social and economic diversity for a mixed-use development The project is looking to create an attractive living environment via the provision of local services, which aims to reduce the travelled distance and promote short distance trips by foot and by bicycle. • Apartments and 2-to-5-roomed houses to accommodate all types of households (2 200 dwellings, 6 000 inhabitants). • All the housing units are located less than 400 m from a school. • Creation of 2 000 jobs. • Public services and facilities – 2 kindergartens and 2 schools, 1 dance house, 1 multi-sport complex, 1 multi-purpose centre (for children, seniors, local associations), a project of association for the maintaining of small-scale farming. • 25 000 m² of office and services. • 28 000 m² of shops along a walkway near the banks of the canal. • Public space: The district will be intersected by 3 pleasure canals and a green corridor and will benefit from a 4.5 ha park and the banks of the lake. • Further thought to be given to shared-garden projects. 2. Accessibility to public transport • Location of the neighbourhood near existing tram stops. • All dwellings will have a tram stop within a minimum distance of 300 m. • Residents will be able to travel by tram to the inner city of Bordeaux in 15 minutes.

3. Priority given to active modes The project aims at encouraging the use of non-motorized modes of transport by traffic calming measures, by sharing public spaces and by mobility management. • In residential streets and tram routes the speed limit is 30 kph. • The street “Canal Nord” (north canal) to be developed as a home zone (20 kph, priority to non-motorised traffic). • Walking and cycling buses. • Network of secure bicycle paths serving schools and facilities: 6 km of cycle tracks and 1 km of green paths. • 50% of the public road network dedicated to soft modes and to the tramway.

Progress Launch Delivery 2006 2012 (1st phase) – 2014

Key aCtors Project owners (or their delegates) Project managers Bordeaux town – Greater Bordeaux (Communauté urbaine de Bordeaux) Bouygues Immobilier Brochet/Lajus/Pueyo Agency and Christian Devillers and associates (housing and architecture) Signes Agency (landscaping) AMO Environment and Sustainable Development: Terre-éco (conception) Elan (Project research) Saulnier & associates (energy) Carbone 4 (carbon footprint assessment)

Other project managers and project assistance

For more information:
Sources: Bordeaux town website: www.bordeaux.fr/ebx/portals/ebx.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=pgPresStand8&classofco ntent=presentationStandard&id=4205 www.ecoquartier-ginko.fr/ Contact: Bouygues Immobilier: Franck Potier CUB: Patrick Dandieu

Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility


Vauban neighbourhood Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants Freibourg im Breisgau 153 km² 219 665 Vauban neighbourhood 38 ha 2 000 dwellings, 5 000 inhabitants

Context Vauban is situated on the outskirts of Freiburg im Breisgau, less than 3 km from the inner city, and extends across 38 ha. Bordered by a stream and woodland, it is a rustic setting with 3 600 inhabitants (2005) of which 20% are children under the age of 10; it should increase to 5 000 inhabitants (full-term). The total control of the land by the municipality has meant that the local administration has been able to impose its choices during the design of the neighbourhood and during land sales. Its requirements concerned architecture (4-storey maximum height for houses and residential blocks), social diversity, energy (label low energy housing, < 65 kW/m2/year) and mobility (maximum of one parking place per dwelling). The challenge was to establish favourable conditions whereby one could live a car-free life.

Programme regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty The development plan aims at reducing the distances people have to travel and to limit the car traffic, in favour of a safer and more welcoming street for active modes and the neighbourhood life. 1• A short-distance urban development Conceived as a “walkable neighbourhood”, the local shops, services, schools and nursery schools are all within easy distance on foot or by bicycle from the housing units. Permeable and convivial urban planning: – highly permeable, small, low-rise blocks (4-storey maximum height) easily crossed and pleasant for both pedestrians and cyclists; – services within walking and cycling distance (maximum distance: 700 m, average distance: 300 m); – terraced housing with unfenced private gardens that give the impression of open space and are favourable to social exchanges between the residents. Diverse mixed-use urban functions: – Mixed population: 5 000 inhabitants, 600 jobs; – Mixed-use: housing, a 4 ha industrial zone (craftsman…), numerous school and sports amenities, nursery schools and a primary school, neighbourhood centre, convenience stores and numerous public green spaces. 2• A neighbourhood for pedestrians and cyclists Urban development assets are reinforced by the design of the public road network: its organization and speed limits give priority to local life and to active modes (and not to car traffic and parking). Traffic calming measures: – hierarchical organisation of the public road network; – a main road: the speed limit is 30 kph with a 6 meters-wide pedestrian/cycle lane in both directions; – adjacent 4 meters-wide living streets where the speed limit is 5 kph (walking speed). These lanes are not meant for transit (U-shaped), they do not provide parking places and only allow short stopping (deliveries/unloading).

The construction of shared garages: – The town has imposed a maximum quota of one car parking place per dwelling. Parking for residents, visitors and commuters mainly consists of two shared multi-storey car parks of 240 places each; – The rental/purchase prices of parking spaces are deliberately discouraging. 50% of residents have a place in the garages; 25% of the housing units built towards the outskirts of the district have private parking; 25% of residents opt to live “car free” (and sign up); – Visitors pay to park, whether in the garages or in spaces provided along the main road; – Shared bicycle garages close to housing units. Some alternatives to private cars: – the car-sharing service: the association “Car Frei” (“car free”), which brings together 1 500 members, manages a residential car-sharing system. For every 20 members the association buys a car, which represents around 63 cars; these are parked in the shared garages; – access to public transport: the extension of the existing tramway provided a link between the neighbourhood and Freiburg inner city (in 2006). The residents also have at their disposal a variety of bus stops nearby.

Progress Launch Delivery 1998 2006

Key aCtors Project owners (or their delegates) The town of Freiburg im Breisgau and its technical services The Genova construction cooperative: founded in 1997, the association is as much a product of the strategy as of the organisation led by the Vauban Forum, with its cooperative objectives of responsibility and self-management. It instructs architects directly, thereby cutting out the relay between the promoter and the constructer. Genova has constructed nearly 80 housing units, of which a proportion has been co-financed by public funds. Construction contracting authority: Stuttart Kohlhoff and Kohlhoff agency Consultancies and architects Research centres (for example: the Fraunhofer Institute) Vauban Forum: Originally (in 1994), this association of motivated citizens aims at enabling the population to participate in the development and construction process and at co-ordinating this participation.

