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N TP CHNG 2: NIT PHOTPHO

Dng 1: Bi tp nhn bit v tch cht


VD1: C 5 l mt nhn ng cc kh sau: CO2, SO2, Cl2, O2 v N2. Hy nhn bit l ng kh N2?
VD2: Bng phng php ha hc hy tch N2 ra khi hn hp cc kh sau: CO2, SO2, Cl2, H2S v N2.
VD3: C 5 l ng kh ring bit cc kh sau: N2, NH3, Cl2, CO2 v O2. Bng phng php ha hc hy xc
nh l ng kh NH3?
Dng 2: Bi tp v cht kh
1. Bi tp v hiu sut phn ng
VD1: Cho 4 lt kh N2 v 14 lt kh H2 vo bnh phn ng. Hn hp thu c sau phn ng c th tch 16,4 lt.
Tnh th tch kh NH3 to thnh v hiu sut phn ng? Bit th tch cc kh c o trong cng iu kin v
nhit v p sut.
/s: V (NH3) = 1,6 l ; H = 20%
VD2: Cn ly bao nhiu lt kh N2 v H2 (o ktc) iu ch c 51g NH 3 bit hiu sut ca phn ng l
50%.
/s: V (N2) = 67,2 l ; V(H2) = 201,6 l
VD3: Cn ly bao nhiu lt kh N2 v H2 iu ch c 33,6 lt kh NH3? Bit th tch cc kh c o
cng iu kin nhit v p sut, hiu sut ca phn ng l 25%.
/s: V(N2) = 67,2 l ; V(H2) = 201,6 l
VD4: un nng hn hp gm 200g NH4Cl v 200g CaO. T lng kh NH3 to ra, iu ch c 224 ml dd
NH3 30% (khi lng ring D = 0,892g/ml). Tnh hiu sut ca phn ng trn? /s: 94,3%
2. Bi tp v p sut cht kh v th tch kh
VD1: Trong mt bnh kn dung tch 5 lt c cha 7g N2. Tnh p sut ca kh trong bnh, coi nhit ca n l
0oC.
/s: P = 1,12 (atm)
VD2: Trn 3 lt NO vi 10 lt khng kh. Tnh th tch NO 2 to thnh v th tch hn hp kh sau phn ng?
Bit O2 chim 1/5 th tch khng kh, phn ng xy ra hon ton, th tch cc kh c o cng iu kin.
/s: V(NO2) = 3 l ; Vhh = 11,5 l
VD3: Trn 50ml hn hp NO v N2 vi 25ml khng kh, thu c hn hp kh c th tch bng 70ml. Thm
vo hn hp ny 145ml khng khis th th tch bng 200ml. Tnh thnh phn phn trm theo th tch ca hn
hp ban u? Bit O2 chim 1/5 th tch khng kh, phn ng xy ra hon ton, th tch cc kh c o cng
iu kin.
/s: %NO = 80% ; %N2 = 20%
VD4: Cho 1,5 lt NH3 (ktc) i qua ng ng 16g CuO nung nng thu c mt cht rn X.
a) Tnh khi lng CuO phn ng?
/s: m = 8g
b) Tnh th tch dd HCl 2M tc dng vi X?
VHCl = 0,1 l
VD5: Dn 1,344 lt kh NH3 vo bnh c cha 0,672 lt kh Cl2 (th tch cc kh c o ktc).
a) Tnh thnh phn % theo th tch ca hn hp kh sau phn ng?
/s: %N2 = 33,3%; %HCl = 66,7%
b) Tnh khi lng ca mui NH4Cl thu oc sau phn ng?
/s: m (NH4Cl) = 2,14g
VD6: Hn hp A gm 3 kh NH3, N2 v H2. Dn A vo bnh c nhit cao. Sau phn ng phn hy NH3 ( coi
nh hon ton) thu oc hn hp kh B c th tch tng 25% so vi kh A. Dn B i qua ng ng CuO nung
nng sau loi c nc th ch cn li mt cht kh c th tch gim 75% so vi B. Tnh thnh phn % theo
th tch ca cc kh trong hn hp A?
