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# BASIC CHARACTERISTIC OF THE TRANSISTOR

OBJECTIVES:
Forward

## Forward Current Transfer Ratio, CB

The graph of Ic- VCB for different values of IE is horizontal lines. We also know, Ic=IB + IE, but in this case IB is very small therefor, , Ic= IE.

or

or h dc fE

Ic/IE

AC CURRENT GAIN

## Defined as ratio Ic/ IE and denoted by

ac

or hfb

Ability of the device to transfer current from low resistance input co the high resistance output i.e transfer resistor=resistance

From the above graph, for VCB =10V, we have IE =4mA, Ic=3.92mA and when IE=6mA, Ic=5.88mA Thus ac= hfb= Ic/ IE =(5.88-3.92)/(6-4) =0.98 <1 Thus in CB ampifier current gain Ai is less than one, however, current in the output flows through large load resistance, it gives high voltage gain Av and therefore power gain Ap.

Relation Between

and

Let us consider IE=IB+Ic------------------------------------(1) =Ic/IE ____________(2) =Ic/IB____________(3) Substituting IB=IE-Ic from (1) to (3) we get, =Ic/( IE-Ic) Dividing numerator and denominator by IE =Ic/IE/( IE-Ic)/IE, Substituting from (2) we get, = /1Similarly, we get for = /1-

## COLLECTOR CUTOFF CURRENT,ICBO

The reverse current that is flowing through the basecollector junction, when the emitter is open is called collector cutoff current ICBO Collector Cutoff Current,ICBO In CB, we have Ic=IB+IE but IB is very small, therefore Ic=IE and =Ic/IE, therefore Ic= IE Including collector cutoff current ICBO we get, Ic= IE+ ICBO but, ICBO=ICO Therfore Ic= IE+ ICO___________________(4) Equation (4) gives collector cutoff equation for CB amplifier

Similarly

collector cutoff equation for CE amplifier is Ic= IB+ICEO Here, ICEO=( +1)ICO Therefore, Ic= IB+( +1)ICO_________(5) Comparing (4) and (5), we can say in CE amplifier leakage current is times larger than CB. Since ICO is temperature dependent, when temperature changes large change in collector current occurs.