Project managers and project assistance Partners

For more information:
Sources : Quartiers durables – Guide d’expériences européennes, ARENE Île-de-France – IMBE, April 2005 Vauban website (in German): www.vauban.de Vauban Forum website (in German): www.forum-vauban.de Freiburg town website (in German): www.freiburg.de Ministry website: www.ecoquartiers.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/article.php3?id_article=132 Car free website: http://carfree.free.fr/index.php/a-propos/

Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility


Participation by residents in the Muette neighbourhood

Garges-lès-Gonesse, France
IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants The Town of Garges- La Muette lès-Gonesse 5.5 km² 39 098 4 000 inhabitants 1 291 dwellings

Context In 2005 Garges-lès-Gonesse decided to embark on the creation of an eco-friendly neighbourhood under the framework of an Urban Renewal Agreement signed with the National Agency for Urban Renewal. Garges-lès-Gonesse received the “Urban Renewal and Sustainable Urban Planning” prize for this project in 2009. In the same year, it also won the “Eco-friendly Neighbourhood National Contest” under the category “Density and Urban Pattern”, with special mention for “Urban Renewal Project” from the French Ministry for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Sea. The neighbourhood comprises 4 000 residents in 1 291 dwellings of which 94% are in apartment blocks and 80 individual homes. 90% of dwellings in these neighbourhoods are part of the social housing.

PartICIPatIon regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty This environment-friendly neighbourhood project takes into account the issues relating to sustainable mobility, notably by the implementation of a cycle route network, the provision of a regional rail station car park, and of secured bicycle racks in renovated and new apartment blocks as well as by increasing the offer of public transport. A fact which is also borne out by the implementation of multimodal links (new town entrance, connexion to the Dame Blanche district, the station, the hypermarket and the business park etc.) and by the construction, in 2011, of a tramway linking the city of Saint-Denis to the Garges-Sarcelles train station. Within this framework, an in-depth campaign of consultation and information was undertaken by the town: • A dedicated site, the Project Centre/House (information point); • “Conventional” consultation activities: – public meetings, – town planning workshop on the development of Mandela Square, – workshops for dialogue per block, “walking audits”, – discussion on the “Urban project” during neighbourhood joint committee meetings (every two months), – day to day presence of the local development manager and the urban management manager; • Cultural projects: – “Chimney” project: installation of giant fresco, – working memory using photographic as well as audiovisual documents (3 documentary films and 7 short films), – forum theatre performance (role-play); • Festive occasions: An annual day-long event “En chantier de vous connaître” (kind of street party) celebrates building projects with visits to show homes, a photo rally, street theatre and street painting competitions.

exPerIenCe feedbaCK An important element in the project’s success is that the city could rely on vital relays: • the cultural and social centres: a place for expression and discussion; • neighbourhood associations (tenant social groups etc); • school groups: activities in the classrooms, information about events organised by the town. The town was able to carry out this project thanks to the allocation of an “exceptional” 63 million euros (or 36%) grant awarded by the National Agency for Urban Renewal. A large part was also financed by the housing associations (44%). This project has been replicated on two other neighbourhoods in the town. The total budget for renovation of all three neighbourhoods is app. 400 000 million euros.

Progress Launch Delivery 2005 2009-2012

Key aCtors Project owners (or their delegates) Partners The Town of Garges-lès-Gonesse: head of project, local development manager, local urban management manager National Agency for Urban Renewal, French Ministry for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Sea, Caisse des dépôts et des consignations (a public group serving general interest and economic development).

evaluatIon Method Indicators Results Counting, monitoring of housing requests Number of participants in consultation actions Rate of increase in the request for housing in the eco-neighbourhood During the photo rally, over 150 cameras were given out to children. In 2007, 500 participants in the annual neighbourhood street party. On average, 40% of the families concerned attended the consultation by sector workshops.

For more information:
Short films on-line: www.garges.net/information_suite18.html www.garges.net/garges_demain/echelle_territoire.html The Town of Garges-lès-Gonesse 8, place de l’Hôtel de Ville BP 2 – 95141 Garges-lès-Gonesse Cedex

Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility


Settlement “Alphawolf” Graz, Austria

IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants Graz, Austria 12 800 ha 260 000 Settlement “Alphawolf” district of Graz-Andritz 41.2 ha ~ 500

Context The settlement “ALPHAWOLF” in Graz, in the district of Andritz, is one of the 14 application sites of PRO.MOTION project over Europe. “ALPHAWOLF” is situated on a small hillside at the city edge. The location is very attractive but its accessibility is unfavourable. The settlement will have 150 housing units and consists out of terraced houses and multi-storey houses. The street network grants a direct access to the city centre as well as to the regional and national road network. Public transport connection is given by a bus line that connects the settlement with the city district centre, and the tramways heading to Graz’s city centre and Graz main station. Bicycle tracks are connecting the city centre and the districts centre, but there is no connection to ALPHAWOLF despite the street network itself. Pedestrian paths within the settlement are well developed, but there is no direct pedestrian path connecting the settlement with Andritz.

aCtIon Plan regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty The application on ALPHAWOLF implements 3 main fields of measures in order to: • Increase the actual transportation choice of the current inhabitants such as public transport, bicycling, walking, car-sharing and possibly carpooling: – creation of short distance connections for walking within the fourth section of the settlement; • Reduce the number of trips in total by clustering trips or substituting them: – installing delivery services e.g. with taxi associations, supply of food by delivery or on-site sales, supply of bicycle delivery service, – implementing bicycle services for maintenance of inhabitants bicycles, – organising jointly shopping trips; • Increase the general awareness of the inhabitants concerning the economic, health-related and ecologic effects of their individual mobility behaviour: – implementing awareness campaigns on daily and spare time transportation with sustainable transport means such as: – intranet information platform for the settlement with mobility information, – provision of information material promoting sustainable mobility in daily and spare time activities, – all of the households have been included in a survey to determine the current mobility patterns and behaviours as well as wishes and needs regarding mobility and accessibility. A multi-stakeholder group (public administration, public transport companies as well as construction and property management companies) has been formed to work on different actions like delivery services and raise their awareness for sustainable transportation at home. The main key to success is definitely the involvement of both, the inhabitants as well as other entities, like policy makers and suppliers from the very beginning of the planning process and to continuously involve them also during the implementation phase. With this involvement, especially the inhabitant feels that the activities are related to himself and his personality, so the participation in the process of a respective action has a significant effect on the inhabitants’ daily life. This marks the commitment with which the inhabitants recognise and accept the respective activity.