/s: %NH3 = 25%; %H2 = 56,25%; %N2 = 18,75%
3. Bi tp v t khi hi
VD1: Mt oxit ca Nit c cng thc tng qut l NxOy. T khi hi ca A so vi H2 l 23. Xc nh cng thc
phn t ca oxit trn bit oxi chim 69,55% v khi lng.
/s: NO2
VD2: Mt oxit ca Nit c cng thc tng qut l N xOy. T khi hi ca A so vi O2 l 2,875. Xc nh cng
thc phn t ca oxit trn bit Nit chim 30,435% v khi lng.
/s: N2O4
VD3: nhit v p sut nht nh, 2 phn t A ha hp vi nhau to thnh mt phn t B (A v B ln lt
l NO2 v N2O4). Bit rng khi hn hp kh (hai oxit A v B) c t khi hi so vi khng kh bng 1,752.
Tnh t l phn trm s mol A ha hp thnh B?
/s: 18,8%
+
Dng 3: Bi tp v dung dch NH3 v mui NH4
VD1: Ha tan 4,48 lt kh NH3 (ktc) vo lng nc va 100ml dd. Cho vo dd ny 100ml ddH2SO4 1M.
Tnh nng mol/l ca cc ion NH4+, SO42- v mui (NH4)2SO4 trong dd thu c?
VD2: a) Tnh nng mol/l ca dd NH3 20% ( khi lng ring D=0,925g/ml)?
/s: 10,9M
b) Trong 50g dd ny c ha tan bao nhiu lt NH3 (o ktc)?
/s: 13,22 l
VD3: Cho dd KOH n d vo 50ml dd (NH4)2SO4 1M. Tnh th tch kh thot ra ktc? /s: 2,24 l
VD4: Vit phng trnh phn t v phng trnh ion thu gn ca phn ng gia dd NH 4Br vi cc dd sau:
KOH, Ca(OH)2, AgNO3.

VD5: Vit phng trnh phn t v phng trnh ion thu gn ca phn ng gia (NH 4)3PO4 vi cc dd sau:
NaOH, Ba(OH)2 v dd CaCl2.
VD6: Cho dd NH3 n d vo 200ml dd Al2(SO4)3 . Lc ly kt ta cho vo 10ml dd NaOH 2M th kt ta va
tan ht. Tnh nng mol/l ca dd Al2(SO4)3?
/s: 0,5M
VD7: Cho dd Ba(OH)2 n d vo 50ml A c cha cc ion NH4+, SO42- v NO3-. C 11,65g mt cht kt ta
c to ra v un nng th c 4,48 lt mt cht kh thot ra (ktc).
a) Vit PTPT v PT ion thu gn ca cc phn ng?
b) Tnh nng mol ca mi mui trong dd A?
/s: nng ca (NH4)2SO4 = 1M, ca NH4NO3 = 2M.
VD8: a) Ngay nhit thng (NH4)2CO3 phn hy dn thnh NH4HCO3. Vit phng trnh phn ng
phn hy.
b) Mt hn hp 2 mui ny c un nng cho NH3 v CO2 thot ra theo t l nNH3 : nCO2 = 6 : 5. Tnh t l %
s mol ca 2 mui trong hn hp?
/s: %(NH4)2CO3 = 20% v %NH4HCO3 = 80%.
Dng 4: Bi tp v axit HNO3
VD1: Hon thnh cc phn ng sau:
a) Al + HNO3 NO2 + . . .
g) FeO + HNO3 NO2 + . . .
b) Al + HNO3 N2O + . . .
h) Fe3O4 + HNO3 NO2 + . . .
c) Ag + HNO3 c . . .
i) FexOy + HNO3 NO2 + . . .
d) Cu + HNO3 (long) . . .
k) Fe + HNO3 NxOy + . . .
e) Pb + HNO3 (c) . . .
l) Mg + HNO3 NH4NO3 + . . . .
f) Fe + HNO3 (long) NO + . . .
m) Zn + HNO3 N2 + . . .
n) Al + HNO3 NO + NO2 + . . .
