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The Center for Environmental Policy Studies Series #15

Invasive Plant Species in Protected and Open Areas in the Central


District
Jean-Marc Dufour-Dror




2005, The Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies
The Hay Elyachar House
20 Radak St. 92186 Jerusalem
http://www.jiis.org.il
E-mail: machon@jiis.org.il




Richardson et al.
Colautti & MacIsaac






........................................................... Acacia saligna
........................................... Heterotheca subaxillaris
................................... Eucalyptus camadulensis
.......................................................... Ricinus communis
.......................................................... Opuntia ficus-indica
.................................................. Agave americana
....................................................... Melia azedarach
.................................................. Xanthium strumarium
....................................................... Lantana camara
................................................. Solanum macranthum
............................................ Solanum elaeagnifolium
........................................................... Nicotiana glauca
................................................ Ailanthus altissima
.............................................................. Schinus molle
.................................................................... Tipuana tipu
..................................................... Acacia paradoxa
................................................. Acacia cyclops













Summary


The Biogeography-Ecology Center, European Institute for Sustainable Development, UMR 8505 CNRS/ENS, 45 rue de France, 77000 Fontainebleau,
FRANCE



Richardson et al.
(2004) Colautti & MacIsaac (2000)





















Blondel & Aronson 1999
9







Wilson 2001, 2003

Di Castri 1989
Mooney 1999



Kluwer Biological Invasions
Blackwell Diversity & Distributions







11







Blondel & Aronson 1999


Fynbos
Myers 2001 biological hotspots

Yelenik et al. Rouget et al. 2002, 2004 Milton & Dean 1998
2004
Merriam Richardson 1998 Fox 1990 Kruger et al. 1989 Mac Donald et al. 1988
& Feil 2002





Quamen 1997

Blondel & Aronson 1999


1990 Quzel et al. 1989 Di Castri
2003 Quzel & Mdail 2001 Vila & Pujadas 1999 Blondel & Aronson
Guillerm et al. 1990
Le Floch et al. 1990 Lepart & Debussche 1991
Lloret et al. 2004
12


Quzel et al. Di Castri 1989
1990



1990 Dafni & Heller






1999 Blondel & Aronson







agroforestry


2002 Rouget et al. 1998 Richardson


13


Richardson


1991 Trabaud

Acacia saligna
(Labill.) Wendl.f.
(Danin, pers.comm.)


invasiveness
1996 Rejmanek & Richardson
invasiveness


2000 Alpert et al.
1998 Usher




1996 Williamson
The "tens" rule 1996b 1996a Williamson & Fitter


pests

2001 Lockwood et al.
14

Ecology of Invasions

"Established" "Escaped" "Casual" "Alien" "Adventive"
"Weed" "Pest" "Noxious" "Naturalized" "Invasive" "Introduced" "Exotic"
2002 Rejmanek et al.


2004 Collautti & MacIsaac 2000a Richardson et al.


1990 Quzel et al.

1998 Daehler




Acacia Saligna
Genista Monspessulana

Quzel & Mdail Blondel & Aronson 1999
2003



Acacia Saligna

Tomaselli,
Dufour-Dror, 2002 1981

15






1995 Thompson et al.








Richardson 2003 Merriam & Feil 2002 Frelich & Puettmann 1999

Ibid., DAntonio & Meyerson 2002

Von Broembsen 1989
Wilson 2001
Palmer et al. 2004
Carpobrotus acinaciformis

Carpobrotus edulis (L.) Bolus

16




2002 DAntonio & Meyerson



Richardson
erosion "Transformers" 2000a et al.
promoters




Grove





1998 Daehler


17




2002 DAntonio & Meyerson


Grove 1989


DAntonio & Meyerson 2002






1989 Grove

2002 DAntonio & Meyerson




Opuntia stricta

Stiling 1999
2004 Briese
18


Acacia
1997 Morris
Acacia saligna (Labill.) Uromycladium tepperianum
Acacia 2004 Impson et al. Wendl.
Melanterius servulus paradoxa DC







Brimner & Boland
Boland & Brimner 2004 2003
Kiss
2004

Frelich & 2002 DAntonio & Meyerson
1999 Puettmann
DAntonio & Meyerson
2002




Dufour-Dror & Danin 2004



Insecta, Coleoptera

19





Invasiveness


Davis et al. 2000 Levine & DAntonio 1999 Keane & Crawley 2002
Shea & Chesson Kennedy et al. 2002 Richardson et al. 2000b Lockwood et al. 2001
2002

20

21

10

11

12









Colautti & MacIsaac Richardson et al.