Key aCtors PRO.MOTION partner in charge of the application Partners Austrian Mobility Research, FGM-AMOR Mobility Centre of Graz Various delivery services Velo Blitz

Progress Launch Delivery PRO.MOTION application 2001 2004-2009 (first 4 phases) 2012 (5th and final phase) 2007-2010

evaluatIon Method Survey Website for settlement Alphawolf Short walking distance connections within the fourth construction section Creation of a website Number of recognising the personal benefit of using energy efficient modes of transport Evolution of public transport modal share Evolution of bike modal share Evolution of walk modal share No results available at this stage; but the targets are: – 1 settlement internet website with information on daily supply and delivery services as well as transport connections by bicycle and public transport; – 100 households recognising the personal benefit of using energy efficient modes of transport; – increase of public transport users at the modal split by +1%; – increase of cyclists at the modal split by +5%; – increase of pedestrians at the modal split by +1%.



For more information:
Contact : Austrian Mobility Research, FGM-AMOR Schönaugasse 8a 8010 Graz Autriche Claus Köllinger koellinger@fgm.at 00 43 316 810 451 66 Fred Dotter dotter@fgm.at 00 43 316 810 451 49

Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility


The Bonne neighbourhood

Grenoble, France

IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants Town of Grenoble 18.1 km² 156 793 Caserne de Bonne 8.5 ha 850 dwellings

Context In 2003, the town of Grenoble in the Rhône-Alpes region embarked on the creation of an eco-friendly neighbourhood over 8.5 hectares of military brownfield close to the inner city. First eco-friendly neighbourhood in France, it is part of the Sustainable Development approach taken by the town in three key areas: industrial pollution, habitat and transport. In 2009, it was awarded the “Environment-friendly Neighbourhood Prize” by the French Ministry for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Sea.

Programme regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty Town planning of the neighbourhood was conceived in such a way as to: • Reduce travelling: Located in the inner city and developed with mix-used, this neighbourhood encourages a reduction in the number of necessary journeys for those who either live or work in the neighbourhood. • Promote a high level of accessibility: General levelling of the roadway, continuity of pavement, of building materials and of visual/audible signage, designation of safe areas around bus stops and parking places. 5% of parking places is designated for people with reduced mobility, implementation of accessibility in housing (balconies etc.). • Limiting the place and use of the car: • the speed limit is 30 kph in the whole area; • footpaths designed to be comfortable and meshed with the surrounding neighbourhoods; • obligatory installation of cycle sheds at ground floor level (1 m2 per dwelling) and plenty of cycle racks; • car-sharing stations; • reduction in the number of parking places: 1 place per purchased dwelling and 1 place maximum per 80 m2 of surface for the service sector. Implementation of consultation: • specific meetings of neighbourhood unions involved; • working group Lucie Aubrac School (parents, residents associations and teachers); • numerous public meetings; • guided visits; • permanent exhibition.

exPerIenCe feedbaCK Strong policy support has made the project a success. Objectives were clearly and contractually defined. Contractors were supported by a team of experts to provide the best possible adaptation of the project. All partners were able to adapt the project at every stage. The evaluation process was thought right from the start of the project. The innovative and exemplary nature of this operation, its constructive participative process and, above all, its governance and contractual monitoring gave rise to numerous visits at both national and international levels (over 2 500 people).

Progress Launch Delivery 2003 2009

Key aCtors Project owners (or their delegates) Partners City of Grenoble Ministry of Defence, neighbourhood unions, student parents, resident and teacher associations

evaluatIon Method Mobility study Monitoring of participation in car-sharing scheme and use of public transport in relation with the operators • Modal share of the car • Number of inscriptions for car-sharing • Journeys made by public transport, on foot and by bike (in km per year) • Reduction of 54% to 44% of the car’s modal share • Reduction of 83% in number of car journeys by those who have sold their cars in favour of using the car-sharing scheme: dropped from 9 300 km to 1 600 km per year • Increase of 35% in the use of public transport: increased from 5 700 km to 7 700 km per year • Increase of 70% in walking and cycle use: increased from 1 000 km to 1 700 km per year



For more information:
Ville de Grenoble 11, boulevard Jean Pain BP 1066 38021 Grenoble Cedex 1 00 33 (0)4 76 76 36 36 SEM SAGES (aménageur) 1, place Firmin Gautier 38027 Grenoble Cedex 1 00 33 (0)4 76 48 48 09 contact@innovia-sages.fr www.debonne-grenoble.fr Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility


Kronsberg neighbourhood Hanover, Germany

IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants Hanover 204.01 km² 519 619 Kronsberg neighbourhood 70 ha 15 000

Context Kronsberg is situated on the outskirts of the city of Hanover to the south-east, on the slopes of a hill that were formerly used for agriculture. It represented Hanover’s largest available landholding with its 70 ha, including 44 ha to be built on at full-term and 80% belongs to the town. The neighbourhood is close to the site of the World Fair 2000 (universal exposition). In addition to issues of inhabitants’ mobility, the challenge was to manage the influx of visitors to Expo 2000. The town integrated mobility issues within the Kronsberg ecological optimisation programme through construction-related targets: a compact district, integrated planning, traffic reduction and quality of green spaces.

Programme regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty Transportation energy efficiency was researched across 3 complementary domains. Town planning in favour of a lively neighbourhood and of the use of active modes Conceived according to a dense orthogonal plan, the district accommodates residential blocks of between 3-5 storeys and terraced housing with private gardens. The neighbourhood also has a large range of activities to satisfy the needs of the districts’ “users”, to encourage social exchanges (social ties) and to make the neighbourhood attractive: – public services (nursery, school, sports hall, theatre, 15 community halls, community centre, socio-medical centre…); – shops, offices, banks, farm-direct selling of organic produce at a local farm; – “Krokus” arts centre; – a variety of green spaces: public (playgrounds), private and semi-public. These serve to establish an attractive environment that encourages the use of active modes (for short journeys) by the inhabitants (currently 6 300) and visitors (and have led to the creation of 3 500 jobs). Additionally, particular attention has been paid to the quality of public spaces (courtyards, squares, obligatory map of non-developed land). The district is criss-crossed with a network of streets taking into account cyclists. Furthermore, a long cycle track links up Kronsberg’s areas, while numerous pedestrian paths serve the neighbourhood’s principle amenities. An integrated planning process In order to guarantee high-quality access to public transport, all the infrastructures needed for the local life (new station, tramway, train, metro, roads) were programmed and built with a view to being operational when the first residents moved in. The design necessitated establishing an integrated planning process (1993 to 2000). Three new tram stops, located at a maximum of 600 m from housing units, enable the residents of Kronsberg to get to the inner city in 17 minutes. Transport users also have a bus route available to them, providing alternative inter-connections.