VD2: Hn hp A gm 2 KL: Al v Cu. Chia A thnh 2 phn bng nhau.
- Phn 1 cho vo dd HNO3 c, ngui th c 8,96 lt kh mu nu thot ra.
- Phn 2 cho vo dd HCl d t thy c 6,72 lt kh H2 thot ra.
Xc nh thnh phn trm v khi lng ca mi KL trong hn hp A. Bit th tch cc kh c o ktc.
VD3: Cho 11g hn hp Al v Fe vo dd HNO 3 long, ly d th thu c 6,72 lt kh NO thot ra (ktc). Tnh
% khi lng mi KL trong hn hp ban u.
VD4: Nung mt lng mui Cu(NO3)2. Sau mt thi gian dng li, ngui v em cn th thy khi lng
gim i 54g.
a) Tnh khi lng Cu(NO3)2 b phn hy?
b) Tnh th tch cc kh that ra (ktc)?
VD5: Cho 60g hn hp Cu v CuO tan ht trong 3 lt dd HNO3 1M thu c 13,44 lt kh NO (ktc).
a) Tnh hm lng % ca CuO trong hn hp ban u?
b) Tnh nng mol/l ca mui v axit trong dd thu c? Bit th tch ca dd thay i khng ng k.
VD6: C 34,8g hn hp Al, Fe v Cu. Chia hn hp thnh 2 phn bng nhau. Phn 1 cho vo dd HNO 3 c,
ngui th c 4,48 lit kh thot ra. Phn 2 cho vo dd HCl d th c 8,96 lt kh thot ra. Tnh khi lng mi kim
loi trong hn hp ban u? Bit cc kh c o ktc.
VD7: Cho 6,4g bt S vo 154ml dd HNO3 60% ( khi lng ring D = 1,367 g/ml). un nng nh, lu hunh
tan ht v c kh NO2 thot ra. Tnh nng % ca cc axit trong dd thu c sau phn ng?
VD8: Cho 8,32g Cu tc dng va vi 240ml dd HNO 3 thu c 4,928 lt hn hp kh NO v NO2 thot ra
(ktc).
a) Tnh s mol mi kh thot ra?
b) Tnh nng mol/l ca dd ban u?
VD9: Cho 13,5g Al tc dng va vi 2,2 lt dd HNO3 thy thot ra mt hn hp gm 2 kh NO v N2O. Bit
t khi hi ca hn hp kh so vi Hiro bng 19,2.
a) Tnh s mol mi kh to thnh?
b) Tnh nng mol/l ca dd axit ban u?
VD10: Dung dch HNO3 long tc dng vi hn hp Zn v ZnO to ra dd c cha 8g NH4NO3 v 113,4g
Zn(NO3)2. Tnh thnh phn khi lng hn hp?
VD11: Nung nng 66,2g Pb(NO3)2 thu c 55,4g cht rn.
a) Tnh hiu sut ca phn ng phn hy?
b) Tnh s mol cc kh thot ra?

VD12: Ngi ta dng ht 56 m3 NH3 (ktc) iu ch HNO3. Tnh khi lng HNO3 40% thu c bit rng
ch c 92% NH3 chuyn ha thnh HNO3.
VD13: Nung nng 17,3g hn hp NaNO3 v Cu(NO3)2. Hn hp kh thot ra c dn vo 89,2ml nc th cn
d 1,12 lt kh (ktc) khng b hp th. (Lng oxi ha tan khng ng k).
a) Tnh khi lng mi mui trong hn hp ban u?
b) Tnh nng phn trm ca dd axit?