Richardson et al.
Richardson et al.
Distributions

Ecology Williamson & Fitter
Diversity and

Colautti & MacIsaac


Colautti & MacIsaac
Diversity and Distributions
"invasive"


Colautti & MacIsaac



Colautti & MacIsaac
22


Richardson et al.

Introduced

Casual

Naturalized

Invasive

Weed


transformer

invasive


Transformer

23

Colautti & MacIsaac


Richardson et al. (2000)
Colautti & MacIsaac

(Local & rare)

Richardson et al (2000)
Introduced
Casual
Naturalized

Invasive

(Widespread but rare)

(Local but dominant)

(Widespread & dominant)

24




native invader


25

Acacia saligna
(Labill.) Wendl.

Heterotheca
subaxillaris (Lam.)
Britton et Ruoby

Eucalyptus
camaldulensis
Dehnh.

Ricinus
communis L.

Opuntia ficus-indica
(L.) P. Mill.

Agava
americana L.

Melia azedarach L.
Xanthium
strumarium L.

Lantana camara L.

Pinus halepensis
Mill.

10

Solanum
macranthum Dunal.

11

Solanum
elaeagnifolium Cav.

12

Nicotiana glauca
R. Grah.

13
14

Ailanthus altissima
Swingle

Schinus molle L.

15

Tipuana tipu
(Benth.) Kuntze

16

Acacia paradoxa DC. 17

Acacia cyclops A.
Cunn.

18

26




Colautti
& MacIsaac

Colautti & MacIsaac


2004

Richardson et al.
2000

Invasive
(Transformer)

Acacia saligna (Labill.)


Wendl.

Invasive

Heterotheca subaxillaris
(Lam.) Britton et Ruoby

Invasive

Eucalyptus
camaldulensis Dehnh.

Invasive

Ricinus communis L.

Casual

Opuntia ficus-indica
(L.) P. Mill.

Casual

Agava americana L.

Invasive

Melia azedarach L.

Invasive
Casual
Weed
Invasive

4
5

6
7
Xanthium strumarium L.
8
Lantana camara L.
9
Pinus halepensis Mill.
10
Solanum macranthum
11
Dunal.

Invasive

Solanum elaeagnifolium
Cav.

Invasive

Nicotiana glauca R.
Grah.

Invasive

Ailanthus altissima
Swingle

Invasive

Schinus molle L.

Invasive

Tipuana tipu (Benth.)


Kuntze

Naturalized

Acacia paradoxa DC.

27

Invasive

Acacia cyclops A. Cunn.

12
13
14

15
16
17
18

Richardson et al.

Colautti & MacIsaac



Richardson et al.
"Invasive"



"Naturalized" "Invasive"
"Invasive"

"Casual"



"Invasive"
"Causal"

"Causal"


"Weed"
"Weed"

"Naturalized" "Invasive"



28

"Naturalized"

2000 Richardson et al. "Invasive"

Colautti & 2000 Richardson et al.
Colautti & MacIsaac 2004 MacIsaac
Richardson et al.
"Invasive"
Colautti & MacIsaac

(1990) Dafni & Heller



29

Acacia saligna




Uromycladium tepperianum
(1997) Morris
30








31

Heterotheca subaxillaris


32




Halvorson & Guertin


Eucalyptus camadulensis


33





Myers &
Bazely 2003

34

















Alpert et al. 2000




35

Ricinus communis

California

Invasive Plant Council





36


http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/datastore/detailreport.cfm?usernumber=69&surveynumber=182

Opuntia ficus-indica





37




Opuntia sp.
Opuntia stricta
Stiling 1999 Milton & Dean 1998 Grove 1989 Cactoblastis cactorum
Milton &
Cactoblastis cactorum Dean 1998
Metamasius spinolae Dactylopius opuntiae
Cactoblastis
Stiling 1999 cactorum

http://www.ame-lr.org/plantesenvahissantes/index.html

Agave americana




38






Badano & Pugnaire 2004
Melia azedarach







Rousettus aegyptiacus

39




2000 Batcher

http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/
esadocs/documnts/meliaze.pdf