Restrictions on car use Motorised traffic is forbidden in residential areas except for local inhabitants. Along other roads, traffic is calmed (30 kph as speed limits), with priority given to the right and road-narrowing offering further safety advantages to the pedestrians. The planting of a variety of tree species has also enhanced the atmosphere of the different streets. The majority of motorised traffic is channelled alongside the tramway lines. Parking is restricted to some areas and to private underground car parks (roughly 1/3rd). The town has scheduled an ambitious ratio of 0.8 parking space/ dwelling, however it has also provided additional on-street parking spaces.

Progress Launch Delivery 1995 2000

Key aCtors Project owners Project managers and assistants Partners Hanover town, Environment service Expo 2000 environmental planning group Promoters, architects, BTP enterprises… Agency for communication and mediation KUKA Lower-Saxony Government Aid programmes for social housing Kronsberg consultation committee The Centre for Energy and the Environment The Institute for Building Research The Technical Centre for Professional Training Lower-Saxony Consumer Association Centre for Protection of the Environment of the Chamber of Trade

For more information:
Sources: Quartiers durables – Guide d’expériences européennes, ARENE Île-de-France – IMBE, April 2005 « Guide du quartier de Hanovre – Kronsberg – Un modèle à vivre, un modèle à suivre », Projet SIBART, City of Hanover, French version (Énergie-cités, ADEME), May 2003. Hanover website (in German): www.hannover.de

Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility


Les Temps durables Limeil-Brévannes, France
IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants Limeil-Brévannes 6.93 km² 18 957 Temps durables (development zone Ballastière South) 10 ha 250 dwellings 3 000 inhabitants

Context “Les Temps durables” neighbourhood (literally “sustainable times”) has been pioneered in France through the Urban Project Partnership, which enables public and private cooperation for complex and ambitious projects. As ecofriendly neighbourhood, it aims at creating a car-free neighbourhood by limiting parking spaces, by offering alternative modes of transport and by giving priority to pedestrian and cycle travels.

Programme regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty Energy efficiency of transport is considered and taken into account at several levels: > Mixed-use: – 1 250 new dwellings, divided between eight residential areas comprising a variety of buildings; – 2 commercial centres: a circular square of 4 800 m2 (hosting a chemist’s, a bank, a florist, a supermarket…) and a square of 2 500 m2 with shops on ground floor of residential buildings; – inclusion by employment project. > Public spaces: – presence of around 2 hectares of public green spaces; – a central park (6 000 m2), with walkways and horse-riding paths (15 000 m2). > Access to public transport: – – – – 2 2 a a bus routes; regional express-train stations accessible within 20 minutes by bus; planned underground new stop (extension to metro line 8) accessible within a 10 minutes walk; cableway service (Métrocable) to improve access to the underground network (metro line 8).

> Parking: – bicycle parks are scheduled to be installed near shopping centres; – car parking is prohibited on the inner neighbourhood streets; – car parking is authorized at shopping centres (170 places) and peripheral streets (3 visitors’ car parks available for private vehicles); – fewer than one parking space per dwelling is at the residents’ disposal. > Traffic calming measures: – car traffic is prohibited within the neighbourhood. Only roads that border the district and those near the two shopping centres are opened to car traffic; – inner streets are dedicated to non-motorized traffic; – cycle lanes are inter-connected with the town cycling network; – 3 pedestrian main avenues; – 4 walkpaths, of which some will be opened to the public and some reserved for residents only. > Providing alternative means of transport: – a project of Mobility office: to inform the residents of the various transport options and to manage services such as bicycle rental, carpooling, car-sharing; – other projects: self-service rental of electric-cars (Autolib), cableway to the metro. > Resident participation: – a participative approach: public meetings and forums, public-opinion surveys; – a project of walking bus so called “pedibus” in order for parents to accompany children together to school on foot.

Progress Launch Delivery 2006 2012

Key aCtors Project owners (or their delegates) Town of Limeil-Brévannes Developer: the Public-Private Partnership (SEM ALB) and mixed-sector constructors (public, cooperative and private) gathered by the Centre for Urban Development (“Centrale de création urbaine”) Development zone architect: Roland Castro Regional Agency for Environment and New Energy in Ile-de-France (ARENE)

Project manager Partners

For more information:
Sources: District website: www.lestempsdurables.com Press dossier, November 2009 Town website: www.limeil-brevannes.fr/dossiers/index.php?2007/04/16/13-le-quartier-des-temps-durables-un-quartier-durable Contact : Julie Rossignol, head of project management 00 33 (0)1 45 10 77 19 julie.rossignol@ville-limeilbrevannes.fr

Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility


District Bo01 Malmö, Sweden

IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants Malmö 7 176 ha 292 201 Bo01 9 ha 600 dwellings, 1 000 inhabitants

Context During the European Housing Exposition of 2001, the polder of Västra Hamnen (the Western Harbour) – with a surface area of 30 hectares – was chosen as the construction site of a new district: Bo01 “town of tomorrow” (Bo for settlement, 01 for 2001). The port extends west by 140 hectares and over the next 20 years will welcome 30 000 residents. Seen as the creation of an exemplary dense urban area, the development of district Bo01 integrated an environmental quality approach. The ecological objectives were concretised by town of Malmö, the developers and the promoters of Bo01 with the signing of a quality charter, in March 1999.

Programme regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty The district has been planned with the hope of ensuring minimum transport needs and, in particular, to avoid dependency on cars. The project has identified 5 target areas to encourage future inhabitants towards energyefficient transport usage. 1- Give priority to cyclists and pedestrians The streets are, for the most part, pedestrian-only, supplemented by more than 8 km of cycle lanes interspersed, to encourage inhabitants to choose active options for shorter journeys. 2- Promote intelligent car use Parking places are limited to 0.7 place per dwelling and priority is given to environment-friendly vehicles. A carsharing (or car-club) service with electric vehicles is at residents’ disposal for their trips to inner city. 3- Offer access to an attractive public transport Bus stops are located at a maximum of 300 m from housing units and the bus routes serve all the principal areas of the town. Average waiting times is no more than seven minutes. Furthermore, the public buses benefit from priority signalling at traffic lights and bus stops have been constructed with raised quays and enclosures and with provision of a shelter, and are equipped with electronic information panels. 4- Increase the use of alternative fuels and encourage the use of electric vehicles As part of its public transport policy, the town favours the use of alternative fuels. A pilot scheme was established in 2003 with two hybrid buses (hydrogen and fuel mix); the success of the scheme is likely to lead to its being extended. In addition, all the municipal maintenance vehicles are electric. Finally, the use of clean fuel vehicles is facilitated by the proximity of a biogas filling station and multiple speed recharging points for electric cars (the energy for which is provided by a 2 MW wind turbine). 5- Support the change of behaviour The Bo01 project has sought to combine the supply of energy-efficient transport with the provision of information to residents about the options available to them. Furthermore, in making use of new technologies, the project aims at: • creating a carpooling reservation service (with neighbourhood databases); • providing timetable details for public transport services (via the Internet and a neighbourhood television service); • providing traffic-condition news via neighbourhood screens installed in the district.