Dng 5: Bi tp v photpho, axit photphoric v mui photphat
VD1: Vit cc PTP xy ra khi iu ch H 3PO4 t P. Nu c 6,2 kg P th iu ch c bao nhiu lt dd H 3PO4
2M?
/s: 100 lt
VD2: Bng phng php ha hc hy phn bit dd HCl, HNO3 v H3PO4?
VD3: Bng phng php ha hc hy phn bit cc dd sau: NaNO3, Na3PO4, NaCl, Na2S?
VD4: a) thu c mui trung ha cn ly bao nhiu ml dd NaOH 1M trn vi 50ml dd H3PO4 1M?
/s: 0,15 (l)
b) Trn ln 100ml dd NaOH 1M vi 50ml dd H3PO4 1M. Tnh nng mol/l ca dd mui thu c?
/s: CM ( Na2 HPO4 ) = 0,33(M)
VD5: t chy hon ton 15,5g P ri ha tan sn phm vo 200g nc. Tnh nng % ca dd axit thu c?
/s: C% (H3PO4) = 20,8 (%)
VD6: Cn ly bao nhiu tn qung photphorit loi c cha 65% Ca 3(PO4)2 iu ch c 150kg P? Bit rng
lng P hao ht trong qu trnh sn xut l 3%.
/s: 1,189 (tn)
VD7: t chy hon ton 6,8g mt hp cht ca P thu c 14,2g P 2O5 v 5,4g nc. Cho cc sn phm vo
50g dd NaOH 32%.
a) Xc nh cng thc ha hc ca hp cht?
/s: NH3
b) Tnh nng % ca dd mui thu c?
/s: C% (Na2HPO4) = 41(%)
VD8: Mt loi qung apatit c cha 42,23% P2O5, 50,03% Cao v 7,74% CaF2. Vit cng thc biu din thnh
phn ca qung di dng 2 loi mui?
/s: 3P2O5.9CaO.CaF2 hoc 3Ca3(PO4)2.CaF2
VD9: Dng P2O5 lm mt nc ca mt axit A th thu c mt cht rn mu trng B. Bit rng B d phn
hy thnh 2 cht kh m khi c hp th vo nc th li to thnh A. Hy xc nh A v B, vit cc phng
trnh phn ng v gii thch?
/s: A l HNO3 v B l N2O5
VD10: Cn ly bao nhiu g NaOH cho vo dd H3PO4 thu c 2,84g Na2HPO4 v 6,56g Na3PO4?
/s: mNaOH = 6,4 (g)
VD11: Cho dd c cha 11,76g H3Po4 vo dd c cha 16,8g KOH. Tnh khi lng cc mui thu c sau khi
mK2 HPO4 = 10,44 (g); mK3 PO4 = 12,72 (g)
lm bay hi dd?
VD12: Cho dd c cha 39,2g H3PO4 vo dd c cha 44g NaOH. Tnh khi lng mi mui thu c sau khi c
cn dd?
/s: 14,2g Na2HPO4 v 49,2g Na3PO4
VD13: Cho 21,3g P2O5 vo dd c cha 16g NaOH, thm nc vo cho va 400ml. Tnh nng mol/l ca
cc mui trong dd thu c?
/s: CM ( NaH 2 PO4 ) = 0,5(M); CM ( Na2 HPO4 ) = 0,25(M)
VD14: Hon thnh cc phn ng sau:
1) Na3PO4 + Ba(NO3)2 ?
2) K3PO4 + MgCl2 ?
3) Ca(H2PO4)2 + CaHPO4 ?
4) K2HPO4 + KOH ?
5) H3PO4 + Na2HPO4 ?
VD15: Trn 200g dd K2HPO4 17,4% vi 100g dd H3PO4 98%. Tnh nng % ca 2 mui photphat trong dd
thu c?