Xanthium strumarium




-
40

1989 Cocklebur

1989 Cocklebur

www.conserveonline.org/2001/05/d/en/xantstr.PDF

Lantana camara





41







Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)
.www.hear.org/pier/species/lantanacamara.htm



Stiling PIER
Global Invasive Species Database 1999
http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=56&fr=1&sts=sss
Global Invasive Species Database












Global Invasive Species Database


42

Solanum macranthum





43



http://www.xerophyte.co.il/index.html Xerophytes Desert Landscaping


http://www.xerophyte.co.il/pages/entire_plant_list_desert_landscaping.htm

Solanum elaeagnifolium



44



www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/
sleafnightshade.html


Orrina phyllobia

Nicotiana glauca


45

Ailanthus altissima




46










Ballero et al. 2003
47


http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/aial1.htm
Verticillium dahliae

Fusarium oxysporum






http://www.ame-lr.org/plantesenvahissantes/index.html
"Sommaire"

Schinus molle




48




Schinus
terebinthifolius

http://www.invasive.org/eastern/biocontrol/24BrazilianPeppertree.html

Tipuana tipu





49

http://www.weeds.crc.org.au/documents/wmg_rosewood.pdf

Acacia paradoxa




50

Acacia cyclops


51

Impson et al. 2004



Melanterius servulus

52



Colautti & MacIsaac

53


Colautti & MacIsaac
2004

Acacia saligna (Labill.) .


Wendl
Ricinus communis L.

Heterotheca subaxillaris


Xanthium strumarium L.

Melia azedarach L.

Pinus halepensis Mill.

Nicotiana glauca R. Grah.

Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.

Ailanthus altissima Swingle

Acacia cyclops A. Cunn.

Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Dehnh.

Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) P.


Mill.
Lantana camara L.
Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze

Agava americana L.
Solanum macranthum Dunal.
Schinus molle L.
Acacia paradoxa DC.

54



2004 Colautti & MacIsaac







Colautti & MacIsaac

2004

















55






Global "casual"
Invasive Species Database

Stiling et al. 2004


Richardson et Alpert et al. 2000 naturalized causal
al. 2000c

Badano & Pugnaire 2004



56




Schiller & Brunori Quzel & Barbro 1985 Quzel 1980
Quzel & Mdail 2003 1992
"local invasive"
2001 Etienne









Dufour-Dror, in press




57




58










DAntonio &
Meyerson 2002

Quzel & Mdail 2003 Blondel & Aaronson 1999



59












Yelenik et al. 2004 N-fixers


DAntonio &
Meyerson 2002
60











Grove 1989







61

62

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70

71

Invasive Plant Species in Protected and Open


Areas in the Central District
Summary
Objectives: To determine which invasive plant species occur within open and
protected areas, to define their current level of proliferation in the related sites,
and to determine which invasive species require the most urgent control.
Area: Central region of Israel: Open areas, Nature Reserves and National Parks
along a JerusalemAshdod axis.
Methods: Field surveys in the selected sites. Description, according to a detailed
analysis of the updated and relevant bibliography, of a "plant profile" for each
invasive species, with a special emphasis on the existing controls. Implementation
of the classifications of Richardson et al. (2000) and of Colautti & MacIsaac (2004)
for the evaluation of the proliferation level of invasive plants.
Results: A total of 18 invasive plants have been recorded, among them 17
exotics and one native (Pinus halepensis). Four 4 groups of plants have been
distinguished according to their current level of proliferation and according to
their potential invasiveness. Apart from the few species that are already
acknowledged as invasives such as Acacia saligna and Ricinus communis, nine
species, whose current extent is still limited, have been highlighted as potential
invaders, with the possibility of them spreading over the whole study region within
the coming years. The definition of a profile for each invasive plant, enabled to
show that in most cases control methods, mostly chemical, have been developed
and implemented in other countries. In the last section of the report several basic
principles and practical measures are suggested in order to promote an appropriate
environmental policy against invasive plant species in the region studied, and
more generally in Israel. Finally we propose two applied examples of measures
which could be implemented in order to control the spreading of 4 alien trees
(Acacia saligna, Ailanthus altissima, Schinus molle and Tipuana tipu) that are
currently invading the region of the Judean hills and the area of the dunes along
the shoreline.
Keywords: Invasive plants species, exotic plants, open areas, Nature Reserves,
National Parks, Mediterranean region, controls, environmental policy.
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