In addition, the Mobility Office, set up as part of the Malmö municipal services, encourages the use of environmentfriendly transport and has implemented awareness programmes intended for local residents. To save energy from transport, the Bo01 project demonstrates that it is necessary to act on project design at inception (transport offer) and on mobility management till the delivery (mobility demand).

Progress Launch Delivery 1998 2001 (1st phase, 350 dwellings)

Key aCtors Project owners (or their delegates) Project managers and project assistance City of Malmö The construction companies directly involved in the programme and its quality controls, broader conditions and environmental objectives. Sydkraf and E-on (renewable energy suppliers) Bo01AB (neighbourhood quality control programme) European Union, government, the Swedish Energy Agency Lund University


For more information:
Sources: Quartiers durables – Guide d’expériences européennes, ARENE Île-de-France – IMBE, April 2005 Malmö town website: www.malmo.se/sustainablecity www.malmo.se/English/Sustainable-City-Development/Bo01---Western-Harbour/Mobility.html Website with information about Bo01 for local residents: www.ekostaden.com/ Energy cities : www.energie-cites.org ; www.energy-cities.eu/IMG/pdf/BO01_FR.pdf Managenergy : www.managenergy.net/download/r122.pdf Ministry for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Sea (MEEDM): www.ecoquartiers.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/article.php3?id_article=138

Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

The Docks neighbourhoods 10 Saint-Ouen, France

IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants Saint-Ouen 4.3 km2 43 954 Saint-Ouen Docks Approx. 1 km2

Context Saint-Ouen is a town of 40 000 inhabitants in the inner suburb of Paris (Seine-Saint-Denis). Starting in 2005, the town studied the possibility of converting the Docks area (more than 100 ha), a predominantly industrial zone, into a dense, innovative mixed-use and eco-friendly district. In July 2009, the neighbourhood was designated as a New Urban District by the Ile-de-France Region and benefits from State support as an Ile-de-France eco-friendly neighbourhood.

Programme regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty The strategy to develop the Docks area as a sustainable neighbourhood regarding mobility was based on four levers for action: • Opt for urban organization and planning that enable short-distance journeys, thereby reducing car use within the new district: – planning for a mixed-use at both neighbourhood and blocks levels (4 800 dwellings, local facilities, 12 ha park, offices, local shops, diverse activities), – high density that enables to recreate city over an industrial brownfield, – a public-spaces scheme integrates non-motorized travels as a priority and in coherence with all the urban functions, – giving residents a free access to La Seine (river) thanks to a redevelopment of a dense traffic road (RD1); • Establish an attractive road network for pedestrians, cyclists and public transport: – all the roads are accessible to bicycles (one-way streets with two-way for cyclist, 30 kph area), – pedestrian pathways are enhanced by regular crossings, traffic-calming measures, – road public transport runs along alternate bus corridors that operate as two-way lanes; • Improve the access by public transport: – dialogue has begun on an extension to Underground Line (Metro line 14), – a partnership cooperation with the STIF (regional public transport authority) and RATP (public transport operator) to establish the placement of bus stations, to extend road transport lines and foster transport services serving main public transport hubs, – give further thought to add-on mobility services at public transport hubs: car-sharing, bike repairs, parking facilities for bicycles… • Construct a “parking space-saving” neighbourhood: – limitations on public and private parking spaces available for each block in gathering the places on main points, – adaptation of the norms within the urban development plan in order to be consistent with household car ownership: 0.7 places per dwelling, – pooling of public and private car park facilities for optimum use, – measure the various parking needs (visitors, reduced mobility people, deliveries, bicycles…) and regulate accordingly. There is up to 35-40% of parking spaces reduction between this sustainable development approach and a “classic” approach. The will of the City and the developer to establish an innovative mobility policy was sometimes coming up against the difficulty to change property market based on a logic of complementarity between parking and building.

Key aCtors Project owners (or their delegates) Partners Town of Saint-Ouen Séquano Aménagement (developer) County council of Seine-Saint-Denis, Ile-de-France Region, the national government

evaluatIon Method Indicators Mobility survey Counts Average annual expenditure per year by transport users for journeys within Ouest 93 sector CO2 emissions caused by journeys within the Ouest 93 sector Number of journeys on foot/by bicycle per year Average expenditure: 375 million euros per year (drop of 26%) Pollution: 191.9 kt of CO2 per year (drop of 25%) 217.7 m journeys on foot/by bicycle (rise of 36%)


For more information:
Ville de Saint-Ouen 6, place de la République 93406 Saint-Ouen Cedex 00 33 (0)1 49 45 67 89 www.ville-saintouen.fr

Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility


Promoting solutions to reduce car use in the Sarriguren residential area

Navarre, Spain

IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants Sarriguren 150 ha. Housing units: 5 372. Density: 36 housing units/ha. 3 154 inhabitants at the beginning of the project (October 2007) and 9 984 at the end (October 2010)

Context The Sarriguren neighbourhood in Pamplona is one of the 14 application sites of PRO.MOTION project over Europe. As many others cities, the metropolitan area of Pamplona (main city of the Spanish region of Navarre) has experienced an important urban sprawl phenomenon in parallel with an important increase in car use over the last two decades. The Sarriguren residential area has been selected because of its location (Pamplona is located within the Egüés Valley municipality, outside the ring road, connected to the road network by a roundabout) and its size (5 372 housing units and about 12 000 inhabitants) to analyse relations between urban planning and residents mobility patterns as well as to prevent the increase of car use in this specific site which could have an important impact in the whole metropolitan area. Final aims are to provide solutions that could help the inhabitants of Sarriguren to walk, to cycle and to use public transport as well as to reduce car use and to provide knowledge and specific tools for planners to prevent problems in future neighbourhoods.