/s: C% (K2HPO4) = 5,8(%); C% (KH2PO4) = 9,1(%)
VD16: Ha tan 20g hn hp gm BaSO4, Ca3(PO4)2, Na3PO4 v CaCO3 vo nc. Phn khng tan c khi
lng l 18g c lc ring v cho vo dd HCl d th tan c 15g v c 2,24l kh thot ra (ktc). Tnh khi
lng mi mui trong hn hp ban u?
/s: mNa3 PO4 = 2(g); mBaSO4 = 3(g); mCaCO3 = 10(g); mCa3 ( PO4 )2 = 5(g)
Dng 6: Bi tp v phn bn ha hc
VD1: Trn thc t, phn m NH4Cl thng ch c 23%N.
a) Tnh khi lng phn bn cung cp 60kg N?
/s: 261(kg)
b) Tnh hm lng % ca NH4Cl trong phn bn?
/s: 87,9(%)
VD2: Mt th bt qung photphat c cha 35% Ca3(PO4)2. Tnh khi lng P2O5 tng ng vi 10 tn bt
qung?
/s: 1,603 (tn)
VD3: Phn ln Supephotphat kp thc t sn xut c thng ch c 40% P 2O5. Tnh hm lng % ca
Ca(H2PO4)2 trong phn bn ?
/s: 65,9(%)

VD4: Phn Kali sn xut c t qung sinvinit thng ch c 50% K2O. Tnh hm lng % ca KCl trong
phn bn ?
/s: 79,2(%)
VD5: iu ch phn bn Amophot dng ht 6000 mol H3PO4.
a) Tnh th tch NH3 (ktc) phn ng ? Bit rng Amophot c thnh phn vi t l l:
nNH 4 H 2 PO4 : n( NH 4 )2 HPO4 = 1 : 1
/s: 201,6 (m3)

b) Tnh khi lng ca Amophot thu c?

/s: 741(kg)

VD6: Tnh khi lng NH3 v dd HNO3 45% iu ch 100kg phn m NH4NO3 loi c 34%N?
/s: mNH3 = 20,6 (kg); mHNO3 = 76,4 (kg); mddHNO3 = 170 (kg)
(1)
(2)
VD7: a) Hon thnh dy chuyn ha sau: Ca3(PO4)2
H3PO4
Ca(H2PO4)2
b) Tnh khi lng dd H2SO4 65% dng iu ch c 500kg Supephotphat kp? Bit rng trong thc t
lng axit cn nhiu hn 5% so vi l thuyt.
/s: khi lng dd H2SO4 thc t cn dng l: 677 (kg)
VD8: Cho 13,44 m3 kh NH3 (ktc) tc dng vi 49kg H3PO4. Tnh thnh phn khi lng Amophot thu c?
/s: mNH 4 H 2 PO4 = 46(kg); m( NH 4 )2 HPO4 = 13,2 (kg)
VD9: Mt loi phn bn nitrophot l hn hp ca 3 mui: NH4NO3, NH4H2PO4 v KCl. Bit rng cc thnh
phn dinh dng c t l khi lng mN : mP2O5 : mK2O = 1 : 1 : 1 vi tng khi lng chim 54,3% ca phn
bn. Tnh khi lng mi mui c trong 100kg phn bn?
mNH 4 NO3 = 41,51(kg); mNH 4 H 2 PO4 = 29,32 (kg); mKCl = 28,69 (kg)
VD10: Ngi ta iu ch Supephotphst n t mt loi qung c cha 73% Ca3(PO4)2, 26% CaCO3 v 1%
SiO2.
a) Tnh khi lng dd H2SO4 65% tc dng ht vi 100kg bt qung?
/s: 110,2 (kg)
b) Supephotphat n thu c gm nhng cht no? Tnh t l P2O5?
/s: Supephotphat n thu c gm: Ca(H2PO4)2, CO4.2H2O v SiO2 . %P2O5 = 18,4 (%)