aCtIon Plan regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty With a view to improving the conditions for a sustainable mobility in the site of Sarriguren, the following steps were taken: – Before implementation, all measures or mobility services were initially the subject of first stage consultation with residents (through surveys) in order to assess their potential success. – In order to gather their proposals for improvement, consultation with residents was carried out using maps and work-sheets of the site, discussions on priorities, timing and the various authorities affected by the proposed solutions. – Residents’ proposals (most of them relating how to overcome urban planning barriers and public transport) have been presented to the responsible authorities (public transport authority, municipality of Valle de Egüés and the departments of Land Planning, Public Works and Transport of the Navarre Government); the inhabitants have been informed of any progress. – Carpooling arrangements and individual mobility advice services have been implemented to provide residents with alternative solutions whilst attempts are being made to overcome the barriers to increase the efficient use of transport. – Promotional campaigns and activities have also been developed, in particular to prevent car use inside the site. The two most successful campaigns were “Gym Starts at Home” (to encourage inhabitants to walk and cycle to the sports center) and “Walk to School” to encourage families to travel to primary school on foot.

exPerIenCe feedbaCK In order to overcome existing infrastructural and social barriers to reduce car use in Sarriguren the following process has been rolled out: a social and spatial analysis has been done based on surveys and field work, a participative process was carried out involving inhabitants who have completed analysis and made proposals that were developed by different authorities also involved in the process, such as carpooling, individual mobility advice and promotional campaigns. In order to support changes in the urban planning process and its orientation towards sustainable mobility, the stakeholders have been involved in a process which has included a shared definition of a check-list based on a wider technical document on “sustainable mobility in land and urban planning” and an in-depth training on various related issues. There has been an initial agreement on the use of this check-list as a tool to drive planners’ thinking and design and as an evaluation tool for the Land and Urban planning department of the Navarre Government when planning for the future.

Progress Launch Delivery 2007 2010

Key aCtors PRO.MOTION partner in charge of steering Implementation of the project was possible within the framework of the European STEER program project (EACI) called PRO.MOTION and developed by Centro de Recursos Ambientales de Navarra (CRANA) and Navarra de Suelo Residencial (NASURSA). Inhabitants already established in the Sarriguren residential area, the Municipality of Valle de Egüés, Mancomunidad de la Comarca de Pamplona (PT authority in the metropolitan area of Pamplona), the departments of the Government of Navarre Land Use, Public Works and Transport.


evaluatIon Methods Continuous evaluation of the project has been done using the SUMO tool. Direct results of the implementation of the project and surveys have been considered to evaluate results thanks to indicators. Indicators have been divided into groups at various levels. Principally: – at motivational level: number of inhabitants involved in participative process (consultation meetings…) as well as number of planning stakeholders involved in working groups and training; – at behavioral level: number of people participating in promotional activities and campaigns and requesting the development of services; – at objective level: number of proposals arising from the participative process. Around 40 people involved in consultation, around 50 planning stakeholders involved in working groups and training. Around 250 people involved in promotional activities and requesting services. 6 of the main proposals for improving planning conditions considered and implemented (completed or on progress).



For more information:
Contact: Maribel Gómez Environmental Resources Centre of Navarre, CRANA Padre Adoain 217, bajo - Pampelune 31015 - Espagne energia2@crana.org 00 34 948 33 88 22 Website: www.promotionsarriguren.org Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

12 Le Séquestre, France
IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants Le Séquestre 542 ha 1 572

Camp Countal neighbourhood

Camp Countal neighbourhood 22 ha 600 dwellings, 1 500 inhabitants

Context In 2004, following amendments made in 2001 to the Urban Development Plan, the Séquestre municipality committed to an Agenda 21 (local implementation of the Kyoto protocol), bringing about a range of sustainable development measures for the town and its environs. Noting the semi-rural nature of the district, the municipality created a 22-hectare area for urban development, to include housing units and businesses. The Camp Countal neighbourhood aimed at reducing environmental impacts, and more widely, to address issues such as social diversity, mobility and local governance. The Camp Countal has the further challenge to double the local population.

Programme regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty Camp Countal’s participatory approach resulted in a new organization of urban and communication patterns giving priority to non-motorized travels and to the neighbourhood life.

Participatory approach
In accordance with its citizenship initiative of 2002, the town wanted to give a significant voice to present and future residents. In 2004, the entire population was consulted in order to identify their preferred targets for a high environmental quality within the neighbourhood project. The project has also been monitored by consultative committees made up of local inhabitants. Furthermore, some future residents created an association with the architect responsible for enforcing the sustainable development requirements. Therefore, they had the opportunity to think together on the design of their future neighbourhood and on its common living rules.

Neighbourhood life
The project distributes construction according to the population density and the different types of building, in order to best respond to the social and generational diversity whilst integrating building into the landscape: a mixture of singlefamily houses, intermediate housing (blocks of single-family houses) and collective housing offered for rent or purchase, of which around 27% of social housing. The district foresees the creation of 3 000 m2 of shops and 3 000 m2 of services, that create lively places employments. The project team is attempting to bring closer together living and work places, thereby reducing commuting and other journeys. The provision of public services and facilities (schools, nurseries, leisure and sports centres) are scheduled and built in prevision of an increase of population.

Priority to active modes
The project foresees a development plan in favour of active modes: • reduction in the number of primary roads (4 in total) and their dimensions (5.5 m wide for two-way, 3.5 m for one-way roads), renovation of the main road (6 m wide); • creation of car parks at the entrance of some blocks in order to restrict car traffic to minute-stops in front of housing; • network of cycle lanes and pedestrian paths, integrated into the 10-year multi-use lanes plan (action within the Local Agenda 21); • bike shelters or garages available in public and private areas. Finally, dwellings will be constructed no more than a 5-minute walk from the Albi bus stops (13 daily circuits in the direction of the town centre). A dialogue with the public transport provider (Albibus) has been initiated to create additional bus stops.

Replication by followers
The municipality as project owner entrusted its delegates (SEM 81) with an important mission: achieve a financial balance for the project. Without any major subsides from the municipality or other partners, it will demonstrate that an ambition urban development is possible whatever is the size or the financial means of a town. Such a project must be developed without getting into debt the municipality and therefore the future generations.

Progress Launch Delivery 2004 2011 (1st delivery phase); prevision of 25 to 50 houses/year over app. 15 years

Key aCtors Project owners (and their delegates) Project managers and project assistance Partners Séquestre community SEM81 Dessein de la Ville Agence Puyo Egis Aménagement The residents (via public meetings, consultative committees and survey on high quality environment) Steering committee (external experts) Associations of the Séquestre’s eco-friendly neighbourhood (associations for future residents)

For more information:
Sources: Pour des hameaux et quartiers durables en Midi-Pyrénes, Guide ARPE-ADEME, 2009 (www.arpe-mip.com/html/1-6159-DADD-n3-Pour-des-quartiers-et-hameaux-durables-en-Midi-Pyrenees.php) Quartiers durables, premiers retours d’expériences en Midi-Pyrénées, AREPE, ADEME, PRELUDDE (2000-2006) : www.ademe.fr/midi-pyrenees/documents/publications/quartiers_durables.pdf Website of “Territoires durables” (pdf): www.territoires-durables.fr/upload/pagesEdito/fichiers/AMD_CAMP_ COUNTAL_LE-SEQUESTRE.pdf CAUE 31 website (pdf): ftp://ftp2.caue-mp.fr/cauemp/caue31/consultation/31ZACEnv.pdf

Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

Hammarby Sjöstad 13 Stockholm, Sweden

IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants Stockholm 187 km

Hammarby Sjöstad 200 ha 8 000 dwelllings 15 000 inhabitants (growing to 30 000 at full term)

825 057

Context Previously an industrial harbour area and partly brownfield site, with a surface area of approx. 200 hectares, Hammarby lies in the south. It is in close proximity to both the inner city of Stockholm and a nature reserve. The Town opted for a highlevel application of technologies in the fields of water, energy, waste management, building techniques and transport. The norms chosen for this application are twice stringent as those currently in force in Stockholm! Concerning transport, the objective is to develop an efficient public transport system which proposes several alternatives to private car use.

Programme regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty The implemented programme aimed at reducing private car use in favour of more energy-efficient modes. Objectives for 2005 expected 80% of commuter journeys by public transport, on foot or cycle and 15% of the local authority fleet running on biogas or electricity. These objectives have now been increased and, by 2015, aim for 90% of commuter journeys by public transport, on foot or cycle and 25% of the local authority fleet running on biogas or electricity. A policy for the development of public transport was put in place right from the start of the project according to an integrated planning: creation of bus routes (biogas), ferries to Södermalm Island and a tramway. Delivered in 2002 (1.5 km of lane and 4 stops), the tramway benefited directly from the existing inter-connections with other means of transport, including the bus service. Thus the maximum distance between residential buildings and the closest transport stops was only 500 m. Current figures show that 19 000 people use the line on a daily basis. New ferry services were opened in order to create direct links between Hammarby and Stockholm centre. They are in addition to the bus and tram lines which already operate in the neighbourhood. An innovative car-sharing system (gas or electric vehicles) was put in place. It is the result of competitive tendering by several petrol companies for the implementation of a car-sharing system. Statoil is currently managing this system which is open to everyone living in Hammarby Sjöstad. The best parking places all around the neighbourhood are permanently reserved for the shared vehicles. In 2004, 16 cars were in service and already attracting use by 10% of families. In exchange for this best offer, Statoil obtained the running of the only petrol station implanted on the site. Cycle parking and access to active modes Cyclists have the choice of a large range of both covered and open cycle parking places. The streets, which are designed to be accessible by disabled people, offer a high level of comfort for pedestrians. For the best possible management of available parking places (kept to a minimum through choice), a number of spaces are shared between residents and workers: during the day, the spaces are used by staff from the local offices, and in the evenings by the residents. In addition, heavy goods vehicles must adhere to traffic restrictions in some zones of the neighbourhood. Finally, Hammarby offers all the necessary services required by a flourishing neighbourhood (schools, libraries, shops and services, sports fields and jogging lanes etc.).

Progress Launch Delivery 1990 2005 (1st stage), 2010

Key aCtors Project owners (or their delegates) Partners Stockholm town hall Departments for housing, highways and urban mobility The Stockholm committee for the environment and health Associations for environmental protection Economic and technical partners: promoters, constructors and landlords The LIP council (programme for local investment) Research establishments The committee in charge of town planning and coordination of environmental actions The environment information centre: GlashusEtt. Strong involvement from town service operators: the Stockholm water company, Birka Energi; the Statoil petrol company: management of car-sharing system

For more information:
Sources : Quartiers durables – Guide d’expériences européennes, ARENE Île-de-France – IMBE, April 2005 « Urbanisme HQE à Stockholm », fiche de bonne pratique, Énergie Cités, 2000 Website of Stockholm (in Swedish): www2.stockholm.se www.hammarbysjostad.se (quartier) www2.stockholm.se/lip (plan d’investissement local) (www.energie-cites.org)

Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

Carnot-Gambetta 14 neighbourhood Suresnes, France

IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants Number of employees Municipality of Suresnes 379 ha 44 738 29 700 (2008) Carnot Gambetta neighbourhood today 52 ha 8 400 13 000 (2008) Carnot Gambetta neighbourhood when completed 52 ha Estimated at 10 100 Estimated at 18 000

Context The town of Suresnes seized the opportunity offered by the implementation of significant development projects in the Carnot-Gambetta neighbourhood, to embark on the way towards sustainable development. Themes ranging from water, energy and waste management to urban travel were integrated into this wide-ranging project leading by example regarding environment. One of the main challenges of the project is to reconcile the main issues of sustainable urban development projects with necessary changes in the behaviour and habits of the neighbourhood’s inhabitants.

Programme regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty The main objective is a 25% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) at district level by 2013. Supplementary objectives (for 2013) are the reductions of 25% in the consumption of non-renewable energies by buildings, 30% in car traffic-related air pollution, 20% in drinking-water consumption, 5% of rainfall water into the town’s water network, 25% in residual household waste and 15% in construction waste. Currently, the Carnot-Gambetta neighbourhood has an urban density of more than 10 000 inhab./km2. The district is characterised by its mixed-use nature: it consists of apartment buildings, offices, shops and public institutions. Beginning in 2009, travel-related measures were implemented in the Carnot-Gambetta neighbourhood, in particular with the renewal of Ledru-Rollin/Salomon de Rothschild streets. These streets were transformed in a 30 kph zones and home zones (20 kph), with general implementation of two-way bicycle street. Other developments included more general improvements such as widening the pavements, introducing raised intersections and crossings, installing bicycle parking areas, planting tree etc. Although these modifications have been well received, car users had difficulties adjusting to the new two-way bicycle streets, despite the presence of additional road signs and municipal information campaign. The town representatives received several letters and telephone calls from people using these streets, claiming that the modifications were dangerous. After 16 months in effect, complaints are rare and drivers, pedestrians and cyclists appear to have got used to the twoway cycle streets. Nonetheless, in order to reinforce behavioural changes, an information/communication campaign is planned (to launch end 2010/start of 2011), notably with new fixed signs at the entrances and exits of the 30 kph zones and home zones in order to increase users awareness.

It appears that bicycle use has increased, not just in the Carnot-Gambetta neighbourhood but across the whole town. The neighbourhood’s two Vélib’® stations (self-service bike hire), installed in June 2009, registered a 20% increase in use between June 2009 and June 2010. The neighbourhood is served by a tram (line T2, Belvédère station), 2 bus lines (lines 144 and 93), and the Suresnois bus (municipal shuttle). Plans are underway to modify a bus line in order to better connect the neighbourhood to Paris. Within the framework of the public debate on the Greater Paris transport infrastructure, a metro station is envisaged for the neighbourhood, on a route that connects La Défense to Bourget airport via the south of Paris.

Progress Launch Time schedule 2008 The project’s implementation schedule is as follows: • September-December 2008: environmental diagnostic of the Carnot Gambetta neighbourhood undertaken • During 2008: First works begin (Servier Laboratory buildings, development/landscaping of Ledru-Rollin/Salomon de Rothschild streets etc.) • December 2008: Drawing up of a greenhouse gas balance-sheet at the district level • 2009: Creation of an action plan for set objectives • January 2010: Implementation of an Environmental Management System • 2009-2013: Compliance checks, monitoring and performances evaluation Delivery 2013

Key aCtors Project owners (or their delegates) Project management and project assistance Partners Suresnes town and private partners: Nomadéis, LesEnR Suresnes town, private partners (promoters) General Council for Hauts-de-Seine, Ile-de-France Region, ADEME, European Union (FEDER)

evaluatIon Method Indicators Environmental Management System The number of businesses having put into place a Workplace Mobility Plan, the number of people informed about soft modes, the number of kilometres of bicycle paths, take-up/use rate for the Vélib’® bicycles. Evaluation-in-progress. The first results are encouraging: a rise in the numbers of bikes rented from Vélib’®, the creation of a number of cycle paths, the establishment of an City Hall Mobility Plan…


For more information:
Website: www.suresnes.fr Contact: Raphaël GUIDETTI 00 33 (0)1 41 18 17 86 Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

good Practices New Neighbourhoods and Mobility

BedZED 15 Sutton, United Kingdom
IdentIty Territory Surface area Inhabitants Sutton, United Kingdom 43.82 km2 185 900 BedZED neighbourhood 1.7 ha ~ 82 dwellings, 250 residents

Context The Beddington Zero Energy Development – so called BedZED – in Sutton, is the UK’s first large-scale “carbon neutral” urban development. In 1986, the borough of Sutton committed an Environmental Statement. By 1994, Sutton had already embarked on its Local Agenda 21. The City imposed, in January 1999, to its suppliers to get environmental certification. This strong Local Authority commitment, combined with the conviction and motivation of architect Bill Dunster, proved to be the driving force behind this unique opportunity for the development of a sustainable neighbourhood.

Programme regardIng energy-effICIent mobIlIty A “Green Travel Plan” was adopted in order to reduce the environmental impact of journeys undertaken by the residents of BedZED. The objective was to reduce transport energy consumption by 50%. Peabody Foundation and Bioregional association committed to integrate this target as a mandatory requirement in the allocation of building permits. BedZED’s location, close to the existing transport networks, was one of the determining factors. The transport plan is hinged on four main objectives. 1• Reducing the need to travel • The mixed use of the neighbourhood enables residents working in the area to reduce their need to travel, in that offices and other services are close to their homes. BedZED comprises: 82 homes and 2 500 m2 of offices, services and shops. Other on-site facilities include a community centre, a show hall, private and public green spaces, a community medical centre, a sports centre, a nursery, a bar and a restaurant. • An on-line shopping service has been put in place in association with a local supermarket which handles deliveries. 2• Promoting public transport • The neighbourhood is served by two bus routes. • Two railway stations within walking distance of BedZED (Hackbridge and Mitcham Junction) provide direct links to Sutton and Victoria Train Station in London as well as access to the Thameslink suburban loop to North London. • A new tramline from Mitcham Junction provides a link to Wimbledon. 3• Offering alternative options to private cars • Cycle parking (1.42 m2 of bike shelter per dwelling) and cycle lanes. • Streets and public roadways are designed in home zone, and therefore are accessible for disabled people. • 26 charging terminals for electric vehicles: ten years from now, BedZED would like to be able to produce enough electricity from its photovoltaic roofs to charge 40 electric vehicles. • 3 cars (liquid petrol gas, electric) are available to 35 residents who are members of the car-sharing service.

4• Intelligent management of parking • Parking spaces are not allocated to specific dwellings in order to ensure that they are available during the day to both residents and staff working in business on the site. Around fifty parking places, rented annually, are offered to 250 residents and around 100 staff. • Parking places are paid-for by car owners. Fares are calculated according to fuel type: the most expensive for a petrol or diesel car, less for liquid petrol gas, and for free for electric car owners (they can also recharge their cars for free on the 777 m2 of photovoltaic panels). Several years into the project, residents’ mileage has been reduced by 64% compared to the national average – and the residents of this neighbourhood know an average of 20 neighbours by name.

Progress Launch Delivery 1999 2002

Key aCtors Project owners (or their delegates) Project managers and project assistance Partners Sutton Council, The Peabody Foundation ZEDfactory (Bill Dunster Architects) The BioRegional Development Group WWF International

evaluatIon Method Indicators Indicators board Ecological footprint Bike shelter per dwelling Number of charging terminals for electric vehicles 1.42 m2 of bike shelter per dwelling 26 charging terminals for electric vehicles


For more information:
Quartiers durables – Guide d’expériences européennes, ARENE Île-de-France – IMBE, April 2005 Bill Dunster, Bedzed Architect: www.zedfactory.com Bioregional: www.bioregional.com/what-we-do/our-work/bedzed/

Publication date: November 2010

sustainable mobility at home

The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors. It does not represent the opinion of the European Communities. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

Translated by: Marko Typo and ARENE Design : Trocadéro Technical support: Auxilia Photo credits: ARENE, Céline Meunier, Conseil général du Morbihan, CRANA and NASURSA, FGM-AMOR, APMS, Sinergija, La Petite Reine, towns and other actors thanked. Date : December 2010

Acknowledgements for their friendly experiences feedback: austrian Mobility research, FgM-aMor, crana and naSurSa, Blagnac, Bordeaux, Freibourg im Breisgau, garges-lès-gonesse, grenoble, hanover, Le Séquestre, Limeil-Brévannes, Malmö, Saint-ouen, Suresnes, Stockholm, Sutton.

Editorial partnership: arene Île-de-France and arpe Midi-pyrénées Editorial control: céline Meunier, arene Île-de-France Communication coordination: pascale céron and pascale gorges, arene Île-de-France

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